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ICIC Tables of Contents: 0709101214

Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Intercultural Collaboration

Fullname:Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Intercultural Collaboration
Editors:Pamela Hinds; Anne-Marie Søderberg; Ravi Vatrapu; Toru Ishida; Martha Maznevski; Gary Olson
Location:Copenhagen, Denmark
Dates:2010-Aug-19 to 2010-Aug-20
Standard No:ISBN 1-4503-0108-8, 978-1-4503-0108-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ICIC10
Summary:We are delighted to present the technical program for the International Conference on Intercultural Collaboration, ICIC 2010. As noted elsewhere, this is the third conference in a series. The call for papers attracted 39 regular submissions and 38 late-breaking submissions from Asia, Europe, North America, the Middle East and Latin America. The program committees accepted 18 regular papers and 29 late-breaking papers. In addition to these papers, the conference also included two keynote speakers and two panels. Bjorn Z. Ekelund (Human Factors Norway) was the keynote speaker on the first day, and Jemilah Mahmood (United Nations, Mercy Malaysia) was the second day's keynote speaker.
    The members of the Program Committee and all of the reviewers are listed elsewhere in these proceedings. We are grateful for the careful attention all of these people gave to the submissions. This is still an emerging community, and we are delighted that so many people are willing to help it along.
    We expect that these proceedings, along with those from the previous two conferences, will constitute a rich resource for those interested in intercultural collaboration. The diversity of topics revealed across the three conferences shows what a lively and growing area this is. We hope you find the program useful and inspirational as you try to grapple with the complex issues involved in intercultural collaboration.We hope that you will find this program interesting and thoughtprovoking and that the symposium will provide you with a valuable opportunity to share ideas with other researchers and practitioners from institutions around the world.
  1. Diversity management and globally distributed teams
  2. Media and design for intercultural collaboration
  3. Machine translation mediated communication
  4. Intercultural communication
  5. Socio-technical interactions
  6. Cross-cultural study
  7. Poster session 1: intercultural communication, virtual teams, and technology
  8. Poster session 2: exploring culture and cross-cultural interactions

Diversity management and globally distributed teams

Diversity management in practice: the case of diversity work in a Swedish municipality BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Annette Risberg
What does it mean to practice diversity management and how do people experience working in a so called diverse organisation? These are the questions explored in an ongoing case study of a diversity management in practice in a Swedish municipality. Early findings of the study point to that diversity as ambiguously experienced by the employees, as it is not clearly positively or negatively experienced. Diversity is also found to be a complex matter to manage and to live your every day life in. Further, the findings point to that diversity is managed at two different levels; a micro level, where it is a matter of management that does not differ that much from management with out diversity as a prefix, and at a meso level where the focus is on changing the employees' attitudes towards diversity and behaviours. This is done through the measures of diversity lectures and diversity training.
Using virtual interactions to explore leadership and collaboration in globally distributed teams BIBAFull-Text 9-18
  Sheena Lewis; Jason B. Ellis; Wendy A. Kellogg
Despite advances in collaboration software, globally distributed teams face significant challenges, including variations in communication style, work behaviors, expectations and establishing common ground. Virtual worlds allow distributed team members to inhabit a shared space and to engage in cooperative activities. We report an exploratory study where newly formed cross-national teams engage in a cooperative game in which one team member has a leadership role. We describe behaviors observed supplemented by survey and interview data in terms of leadership, conflict management, social gaffes, and awareness of diversity. We suggest that cooperative activities under time pressure in a "low stakes" virtual environment may stimulate discussion that can foster greater understanding and effective interaction in real world collaborations.
Intercultural encounters in off shoring: liaison roles of host country nationals in a danish MNC in Malaysia BIBAFull-Text 19-28
  Charles M. Vance; Torben Andersen; Vlad Vaiman
This paper broadens the conceptualization of MNC knowledge management to include the importance of active involvement in a liaison role by host country nationals (HCNs), particularly those working directly to with expatriates. Based on our field research and work experience in international settings as well as current research literature, we identify and consider several beneficial components of this liaison role in local knowledge management, including cultural interpreter, communication facilitator, information resource broker, talent developer, and change partner. In addition we try to look into some of these roles in a specific contextual situation, Malaysia.

