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Proceedings of the 2012 iConference

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2012 iConference
Note:Culture - Design - Society
Editors:Jens-Erik Conference Mai; Jonathan Furner
Location:Toronto, Canada
Dates:2012-Feb-07 to 2012-Feb-10
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0782-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ICONF12
Links:Conference Website | Conference Series Webpage | ACM Digital Library Conference Series
Summary:The official iConference 2012 program consisted of 53 papers, 95 posters, and 20 alternative events. The initial Call for Participation, issued in May of 2011, precipitated more than 360 submissions over the course of the summer, a record level outstripping that of any previous conference in the series. The resulting high overall quality of accepted material was a testament to the ever-increasing quality of the iConference series. As was the case last year, all papers and poster abstracts have been published in the ACM Digital Library.
    A second keynote address was delivered on Thursday by Professor Geoffrey Nunberg of the School of Information at the University of California, Berkeley. Nunberg, who has authored many linguistic-oriented books and regularly comments on language for National Public Radio, examined the problematic nature of information as a term, as a general concept, and in the context of iSchools. Nunberg's thoughts were highly praised in the question segment of the session, in which comments and inquiries focused on the historical development of iSchools and their meaning in contemporary academia.
  1. 08 10:30 Aural Culture
  2. 08 10:30 Cyberinfrastructure and Collaboration
  3. 08 13:30 Design Research I
  4. 08 13:30 Infrastructure and Systems Modelling
  5. 08 13:30 Interaction Design
  6. 08 15:30 Crowdsourcing and Cooperation
  7. 09 08:30 Design Research II
  8. 09 08:30 Social Network Analysis
  9. 09 13:30 Data Curation
  10. 09 13:30 Ethics and Policy I
  11. 09 13:30 ICTs in Organizations
  12. 09 13:30 Information Behaviour
  13. 09 13:30 Network Infrastructure
  14. 10 08:30 Categorization and Classification
  15. 10 08:30 Design Research I
  16. 10 08:30 Visual Culture
  17. 10 10:30 Desire and Play
  18. 10 10:30 Ethics and Policy II
  19. Posters

08 10:30 Aural Culture

What does music mood mean for real users? BIBAFull-Text 112-119
  Jin Ha Lee; Trent Hill; Lauren Work
Mood has recently received increasing attention as an interesting approach for organizing and accessing music. Our understanding of how users determine and describe music mood, however, is not fully developed. In this exploratory study, we investigate the concept of music mood from the end-user's perspective. In particular, we want to see how users describe music mood in their own terms as they react to different musical features. We investigate this by asking users to provide mood tags for various cover versions of the same song. The findings suggest that users rely on a small limited set of mood terms, although they do use a wide variety of terms. Typically, certain moods seem to carry over multiple cover versions despite differences in musical features. Along with lyrics, tempo, instrumentation, and delivery, factors like sources of mood, genre, musical expectancy, cultural context, etc. also seem to affect how people feel about music.
Digital sound processing preservation: impact on digital archives BIBAFull-Text 177-182
  Guillaume Boutard; Catherine Guastavino; James M. Turner
Preserving digital sound processing raises concerns about current archival practices in terms of a theoretical framework and a model for digital archives. This paper aims to specify these issues from both points of view, and to identify limitations to overcome. We propose a framework that will consider meaningful usability as a preservation goal. We propose to implement it within the conceptual framework of 'significant knowledge' and lifecycle awareness from the perspective of a digital archives model. This implies accounting for the tacit knowledge involved in the production process as well as knowledge interactions among numerous agents, both human and non-human.
Methodologies in the digital humanities for analyzing aural patterns in texts BIBAFull-Text 287-293
  Tanya Clement
Increased access to large-scale repositories of text begs questions about how scholars can use such repositories in their research. It is essential that iSchools are aware of tools being created in the Digital Humanities since the processes and tools that are being developed by this transdisciplinary community are changing the preservation and curation of humanities data. This paper will discuss a use-case study that uses theories of knowledge representation and research on phonetic symbolism to develop analytics and visualizations that help users examine aural patterns in text. This work includes (1) identifying OpenMary as a base analytic; (2) creating a routine in MEANDRE (a semantic-web-driven data-intensive flow execution environment) that produces a tabular representation of the data for predictive modeling; and (4) developing an interface (ProseVis) for seeing these comparisons across text collections.

08 10:30 Cyberinfrastructure and Collaboration

The effect of communication channel and visual awareness display on coordination in online tasks BIBAFull-Text 120-128
  Lindsay Reynolds; Jeremy Birnholtz; Allen Lee
Geographically distributed workgroups are increasingly collaborating on time-sensitive, highly interdependent tasks that require detailed coordination to achieve success; although success under these conditions is often difficult. Improving these collaborations requires both better support from communication and information tools and a better understanding of how people use modes of coordination, such as explicit communication using audio and text, and the use of visual awareness displays of others' activities. To examine these issues, we conducted an experiment in which groups completed two tasks in the multiplayer online role-playing game Neverwinter Nights. Task performance results showed that the effects of communication channel were mixed and that the availability of the awareness display did not have a direct effect. However, transcripts revealed differences in the processes of collaboration such that in the absence of the awareness display, participants adapted their communication behavior to explicitly share information with group members.
Adapting cyberinfrastructure to new science: tensions and strategies BIBAFull-Text 183-190
  Matthew J. Bietz; Charlotte P. Lee
Scientific information infrastructures, or cyberinfrastructures, are expected to operate over long time scales, but this creates challenges for the design of those infrastructures. This paper reports on a qualitative study of cyberinfrastructure development in the emerging field of metagenomics to illustrate some of the issues that can arise when cyberinfrastructures are faced with new scientific communities, practices, and research questions. New science inevitably brings new forms of data, new analysis tools, and the need to recontextualize existing data. Cyberinfrastructures must be prepared to adapt to the new scientific context. In this study, developers employed three strategies for addressing new scientific requirements: work-arounds, extensions, and from-scratch development. These strategies are informed by the tension between fitting the CI to the needs of a specific community and maintaining interoperability across systems.
Addressing ownership, access and participation needs in scientific collaboration BIBAFull-Text 271-278
  Mary Beth Rosson; Na Li; Timothy Ryan; Andrea H. Tapia
In this paper we discuss the initial phases of design work that we have carried out to support the collaboration of physical anthropologists who use High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) data as a key element in their research. Drawing from sociotechnical analyses reported in earlier papers, we highlight design issues that are of particular relevance to the tasks of scanning and sharing HRCT data -- balancing the costs and benefits experienced by the stakeholders who create and share the digital files, and addressing pervasive issues of data ownership and control. We describe the evolutionary approach to technology design that we are pursuing, summarize how we have addressed these key design issues, report feedback from system users, and discuss lessons learned -- for both the continuing development of our system and scientific collaboration systems more generally.

08 13:30 Design Research I

Using sketching to support design research in new ways: a case study investigating design and charismatic Pentecostalism in São Paulo, Brazil BIBAFull-Text 63-71
  Susan P. Wyche; Rebecca E. Grinter
In this paper we contribute to the community's understanding about the relationship between religion and technology use. Simultaneously, we demonstrate how sketching supports the creative design process in novel ways. We describe how we used sketching to translate findings from our fieldwork examining Charismatic Pentecostals and technology use in São Paulo, Brazil, into conceptual design concepts. We then presented these sketches to the participants who motivated and inspired the ideas depicted in the drawings. Findings from these interviews suggest that sketching can be used to uncover value differences between users and designers, highlight promising design ideas, and validate qualitative research findings. We conclude with a discussion describing how our use of sketching illustrates the intellectual rigor involved in design research.
Social design's implications for the IS field BIBAFull-Text 346-353
  Dane A. Dell; Murali Venkatesh
Social design is the collective task of developing an artifact for the public good. These projects are managed by community member volunteers who all have a shared conception of the public interest. In this paper we address the lack of attention social design has received in the Information Systems design research community. The paper focuses on the social organization of the design collective and outlines the threat social dilemmas pose to these projects. Throughout this discussion we challenge traditional models of action which do not support the collective action of social design. The constitutive design model is presented as a way of addressing social dilemmas in social design projects. How these social dilemmas are handled can significantly affect the form of the artifact being developed. Finally, we propose an academic curriculum for teaching the principles of social design in Information schools geared towards producing more socially conscious technical practitioners.

08 13:30 Infrastructure and Systems Modelling

Speculative originality and optimality in knowledge development infrastructures BIBAFull-Text 80-88
  Ben Li
This paper examines ICT-mediated knowledge development by comparing calls for papers (CfPs) and design contests ("spec work"). Both practices meet increasingly interdisciplinary knowledge needs of suppliers, users, and stakeholders, in heterogeneous spatial and temporal contexts enabled by global information infrastructures. It compares the two models to argue that original and optimal contributions sought in science are crucially supported by an under-recognized category of incremental "sufficient" work performed by a vast number of modestly adept contributors.
Historical ontology and infrastructure BIBAFull-Text 254-262
  David Ribes; Jessica Beth Polk
We explore the relationship between long-term scientific infrastructure and its changing objects of research. Specifically, we focus on the historical changes in HIV disease during the life of a longitudinal medical study investigating the disease for nearly thirty years. We ask, within the study of information infrastructure and research-based organizations, what are the things that inherently change, and how do such changes reverberate through the practice and organization of infrastructure? In applying the philosophical concept of historical ontology to cyberinfrastructure, we present the groundwork for a broader understanding of infrastructural sustainability within an environment inherently in flux.
S-FIT: a technique for integrating social features in existing information systems BIBAFull-Text 263-270
  Kelly Lyons; Lysanne Lessard
There has been much interest in the design of social websites and an increasing use of social tools for group work in organizations. Recommendations and design guidelines have been developed that guide designers in building certain aspects of social network and social media sites from scratch. However, there has been little investigation into transforming existing information systems into socially-oriented ones. We address this gap by first identifying the key features of socially-oriented systems from literature on social network and social media sites. We then present S-FIT, a social features integration technique, which can be applied to a model of an existing information system in order to identify opportunities to incorporate social features within the system. S-FIT can be used to extend commonly-used systems modeling techniques. We illustrate the application of S-FIT on a Business Process Diagram of an existing library information system.

08 13:30 Interaction Design

Design techniques for revealing adolescent memory processes related to information seeking: a preliminary study BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  Leanne Bowler; Eleanor Mattern
This study investigates the effectiveness of design techniques as a means for uncovering metamemory, an attribute of metacognition, and its role in information seeking. A focus group with four adolescents aged 13 and 14 used design techniques such as brainstorming and sketching, metaphorical design and fictional inquiry, to help express their thinking about their own memory processes during the information search process. Results showed that metaphorical design and fictional inquiry are both effective tools for revealing conceptual thinking about metamemory and information seeking. Coupling these techniques with brainstorming and sketching helped the teens to visualize and communicate their ideas. Results from this study will contribute to knowledge about adolescent thinking, metamemory, and information seeking behavior, broaden the range of methodological approaches used in the study of information seeking behavior, and will provide cognitive models for the design of information systems and tools that scaffold metacognition.
Community matters most: factors that affect participant satisfaction with free/libre and open source software projects BIBAFull-Text 231-239
  Brenda Chawner
Over the last 20 years, many free/libre and open source software (FLOSS) packages have been developed for library and information management (LIM) applications. These projects usually involve a distributed community of users and developers who jointly determine the software's future development. This paper presents the results of a web-based survey that examined which factors affect participant satisfaction with FLOSS projects. A total of 183 usable responses were received from people in 33 countries, representing over 30 different LIM FLOSS projects. Stepwise hierarchical regression showed that five factors (perceived project openness, perceived developer communication quality, perceived complexity, extent of participation, and perceived product openness) accounted for 44% of the variance in satisfaction. Community-oriented characteristics had the most influence, suggesting that in a FLOSS context, project participants need to focus on community development and support to increase overall satisfaction with the project.
Co-designing an e-health tutorial for older adults BIBAFull-Text 240-247
  Bo Xie; Tom Yeh; Greg Walsh; Ivan Watkins; Man Huang
Older adults' ability to access and use electronic health information is generally low, requiring innovative approaches for improvement. An integrated e-tutorial overlays instructions onto Websites. The literature suggests integrated e-tutorials are more effective than paper or video-based tutorials for younger people, but little is known about their effectiveness for older adults. This study explores the applicability of an integrated e-health tutorial for older adults. An integrated e-tutorial, the Online Tutorial Overlay Presenter (OnTOP), added an instructional overlay to the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Website. Overlay features were examined in seven participatory design sessions with seven older adults. Participatory design techniques were used to elicit participants' preferences for tutorial features. Three themes emerged: 1) using contextual cues; 2) tailoring to the learner's literacy level; and 3) enhancing interfaces with multimedia cues. These findings improved the design features of OnTOP. They also generated empirical evidence about the effects of multimedia learning among older adults.