Media and design for intercultural collaboration

Blogging through conflict: sojourners in the age of social media BIBAFull-Text 29-38
  Ban Al-Ani; Gloria Mark; Bryan Semaan
Social media enables the creation of online communities across physical boundaries. Blogs, or weblogs, enable bloggers to interact with a range of followers. We sought to conduct a qualitative study of the nature of the interactions that emerge in a blog community whose members are experiencing the impacts of ongoing conflict. We chose the Iraqi blogging community as a case study and focused on investigating the role of intercultural interactions in shaping people's experiences during conflict. We found that intercultural interactions aided people by providing support, finding commonality, building a knowledge base, and in giving advice on restoring infrastructure. The intercultural interactions provided alternative views of an event constructed from diverse cultural perspectives. We found that the intercultural interactions we observed suggest a degree of intercultural competency within the blogosphere.
Shopping for sharpies in Seattle: mundane infrastructures of transnational design BIBAFull-Text 39-48
  Lilly Irani; Paul Dourish; Melissa Mazmanian
In this paper, we describe the importance of mundane tools for design practitioners in India working with Euro-American clients. Our findings are based on a 7-week ethnographic study of a design firm based in Delhi, India. We analyze some highly-valued tools and software, such as post-its, as infrastructures with both practical and symbolic functions. These infrastructures are made meaningful in the shared practices of a transnational but primarily Euro-American design community. Designers in India employ a number of strategies we call "infrastructure work" to be able to participate as designers in this mold.
A dynamic, web-based methodology for developing intercultural understanding BIBAFull-Text 49-58
  Gilberte Furstenberg
This paper describes a pedagogical project that was designed at MIT in 1997 and that has been taking place every year since then, connecting American and French language students for the purpose of helping them develop intercultural understanding. It centers on the dynamic process that allows students to gradually and collaboratively construct, through a series of stages, an in-depth understanding of each other's cultures. It ends with some reflections on the challenges brought by the use of web-based communication tools as well as the pedagogical impact they inherently have on the ways students develop intercultural understanding.

Machine translation mediated communication

Influence of detecting inaccurate messages in real-time remote text-based communication via machine translation BIBAFull-Text 59-68
  Mai Miyabe; Takashi Yoshino
In multilingual communication using machine translation, translation correction based on back translation plays an important role. If users are unable to identify inaccurate translations, they will not attempt to correct them. This is an important issue because a considerable proportion of inaccurate machine translations go undetected, which prevents smooth communication. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for preventing users from transmitting inaccurate messages. This method can ensure that only accurate messages are exchanged between users. However, some problems may occur with the use of this method, because it rejects the user's judgment. It is important to verify the effectiveness of this method. We propose a method that reduces the transmission of inaccurate messages. If the method identifies a message as inaccurate, the chat server does not send the message to the receiver; it will instead encourage the sender to correct the message. We verified the effectiveness of the proposed method in chat communication using the Wizard of Oz method. The following conclusions were drawn from experimental results: (1) The chat communication progressed even when a user occasionally sent an inaccurate message. However, inaccurate messages did disrupt communication to some extent. When the proposed method was applied, users were able to communicate with each other more accurately. We observed that there were no significant differences in the effectiveness of communication with or without the proposed method. This suggests that our method is best applied to communication situations that require high degrees of accuracy. (2) The use of the proposed method caused users some discomfort because it rejected their judgment; thus, they did not know how to repair the messages. Based on this, it would seem that it is not easy to apply the proposed method to chat communication.
Machine translation effects on group interaction: an intercultural collaboration experiment BIBAFull-Text 69-78
  Ari Hautasaari
Even with the increasing use of machine translation to overcome language barriers it is still unclear how machine translation affects communication and interaction in intercultural groups. In this paper, we present the results of a laboratory experiment on intercultural distributed groups using machine translation-mediated chat as a communication tool. English-speaking participants from Finland and Japan worked with Japanese-speaking participants in a trading game scenario using machine translation-mediated chat as their main communication tool. Based on previous research we predicted that machine translation will help overcome the language barrier, but furthermore we predicted that machine translation would have a positive effect on social and relational communication as well as on overall group performance. In a controlled laboratory setting, machine translation proved to increase the amount of positive socioemotional messages and overall group performance in intercultural distributed groups with disparate language abilities.
Automatically generated captions: will they help non-native speakers communicate in English? BIBAFull-Text 79-86
  Nobuhiro Shimogori; Tomoo Ikeda; Sougo Tsuboi
Many people find it difficult to communicate in a foreign language. In order to help these people, one approach being studied is the use of captions generated by automatic speech recognition (ASR). Captions are known to facilitate comprehension of foreign languages, but ASR-generated captions may be subject to problems attributable to recognition errors and recognition time.
   We conducted two experiments using subjects who are native Japanese speakers to determine how these differences caused by ASR affect understanding when listening to English. We found that captions with 80% accuracy will increase the understanding of the subjects with intermediate English skills, which would apply to about half of native Japanese users. Additionally, changing the display timing of the caption from after speech to before speech would contribute to improving the understanding more than increasing accuracy from 80% to 100%.

Intercultural communication

These findings suggest that captions generated with today's ASR can help non-native speakers communicate in English when used carefullyCulture as communication: a theory of perception and dissonance in intercultural interaction BIBAFull-Text 87-92
  Olivier Irrmann
We posit that cultural interactions are composed primarily of communication and interpretation of communicative events. A model of communication dissonance is introduced, putting perceptions and communication processes at centre stage. We analyze how the attempts by one side of an intercultural encounter to communicate content and relations can be culturally interpreted by the other side, what consequences these interpretations can have and the subsequent resistance or cooperation dynamics they could trigger. We argue that looking at communication dissonance could be more fruitful for intercultural business process research than the notion of cultural differences.
"All of a sudden we had this dialogue...": intercultural computer clubs' contribution to sustainable integration BIBAFull-Text 93-102
  Anne Weibert; Volker Wulf
A sustainable integration of migrants is an important societal task, touching numerous parts of everyday life. Developed as a socio-technical concept, intercultural computer clubs following the 'come_IN' approach are apt to provide a major contribution here. The aim is twofold: via collaboration in computer-based project work in the clubs, its participants a) establish and strengthen relationships in the intercultural neighborhood they now live in, and b) acquire computer skills that may broaden and ease their access to the job market as well as help them to keep up a remote relationship with their respective home countries. A qualitative evaluation study reveals the chances and limitations of this concept.
Borneo children in an international digital playground: intercultural issues and idiosyncrasies BIBAFull-Text 103-110
  Fitri Suraya Mohamad; Alvin Wee Yeo; Norazila Abdul Aziz; Soubakeavathi Rethinasamy
It is often argued that there is a great tendency for communities to be deprived of the benefits that ICT offers particularly due to geographical locations, socioeconomic status, gender and age. This paper describes an initiative to provide greater opportunities to the children of a remote rural community in Bario on the island of Borneo which had been previously equipped with basic ICT facilities. Twenty children, aged between seven to fifteen years, were invited to participate in an international digital playground called the Pangaea programme. The programme is designed to enable children to develop friendships and intercultural awareness with other children from Japan, South Korea, Kenya, and Austria. The paper highlights the initial perception and views of the Bario children during the early stage of the Pangaea programme.

Socio-technical interactions

Explaining culture: an outline of a theory of socio-technical interactions BIBAFull-Text 111-120
  Ravi K. Vatrapu
This paper presents four criticisms of positivistic research in cross-cultural human-computer interactions. An outline of a theory of cultural influences in socio-technical systems is then presented. Based on the ecological approach to perception and action and the philosophical approach to intersubjectivity, the dual aspects of interaction in socio-technical systems- (a) interacting with technologies and (b) interacting with social others using technologies are respectively theorized as (a) perception and appropriation of affordances and (b) structures and functions of intersubjectivity. Affordances are action-taking possibilities and meaning-making opportunities in a socio-technical system relative to actor competencies and system capabilities. Technological intersubjectivity refers to the production, projection and performance of identities and subjectivities in technology supported social relationships. The comparative informatics methodological framework is then presented followed by a brief description of the experimental evaluation of the theoretical framework. Implications for design of computer supported intercultural collaboration systems and a set of open research questions are discussed.
A socio-technical approach to making explicit interculturality in collaborative multi-disciplinary settings BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Souleymane Boundaouda Camara; José Abdelnour-Nocéra
This paper proposes a socio-technical approach to making explicit cultural issues in collaborative and multidisciplinary teams in information system design. Requirements and design processes of international, multicultural and multidisciplinary partners are put through a series of socio-technical experiments and evaluated to develop and refine a conceptual tool: socio-technical evaluation matrices (STEM). STEM has provided a platform to effectively explore, explicate and reflect on cultural and contextual implications in design processes among stakeholders (including end users).
Technology-supported cross cultural collaborative learning in the developing world BIBAFull-Text 131-140
  Christopher Hoadley; Sameer Honwad; Kenneth Tamminga
Technology (especially the Internet) has been touted as an important tool for cross-cultural exchange. In this paper we report on some of the challenges and successes of using a cross-cultural collaborative learning intervention design in rural Himalayan villages using participatory video. We describe some of the unique constraints of designing appropriate educational technology for the developing world, and we propose a fourfold framework to help identify local constraints for the design of such technologies.