08 15:30 Crowdsourcing and Cooperation

Exploring the character of participation in social media: the case of Google Image Labeler BIBAFull-Text 72-79
  Nassim Jafarinaimi
Social media are transforming interpersonal and social interactions, enabling new forms of engagement and participation. However, we know little about how the specific design qualities of social media affect social interaction in these environments. Considering the diversity of social media today, there is a need to engage with specific cases to discern possible patterns of relationship between designed characteristics of social media and the character of participation in them. To illustrate, this paper draws on a case study of the game, "Google Image Labeler." The design of the game is studied through a close reading of arguments made by its designers followed by an Internet study of what users and critics say about their interactions with the game. These studies, in conjunction with theories of social interaction by John Dewey and Robert Putnam, provide a foundation for a critical stance toward the quality of participation in this game that informs design theory and practice.
Citizen science system assemblages: understanding the technologies that support crowdsourced science BIBAFull-Text 168-176
  Nathan R. Prestopnik; Kevin Crowston
We explore the nature of technologies to support citizen science, a method of inquiry that leverages the power of crowds to collect and analyze scientific data. We evaluate these technologies as system assemblages, collections of interrelated functionalities that support specific activities in pursuit of overall project goals. The notion of system assemblages helps us to explain how different citizen science platforms may be comprised of widely varying functionalities, yet still support relatively similar goals. Related concepts of build vs. buy and web satisfiers vs. web motivators are used to explore how different citizen science functionalities may lead to successful project outcomes. Four detailed case studies of current citizen science projects encompassing a cross-section of varying project sizes, resource levels, technologies, and approaches to inquiry help us to answer the following research questions: 1) What do typical system assemblages for citizen science look like? 2) What factors influence the composition of a system assemblage for citizen science? 3) What effect does the assemblage composition have on scientific goals, participant support, motivation, and satisfaction? and 4) What are the design implications for the system assemblage perspective on citizen science technologies?
Tell me about my family: a study of cooperative research on ancestry.com BIBAFull-Text 303-310
  Heather Willever-Farr; Lisl Zach; Andrea Forte
Q&A forums for the exchange of genealogical information are becoming increasingly common on the web. Yet, relatively little is known about the socio-technical dimensions of genealogists' interactions in such forums. This study examined exchanges between genealogists on a popular Q&A message board on Ancestry.com. Our findings suggest that the web context shapes the types of exchanges and cooperative activities in which genealogists engage. Research has found that in face-to-face exchanges genealogists tend to help other genealogists by providing instructional guidance both on a one-to-one and a many-to-one basis. Our findings suggest that the presence of online genealogical data and the affordances of interactive computer technologies may be pushing answerers away from providing instruction on how to find family history data and pushing them toward providing those data outright. Answerers worked cooperatively to provide family data, suggesting that the web context is leading many genealogists to engage in cooperative research not collaborative instruction.

09 08:30 Design Research II

Analytic and deictic approaches to the design of sustainability decision-support tools BIBAFull-Text 215-222
  Roy Bendor
This paper identifies two approaches to designing user experience in decision-support tools, each drawing from a particular model of political culture and operationalizing a different set of assumptions about typical users and potential use effects. While the analytic approach emphasizes the benefits of involving competent citizens in a 'rational' process of consensual decision making, the deictic approach highlights the benefits of finding resonance between everyday, lived experience and the premise and principles of policymaking. The paper demonstrates the two approaches by analyzing the visualization strategy chosen by the designers of MetroQuest, a Canadian sustainability decision-support tool commissioned by the City of Vancouver. The paper concludes by suggesting that the normative questions associated with the design of sustainability decision-support tools should be reconsidered in light of the relations between user experience and political culture.
Cultural consensus analysis & citizen-centered e-government evaluation BIBAFull-Text 332-337
  Marc K. Hébert
The discrepancies between e-government users' observed and self-reported behaviors are explored here in relation to e-government evaluation and citizen-centered research. In this aim, a more ethnographic and empathetic approach that engages users is offered based on the literature of cultural anthropology. This article reports on 12 months of fieldwork, using qualitative and quantitative methods commonly found in cultural consensus analysis (CCA). The research focused on the experiences of applicants and employees at public libraries and NGOs in the US state of Florida who use an online application for food, medical and cash assistance known as "ACCESS."
Design and evaluation of the goal-oriented design knowledge library framework BIBAFull-Text 384-391
  Andrew Hilts; Eric Yu
In this paper, we describe the motivation, development, features, and evaluation of the Goal-Oriented Design Knowledge Library (GO-DKL) framework. This framework encompasses a model and method for extracting, codifying and storing in a database, relational excerpts of design knowledge from scholarly publications. We also outline a method for analyzing such a knowledge base, which is intended to support information system designers to retrieve, contextualize and evaluate knowledge base contents in relation to their own unique projects. Such a system may help designers build on each others' ideas and support an emerging community of practice. The framework was evaluated by six information system design practitioners during semi-structured interviews. For this project, we codified design knowledge published in academic studies of online deliberation systems.

09 08:30 Social Network Analysis

Studying the values of hard-to-reach populations: content analysis of tweets by the 21st century homeless BIBAFull-Text 48-55
  Jes A. Koepfler; Kenneth R. Fleischmann
This paper describes a content analysis of a corpus of 5,313 tweets from 32 individuals collected during a three-week period in March/April 2011. The corpus comprised two study groups: Group H -- Twitter users who self-identified as homeless or formerly homeless in their Twitter profiles, and Group NH -- a random, stratified sample of Twitter users who did not self-identify as homeless and who shared similar Twitter characteristics with those in Group H. The study uses the Meta-Inventory of Human Values for Informal Communication (MIHV-IC) to study value expression in tweets. Two rounds of inter-coder reliability testing demonstrated the challenges of reliably detecting human values in tweets. Analysis of categories with substantial inter-coder agreement indicated significant differences between the two groups for helpfulness and wealth. This approach provides a promising opportunity for detecting the values of hard-to-reach populations such as the 21st century homeless.
Note: Best Paper Award
Extreme ethnography: challenges for research in large scale online environments BIBAFull-Text 207-214
  Dana Rotman; Jennifer Preece; Yurong He; Allison Druin
Large scale online environments, such as social networks, present an emerging phenomenon where millions of people come together online to share and consume information and socialize. In the past, ethnography was used extensively to provide a nuanced understanding of the relationship between technology and humans. The ways of "doing ethnography" have gone through several changes in order to fit the spatial and temporal nature of online research. While these instantiations of ethnography are important, the scale and constant change of these environments pose considerable challenges for ethnographic research: users come and go, and so do applications and content. The contribution of this paper is in articulating the methodological challenges stemming from the characteristics of large scale online environments, and in calling for rethinking of the strategies and methods for effective ethnography in these environments.
Social network analysis of public access computing: relationships as a critical benefit of libraries, telecenters and cybercafés in developing countries BIBAFull-Text 377-383
  L. Fernando Baron; Ricardo Gomez
Building on theories of social network analysis, this paper discusses perceived benefits of Public Access Computing (PAC) in developing countries. Through a study of libraries, telecenters and cybercafés in Colombia, South America, we discuss users' perceptions of strengthened relationships with friends and family, stronger sense of belonging to a broader world, and new forms of entertainment, afforded through the use of computers in public access venues. These perceptions reveal an important dimension of the contribution of PAC social and economic development, emphasizing the importance of creating and maintaining social networks. The study is based on results of surveys, interviews and focus groups, combining qualitative and quantitative data gathered in five regions of the South American country during 2010.

09 13:30 Data Curation

Exploring the rhythms of scientific data use BIBAFull-Text 129-135
  Tiffany C. Chao
A better understanding of scientific data practices is needed to inform the continued development of infrastructures to support long-term use of research data. In this paper, the conceptual framework of 'rhythms' is employed in a qualitative analysis of data practices in the domain of earth science to explain the use of data types over time, from a biographical, organizational, phenomenal, and infrastructural perspective. By tracing the rhythms associated with two specific data types -- physical field samples and computational model output -- patterns of short-term and long-term use within subdisciplines and their relationships to scientists' perceptions and behaviors connected with the scholarly value of these data types begin to emerge. Preliminary results suggest that data rhythms should be understood as part of the service context for the curation and long-term maintenance of research data.
Managing fixity and fluidity in data repositories BIBAFull-Text 279-286
  Morgan Daniels; Ixchel Faniel; Kathleen Fear; Elizabeth Yakel
Data repositories walk a fine line between the fixity and fluidity of the data they curate. Change is constant, but too much change affects the integrity of data. This paper examines data transformations in three repositories, serving the zoological, archaeological, and quantitative social science research communities. Based on in-depth analysis of 27 interviews, we identify a typology of changes: adding value; correcting errors; creating consistency; changing representations of data to reflect new knowledge; responding to designated communities; and evolving practices around collecting. Then we discuss the nature of these changes in terms of the data and collections. Our findings indicate that organizational differences and the diverse needs of the repositories' designated communities play a large role in how they manage change.
Note: Best Paper Award
Metadatapedia: a proposal for aggregating metadata on data archiving BIBAFull-Text 370-376
  David M. Nichols; Michael B. Twidale; Sally Jo Cunningham
The open access movement has highlighted the barriers that exist for users to gain access to significant portions of the research literature. The open data approach seeks to extend the principles of open access to the data and code that supports the published scholarly record. Current metadata is inadequate to allow information researchers to evaluate claims made about data archiving practices. Assessing current archiving practice and understanding the impact of archiving policies requires improved metadata. We propose that information researchers create an infrastructure for the collection of metadata about data use in the research literature, and that infrastructure should itself be open. The availability of metadata on data use would enable the calculation of archiving indices, just as citation data enables the calculation of the h-index.

09 13:30 Ethics and Policy I

Networked cultural heritage and socio-digital inequalities: a case study in an African-American community BIBAFull-Text 160-167
  Noah Lenstra; Abdul Alkalimat
Digital technology facilitates the networking together of cultural heritage information held by multiple institutions and individuals. Yet socio-digital inequalities at the level of local communities shape how this possibility develops in places. This paper presents a case study of one project to network African-American community cultural heritage information in the contexts of collaborative digitization, community informatics, and the widespread use of commercial social networking services. Analysis occurs through the lenses of social capital theory and the eBlack Studies framework. Findings illustrate the critical dialectic between bridging/instrumental and bonding/affective social capital in community digitization: communities need bridging social capital to become aware of collaborative digitization projects and possibilities; they also need to invest bonding social capital into such projects to produce a self-determined collective digital representation. Flows of economic capital inform how these alignments of social capital inform the production of digital cultural heritage.
Note: Best Paper Award
Struggling for open information environments: civil society initiatives for media policy change BIBAFull-Text 325-331
  Arne Hintz; Stefania Milan
New ICTs have offered significant opportunities for citizen-based media production and for bypassing established gatekeepers. However these openings are heavily contested. States and the private sector try to control and curtail access to communication infrastructure as well as content, both in 'new' and 'old' media environments, while civil society initiatives have emerged to advocate for opening and expanding the means of communication.
   In this paper we first map out a set of challenges and obstacles that are being erected to contain free citizen-based media production. Then we introduce several policy initiatives from different countries which oppose those obstacles, including the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative (IMMI), mobilizations for the legalization of community media, European campaigns against surveillance legislation, and emerging proposals for media policy change in Arab countries. We investigate what repertoires of action they apply, the conditions of their success, and the (lack of) convergence of agendas. We conclude that they are deeply involved in not just policy advocacy but policy formulation and development, and that policy windows as well as international policy precedents are of crucial significance.
Private sector video surveillance in Toronto: not privacy compliant! BIBAFull-Text 354-362
  Andrew Clement; Joseph Ferenbok; Roxanna Dehghan; Laura Kaminker; Simeon Kanev
We report on the findings of a fieldwork study conducted on private sector video surveillance and signage in the Toronto area. The presence and operation of over 140 video surveillance camera schemes by large service providing corporations, in 2 major shopping centres and visible from public areas in downtown Toronto is documented. We analyse the data generated in relation to compliance with the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), the prevailing privacy law that governs such video surveillance operations. We find widespread non-compliance with PIPEDA, especially with regard to Principles 8 -- Openness, and 9 -- Individual Access. We explain this finding as resulting from a form of "security over-ride," in which claims of security trump other concerns, including personal privacy. We propose stronger privacy awareness and enforcement around private sector video surveillance.
Note: Best Paper Award
The ethical (re)design of the Google Books project BIBAFull-Text 363-369
  Michael Zimmer
Today, the Google Books project is at a relative standstill -- lawsuits against the project remain outstanding as the courts rejected a proposed settlement agreement. The failure of the original vision for the Google Books project to become fully realized presents us with a unique opportunity to ensure that whatever final form Google Books will take in the future, it is designed to support the values respected within the domain of information ethics. This paper will proposed an ethical re-design of the Google Books project, focusing on three core ethical values of primary interest to librarian and information professionals: privacy, intellectual freedom, and public access to information. Advocating for these values in the next iteration of the mass digitization service can help ensure that the informational norms of the library are embraced and upheld.