Cross-cultural study

Comparing privacy attitudes of knowledge workers in the U.S. and India BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Sameer Patil; Alfred Kobsa; Ajita John; Doree Seligmann
We compared privacy attitudes of knowledge workers from the U.S. and India who were involved in a collaborative software development project distributed across five sites of a multinational corporation. Prior studies on consumer privacy suggest that privacy concerns in India are lower than those in the U.S. While our work largely confirmed these findings, we found unexpectedly that knowledge workers in India expressed higher interpersonal privacy concerns compared with their U.S. colleagues. Our study points to a number of explanatory factors for the elevated privacy concerns in the Indian knowledge workplace: nature of interpersonal relationships, associations with privacy, competition among team members, management style and hierarchy, and differences in the physical characteristics of the workplace. Our findings highlight the challenges in satisfying privacy needs when individuals and teams collaborate with knowledge workers in India. An understanding of these issues is important for building and deploying systems for intercultural collaboration that can accommodate differences in privacy concerns.
The cultural determinants of strategic bias: a study of conflict resolution in an interactive computer game BIBAFull-Text 151-160
  Jolie M. Martin; Cleotilde Gonzalez
We examine the impact of individuals' religious and political affiliations on the conflict resolution strategies they employ. Participants in the U.S., Israel, and Qatar played the interactive computer game, PeaceMaker [15], with the objective of satisfying constituents on both sides of the Israel-Palestine conflict. In the role of the Palestinian President, we find that participants tended to take actions favoring those constituents with whom they shared cultural affiliation. Oppositely, when playing the role of the Israeli Prime Minister, participants exhibited comparatively greater bias toward constituents with whom they did not share cultural affiliation. We interpret this difference in light of minority-majority group membership, and the assertion of in-group interests versus perspective-taking of out-group interests. Finally, we discuss the potential of interactive computer games to study cross-cultural interaction in other dynamic environments characterized by uncertainty and complex interdependencies.
Cultural influences in collaborative information sharing and organization BIBAFull-Text 161-170
  Ravi K. Vatrapu; Daniel D. Suthers
This paper provides an extended analysis of cultural influences on information sharing and organization first reported in [44, 47]. The basic premise of the research reported in this paper is that appropriation of socio-technical affordances and technological intersubjectivity vary along cultural dimensions. To empirically evaluate this premise, an experimental study was conducted with three independent groups of dyads from similar or different cultures (American-American, American-Chinese, and Chinese-Chinese) doing collaborative problem-solving in a knowledge-mapping environment. Participants interacted through an asynchronous computer interface providing multiple tools for interaction (diagrammatic workspace, embedded notes, threaded discussion). Results showed that American participants in the American-American intra-cultural computer supported collaboration condition were more likely to discuss strategies for information sharing and information organization than participants in the Chinese-Chinese intra-cultural condition. Implications for research and practice of computer supported intercultural collaboration are discussed.

Poster session 1: intercultural communication, virtual teams, and technology

Intercultural interaction and collaboration in a virtual world BIBAFull-Text 171-174
  Jean K. Miller
This is preliminary research as to whether cross-cultural interactions or collaboration within a virtual world hinders or promotes cultural understanding or interest.
Translating politeness across cultures: case of Hindi and English BIBAFull-Text 175-178
  Ritesh Kumar; Girish Nath Jha
In this paper, we present a corpus based study of politeness across two languages-English and Hindi. It studies the politeness in a translated parallel corpus of Hindi and English and sees how politeness in a Hindi text is translated into English. We provide a detailed theoretical background in which the comparison is carried out, followed by a brief description of the translated data within this theoretical model. Since politeness may become one of the major reasons of conflict and misunderstanding, it is a very important phenomenon to be studied and understood cross-culturally, particularly for such purposes as machine translation.
Evaluating the usability of intercultural collaboration platforms: grid computing applications BIBAFull-Text 179-182
  Cristian Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo; Gonzalo Tapia; Danae Hayvar; Virginica Rusu; Dorian Gorgan
Grid Computing is a relatively new, distributed computing technology, based on sharing different types of computational resources, located in various geographic locations. Technical knowledge of grid users is expected to decrease in the future; that is why the usability of Grid Computing applications will become a main issue. Grid Computing applications are usually intercultural collaboration platforms. Moreover, Grid Computing applications' development is usually an intercultural challenge. A methodology for evaluating the usability of Grid Computing based applications has to be established. A set of heuristics is proposed, in order to help the heuristic evaluations of such applications.
Culturally adaptive mobile agent dialogue to communicate with people in crisis recovery BIBAFull-Text 183-186
  Vanessa Evers; Andi Winterboer; Gregor Pavlin; Frans Groen
We present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and environmental agencies through autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching EU FP7 project DIADEM, concerns the development of a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in populated areas using input from both a distributed sensor network and humans through their mobile devices. We propose a model of interaction with a system where concerned citizens communicate with a social virtual agent through their mobile phone to inform the environmental monitoring agency about unusual smells. In case of an emergency, people will receive instructions or directions for evacuation from the agent. In this paper, we review relevant literature and describe the development of a dynamic dialogue agent that supports international collaboration by adapting its social interaction to the cultural background of the humans it interacts with.
Intercultural communication in university teaching BIBAFull-Text 187-190
  Miriam Hansen; Lisette Scholz; Regina Jucks
In this paper, we report results of an online-study with 186 university lecturers teaching Psychology courses at German universities. The task was to respond to an email request of a student. The nationality of the requesting student (German vs. Chinese), the communication style of the request (Western vs. Asian), as well as the use of certain words (two synonymous versions to test for lexical alignment effect) was varied in a 3x2-factorial design. Results showed that the nationality did have an effect on the lexical alignment, with more alignment in German nationality conditions, whereas the communication style influenced cultural adaptation and perspective taking, both higher in Asian style conditions.
Emergent psychological states in global virtual teams: a mediating role of task-related information and perspectives elaboration BIBAFull-Text 191-194
  Kwanghyun Kim
This research explores the effectiveness of global virtual teams, whereby geographically and temporally dispersed team members connect through various communication media, to achieve their common goals. The study proposes some emergent psychological states (i.e., psychological safety, team identification, team empowerment) as important predictors of global virtual team effectiveness. In exploring the relationships, it also considers "task-relevant information and perspectives elaboration" as an underlying mechanism. Additionally, boundary conditions, such as richness of communication media, language diversity, and task interdependence, are moderators in the model.
Development of multilingual medical reception support system with text-to-speech function to combine utterance data with voice synthesis BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Mai Miyabe; Takashi Yoshino
The need for multilingual communication in Japan has increased. In the medical field, there exists a serious problem when it comes to communications between hospital staff and foreign patients. Currently, medical translators accompany patients to medical care facilities, and the number of requests for medical translators is increasing. However, medical translators cannot provide support at all times, especially in cases where round-the-clock support is required or in the case of an emergency. The medical field has high expectations of information technology. We have developed a support system for multilingual medical reception called "M3." M3 provides support functions that aid foreign patients in the following respects: conversation, questionnaires, reception procedures, and hospital navigation; it also has a questions and answers function. M3 uses accurate translation tools called parallel texts to facilitate reliable communication through conversations between hospital staff and the patient. However, M3 provides text-based support, and does not provide support using voice data. We received feedback from medical interpreters that the system should provide support using voice data. Therefore, in this study, we considered the support for multilingual communication by voice data in the medical field. In this study, we propose the support system with text-to-speech function using the utterance data in combination with voice synthesis.