09 13:30 ICTs in Organizations

Forming and norming social media adoption in the corporate sector BIBAFull-Text 152-159
  Ines Mergel; Gabriel Mugar; Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi
Social media increasingly pervade the business context. Despite the widespread fascination with the transformative capabilities of these tools, and an increased observability of online social media practices in the corporate sector, the adoption process at the organizational level as well as its consequences on policies and strategies are currently less understood. To ameliorate this gap, this study sets out to examine adoption patterns and their resulting organizational policies and strategies that influence or are influenced by specific adoption behaviors. In doing so, this study builds on findings of an interpretive case analysis, that integrates insights from various social media strategists, purposively selected from multiple industries. Guided by several technology adoption frameworks -- primarily Orlikowski's structurational analysis -- three distinct pathways of social media adoption emerged from the data: (1) early adopters, (2) internal mavericks and (3) bandwagon jumpers. Each pathway is driven by either internal or external social behaviors, and leads to distinct organizational social media practices. Our data shows that existing organizational polices and norms mediate social media adoption practices while in turn, innovative adoption practices transform and influence the emergence of policies and norms in the form of a reflexive feedback mechanism.
Implementing social media in public sector organizations BIBAFull-Text 191-198
  Cliff Lampe; Rebecca Roth
Social media has been widely adopted by organizations in the recent past, and public sector organizations are also showing an increased interest in using this tool to meet their goals. In this paper, we describe three cases of social media adoption by public sector organizations, and the struggles faced in that implementation. We argue through the experience of implementing these systems that the characteristics of non-profit organizations, including the government and community service organizations that interact in the public sector, exacerbate problems of groupware adoption. In particular, public sector organizations involve multiple stakeholders coordinating in a distributed fashion, which leads to barriers to social media adoption to accomplish their goals.
The impact of TPM on research and teaching: the story of the society for automotive engineers digital library BIBAFull-Text 223-230
  Kristin R. Eschenfelder
This paper describes the results of a study of the impacts of technological protection measures (TPM) and onerous pricing models on research and teaching in the field of mechanical engineering. The paper describes a case study of the 2006/2007 implementation, and ultimate removal, of a TPM and token pricing model on the Society for Automotive Engineers Digital Library product marketed to academic libraries in the United States. Data include interviews with engineering faculty, students and librarians. The paper identifies both direct effects of the TPM restrictions on sharing and printing and indirect effects of lack of convenient access to the digital library.
Computerization and control: ICTs and managerial reform in the Thai public sector BIBAFull-Text 294-302
  Radaphat Chongthammakun; Steven J. Jackson
Information infrastructures, old and new, have long been central to relations of control in large and complex bureaucracies. Beyond their effects on organizational forms and procedures, new information infrastructures often produce new practices, ambitions, and contradictions of managerialism: namely, the extension and deepening of management and oversight capacities at multiple levels of organizational function. This paper explores managerial practices and tensions accompanying recent digital government development efforts in the Thai public sector, with particular attention to new forms and resistances to control accompanying or embedded in apparently neutral technological change.

09 13:30 Information Behaviour

A history of everyday communication by community members of Fort Severn First Nation: from hand deliveries to virtual pokes BIBAFull-Text 105-111
  Kerri Gibson; Matthew Kakekaspan; George Kakekaspan; Susan O'Donnell; Brian Walmark; Brian Beaton
Fort Severn Washaho Cree Nation is the most northern community in Ontario. Without road access for most of the year, Fort Severn community members have always found innovative and useful ways to communicate and share information. This paper traces the history of everyday communications from the pre-analogue era to the current day. The focus is on how Fort Severn community members communicate and use technology in a community-centered and holistic way. Information was gathered for this paper over the course of three visits to the community and 59 interviews with Fort Severn community members. Community members reflect on their history of communications, and their current use of a broad range of technologies that utilize broadband. Critical thinking about technology use, and what is needed to support continued innovative and community-centered use is explored.
Student information consumption strategies: implications of the Google effect BIBAFull-Text 248-253
  Michael Yacci; Evelyn P. Rozanski
Previous research in the area of distributed cognition within the educational process has revealed several new and emerging phenomena regarding student behavior. Students appear to be strategically discriminating in their learning strategies, taking the opportunity to offload learning when information is easily accessible and retrievable. This paper reviews several current research findings, and offers societal implications.
Older adults' online health information seeking behavior BIBAFull-Text 338-345
  Man Huang; Derek Hansen; Bo Xie
Over half of older adult Internet users search for health information online, a number likely to continue to climb. To design a better online environment for older adults, we need to understand how they search for health information online. In an observational study, 17 older adults aged from 56 to 78 completed four health related online search tasks. Through recordings of search activities, "think aloud" audio recorded data, interviews and questionnaires, we identified multiple key issues regarding older adults' search behavior for online health information, including: 1) using insufficient search queries to search for complex search constructs; 2) misunderstanding different Web browser and webpage search tools (e.g., address bar, search bar, webpage search boxes); 3) extensive reliance on prior knowledge in performing searches; and 4) a lack of ability to evaluate the quality of online health information. These findings have implications for developing design and educational interventions for older adults.

09 13:30 Network Infrastructure

Walled gardens: the new shape of the public internet BIBAFull-Text 97-104
  Nancy Paterson
This paper argues that the global public internet is undergoing a long-term transformation from a uniform transmission platform to one in which data reachability will be increasingly compromised by emerging technical, political and commercial choices. This phenomenon is not new. It reflects changes away from the original end-to-end principle as a guiding design concept in internet engineering, as well as in the various forms of IP (internet protocol) filtering exercised by governments and other institutions around the world. The emphasis in this paper, however, is on less controversial developments, especially the growth in managed IP services and deployments of MPLS (multiprotocol label switching). The browser-centric public Web has been giving way to 'apps' and 'walled gardens'.
Rural anchor institution broadband connectivity: enablers and barriers to adoption BIBAFull-Text 136-144
  Lauren H. Mandel; Nicole D. Alemanne; Charles R. McClure
This paper presents findings from two research projects that entail needs assessments, benchmarking, and onsite diagnostics of anchor institutions in support of multi-million dollar broadband middle mile projects funded by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) through the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP). The research employs a multi-method approach that includes a web-based survey, focus groups, and onsite diagnostics at selected anchor institutions in rural Florida. Findings indicate that anchor institution broadband adoption is impacted by a host of situational factors, both enablers and barriers, and that understanding the enablers and barriers to broadband adoption in anchor institutions is critical to achieving widespread broadband adoption. The findings also lead to a proposed model of community-based broadband planning through which multiple anchor institutions in a community join together to plan for, develop, implement, and assess broadband deployment and adoption in their community.
Note: Best Paper Award
Concentration, incumbency, and interconnection: broadband development and the lessons of history BIBAFull-Text 317-324
  Alissa Centivany; Steven Jackson
With recent investments in broadband network development, policymakers have devoted new attention and resources to the social, economic, and political questions surrounding broadband development. While progressive policy in this space necessarily depends on careful forward thinking, it would also benefit from more thoughtful forms of hindsight that bring the lessons of history to bear on the ongoing problems of network development. This paper re-thinks and re-grounds current broadband development efforts from the standpoint of three central challenges -- concentration, incumbency, and interconnection -- that have long shaped and limited policy efforts in the telecommunications and wider infrastructural industries. Long-term success of the sort envisioned under the National Broadband Plan and broadband stimulus programs will depend on new and better solutions to these problems.

10 08:30 Categorization and Classification

Some temporal aspects of indexing and classification: toward a metrics for measuring scheme change BIBAFull-Text 311-316
  Joseph T. Tennis; Katherine Thornton; Andrew Filer
In this paper we discuss the temporal aspects of indexing and classification in information systems. Basing this discussion off of the three sources of research of scheme change: of indexing: (1) analytical research on the types of scheme change and (2) empirical data on scheme change in systems and (3) evidence of cataloguer decision-making in the context of scheme change. From this general discussion we propose two constructs along which we might craft metrics to measure scheme change: collocative integrity and semantic gravity. The paper closes with a discussion of these constructs.
Inductive inferences based on bibliographical taxonomies BIBAFull-Text 392-397
  Aaron Loehrlein
An inductive inference is a process in which a person considers whether a property of a stimulus category also applies to a target category. Induction is an important building block of conceptualization, since it allows existing knowledge to be applied to new situations. Hierarchical taxonomies, such as the biological taxonomy, can be highly beneficial tools in performing inductions, since they form cognitive scaffolding that maps out how properties are inherited between classes [2, 13]. While many studies have examined how people use biological taxonomies to make inductions, few studies have examined the process of induction from a bibliographic perspective. Bibliographical taxonomies are distinct from other taxonomies in two important respects. Firstly, bibliographic resources represent properties rather than simply having properties. Secondly, items in a bibliographical taxonomy occupy only one class at a single level of specificity. For these reasons, bibliographical taxonomies support inductions, but of a fundamentally different sort than the inductions that are based on other taxonomies. This study is a preliminary investigation into the nature of inductive inferences that are made using bibliographical taxonomies.
Steps toward a socio-technical categorization scheme for communication and information standards BIBAFull-Text 407-414
  JoAnn Brooks; Anne W. Rawls
Socio-technical systems continue to grow larger and more complex, comprising increasingly significant portions of contemporary society. Yet systematic understanding of interrelationships between social and technological elements remains elusive, even as computers and information systems proliferate. In this paper, we draw on ethnomethodology to distinguish several different kinds of processes through which communication and information are constituted. We discuss the distinctive properties of each in an effort to develop systematic understanding of basic elements of socio-technical systems. In particular, we offer a basic categorization of communication and information standards, noting the constitutive importance of their accompanying social practices. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

10 08:30 Design Research I

Information studies, the humanities, and design research: interdisciplinary opportunities BIBAFull-Text 18-24
  Melanie Feinberg
As interdisciplinary hubs, information schools have unique opportunities to coordinate research that employs multiple modes of inquiry across areas of common concern. While knowledge production practices from science and social science have found significant representation within information schools, the integration of research approaches from humanities and design perspectives has proceeded more slowly. Communication barriers between practitioners of different research paradigms can be considerable -- even something as basic to a scientist or social scientist as posing a research question does not necessarily have a precise equivalent to either a humanist or designer, and the way that a humanist approaches an artifact can also be different from the way that a designer approaches one. However, there are equally significant opportunities for innovative research that combines or crosses paradigms. This paper discusses some of the challenges that make interdisciplinary understanding within information schools difficult, focusing in particular on research orientations of the humanities and of design, and how these differ from data-centric orientations of science and social science. A case study demonstrates that, despite these hurdles, the potential contributions of incorporating humanities and design research within information schools are considerable.

10 08:30 Visual Culture

Activities & artifacts: the dual nature of image-making in communicative practice BIBAFull-Text 10-17
  Jaime Snyder
Selected findings are presented from a preliminary qualitative investigation of image-making as information-driven communicative practice. Ad hoc visualizations are images spontaneously created during the natural flow of a conversation (e.g., napkin drawings). The activity of drawing in these situations is an informal information sharing practice occurring within an interactive, dynamic context. A discourse-oriented methodology is described for the direct observation and analysis of drawing during face-to-face conversations. Analysis of fifteen video-recorded conversations used an iterative, grounded theory approach to multimodal social interactional analysis. The dual nature of drawing as both information artifact and communicative activity is discussed in terms of contrasting affordances exploited during specific drawing episodes in the data. These findings have implications for image representation and the development of visually enabled information and communication technologies.
No forests without trees: particulars and patterns in visualizing personal communication BIBAFull-Text 25-32
  Ou Jie Zhao; Tiffany Ng; Dan Cosley
When people use visualizations of conversational archives, they typically reflect on particular events, rather than patterns of activity over time. We explore whether this is a fundamental aspect of how people use data to reflect on the past through pieTime, a visualization we developed that focuses on presenting aggregated behavioral data at timescales from hours to months. It builds on work in conversation visualization and lifelogging by focusing on rhythms rather than details, supporting reflection across media, and using phone logs to complement CMC media. A 15-person evaluation supports findings from prior work about the importance of particular details and storytelling in tools that support reflection, even when the design goals emphasize higher-level patterns. Still, aggregate patterns provide additional insight into personal behavior, suggesting that systems that integrate both particulars and patterns may be especially valuable, especially when they also help people build and manage their identities.
One university, two campuses: initiating and sustaining research collaborations between two campuses of a single institution BIBAFull-Text 33-40
  Jeremy Birnholtz; Laura Forlano; Y. Connie Yuan; Julia Rizzo; Kerwell Liao; Geri Gay; Caren Heller
Collaboration has many benefits, but can also be difficult due to increased coordination, incompatible work styles or research approaches, and difficulty in communication. These problems are often exacerbated by distance, which can make collaboration between departments on a single campus more attractive; particularly as universities invest in interdisciplinary facilities. At some universities, however, some departments may be located on a separate campus, hundreds of miles away. This creates unique challenges for these universities in encouraging and supporting collaboration. There have been few systematic studies, however, of collaborations between campuses of a single institution. We report on a qualitative study of collaborations between the medical college and other departments of our university, located 230 miles apart. Results suggest that participants felt it was very important to build social ties or draw on existing experience with potential collaborators prior to starting a project. Participants also identified unexpected institutional obstacles to working effectively.

10 10:30 Desire and Play

Embodiment and desire in browsing online pornography BIBAFull-Text 41-47
  Patrick Keilty
The purpose of this essay is to explore why Spink, Ozmutlu, & Lorence (2004) found that browsing online pornography requires more time and effort than general searches online. Recent information-seeking behavior research concerning online pornography neglects to examine sexuality or desire as factors influencing this particular information activity. As such, I rely on Lacan's theory of desire, Freud's theory of cathexis, and existential phenomenology, a philosophical method that emphasizes an interpretation of perception and bodily activity, in order to examine the way our embodied relations with the technological apparatus of the computer effect the time and effort of browsing online pornography. In the process, I offer an explanation of subjective analysis as a new mode of description for understanding certain aspects of information activity.
Time to play: the rationalization of leisure time BIBAFull-Text 145-151
  Lina Eklund; Fatima Jonsson
This study explores how rationalization logic and rationalization processes influence digital gaming by looking at how players value and manage the time they spend on games. The study is framed in a discussion of leisure time, critical theories of computation and rationalization theory. Qualitative interview data is used in an inductive and phenomenology inspired approach.
   The results show two frames of understanding of gaming. First, games are perceived as media products and playing as a waste of time. Secondly, digital gaming is a hobby, a social activity highly valued within the framework of a rational time economy. We conclude that even though we are seeing a rationalization of leisure time in gaming, that rationalization process must be understood in the context of individualization within the new network society. This means that players are involved in a 'rational individualization' process where their management of leisure time and gaming activities are part of an ongoing identity project.
Not just a wink and smile: an analysis of user-defined success in online dating BIBAFull-Text 200-206
  Christopher M. Mascaro; Rachel M. Magee; Sean P. Goggins
This study examines the publically available stories of self-identified successful couples that met using the online dating services Match.com, eHarmony, or OkCupid. We enumerate four main findings; 1) the distribution of relationship status (Dating, Engaged, Married) varies among websites, 2) approximately half of all stories explicitly thank the service they used, 3) the locations of successful couples from Match.com and eHarmony are not statistically different when analyzed at a regional level, and 4) while the distribution of these couples follows general population trends, there are low population density islands where many self-identified successful couples live. These findings, coupled with a review of the existing literature, establish the context for future research into the technological and societal contexts in which online dating exists. This research has broad impacts of informing the design and development of online dating websites and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as social networking sites.