Culture, profession, and attitudes towards educational technology: a large-scale, German-Romanian study BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Armin Weinberger; Nicolae Nistor
Cultural dimensions and attitudes towards educational technology may differ between countries and ethnicities, but also between professional groups. This study examines a bicultural, German and Romanian sample (N = 2834) that includes both participants with technical and with non-technical professions. Results show large differences between Germans and Romanians as well as small differences between participants of technical and non-technical professions regarding Hofstede's cultural dimensions and regarding attitudes towards technology. The results will be discussed with respect to expanding Hofstede's framework towards differentiating between cultural sub-samples.
Intercultural human-photo encounters: how cultural similarity affects perceiving and tagging photographs BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  S. Tejaswi Peesapati; Hao-Chuan Wang; Dan Cosley
The increasing popularity of online photo sharing makes encountering photos from other cultures an increasingly common event online. We present an online study investigating how photos' cultural origins interact with people's cultural backgrounds to influence their feelings about and tagging of online photos. People tend to feel closer to photos from their own cultural background than to photos from other cultural backgrounds; however, they apply the same number of tags regardless of the photo's culture. This suggests that culture has different effects of emotional and cognitive processes around picture perception, and also suggests that culture is a salient factor to be accounted for in designing online photo sharing and tagging systems.
The role of language(s) in business: three danish cases and their corporate language policies BIBAFull-Text 207-210
  Nina Bellak
This paper examines corporate and individual solutions to overcome language barriers in international business contexts. Specifically, attention is focused on decisions that go beyond 'English only'; in which context and why do languages other than English come into play? Qualitative interview data, collected from three Danish multinational corporations (MNCs), provides evidence that languages other than English are used and needed for several reasons, such as lacking English skills of interlocutors. A formalized language policy might help multinationals overcome the language barrier more efficiently and manage language effectively in the future.
Retrospective analysis of cross-culture communication BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Duyen T. Nguyen; Susan R. Fussell
We report a study using retrospective analysis to understand American and Chinese participants' feelings and reactions on a moment-by-moment basis during an interaction. Participants talked about a fictional crime story together and then individually watched and reflected on an audio-video recording of the interaction. A grounded theory analysis of participants' reflections suggested five key themes: fluency, nonverbal behavioral cues, time pressure, conversational dominance, and attributions for team performance.
Cultural influence on user preference on groupware application for intercultural collaboration BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Rein Suadamara; Stefan Werner; Axel Hunger
This paper discusses an ongoing research on how cultural dimensions affect user's preference in intercultural collaboration using a groupware application as a remote collaboration tools. This research will try to analyze how culture influences the way users prefer to interact using a computer application as the media by applying the Technology Acceptance Model that was introduced by Davis (1989) and utilizing four cultural dimensions, which are Collectivist-Individualist, Power Distance Index, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Low- and High Context communication from Hofstede, Gudykunst, Triandis, and Edward T.Hall. This paper will proposes how cultural dimensions should be applied when designing a synchronous groupware application as a remote collaboration tool aimed for multicultural users.
Regional styles of human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Torkil Clemmensen
This paper draws from Frederic Bartlett's notion that aspects of culture may influence the development of science and technology. Combining additional works from Bloor and research from cultural psychology, we discuss several case (historical and contemporary) studies that illustrate how culture and human-computer interaction are interrelated. These results illustrate how usability problems are tied with global cultures.
Net intergroup contact BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger
The Net Intergroup Contact (NIC) platform is an Internet website located at http://www.intergroupconflict.com. It has been created out of the scholarship and experience acquired both from traditional Face to Face intergroup contact (F2F) and on online group interaction. NIC is an open invitation to people from different communities around the world to put an end to intergroup conflicts, through the use of online meetings that are conducted under the guidance of social psychologists.

Poster session 2: exploring culture and cross-cultural interactions

From cultural stereotypes to cross-cultural analysis: a case of France BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Mariya Bobina; Stephanie Vergnaud; Mikhail Grachev; Richard Soparnot
This paper reviews the cultural profile of France and shifts focus in discussion about French culture from traditional stereotypes to measurements available from the 62-societies' study of cultures, organizations, and leadership (GLOBE) and its most recent extensions. The study advances measurements of cultural distance and positions French management behaviors in cross-cultural space.
Japanese views on superior-subordinate relationship in Swedish-Japanese collaboration BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  Laurence Romani
Against expectations based on the cultural dimensions frameworks, the theme of superior subordinate relationship is a critical one in Swedish-Japanese relationships. This paper describes Japanese medical researchers' views on this theme, and shows that they go beyond the cultural dimension of Power Distance. Implications concern the predictive power of cultural dimension frameworks and the investigation of cultural antecedent of management behavior.
Is an open organizational culture an important factor in the hospital-in-the-home BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Maria-Teresa Sanchez-Polo; Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro
This paper shows some of the tools and methods that Hospital-in-the-Home Units (HHU) have used to update organizational memory. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the links among the extent to which a HHU possesses some unlearning practices and some memories and the strengths of its outcomes from the practitioners' point of view (human capital).
Corporate cross-cultural collaboration: the contextual challenges of multi-cultural teams in China and Japan BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Lisbeth Clausen; Verner Worm
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the notion of context and in a "context sensitive" way to describe the challenges of multicultural teams in cross-cultural and cross-institutional cooperation between a Danish shoe company and their subsidiaries in Japan and China.
The intercultural momentum: a survey in the south on meeting with people from the north BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Ignace Pollet
Most sociologists and economists view North-South relationships in terms of either financial interests, or (whether conflicting or not) different systems of values. They tend to use a macro-approach, which often takes place on the basis of either purely deductive grounds or very broad empirical databases. Only rarely is the intercultural momentum examined: what happens when people from North and South come across each other at a meeting, e.g. for establishing a project together. By deploying an explorative survey, we let people from the South give an interpretation as to what happens during an intercultural meeting. One striking result is that such intercultural momentum is often grossly underestimated by the Northern partners.
Ethnocentrism, materialism, social influence, and collectivism: an inter-and intra-national analysis of the Thais, Chinese, and Indians BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Kritika Kongsompong; Rochelle Powtong; Sankar Sen
This paper presents empirical results of ethnocentrism, materialism, and social influence in purchasing behavior as related to the degree of collectivism among subjects in three countries -- Thailand, China and India. The inter-national analysis of the subjects attempts to diagnose and contrast the cultural diversity among the people of the three countries. As for the intra-national analysis, the men and women within each of the countries were separately examined to analyze the cultural differences. Results show that Thais, Chinese, and Indians are significantly diverse with regard to collectivist, ethnocentric, materialistic, and social influence. Regardless of nationality, those who are more collectivist show a tendency to be more ethnocentric, less materialistic and more susceptible to social influence in their consumption behavior. Contrary to the predictions gleaned from the literature review, however, the intra-national results for subjects of the three countries show that men are generally more collectivist than women. Therefore, Thai, Chinese, and Indian men are likely to be more ethnocentric, less materialistic and more susceptible to social influence in their purchase endeavors than their female counterparts.
Characterizing global participation in an enterprise SNS BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Jennifer Thom-Santelli; David R. Millen; Joan M. DiMicco
Social networking sites have been deployed within global enterprises to encourage informal communication and build social capital between its globally distributed members. Such interactions can potentially contribute to intercultural learning opportunities; however, it is unclear whether cross-geographical social contact consistently occurs. We present initial results from a quantitative analysis of user activity from a global enterprise SNS, observe asymmetries in directionality and reciprocity in connections in various geographic regions as well as a strong tendency towards geographic homophily. Finally, we suggest that language proficiency may play a role in differences in regional adoption of the system.
Coping with cultural dominance in cross cultural interaction BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Sampo S. I. Tukiainen
This paper examines how Finnish project managers engaged in highly complex, international engineering projects cope with and respond to the cultural dominance expressed by their project partners. The paper highlights that the managers not merely condescend to their subjugated positions, but also use various tactics as countermoves against the perceived dominance. Based on these findings, the paper then extends the idea of cultural determinism present in many an essentialist cultural study. That is, instead of portraying the project managers solely as "dopes" of the cultures, the paper advocates individual volition and "cultural agency", where the managers are seen to be capable of using different kinds of tactics to counteract the cultural forces at play. Concomitantly, this notion suggests caution in utilizing the ever popular cultural stereotypes in predicting and advising on cultural implications in cross cultural interaction and interfaces. Practical implications are discussed.
Innovating from the global south: practices to connect local and global networks of innovation BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Ruy Cervantes; Bonnie Nardi