10 10:30 Ethics and Policy II

Understanding underrepresentation in IT through intersectionality BIBAFull-Text 56-62
  Eileen M. Trauth; Curtis Cain; K. D. Joshi; Lynette Kvasny; Kayla Booth
Results of an investigation of the effect of intersectionality on perceptions of university students about IT careers are presented. This analysis deepens the discussion began at the 2011 iConference by presenting an examination of responses of African American males and females on the topic of gender norms and stereotypes about IT professionals. The findings provide evidence of the influence of race on gender stereotypes that individuals hold about the IT field. Gender differences in stereotypes reveal within-race variation in perceptions about the IT field. IT skills perceived by African American females as feminine are nearly identical to those found across all participants in the study. In contrast, African American males did not identify any skills as feminine. These results suggest that finer grained analysis of under representation in the IT field can be achieved by pursuing the intersectionality of gender and race.
Revolutionaries will not be friended: 'owning' activism through social networking BIBAFull-Text 89-96
  Danielle LaFrance; Lisa Nathan
Why would a revolutionary work to frame herself in a commercially owned window, allowing anyone, from her family to the police, to scrutinize, monitor, and judge her relationships? This project provides a critique of commercial social networking technologies as an organizational tool for social movements. The authors deepen past critiques through an analysis of three concepts related to anti-statist movements and community: semiocapitalism, precarious labour, and social capital. Secondly, various ways in which the notion of 'community' has been leveraged as a social networking instrument are explored. Finally, these conceptual investigations are applied to recent political action in Egypt and Canada. The work calls out the systemic tensions and ideological functions that result from using commercially owned social networking tools to support revolutionary social movements.
Online social networks in a post-Soviet state: how Hungarians protect and share on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 398-406
  Blase Ur; Yang Wang
As Facebook has become global, users from different cultural and socio-political contexts have joined the site. We present a case study investigating how both current and historical political events, as well as the migration from a local social networking site to Facebook, impact Hungarians' privacy attitudes on Facebook. We report the results of 19 semi-structured interviews of Hungarian Facebook users, focused on behaviors, motivations, and attitudes.
   Our results uncover a stark generation gap in Facebook privacy attitudes, with the youngest generation expressing little concern about personal information or intimate photos, whereas users older than 30 explain that they and their peers rarely share information on Facebook. Members of all age groups agree that political opinions should be kept off Facebook, but the motivating factors differ between generations. We also highlight how users' dissatisfaction with iWiW, the local social network, can be contrasted with the high degree of trust they have in Facebook.


Effective information gathering on the web BIBAFull-Text 415-416
  Anwar Alhenshiri; Carolyn Watters; Michael Shepherd
This paper presents Web Gad, a tool intended to improve how users perform information gathering tasks on the Web. Web Gad is meant to assist users with several subtasks under the information gathering task with specific emphasis on managing, organizing, keeping, and re-finding information during the task. The prototype system was designed based on recommendations derived in a previous user study (Alhenshiri et al., 2012) in which the user behavior, user activities, used tools, and encountered difficulties were observed and analyzed. Web Gad is ready for evaluation in a planned complete factorial and counterbalanced user study to demonstrate its effectiveness, efficiency, and enjoyments as a Web information gathering tool.
Does the use of place affect learner engagement?: the case of GeoStoryteller on the streets of New York BIBAFull-Text 417-418
  Anthony Cocciolo; Debbie Rabina
This paper details the research and development on GeoStoryteller, a project where learners engage with archival photos and multimedia narratives in historically relevant places. Using a combination of augmented reality technology and web-based delivery, the ultimate aim of the project is to uncover if place-based learning can increase learner engagement in historical topics. Currently, the researchers have completed system design and development and are in the process of collecting user feedback data. The initial application of this technology will focus on German immigration to New York City (1840-1945) through a partnership with the Goethe-Institut, the Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution operational worldwide.
Note: Best Poster Award
VDMs for finding and re-finding web search results BIBAFull-Text 419-420
  Hoda Badesh; Jamie Blustein
This paper presents Visual Data Mountains (VDMs), a tool intended to assist users to find relevant documents and discover varied topics among Web search results. The interface is also intended to improve how users re-find search results. A small-scale pilot study was conducted to evaluate the enjoyment of VDMs and its perceived effectiveness for finding and re-finding tasks on the Web.
Automated dictionary discovery for the online marketplace BIBAFull-Text 421-422
  Fei Chiang; Renée J. Miller
Shopping online has become a prolific activity as the number of online vendors and consumers continue to rise each year. In 2009, almost $15 billion in goods and services were ordered online by Canadians [1]. About 53% of these consumers 'window shop' by doing product research before actually making a purchase. Therefore, it is important that online vendors provide up-to-date and accurate product information to assist users in making educated decisions. In this poster, we present a tool that discovers product features, which will assist vendors and consumers to more accurately compare products in the online marketplace.
Observations of the lifecycles and information worlds of collaborative scientific teams at a national science lab BIBAFull-Text 423-425
  Adam Worrall; Paul F. Marty; Jessica Roberts; Kathleen Burnett; Gary Burnett; Charles C. Hinnant; Michelle M. Kazmer; Besiki Stvilia; Shuheng Wu
Team-based scientific collaborations play a key role in the discovery and distribution of scientific knowledge. In order to determine the social and organizational factors that help support a scientific team's successful transition from short-term experiments to long-term programs of ongoing scientific research, this study used observations of teams conducting experiments at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory to determine what teams actually do during these experiments. As part of a larger, ongoing research project using mixed methods, our findings describe the scientific culture of hybrid teams at work, and demonstrate how multiple, overlapping, and nested lifecycles and information worlds play an important role in promoting successful and continuing scientific collaboration. The boundaries between worlds and efforts to span them are particularly important, requiring greater attention. Our future research will develop a model including these factors and add further practical and theoretical implications to those we have already identified.
Message visualizer: a visualization tool for chat messages BIBAFull-Text 426-428
  Lu Xiao; Vadim Mazalov
We present a work-in-progress visualization tool for facilitation of multi-user online collaboration over text-, voice-, and video-chats. The idea is based on graphical representation of the key concepts of the conversation, e.g. objectives, rationale, important facts, etc. Such visualization promotes goal-oriented and productive teamwork, and improves interactive user experience. The proposed idea is developed in Java, as a modification of Jitsi, an open source IM client.
Mapping location-based questions to inform mobile campus apps BIBAFull-Text 429-430
  Bradley Wade Bishop
This poster presents spatial analysis of location-based questions asked on a university campus to inform mobile campus application development. Location-based questions are inquiries that concern a georeferencable site. Findings indicate the majority of location-based questions concern the same site as the location where they were asked. Findings include the frequency and locations of questions asked across campus to inform mobile campus application development.
Virtual item purchasing patterns in a social game: differences between high and low spenders BIBAFull-Text 431-432
  Donghee Yvette Wohn; Eun-Kyung Na
Purchasing virtual goods, or items, is a popular practice in social games. In this study, we examined users' virtual item purchasing patterns by analyzing user behavior and virtual item sales through log data from a popular social game service in South Korea. In a dual-currency system where items could be purchased with either real money (coins) or virtual cash earned through activities (beans), we found that high spenders purchase more items with coins than beans, while low spenders invested more time and labor to purchase with beans rather than coins. Also, high spenders were buying items for decorative purposes while low spenders were buying consumable play-oriented items necessary to sustain playing the game.
Exploring the process of organizing personal information BIBAFull-Text 433-434
  Kyong Eun Oh
This paper presents preliminary results from a pilot study for a larger research which explores the process of organizing personal information in digital form from a cognitive sociological perspective. To collect data, a diary study and two post diary semi-structured interviews were conducted. In analyzing data, content analysis of the diary and the interviews were conducted. The initial analysis of the results showed that the process of organizing personal information in digital form consists of five stages which involve different actions, thoughts, decisions and a variety of factors that influence the decisions in each stage. In addition, individuality as well as social foundation impacted on the whole process of organizing personal information. This study deepens our understanding of information organizing behavior by providing an integrated view of the process. In addition, this study lays an empirical foundation for further study of any organizing behavior. It also has a direct contribution to the development and design of various personal information management devices, interfaces and applications that support an individual's organizing information.
Video-based analysis of multimodal social interaction BIBAFull-Text 435-437
  Jaime Snyder
Qualitative research using video data requires a systematic approach to elicitation, collection and analysis of recordings. An analytic procedure was designed for a recent study focused on the creation of visual information as communicative practice. Video recordings of face-to-face conversations during which images were made provided rich evidence of both verbal and non-verbal modes of communication. This poster will present the video-based methodology used in this research to study multimodal social interactions associated with the creation of visual artifacts.
Measuring relevance theory's effects in an image-driven explorative information system BIBAFull-Text 438-440
  G. Benoit
In information system, there are many techniques for extracting data, such as semantic elements from author, title, or subject tracings from MARC or other records, to express relationships within the data. The addition of visualization techniques stimulate the viewer because the graphic design of the data forms a purposive communicative act. Applying Sperber & Wilson's theory of relevance helps explicate a model of feature integration applicable to image-driven, user-guided exploration of digital collections. The model, implemented as an alternative search engine in a college library, is being tested in late 2012, and may result in creating a well-founded methodology for exploring repurposing digital objects for greater user engagement.
Playing with information: information work in online gaming environments BIBAFull-Text 441-443
  Natascha Karlova; Jin Ha Lee
Digital games are saturated with information. Massively Multiplayer Online games (MMOs) require players to collect, organize, manage, and interpret vast volumes and varieties of information in a distributed, networked environment. Yet, they often provide players insufficient tools to effectively accomplish these information tasks. In response, some members of the player community build modifications (mods) and addons to the game software. Mods and addons usefully and creatively address some problems of utilizing information in digital environments; by analyzing them, we can gain insights into possibilities for organizing information in digital environments.
auroraDL and responding to end-user digital library needs BIBAFull-Text 444-446
  G. Benoit
This paper reports on functions and extensions to a digital library record creation, search, and collection-building tools, auroraDL, as a response to academic and professional focus groups' interest in digital library/content exploration tools.
Expanding the research scope for internet enabled neighborhood communication platforms BIBAFull-Text 447-449
  Gabriel H. Mugar
The value of an Internet Enabled Neighborhood Communication Platform (IENCP) is typically framed in research as a tool to increase the stock of social capital in a neighborhood. However, these studies are narrowly focused on the outcomes of the technology and provide little detail regarding the activity of expertise sharing and information behavior on such platforms. By limiting the focus to the outcomes, we risk fetishizing the technology and losing site of their socio-technical characteristics. The need to expand the research scope to understand the expertise sharing and information behavior on such platforms is greater than ever in the face of growing numbers of IENCP's across the world. If continued research on IENCP is to contribute to their design and management, a greater level of detail on how users share information on such platforms as well as where the platforms fit into users information seeking habits is required.
Public library Facebook use: established positions renegotiated? BIBAFull-Text 450-452
  Hanna Carlsson
In this research project public library Facebook use is explored and analyzed in relation to Henry Jenkins's work on participatory cultures and literacy.
User navigation behavior of a selective dissemination of web information service BIBAFull-Text 453-455
  Hsiao-Tieh Pu; Yi-Wei Wong
Nowadays it becomes a challenge for a user to be able to both effectively filter information and proactively grasp new information on the web. To this end, Selective Dissemination of Web Information (SDWI) service in this study is conceptualized as a new way of information delivery. Using RSS service as a test platform, the study attempts to explore how users navigate the large amount of information from RSS. The study used screen logging and interview methods. The preliminary findings show that the participants demonstrate a quick screening reading style, since near 70% time and 90% moving were related to filtering and browsing contents in RSS readers, while only 30% time and 10% moving were concerned with reading source pages. The study further categorizes five different navigation patterns according to the depth of reading and navigation. The paper concludes that SDWI would receive more attention in information related research and applications.
Digital humanities: the continuing role of serendipity in historical research BIBAFull-Text 456-458
  Anabel Quan-Haase; Kim Martin
Ebooks are being integrated into academic library catalogs -- either in addition to existing resources or as a substitute to print copies. This study examines the perceptions and opinions of historians about how Ebooks, and the digitization of cultural artifacts in general, impact the research process of historians. Findings indicate that historians are concerned that the digital environment reduces the chances of a serendipitous encounter with a text. Access to resources is a central dimension in their research endeavor. While historians do not reject Ebooks as a research tool, they make use of this digital tool only in specific settings during their research and in their teaching. Additionally, our study found that historians attempt to recreate in the digital environment an atmosphere that encourages serendipity within their field, and would readily welcome new methods and designs that would make this possible.
Towards a model of digital policy literacy BIBAFull-Text 459-461
  Leslie Regan Shade
In this poster, a model of digital policy literacy is described. The model is designed to serve as an intervention expanding the core elements of media and digital literacy to encompass digital policy as a key literacy attribute. It has been created as a key element of a program of research that examines how young people engage in participatory digital culture, and their knowledge of specific digital policy issues, such as copyright and privacy.
Eggs, beans, and crumpets: NSF's broader impact criterion and the National Science Digital Library's PI "club" BIBAFull-Text 462-464
  Marcia A. Mardis
The National Science Digital Library was a decade-long National Science Foundation initiative that was designed not only to enhance access to high quality science, technology, engineering, and mathematics teaching and learning resources but also to create a diverse community of digital library developers who would work together to continually improve access to these resources. It was sunset in early 2011 because evaluators found that it failed to achieve Broad Impact as defined by the National Science Foundation. A network analysis of Principal Investigators reveals that the relationships fall into three distinct sub-networks that illustrate the National Science Digital Library's success in attracting new grant recipients and strengthening partnerships, two aspects of Broader Impact. These findings may have implications for the study, design, and evaluation of collaborative research.
Absent information technology in legitimate information systems research BIBAFull-Text 465-467
  Min-Chun Ku; Michael Scialdone; Ping Zhang
The current identity of the information systems (IS) discipline, to certain extent, relies on the presence of information technology. The urgent call to theorizing IT artifacts made by previous IS studies raises concerns on the roles and importance of IT artifacts in the wide range of topics investigated by IS scholars, especially in the studies in which IT artifacts are considered absent. We analyze the topics, IT artifacts, and contexts of these studies from the 2009 and 2010 ICIS proceedings to address this concern. We find that IT professions and IT artifacts are significant contextual factors that cannot be ignored in these studies. This helps the IS discipline to rethink the establishment of its intellectual identity solely on the premise of theorizing IT artifacts.
How does your public library support democracy? BIBAFull-Text 468-470
  Terry Costantino
From inception, public libraries have been positioned as a requirement for an informed citizenry capable of engaging in civic life. Many public libraries include democratic aims in their strategic plans but what are the activities and programs that support these ambitions?
   In this preliminary investigation, I use the websites of Canadian urban public libraries to find projects with one or more of the following attributes: community participation in program design, programs aimed at increasing civic engagement, and programs fully or partially delivered using social media.
   I report on six projects that have one or two of the attributes. In the discussion I consider how an emphasis on librarians rather than buildings and collections might help public libraries start to realize their democratic aims. With this poster, I'm hoping to learn about other ways that public libraries are, or could be, supporting democracy.
The role of social networking technologies in sociomaterial ecology BIBAFull-Text 471-472
  Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi
This poster reports preliminary findings from our ongoing research project that empirically investigates the role of various social networking technologies (SNTs) in informal knowledge sharing practices within and across organizations. In this research the definition of SNT includes corporate social networking platforms, weblogs, wikis, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. To explain the role of SNTs along with other communication tools in organizations we draw on the concept of communicative ecology and sociomateriality. By integrating the two theoretical positions, we treat SNTs and people symmetrically and as members of the same sociomaterial ecology. The primary outcome of the initial stage of research is a holistic understanding of how various SNTs fit into the organizational members' sociomaterial ecology, facilitating disparate forms of knowledge sharing.
The use of ereading devices in academic environments BIBAFull-Text 473-474
  Schuyler Lindberg; Heather O'Brien
This study focuses on students' and professors' use of three types of reading devices in their academic studies: smart phones, tablets, and dedicated e-readers. We explored the benefits and shortcomings of these devices through informal interviews with people who own and use these devices for academic purposes. Although participants' annotation and study strategies varied widely, we discovered key ways in which these devices may streamline the research process and discuss how these devices may overcome some of the current shortcomings in order to increase their potential use for academic study.
New structures of video collections BIBAFull-Text 475-477
  Luis Francisco-Revilla; Ramona Broussard; Jeff Crow
With the growth of online TV, people increasingly expect services like recommending and sharing in digital video libraries. The amount and diversity of online video is increasing rapidly, changing how people engage with TV content. Thus, there is a need for models that account for the new online TV systems and the evolving expectations of users. This paper reports on the first iteration of a digital library model for online TV. The model was developed experimentally by analyzing collections, services and temporal behaviors of the most popular online TV sites.
A computer activity to encourage facial expression recognition for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders BIBAFull-Text 478-479
  Ramona Broussard; Steven Fazzio; Sophia Chia-Yu Kang; Luis Francisco-Revilla
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) do not recognize emotions in context as quickly as children without ASD. This research explores the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the area of social skills education. The project presents a computer activity that encourages children with ASD to match facial expressions with an emotion based on a story snippet. The activity provides context to children with ASD, facilitates discussion between the child and a teacher or parent, supports various input modes (touch on a mobile device and mouse on a laptop), and uses an imaginative approach to an emotion recognition game. This computer activity represents a step toward an activity that can encourage individuals with ASD to see and better analyze emotion in facial expressions.
Which facets are easy to use and useful in accessing consumer health information on the web?: a pilot study BIBAFull-Text 480-481
  Kyong Eun Oh; Soohyung Joo; Yong Hyun Park
This paper presents preliminary results from our ongoing research project which explores easy to use and useful facets in accessing consumer health information on the Web. In this pilot study, first, 10 facets were identified by analyzing 10 top ranked health information websites. Then, users' perceptions of easiness and usefulness of each facet in accessing online health information were examined by conducting a survey. The preliminary results revealed that "disease" and "body part" facets are easy to use in accessing online health information, and "disease" and "department" are considered to be effective in accessing online health information.
Sculpting that "WoW" body: constructing gender identity in World of Warcraft BIBAFull-Text 482-483
  Courtney Loder
This poster presents findings from an analysis of the gendered aspects of visual and performative choices players make when designing an avatar in World of Warcraft. Within the game, the binary choice of male or female gender itself is an aesthetic choice with no strategic impact, allowing players to construct a more multidimensional gendered in-game identity.
Color by numbers: exploring color as classification notation BIBAFull-Text 484-485
  Rachel Ivy Clarke