High-tech industries across the Global South (emerging countries such as China, India, and Mexico) are making great efforts to become innovators that create their own products for global markets. Cities such as Guadalajara and Bangalore, which traditionally have been used by multinational corporations as manufacturing or service delivery centers, are now emerging as centers of innovation. The transition is part of a global transition connecting emerging centers of innovation with those in advanced economies. However, this phenomenon has not been studied at the practical level: we do not know how people materially make the social connections that enable them to move forward as innovators. We propose a comparative study of the practices used in the embedded systems industry to connect to local and global networks in Mexico and India. We chose the embedded systems industry because it is dynamic, globally distributed, knowledge intensive, and highly interdependent with other sectors. The research has two aims (1) to understand how social connections are created and sustained across global markets in emerging and established centers of innovation, and (2) an empirical basis for proposing new digital media technologies and organizational designs to support the development of centers of innovation in the Global South. Digital media tools will have an instrumental role in helping develop the work relationships and coordination needed to drive innovation in these emerging centers.
Onshore-offshore competition: a stage model BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Suling Zhang; David Shani
The increased IT offshoring presents many benefits as well as challenges to today's organizations. One major challenge is the competition between onshore employees and offshore employees for job security, challenging projects, status and resources. The onshore-offshore competition is complex and dynamic. Unmanaged or inappropriately managed competition seriously undermines IT offshoring efforts. However, very little research has been conducted in this important area. Organizations and managers are in urgent need for guidance on managing the onshore-offshore competition. This paper investigates into the reasons and affects of onshore-offshore competition and proposes a three-stage model on the evolution of the competition. It is proposed that onshore-offshore competition may evolve in three stages: individual competition, territorial competition and resource competition. At each stage the competition varies in intensity, focus and consequences. This model provides for managers a systematic means to analyze the state of competition in their organization and also guidelines on coping with the competition.
Global campus program in peace and conflict studies BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Aya Fukuda
In this paper, I introduce the intercultural collaboration through multinational synchronous online lecture in the area of Peace and Conflict Studies (PCS) held among conflict affected four countries, Afghanistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Japan.
Culture and (i)literacy as challenges to Scandinavian cooperative design BIBAFull-Text 271-274
  Janni Nielsen; Mads Bødker; Ravi Vatrapu
With the development in the global market collaborative user centred design becomes a competitive factor since successful diffusion and up-take of systems lie with the users. But users have different IT competences and are culturally different. These are challenges that collaborative design methodologies need to address. We describe the development within HCI through a general introduction to User Centered Design then focusing on the Scandinavian Approach. We argue that the Scandinavian tradition too is embedded in its specific cultural understanding and we discuss this by introducing the concepts of conflict and culture. In a final paragraph we return to the networked society, and reflect on the role of collaborative design.
Plea against cultural stereotypes BIBAFull-Text 275-278
  Tatiana Segal; Simona Vasilache
The paper discusses, critically, the vogue of Hofstede's system in cross-cultural research, and reveals the traps of classifying cultures, generating, thus, neo-stereotypes. Starting from a content analysis of last years' scientific production in the field of cultural encounters, with a special emphasis on the European East -- Asian East (People's Republic of China and Japan, in particular) relationships, the paper develops a review by exception, as the authors present "a-typical" case studies of cultural interactions, dismissing the cultural dimensions paradigm. Historical and political circumstances of the relationships between the two aforementioned regions, corroborated with cultural stereotypes, create a certain horizon of expectation, which is contradicted by the way things really happen. Concise and informative explanations are provided for each of the "a-typical" situations, based on the authors' cultural understanding, and especially on one of the authors' valuable expertise in the field of Chinese culture. The multiple embedded case studies analyzed articulate into a discourse against simplification and narrow classification of cultures, whose patterns of overlapping are far more subtle. Lessons learned, and insights from literature are brought together in a discussions and conclusions section, which creates awareness of "a-typical" behaviors, linked to "a-typical" situations, or relational backgrounds. The quasi-dogmatic framework of cultural dimension is, thus, challenged by a more fluid, exception-inclusive manner of approaching and understanding cross-cultural dialogue.
Relational models in cross-cultural collaboration BIBAFull-Text 279-282
  Markus Vodosek
In this paper, I propose that mental models of social inter-action affect the internal processes and outcomes of cross-cultural collaborations. Drawing on Fiske's relational models theory, I suggest that the use of dissimilar relational models can be detrimental to collaborators when they use dissimilar models within a given situation. However, relational models dissimilarity can be desirable when collaborators use different models across different situations as long as collaborators use the same relational model within each given situation.
Intercultural management and organizational culture: a case study of service sector firm BIBAFull-Text 283-286
  Noreen Saher; Astrid Podsiadlowski
The aim of this paper is to unravel the key characteristics of the organizational culture of local firms in Pakistan, which are continuously growing in the recently liberalized market. This article is based on a qualitative research approach. Field work was conducted in a medical corporation working in the capital city of Pakistan for two years and four months. The results show that the firm has a hybrid organizational culture reflecting both local as well as foreign (western) traits. The flexible workplace environment facilitates workers to satisfy the changing demands of professional modesty without denying the indigenous moralities. This paper contributes to the debate of how national culture influence organizational culture.