Notation is a fundamental component to bibliographic classification. However, notation often is considered an afterthought despite its inherent role. Advances in technology and changing user needs imply the need for an evolution of classificatory notation. This exploratory poster will investigate the possible potential of color as classificatory notation by distilling the traditional functions of notation, examining theories and standards of color use, and considering their potential applications to classification.
Constructing narratives using fast feedback BIBAFull-Text 486-487
  Yi-Ling Lin; Xiaoning Bai; Yuanyuan Ye; William Real
Museums and cultural institutions have expended considerable effort for over decades to link their exhibits to the life experiences of their visitors. With the temporal and spatial constraints of a user's visit to a museum exhibition, it has been difficult to collect as much information as the museum would like to obtain from visitors. This paper argues that the quality and quantity of that collective information correlates to the means the museum adopts to gather information from its users. We hypothesize that providing a convenient way for users to share information and to use short messages from fast feedback mechanisms will increase the chances of getting users to contribute their own narratives. The paper explores a solution for achieving the goal of gathering users' personal narratives and experiences by collecting their short messages from diverse social media including Twitter and Facebook through mobile devices.
Are public libraries using research data to advocate? BIBAFull-Text 488-489
  Lesley A. Langa
Public library advocates have typically focused on political and economic issues such as the right to provide free access to information and fiscal cutbacks, when making their case for greater support. In fact, the American Libraries Association argues that the most important issue facing public libraries today is the issue of sustained funding, especially in the economically dark times in the current US economy (Dowling [1]). However, little is known about how libraries are responding to these calls to advocacy, especially what techniques or messages they are employing to combat financial setbacks. The present study asks staff of public libraries about the type of evidence they use to advocate for the public library cause, and what data sources, if any, they employ to advocate. Preliminary results show that libraries are aware that advocacy is important, but it is unclear if their messages and strategies focus on impacting decision-making.
Virtual play and communities: the evolution of group roles in electronic trace data BIBAFull-Text 490-491
  Alison N. Novak; Christopher M. Mascaro; Sean P. Goggins
In this study we focus on the development of jargon within an online community dedicated to a national adult recreational sports league. The complete dataset incorporates 336,642 discussion forum posts contained within 9,559 discussion threads over the course of four years. We analyze one cross cutting discussion dedicated to the development of the community's lexicon, in order to establish a baseline of community jargon to be applied in later analysis of the other forums. This discussion, titled "the code", contains 249 comments made by 44 individuals. Our methods marry social network analysis with identification of individual, task and maintenance roles, to examine the roles of actors in establishing and contributing to the adoption of the set of jargon. Our findings build an understanding how individuals construct a shared language in a virtual space that is used in both the discussion forum and in physical interactions.
We are visible: technology-mediated social participation in a Twitter network for the homeless BIBAFull-Text 492-493
  Jes A. Koepfler; Derek L. Hansen
This paper examines patterns of follow relationships in the @wearevisible ego-network on Twitter -- a project encouraging homeless individuals to "sign up, speak out, [and] be seen" online. A content analysis of the public profiles in this network identified eleven social roles: homeless individual, homeless advocate, celebrity, do-gooder, service provider, non-profit generalist, social media enthusiast, support organization, social worker, librarian, and researcher. A cluster analysis and visualization of the connections between individuals enacting these roles showed that self-identified homeless individuals were well-connected to each other and showed potential for developing stronger ties with a broad range of different user types. The results from this case study suggest opportunities for rethinking health and human services in a technologically-mediated social context, as well as inspiring future research to study this population online.
Note: Best Poster Award
Youth searching online: an investigation of gender influence BIBAFull-Text 494-497
  Melissa P. Johnston
Questions relating to gender and technology are important cultural issues in our society and the design of educational programs for children depends on accurate information about this aspect of our culture. The changing information landscape and highly technological environment of 21st century schools is one where the Internet has become a significant source of information to support class-based work. Yet, there is little current research that specifically investigates how students search for information online and the various factors than can influence this process. One of these factors is gender. As technology's presence in our society increases, school librarians and educators need research to inform their instruction in preparing students to be effective online information seekers. This poster presents in-progress research investigating children's online information seeking behavior through the cultural lens of gender in order to further the understanding of how youth seek information online and aid school librarians' efforts in developing effective instruction.
Data curation in scientific teams: an exploratory study of condensed matter physics at a national science lab BIBAFull-Text 498-500
  Charles C. Hinnant; Besiki Stvilia; Shuheng Wu; Adam Worrall; Kathleen Burnett; Gary Burnett; Michelle M. Kazmer; Paul F. Marty
The advent of big science has brought a dramatic increase in the amount of data generated as part of scientific investigation. The ability to capture and prepare such data for reuse has brought about an increased interest in data curation practices within scientific fields and venues such as national laboratories. This study employs semi-structured interviews with key scientists at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory to explore data management, curation, and sharing practices within a condensed matter physics community. Findings indicate that condensed matter physics is a highly varied field. The field's work practices and reward structures may impede the development and implementation of highly formalized curation policies focused on sharing data within the broader community. This study is an extension of a larger mixed-methods study to examine the life-cycles of virtual teams and will serve as a foundation for a larger survey of the lab's user community.
Assessing the treatment of patron privacy in Library 2.0 literature BIBAFull-Text 501-503
  Michael Zimmer; Kenneth Blacks
As libraries begin to embrace Web 2.0 technologies to serve patrons -- ushering in the era of Library 2.0 -- unique dilemmas arise in the realm of information ethics, especially regarding patron privacy. The norms of Web 2.0 promote the open sharing of information -- often personal information -- and the design of many Library 2.0 services capitalize on access to patron information and might require additional tracking, collection and aggregation of patron activities. Thus, embracing Library 2.0 potentially threatens the traditional ethics of librarianship, where protecting patron privacy and intellectual freedom has been held paramount. Anecdotal evidence suggests a policy vacuum exists in dealing with this potential ethical conflict. This project seeks to measure the extent to which the issue of patron privacy is addressed in literature discussing Library 2.0 services and solutions.
Evaluating the botanical coverage of PATO using an unsupervised learning algorithm BIBAFull-Text 504-505
  Alyssa Janning; Hong Cui
In this paper, we explore issues in adopting PATO as a standard phenotypic quality ontology for the biological community. Using CharaParser's unsupervised learning algorithm and the Stanford Parser, we extract morphological descriptions from Flora of North America to be matched to terms in PATO. Using the resulting data, we examine PATO's coverage of botanically interesting terms in order to find gaps and to determine accuracy. To maintain PATO's neutrality, we recommend that term definitions be reevaluated and propose that complimentary ontologies be enhanced to close any outstanding gaps in terminology.
Children in the digital age: exploring issues of cybersecurity BIBAFull-Text 506-507
  Jade Guan; Jacqueline Huck
As technology races forward, adults seem to be at a loss as to how to comprehend the deepening relationship between children and technology. Compounded by media reports of online dangers, we investigate what the current research suggests the realities are with regard to children and online behavior. Knowing that this field of research is still in its infancy, we aim to review the empirical research that has been done thus far.
   Our poster reports on our cybersecurity literature review. The main goals were to:
  • Explore the main perspectives on issues from different disciplines relating
       to children's online security and behaviour.
  • Discover conflicting areas within or between disciplines.
  • Highlight gaps in research. Through our review, we aimed to assemble a clearer picture of the research done, to uncover future research avenues, and to provide a resource for those who wish to further pursue investigations into children and cybersecurity.
  • Clustered service rank in support of web service discovery BIBAFull-Text 508-509
      Ali Azari; Lina Zhou; Aryya Gangopadhyay
    Service registries are overwhelmed by the ever-increasing number of Web services. The scale of Web services pose challenges to Web service discovery and composition. To address the above challenges, we propose a method called Clustered Service Rank (CSR) that combines spectral clustering and popularity analysis of networks of Web services in this paper. Specifically, CSR applies Fidler vector to cluster the network of Web services and uses Page Rank to identify the service importance in each cluster. Using user ratings as ground truth, we evaluated the performance of CSR in service ranking by comparing it against that of basic PageRank method. Our preliminary results show that CSR provides a better match to users' functional requirements and less the network traversal than basic PageRank does.
    A design theory and modeling technique for the design of knowledge-intensive business services BIBAFull-Text 510-512
      Lysanne Lessard; Eric Yu
    Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) play an important role in industrialized economies, yet little research has focused on how best to support their design. The emerging understanding of service as a process of value cocreation could provide a relevant framework for KIBS design. However, we first need to better understand how value is actually cocreated in KIBS; this understanding then needs to be made operational in design tools that can help create successful outcomes for all parties engaged in a service relationship. Our work aims to identify key mechanisms of value cocreation in KIBS, and adapt existing modeling techniques so as to support KIBS design. While preliminary, our results show that Agent-Oriented modeling, in particular i*, is able to express key mechanisms of value cocreation and account for its intentional dimension. This research yields theoretical insights for a KIBS-specific theory of value cocreation and practical support for the design of KIBS.
    Self-archiving and collaboration in science 2.0: an exploratory study BIBAFull-Text 513-514
      Kalpana Shankar
    The use of information technologies (from formal electronic laboratory notebooks to informal word processing files and spreadsheets) for tracking research results, local and collaborative laboratory data management, and the teaching of basic scientific methodology are of increasing importance to the conduct of scientific research. While there has been a significant amount of research interest in large-scale collaboration and the use of cyberinfrastructure, there is still a great deal of work being done in "small science". This poster presents preliminary results from a comparative study of self-archiving and data management practices in two scientific portals, MyExperiment.org and openwetware.org. Analysis of the sites to suggest how scientists choose these portals, how they use to collaborate, and how they are integrated into other information practices will be discussed.
    A content and social network approach of bibliometrics analysis across domains BIBAFull-Text 515-517
      Christopher C. Yang; Xuning Tang
    Bibliometrics data contain rich co-authorship network, text and temporal information. In this work, we employ a hybrid approach that incorporating content and social network similarity to conduct a bibliometrics analysis across the information retrieval and World Wide Web domains using the DBLP dataset.
    Tag co-occurrence analysis using the association data mining rule BIBAFull-Text 518-519
      Kyunghye Yoon
    This paper presents a study in progress on tag co-occurrence employing data mining algorithms. Based on the assumption that the tag terms occurring together are closely related with each other, the study intended to investigate the relationship of tag terms that appear together in a tag set. The association data mining rule was used to find the tag pairs that occur frequently together to identify those of relatively strong association. Analysis was followed to look at the semantic relations of the terms in the selected tag pairs. Preliminary data analysis found that the two tag terms appearing together with stronger association tended to be related syntagmatically with each other (i.e., they were from different concepts of terms that related to the context of use) rather than conceptually similar terms in taxonomic relations.
    Assembling transparency and accountability: a citizen-candidate-social media collaboration BIBAFull-Text 520-522
      Pamela (Mela) Brown
    To explore policy implementation in technologically mediated environments, this case study analyzes how citizens and candidates co-conceptualize and practice transparency and accountability in a social media context. During a municipal election in a Canadian municipality, a citizens' group created a blog to encourage election candidates to disclose campaign donation amounts and sources. Although post-election disclosure is legislated, the citizens argued that pre-election disclosure would inform voter's decisions by revealing potential candidate-corporate allegiances. The resulting blog content is an unanticipated policy outcome that is compared with the municipality's standard post-election campaign contribution report. The blog -- a collaboration of different human and nonhuman agencies -- is re-described as an assembling. A feminist-material analysis is applied to disclose the differences between these two technologically mediated policy implementations. The comparison inquires into the unexpected outcomes of citizen-led transparency and accountability implementation including political and policy process implications.
    Future InfoExpo: the future of information seeking & services exposition in Second Life™ BIBAFull-Text 523-524
      John Marino; Peyina Lin; Natascha Karlova; Michael B. Eisenberg
    Phase I of the Virtual Information Behavior Environments (VIBE) project uncovered opportunities and limitations for the sharing, access, and organization of information in the 3D virtual world Second Life. Phase II of the project designed a major event in Second Life, called the Future InfoExpo, in which participants engaged with a variety of new virtual world tools, provided feedback on their experiences, and envisioned the future of their information practices. An overview of the design of the Future InfoExpo is presented, along with a preliminary review of the data.
    Promoting serendipity online: recommendations for tool design BIBAFull-Text 525-526
      Jacquelyn Burkell; Anabel Quan-Haase; Victoria L. Rubin
    Some researchers have suggested that opportunities for serendipitous discovery of information may be limited in the online environment as a result of technological facilitation of information behavior. In response, they suggest building tools that enhance opportunities for serendipity. Based on our model of everyday serendipity, we offer design suggestions for tools that could enhance various conceptual facets of everyday serendipitous chance encounters.
    Education for data professionals: a study of current courses and programs BIBAFull-Text 527-529
      Virgil E., Jr. Varvel; Elin J. Bammerlin; Carole L. Palmer
    In response to the current data-intensive research environment, iSchools are beginning to build new programs and enhance existing programs to meet workforce demands in data curation, data management, and data science. To understand the state of education in the field, we studied current programs and courses offered at iSchools and other schools of Library and Information Science. Here we present an overview of the methods and results. Courses are divided into four categories: data centric, data inclusive, digital, and traditional LIS. The analysis reveals trends in LIS education for data professionals and identifies particular areas of expertise and gaps in LIS education for data professional.
    Multi-lingual information access tools: user survey BIBAFull-Text 530-532
      Peggy Nzomo; Victoria L. Rubin; Isola Ajiferuke
    This research presents the results of a case study on potential users of Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) systems -- international students at a Canadian University. The study is designed to test their awareness of Multi-Lingual Information Access (MLIA) tools on the internet and in select electronic databases. The study investigates how non-native English speakers cope with language barriers while searching for information online. We advocate for designing systems that incorporate CLIR options and other MLIA tools to support users from diverse linguistic backgrounds with varying proficiency levels.
    Pictures are perceived; symbols are also recognized: representation at the intersection of perception and material in IS design BIBAFull-Text 533-534
      Peter W. Coppin
    What makes a representation pictorial? I respond to this question as a small step toward a perceptual-cognitive understanding of graphic representation properties that play important roles in the usability of information systems. Here, I focus to capabilities that play a role in whether material objects are visually processed or recognized as pictorial or symbolized representations. I distinguish pictorial and symbolized information in terms of how each makes use of "less-learned" perceptual emulation capabilities that evolved to enable reaction to real-time environmental changes, and more-learned capabilities to recognize features in order to predict and plan ("simulate") future changes from memory traces of past percepts. Pictorial information makes use of these capabilities to cause perceptual emulation of environmental surfaces that are not part of the marked surface and are referred o here as "pictured." Symbolized (visual) information is conceived here as visual information from a visual representation, that, through learning and recognition, causes retrieval of memory traces that serve as resources for the construction of mental simulations beyond (or other than) what is pictured. By locating information and representation at the intersection of perceiver and environment, a preliminary model to address the perplexing problem of distinguishing pictorial from symbolized representations is introduced..
    Information practices in newcomer settlement: a study of Afghan immigrant and refugee youth in Toronto BIBAFull-Text 535-537
      Lisa Quirke
    This qualitative, exploratory study examines the information practices and leisure of young Afghan newcomers in their first months and years in Toronto. Over a quarter of a million newcomers arrive in Canada annually [1] yet studies point to increasing difficulties in the settlement process [2]. There is a dearth of research on the settlement experiences of newcomers, in particular young immigrants and refugees. This study focuses on Afghan youth, a group with one of the highest rates of poverty and early school-leaving in Toronto [3,4]. Millions of dollars are spent annually on settlement programs [5] yet little is known about how youth seek, share and use information following migration. The preliminary findings of my study include the following: settlement information is sought and shared in leisure settings, family and friends are among the preferred information sources, and youth may withhold information relating to settlement when communicating with family back home.
    The impact of the public library on early reading achievement: using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) 1st grade student sample BIBAFull-Text 538-540
      Jung Hoon Baeg; Wonchan Choi; Dong Joon Lee; Jisue Lee
    This study explored the effect of public library activities on reading achievement of 1st grade students, using the ECLS-K (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten). The results from Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) indicate that children's reading Item Response Theory (IRT) scores were significantly related to whether their parents had a library card and visited the public library with them. In addition, the reading IRT scores of 1st grade students who had their own library cards were significantly higher than those of non-library card holding students. The location of the public library also played an important role in the number of times parents and their children visited it. Students who visited the public library also had significantly higher reading IRT score than students who did not visit the public library. These findings suggest that accessibility and utilization of public libraries contribute to the growth of reading abilities of 1st grade students.
    Relationships among category semantics, perceptions of term utility, and term length and order in a social content creation system BIBAFull-Text 541-543
      Corinne Jörgensen; Besiki Stvilia; Shuheng Wu
    While there are increased efforts to extend existing controlled vocabularies through harvesting socially created image metadata from content creation communities (e.g., Flickr), questions remain about the quality and reuse value of this metadata. Data from a controlled experiment was used to examine relationships among categories of image tags, tag assignment order, and users' perception of usefulness of preassigned image index terms. Preliminary findings indicate that, on average, "Group" category terms were assigned first, and were also rated highest in usefulness. Other broad tag categories that were assigned earlier and rated more useful were Human Attributes and People, but others were more variable. However, the study found no correlation between tag length and assignment order, or term length and its perceived usefulness. The study's findings can inform the design of controlled vocabularies, indexing processes, and retrieval systems for images.
    Facets of access: a typology of information dissemination systems BIBAFull-Text 544-545
      Elisabeth A. Jones; Joseph T. Tennis
    In this poster, we describe a new way of conceptualizing relationships between systems for information dissemination throughout history, based on a set of basic attributes or facets. This poster illustrates one way in which these attribute-based relationships might be visualized, as a step toward illuminating novel perspectives on and comparisons between these phenomena.
    Note: Best Poster Award
    Exploring the virtual toy box: virtual worlds and young children BIBAFull-Text 546-547
      Jeremy Sarachan
    Virtual Worlds such as Club Penguin and Poptropica attract millions of children ages 6-14. This ethnographic-based study examines the foundation for children's interest in virtual worlds and how choices about using the spaces are influenced by the interfaces. Significantly, children engage in activities of their own choosing, sometimes sidestepping the expectations of the virtual worlds. Initial observations suggest that the age range of users suggested by the respective games/websites do not necessarily match the competence and cognitive levels of the younger children, causing their play to lack direction and fail to take advantage of many of the features of the virtual worlds. However, this exploration may help to prepare them for more sophisticated virtual activities.
    The evolution of a discipline: a fractal representation of information science BIBAFull-Text 548-549
      Casey Yu; Jung Hoon Baeg
    The study of information takes place in nearly all disciplines -- most poignantly in the academic fields of Library and Information Science (LIS) and Computer and Information Science (CIS). Through the interaction of these two a new discipline is emerging which the iSchools have termed the iField. A co-citation analysis was completed using journal articles from LIS and CIS peer-refereed journals and plotted onto six cluster maps, one for each time span (approximately 7 years) from 1965-2009. These cluster maps, demonstrate the evolution of a new discipline from within and across LIS and CIS, and therefore the emergence of the iField, This study applies the theory of concretization of technology to determine whether there are synergies between the emergence of new topics and styles of work and events of significance to the history of computing, information technology, the information professions, and the information disciplines with the co-citation maps.
    Mental models: setting user expectations for ICTs BIBAFull-Text 550-551
      Lorraine Normore; Vandana Singh
    An approach to supporting the user-centered design of future information and communication technologies (ICTs) is described. It will be based on an analysis of user expectations about the characteristics of different ICT systems associated with the experiences that the users have had across the eras of ICT development (pre-PC; the PC era (1983-1992); the Internet era (1993-2004); and the present era). An preliminary study of application use is described.
    Graduate students' information seeking in a collaborative learning setting BIBAFull-Text 552-554
      Jeonghyun Kim; Jisu Lee
    This study is part of a larger study that aims to better understand the complex dynamics of information seeking as it occurs in a collaborative learning setting. A total of 34 graduate students who participated in a collaborative research project were asked to complete process surveys throughout the project. The results of this study revealed that students who participated in a collaborative research task initiated the projects in confident ways but became more stressed as the project progressed. Students also perceived that they knew more as they progressed through the project.
    "Why won't you be my Facebook friend?": strategies for managing context collapse in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 555-557
      Jessica Vitak; Cliff Lampe; Rebecca Gray; Nicole B. Ellison
    This poster presents a preliminary analysis of data collected from staff personnel at a large U. S. university regarding their use of the social network site (SNS) Facebook in their personal and professional lives. Sixty-five percent of online American adults now have a profile on a SNS, and Facebook is increasingly utilized in organizational settings such as universities as a tool for information dissemination, recruiting, and promotion of the organization and its programs. Analysis of interview data (N = 26) found that while social media outlets like Facebook offer a number of advantages for reaching diverse populations, navigating work/life boundaries on Facebook was a concern for many participants. Through the lens of context collapse -- the flattening of multiple distinct audiences into a singular group -- we explicate these concerns, focusing on participants' strategies for maintaining boundaries between their personal and professional lives.
    Removing records documenting acts of violence and atrocities from the archive BIBAFull-Text 558-559
      Emily Kozinski; Carolyn Hank
    Totalitarian, dictatorial and repressive regimes may attempt to hide or destroy evidence of their abuses. A lack of evidence prevents perpetrators of crimes from being held accountable when the oppressive regime is dismantled. In the wake of these regimes, victims must come to terms with what happened to them. But what are the implications when records documenting acts of mass violence are destroyed and little evidence of the crimes is left? This research examines the importance of societies protecting documentation of the past in order to prevent collective forgetting or denial, ensuring that memory of past events remains. Through an extensive survey of the literature, many cases of the destruction of records documenting acts of mass violence were identified. In addition to presenting a mapping of nations where such acts have occurred, two are examined in detail: East Germany after the fall of the Berlin Wall and post-apartheid South Africa.
    Note: Best Poster Runner-Up
    Habitat tracker: learning about scientific inquiry through digital journaling in wildlife centers BIBAFull-Text 560-562
      Paul F. Marty; Ian Douglas; Sherry A. Southerland; Victor Sampson; Nicole D. Alemanne; Amanda Clark; Anne Mendenhall; Aldo de la Paz; Casey Yu
    This poster presents preliminary results from an ongoing research project designed to help elementary school students learn about scientific inquiry. Florida State University, in partnership with the Tallahassee Museum (a wildlife center in Tallahassee, FL), has developed a digital journaling system that uses online and mobile technologies to help students better understand the nature of science. The project's goal is to encourage students to become active participants in the scientific inquiry process by collecting and analyzing data about natural habitats, before, during, and after visits to a wildlife center. Preliminary results show that a mobile learning application specifically designed for elementary school students can support the scientific inquiry process at wildlife centers and in the classroom, and help students master the scientific inquiry and nature of science benchmarks advocated by science education reform efforts.
    Note: Best Poster Runner-Up
    Mapping scientific communities to scale-up ethnographies BIBAFull-Text 563-564
      Theresa Velden; Carl Lagoze
    We will present the multistep process for generating bibliometric mappings of research fields and their community structure, a process that we have developed using a combination of network analysis and ethnographic field studies of scientific communities. We suggest that such maps are useful to support the strategic sampling of ethnographic field sites and the transparent scaling-up of ethnographic findings for the comparative study of collaboration and communication practices across scientific fields.
    What is a tweet worth?: measuring the value of social media for an academic institution BIBAFull-Text 565-566
      Jasy Liew Suet Yan; Elizabeth Kaziunas
    Determining the influence of organizational Twitter accounts is far from an exact science, although numerous companies (most prominently Klout) have recently sought to find appropriate metrics and algorithms. Klout, a company that measures influence on the social web, recently ranked Syracuse University (SU) as the No. 2 "Most Influential College on Twitter". While at first glance, Klout's ranking presents a flattering portrayal of SU's adept use of social media, we question if the Klout score has real substance, and actually reflects the effectiveness of SU's social media strategy. This paper explores the issue of how one assigns value to a tweet in the context of an academic institution from a survey of SU students on their motivation of Twitter use, behavior, and perception of value associated with a tweet. As users primarily read tweets to obtain interesting information, preliminary findings indicate that users in academic institutions are more concerned with the quality of tweet contents as opposed to how influential the institution is on Twittersphere.
    The SciLink project: from document-centric to resource-oriented publications BIBAFull-Text 567-568
      Bernhard Haslhofer
    The World Wide Web has changed the way of publishing and distributing scholarly results. However, scholarly publications are still organized linearly and point to supplemental or related information only by textual references or at most by hyperlinks embedded into PDF documents. They are stored in closed repositories and we can hardly access, navigate, and use scholarly resources the way we do it with other Web resources. The goal of the SciLink project is to analyze scholarly practices in certain pilot communities, to learn how scholars currently use Web resources in their publications, and to design tools that help scholars in aggregating and publishing the building blocks of their works in a way that integrates with the resource-oriented Architecture of the World Wide Web. In that way, we want to allow humans and machine agents to access and interact with scholarly resources just like with any other Web resource.
    "We realized we had to become librarians": DJs, information practices and music libraries BIBAFull-Text 569-571
      Jessica Lingel
    This project addresses information practices used by disc jockeys (DJs) to organize music collections, focusing in particular on issues of managing large collections of media. Using in-depth interviews with 12 DJs, accounts of music collection, music organization and preparing for shows are analyzed to gain an understanding of how this particular community of practice manages technological change. Main themes from initial analysis include: the problematic nature of genre as a high-level mode of organization and the difficulty of scaling organization practices from smaller physical collections to large digital collections. Drawing on these themes, implications for design of DJ programs (such as iTunes and Serato) are offered, and directions for future work are discussed.
    Significant properties of complex digital artifacts: open issues from a video game case study BIBAFull-Text 572-573
      Simone Sacchi; Jerome P. McDonough
    In this poster we present the preliminary output of a study meant to analyze the applicability of the InSPECT Assessment Framework to a particular kind of complex digital artifact: video games. We discuss open issues and possible improvements in the assessment workflow.
    Towards a logical form for descriptive metadata BIBAFull-Text 574-575
      Karen M. Wickett; Richard J. Urban; Allen H. Renear
    Open linked data and semantic technologies promise support for information integration and inferencing. But taking advantage of this support often requires that the information carried by ordinary "colloquial" metadata records be made explicit and computationally available. Given the structured nature of most metadata records this looks easy to do; and conversion from metadata records to computer processable knowledge representation languages such as RDF is now commonplace. Nevertheless a precise formal characterization of the semantics of common colloquial metadata records is more involved than appearances would suggest. We explore two approaches to formalization and discuss some issues related to the nature of identifier elements in colloquial metadata records and the use of individual constants in knowledge representation.
    Note: Best Poster Runner-Up
    Moderating effects of perceived affordances on users' adaptive media use BIBAFull-Text 576-578
      Jian Tang; Yuxiang Zhao; Ping Zhang
    Factors contributing to communication media adoption have been well studied. Several theories (e.g., media richness theory and media synchronicity theory) have been developed to explain or predict media adoption behavior. However, adoption is only an initial stage of media use. Reasons for adaptive media use in postadoption phase are of greater significance and interest. This poster posits that people's media use is dynamic in various communication environments, and it is determined by effects of multiple factors, including media characteristics, message complexity, and social context, whose influences are moderated by users' perceived affordances of media's capabilities to satisfy their needs.
    A political economy of public libraries in immigrant settlement in Ontario, Canada (1945-2011) BIBAFull-Text 579-581
      Susan MacDonald
    In this era of sustained global migration, national governments are increasingly turning to cities and municipalities to administer immigrant settlement and integration policies. In this regard, there has been increased interest by government and libraries alike in understanding the particular role that public libraries play in providing services to newcomers. From the perspective of political economy, this doctoral dissertation research links the question about the changing role of the library in providing services to new immigrants to the broader historical context of related government policies in immigration and settlement in Canada. Through a critical discourse analysis, the research reveals the ways that national government policies have historically shaped notions of service provision to newcomers with a particular focus on public libraries in the post-war era, defined here as 1945-2011. Preliminary data collection and analysis reveal that while public library understandings of immigrant needs reflected assimilationist attitudes of the early post-war era, professional values and practices shifted over time suggesting a progressively more nuanced understanding of the particular needs of newcomers in settlement and integration. As data collection and analysis proceed, however, this research asks: How does national immigration policy influence public library constitution of and services to immigrants, and to what effect?
    The HIVE impact: contributing to consistency via automatic indexing BIBAFull-Text 582-584
      Hollie White; Craig Willis; Jane Greenberg
    Research has shown that automatic subject indexing is more efficient and consistent than manual indexing; yet many organizations continue to use manual indexing because of the unacceptable quality of automatically produced results. This poster presents the results of an exploratory experiment examining consistency stemming from a machine-aided indexing approach. The HIVE vocabulary server was used to present concepts to 31 workshop participants. The presentation of terms via an automatic sequence reduced the indexer burden and contributed to increased consistency. This poster reports initial results and provides a framework for further exploration of automatic indexing in manual workflows.
    From data to knowledge: discovery of medical laboratory demand patterns through visualisation techniques BIBAFull-Text 585-586
      Conrad Ng; Anatoliy Gruzd; Calvino Cheng; Bryan Crocker; Don Doiron; Kent Stevens
    This research uses data visualization techniques and social network analysis to determine the status and efficiency of laboratory ordering for the outpatient system in Nova Scotia, Canada. Currently, the Capital District Health Authority (CDHA) model demonstrates that approximately 60% of laboratory ordering originates in the outpatient setting and is costing the province approximately $3.3 million per month. The goal of this pilot project is to turn the vast amount of data in the CDHA's laboratory information system into usable information and allow the CDHA to identify usage trends to better understand the future demands on lab testing and allow policymakers more insight into the Nova Scotia primary care landscape.
    Note: Best Poster Award
    Children's formal and informal definition of technology BIBAFull-Text 587-588
      Jieyu Wang; Anita Komlodi
    Though today's children have many chances to interact with technology, what they understand about technology from their point of view still needs to be explored. In this poster we report how children define technology and what they understand technology to be in a real-life context. We use qualitative methods aiming to identify the differences in children's formal definitions and their practical understanding of technology. We interviewed six focus groups and asked twenty-six children to create video self documentaries in two countries: Hungary and India. We found consistency between their formal definitions and their statements on their actual use of technology. For example, they stated that technology makes things easier, uses electricity, is entertaining, useful, and harmful as well, which can also be found in their statements of technology use. The differences were that they expressed technology is easy in daily life while in the definition they indicated its complexity. Moreover, they mentioned technology's influence on their social lives, which never appeared in the formal definitions.
    The DataRes research project on data management BIBAFull-Text 589-591
      Martin Halbert; William Moen; Spencer Keralis
    The University of North Texas together with the Council on Library and Information Resources, have received $226,786 from the Institute of Museum and Library Services for a two year research project to investigate how the library and information science profession can best respond to emerging needs of research data management in universities. This project will address broad new issues concerning the emerging roles, expectations, and practices arising from requirements announced by NIH, NSF, IMLS and other funding agencies for data management plans as part of proposals.
    Note: Best Poster Runner-Up
    Using a participatory approach to design a technology-enhanced museum tour for visitors who are blind BIBAFull-Text 592-594
      Rebecca Cober; Olive Au; Jay Jungik Son
    In this poster we trace the discovery and initial design phases for a digital museum guide for visitors who are blind, for use at the Bata Shoe Museum in Toronto. Our design goal was to create a prototype for a handheld device that would provide contextual, descriptive, and historical information about artifacts in the museum's permanent collection. First, we reviewed existing assistive technologies. Second, a participatory design approach was identified as a useful methodology to understand the specific characteristics of the context of use and the unique perspectives of the users in this study. Third, in collaboration with participants who are blind and museum staff, we developed a medium-fidelity prototype. Using a simulation technique with participants in situ, we created rapid iterations of our prototype. Here, we present our key findings and recommendations.
    Use of library tools in a learning management system BIBAFull-Text 595-597
      Chris Leeder; Steve Lonn; Susan Hollar
    There has been little empirical research into the involvement of subject librarians in university Learning Management Systems (LMS). This study examined how library-specific tools in a university-wide LMS are used, by who and for what purposes, in order to assess their effectiveness and to draw conclusions about how to encourage wider adoption and usage. Few demographic differences were found between users and non-users. Overall, survey respondents showed high levels of positive perceptions of librarians, but exhibited low awareness of the library tools and little understanding of their use. This suggests that potential for greater usage of the LMS library tools exists, with the main challenge being lack of awareness and inadequate training.
    What is community informatics?: a global and empirical answer BIBAFull-Text 598-600
      Kate Williams; Shameem Ahmed; Noah Lenstra; Qiyuan Liu
    Various definitions of community informatics have been advanced [1, 2, 3], each relatively prescriptive but all centered on the interaction between local, historical community and either information or information technology. The IT revolution continues to unfold and intersect in new ways with local communities, leaving the field in a state of flux. We are carrying out a systematic collection and analysis of the literature in order to obtain an empirical (rather than prescriptive) definition of the field. Moreover, librarians and LIS scholars participated in early "community information systems" work [4, 5], but what role do they play today? To the best of our abilities, we are seeking global rather than country-bounded answers, and we invite others to join us in order to complete this task.
    Using internship experience to evaluate a new program in eScience librarianship BIBAFull-Text 601-602
      John D'Ignazio; Jian Qin; Joshua Kitlas
    This research project explores the role of internships in a new curriculum designed to educate eScience librarians. Experiential learning was identified early on in the IMLS-funded project as a necessary aspect to give students field exposure to information-related developments of cyberinfrastructure-enabled science. Nine students were tasked to fill out a daily survey that captured their experience at academic and research libraries, field research stations, and national and discipline-based research centers. Analysis of these accumulated "diary" entries is underway to identify learning outcomes of the eSLib program, particularly two required, data-oriented courses the students mastered in the first year of the program. The analysis will also aggregate and trace longitudinally student skill application throughout the summer. Evaluation of student experience should enhance understanding of the relation between the eScience Librarianship program and what is needed by institutions tasked with managing data produced by computer and network-enabled scientists.
    Developing a dual degree program to support public sector information stewardship BIBAFull-Text 603
      Helen R. Tibbo; Christopher A. Lee; Lorraine L. Richards
    We report results of research into curriculum development for dual degree programs and the development of a dual degree curriculum jointly undertaken by the University of North Carolina's School of Information and Library Science and School of Government. This IMLS-funded program provides training in public information stewardship to four cohorts of eighteen masters' level students. The curriculum development rests upon previous IMLS-funded curriculum development projects, examination of masters' programs throughout the world, semi-structured interviews of public sector information experts, recommendations from an expert Advisory Board, and focus group responses from current and alumni project Fellows.
    Chronicles in preservation project BIBAFull-Text 604-605
      Martin Halbert; Katherine Skinner
    The Educopia Institute, with the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the libraries of University of North Texas, Penn State, Virginia Tech, University of Utah, Georgia Tech, Boston College, and Clemson University, have received $300,000 from the National Endowment for the Humanities to study, document, and model the use of data preparation and distributed digital preservation frameworks to collaboratively preserve digitized and born-digital newspaper collections.
    Learning through game design: an investigation on the effects in library instruction sessions BIBAFull-Text 606-607
      Angela Ramnarine-Rieks
    The primary purpose of this quasi experimental pre and post test study is to examine whether the use of game design would have an impact on content learning, understanding and retention of knowledge, in information literacy classes. In this study game design activity was incorporated into undergraduate information literacy classes. Scratch, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed software was used to facilitate game design. The pre-test was used to establish a baseline measure for comparison with the post-test measure, with the comparison indicating effectiveness of the dependent variable. Video recordings and artifacts were gathered to obtain richer data of the experience. Researchers agree that there is a lack of empirically-grounded frameworks for integrating gaming activities into classrooms. This study has the potential of creating new knowledge about game design specific to higher education and libraries.
    "Green washing" the digital playground: how virtual worlds support ecological intelligence...or do they? BIBAFull-Text 608-610
      Eric M. Meyers; Robert Bittner
    An emerging approach to teaching young people about sustainability is the use of immersive game spaces and virtual environments. This project focuses on children's virtual worlds with an environmental values orientation to examine the ways these worlds work as vehicles of sustainability literacy. These worlds position themselves explicitly as ethical and sustainable spaces, focusing on environmental responsibility and stewardship. Yet, they contain only a veneer of ecological thinking, rely heavily on consumerist logic, and provide mixed messages for young people about what it means to conserve and consume. We use the lenses of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) and Ecocriticism to interrogate these technologies, exploring how the discursive practices of these spaces support or constrain different visions of a sustainable world.
    Note: Best Poster Award
    Encouraging personal storytelling by example BIBAFull-Text 611-612
      Meethu Malu; Nikunj Jethi; Dan Cosley
    Online communities often face challenges of encouraging people to provide more, better, or particular kinds of content. In this paper we add to a growing body of work on interface techniques and domains for influencing people's behavior by encouraging people to contribute personal, rather than informational, content to an online community through presenting example content in a tutorial video. A study of 175 people who viewed a video that contained either more personal or more factual content attached to places on a map showed that people who saw personal content contributed more personally-oriented content and saw MyMaps as more useful for personal tasks than those who saw descriptive content.
    Indicators for analyzing institutional repositories' performance: an explorative study BIBAFull-Text 613-615
      Renata Gonçalves Curty; Jian Qin
    This paper presents preliminary findings which examines the statistical correlation among and within micro and macro-level variables associated with Institutional Repositories (IRs), in order to explore potential indicators for the study of IRs activity and growth performance.
    Internet governance: the future of RIRs and the allocation of internet number resources BIBAFull-Text 616-617
      Stephanie Santoso; Andreas Kuehn; Ayman Helweh
    Major changes to the critical Internet resource landscape, such as the scarcity of IPv4 and the increasing demand for IP addresses due to the growing mobile market, raise the questions, who will manage these Internet number resources and how should they be allocated and managed? These developments affect the function and organization of Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), the responsible actors for these activities. The geo-political underpinnings of these organizations become all the more apparent when existing RIRs are forced to consider how their role within Internet governance may change moving forward. An analysis of the development of RIRs, including a case study of AfriNIC demonstrates this. The authors consider several approaches to addressing the need to manage Internet number resources in the future and hypothesize that the distribution of Internet number resources will become increasingly decentralized.
    Meta-index views on digital domains BIBAFull-Text 618-619
      Michael Huggett; Edie Rasmussen
    Domain meta-indexes provide a summary of domain concepts, and a structured vocabulary from which to form queries and organize research. We present a prototype of a Meta-index User Interface (MUI) that provides views of a domain at 3 levels: summarizing and comparing domains, exposing the regularities of a domain's vocabulary, and displaying book information and page content related both to objectively representative books, and to specific user searches.
    Senior citizens' credibility assessment of online health information: a proposal of a mixed methods study BIBAFull-Text 620-622
      Wonchan Choi
    This study aims to examine senior citizens' credibility assessment of online health information by using mixed methods consisting of a log analysis and focus groups. In particular, a log analysis will show "which" websites senior citizens often visit and stay at for a long time. In addition, focus groups will show "why" senior citizens use certain websites frequently and for how long. Based on the P-I Theory, this study will explain "which" markers (elements) of websites catch seniors' attention and "why" they perceive the websites to be credible. Considering credibility assessment is a research topic in the field of social sciences that cannot be fully understood by using either purely quantitative or purely qualitative techniques, mixed methods involving qualitative and quantitative data sources and analyses are a useful methodology. In addition, in light of the expected increase in the population of senior citizens and their great concern for and interest in health information, findings from the proposed study will provide important data only for researchers in this area but also librarians and system developers.
    A framework for defining and describing key design features of virtual citizen science projects BIBAFull-Text 623-625
      Jason Reed; Whitney Rodriguez; Angelique Rickhoff
    Virtual citizen science (VCS) uses computer-mediated interaction (usually a Web-based platform) to enable the public to work with professional scientists conducting research. However, there is currently a lack of research about the core features of VCS projects. This would aid professional scientists in engaging in best practices for creating their own VCS projects. This research presents a pilot study applying usability-based categories towards the creation a VCS classification scheme. We selected categories from the literature empirically related to the usability of commercial and non-commercial websites. Two independent sets of judges rated the extent to which certain forms of technology were manifested in VCS projects and how well the VCS projects reflected the usability principles. We used Zooniverse, a collection of different VCS projects that share a common brand. This allows us to study a diverse but integrated sample of typical VCS projects from the Zooniverse.
    Towards a conceptual framework for managing social media in enterprise online communities BIBAFull-Text 626-628
      Kelly Lyons; Steven Chuang; Chun-Wei Choo
    Enterprise online communities exist as vendor-hosted platforms to bridge customers, business partners, and employees to co-create values by supporting business objectives and client goals. Unfortunately, establishing online presence through the use of a community platform is no longer sustainable in this hyper-social world, as minimal competitive advantage can be achieved without continuous strategic planning. In an effort to break through the barriers inherent with growing online communities, we investigated the impact of emergent social media as a strategic enabler for attracting, fostering and sustaining community members. We developed a social media maturity model aimed at evaluating the extent of social media usage in an online community. This paper presents our continuing research on the proposed maturity model which is composed of 8 success clusters: communication; collaboration; personalization; externalization; governance; monitoring; technology; and, platform support. Preliminary results are discussed to reveal the utility of the proposed model and future research.
    Access denied: how students resolve information needs when an "ideal" document is restricted BIBAFull-Text 629-631
      Eric M. Meyers
    Finding the right match between a document and an information need appears to be of particular concern to adolescent information seekers, who expect a wealth of information at their fingertips. Using qualitative and quantitative data from a mixed method study of middle school research practices, this poster explores how students react to a breakdown in the search for information online, specifically when a seemingly ideal document to meet an information need is blocked by the school's content filter. The findings illustrate the variety of strategies employed by students to meet the need, and the impact of the search barrier on students' information seeking success and their completion of the inquiry task. The poster concludes with implications for the mediation of search tasks in the school environment.
    Designing digital library evaluation instruments: conceptualizing a participatory methodology BIBAFull-Text 632-633
      Diana S. Kusunoki; Michael J. Khoo
    Eliciting users' perceptions and understandings of digital libraries involves guiding users and evaluators lost in translation toward communicating on the same wavelength. In order to mitigate potential misunderstandings, it is necessary to craft evaluation instruments into boundary objects that afford communication with precise terminology, ultimately facilitating the exchange of knowledge and meaning among various stakeholders. This poster describes the preliminary findings from pilot testing and proposes new evaluation methods for the participatory design of digital library evaluation instruments that bridge meaning across users and evaluators.
    Will you be my friend?: responses to friendship requests from strangers BIBAFull-Text 634-635
      Sameer Patil
    A malicious person could access a wealth of one's personal information by being one's 'friend' on a social networking site. The goal of this research is to understand the extent to which users are vulnerable to this tactic. Our experiment examined responses of users of a social networking site to a friendship request from a total stranger. Preliminary results indicate that a small but significant percentage of individuals are open to accepting such requests. The tendency to accept was higher when the request came from an unattractive person of the opposite sex. In the case of same-gender connections, however, the likelihood of acceptance was higher for attractive requesters. Moreover, the mere presence of a profile photo, regardless of gender and attractiveness of the requester, greatly increased the likelihood of request acceptance. However, individuals with higher privacy concerns showed a greater tendency to decline the request.
    Note: Best Poster Runner-Up
    Future directions for information programs: data from students at six Canadian schools BIBAFull-Text 636-638
      Luanne Freund; Joan Cherry; Wendy Duff
    This study explored student perceptions of their master's programs in information studies at six Canadian universities. We conducted a web-based survey in March 2010. The questionnaires for Midstream Students and Graduating Students gathered data on the extent of their support for ten potential future directions for information programs. The levels of support for each of the ten directions was surprisingly similar at the six schools. In this extended abstract we present the quantitative data showing the extent of support for each of the ten directions; in addition, the poster presentation will include embedded audio narrations of participants' comments. The study gives voice to student opinions about the future directions of the programs they are experiencing.
    Rainmakers, space mirrors and atmospheric vacuums: a bibliometric mapping of geoengineering research BIBAFull-Text 639-640
      Nicholas M. Weber
    This poster presents preliminary results from an informetric study of geoengineering publications. As a field of research geoengineering is loosely defined as the intentional modification of the Earth's environment to stabilize, correct, or ameliorate climate change. A broad overview of the policy and practical implications of geoengineering strategies are discussed, as well as evidence of a growing body of cited scholarly publications. A technique of bibliometric mapping is used to display correlations between keywords attached to a corpus of geoengineering publications. Past studies have shown this technique to be particularly useful for revealing sub-domains that are affecting the evolution of a new field of study. Preliminary results, in the form of keyword co-occurrence clusters are discussed as two-dimensional disciplinary maps. These maps relationally situate the broad sub-domains that both import and export knowledge from the field of geoengineering.
    Dimensions of indigenous heritage discourse and the use of technologies of display in an ethnographic exhibition: a case study of the "Song for the Horse Nation" exhibition (National Museum of the American Indian, New York) BIBAFull-Text 641-643
      Iulian Vamanu
    This poster reports on a study of an ethnographic exhibition put together by three indigenous curators and hosted by the National Museum of the American Indian in New York ("A Song for the Horse Nation"). Its aim is to contribute to the scarce Library and Information Science literature on indigenous heritage. The study explores the discourse of indigenous heritage and its actualization in this particular exhibition. It analyzes both the exhibition (artifacts and technologies of display) and the views of the curators expressed through direct communication with the author and the exhibition album. The study identifies two main dimensions of the indigenous heritage discourse: (1) indigenous subjectivity as entitled to self-representation through object display and (2) indigenous history as recovery of meaningful aspects from a violent colonial past in view of community regeneration and a hopeful future. It also shows how these dimensions are conveyed by appropriate technologies of display.
    Defining user requirements for holocaust research infrastructures and services in the EHRI project BIBAFull-Text 644-645
      Agiatis Benardou; Costis Dallas
    The poster presents the background, conceptual framework, methodology and initial results of a mixed research project, investigating information practice and user requirements of historians, humanities scholars and social scientists working on the Holocaust. The results of the study will be a foundation for the specification of functionalities of the European digital infrastructure planned as part of the EU-funded European Holocaust Research Infrastructure project, and consisting of the EHRI search/portal and the EHRI Virtual Research Environment. Particular issues to be dealt with are the summarization of qualitative evidence from semi-open interviews by means of a conceptualization of relevant descriptive codes of research activities, resource types and tools/services; identification of specific user requirements and of different researcher profiles through statistical analysis of an online questionnaire defined on the basis of initial qualitative research; and, identification and theorization of special needs of Holocaust research, seen as a highly multi- and inter-disciplinary field of inquiry.
    A revised model for course content of consumer health information services BIBAFull-Text 646-647
      Yong Jeong Yi; Soeun You
    Previous studies have discussed that consumer health information services served by public librarians are not adequate. The current study highlights that the issue is closely related to the immaturity of the course of consumer health information services. The purpose of the current study is to develop a more desirable model for consumer health information services courses. The study analyzed the consumer health-related course content of 7 iSchools in U. S, and conducted intensive interviews to 40 public library users and 20 public librarians. Key findings indicated that the current courses did not cover critical topics, and highlight that there are a lack of public awareness regarding health information services provided by public libraries and user needs of collaboration between health institutions and public libraries. The findings, thus, suggest that the core or additional topics such as health literacy, reference ethics, user instruction and dissemination strategies need to be included in a revised course model.
    iCAMP: building digital information curation curriculum BIBAFull-Text 648-650
      William E. Moen; Jeonghyun Kim; Edward J. Warga; Jenny S. Wakefield; Martin Halbert
    The iCAMP (Information: Curate, Archive, Manage, and Preserve) project is developing a curriculum in digital curation and data management. The project will design and implement four courses using a competency-based curriculum approach. It also integrates principles of sound pedagogy, instructional design, and a learning environment that emphasizes practical training. This paper summarizes the goals and guiding principles behind the curriculum development and instructional design framework.