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ICCHP Tables of Contents: 940204060810-110-212-112-214-114-2

ICCHP'14: International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Part 1

Fullname:ICCHP 2014: 14th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Part I
Editors:Klaus Miesenberger; Deborah Fels; Dominique Archambault; Petr Peňáz; Wolfgang Zagler
Location:Paris, France
Dates:2014-Jul-09 to 2014-Jul-11
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8547
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-08596-8 hcibib: ICCHP14-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-08595-1 (print), 978-3-319-08596-8 (online)
Links:Conference Webpage | Online Proceedings | Conference Series Website
  1. ICCHP 2014-07-09 Volume 1
    1. Accessible Media
    2. Digital Content and Media Accessibility
    3. Years of the Web: Weaving Accessibility
    4. Towards e-inclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities
    5. The Impact of PDF/UA on Accessible PDF
    6. Accessibility of Non-verbal Communication
    7. Emotions for Accessibility (E4A)
    8. Games and Entertainment Software: Accessibility and Therapy
    9. Implementation and Take-up of eAccessibility
    10. Accessibility and Usability of Mobile Platforms for People with Disabilities and Elderly Persons
    11. Portable and Mobile Platforms for People with Disabilities and Elderly Persons
    12. People with Cognitive Disabilities: AT, ICT and AAC
    13. Autism: ICT and AT
    14. Access to Mathematics, Science and Music
    15. Blind and Visually Impaired People: AT, HCI and Accessibility

ICCHP 2014-07-09 Volume 1

Accessible Media

The Case of LIA -- Libri Italiani Accessibili BIBAKFull-Text 4-7
  Cristina Mussinelli
The paper present the case study of the LIA services aimed at providing accessible e-books for blind and visual impaired readers in the mainstream publishing distribution channels. The service had been launched in June 2013 and the catalogue offers at the time of the publication of the paper more than 6.000 accessible e-books of fiction and non fiction, mainly new titles and best sellers. More than 400 titles are added every month thanks to the collaboration of more than 65 Italian publishers.
Keywords: e-Book; Accessible; Accessibility; e-Pub; Mainstream; Visually Impaired; Interoperability
Semi-automatic DVS Authoring Method BIBAKFull-Text 8-12
  Inseon Jang; ChungHyun Ahn; Younseon Jang
Descriptive video service (DVS) is the main method of making programs accessible to those with seeing disabilities, but only a few of conventional broadcasting programs have been reproduced in the form of DVS contents because of practical limitations. It takes much of the time and professional manpower to produce the DVS contents so it is quite costly. In this paper, we propose semi-automatic DVS authoring method. Non-dialog sections detected through audio/subtitles analysis are recommended and then the author is able to insert appropriate audio description (AD) scripts and to produce their synthesized AD using TTS easily. Currently we have completed a basic study and developed the trial version of the proposed.
Keywords: the Blind; Descriptive Video Service; Non-dialog Section Detection; Text-to-Speech
Gaps between the Expectations of People with Hearing Impairment toward Subtitles and the Current Conditions for Subtitle Creation in Japan BIBAKFull-Text 13-16
  Sawako Nakajima; Naoyuki Okochi; Kazutaka Mitobe; Tetsujiro Yamagami
In this study, questionnaire surveys were conducted with film producers/directors and deaf and hard-of-hearing people to consider the issues surrounding subtitling of films for people with hearing impairment in Japan. The results show that only a small number of film producers taking part in this study have engaged in subtitling, and a majority pointed out the low profitability of producing subtitles under circumstances where the actual movie-viewing demand of hearing-impaired people is unclear. On the other hand, the survey of deaf and hard-of-hearing people revealed the actual movie-viewing tendencies of people with hearing impairment equal to that of hearing people and their high expectations regarding subtitles, despite limited opportunities to watch Japanese films in movie theaters. These results suggest possibilities of creating new economic models for increasing production and access to subtitles for hearing-impaired people sustainably.
Keywords: Subtitle; Deaf People; Hard-of-hearing People; Film Producer; Film Director; Film; Cinema; Audio-Visual Media
Empowerment by Digital Media of People with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 17-24
  Christian Bühler; Bastian Pelka
The paper differentiates three dimensions of access for eInclusion instruments: Firstly, digital media are understood as environments that offer multiple channels for interaction between persons with disabilities and their environment. This dimension is challenged by barriers that hinder people to use digital media. Peer support could be understood as a second dimension: Social media can empower people to act as social innovators and help people with disabilities. Barriers are identified in the effort that has to be done or in unsuitable ICT-applications. On a third dimension, the advantages of "space" are explored: Public internet access points can be understood as a "space" that offers ICT access, support for individual needs and competences, facilitated by specialized staff. The high costs, missing political backing and need for competences could be understood as main barriers here. The paper suggests to capitalize on social innovation approaches to design new support instruments for eInclusion.
Keywords: Digital Media; Social Media; Public Access Point; People with Disability; Empowerment; eInclusion; Telecentre
Tactile Captions: Augmenting Visual Captions BIBAKFull-Text 25-32
  Raja Kushalnagar; Vignesh Ramachandran; Tae Oh
We explore the efficacy of tactile captions as a supplement to online captioned video. Closed captions are not fully accessible, because many auditory signals are not easily represented by words, e.g., the sound of the ball being hit by a bat, or to describe a ring tone. The goal is to explore whether audiovisual information can be effectively represented through an equivalent tactile-visual interface. We compare viewers preferences between viewing video with captions alone, and captions plus tactile captions. Our study showed that viewers significantly preferred tactile captions to captions.
Keywords: Accessible Technology; Educational Technology; Deaf and Hard of Hearing Users; Dual Tasks
Captioning System with Function of Inserting Mathematical Formula Images BIBAFull-Text 33-40
  Yoshinori Takeuchi; Yuji Sato; Kazuki Horiike; Daisuke Wakatsuki; Hiroki Minagawa; Noboru Ohnishi
We propose a captioning system with a function of inserting mathematical formula images. [We match/The system matches?] mathematical formulas presented orally during a lecture with those simultaneously projected on a screen in the lecture room. We then manually extract the mathematical formula images from the screen for displaying on the monitor of the system. A captionist can input mathematical formulas by pressing a corresponding function key. This is much easier than inputting mathematical formulas by typing. We conducted an experiment in which participants evaluated the usefulness of the proposed captioning system. Experimental results showed that 14 of the 22 participants could input more sentences when using the function of inserting mathematical formula images than when not using it. Furthermore, from the results of a questionnaire, we could confirm that the proposed system is effective.
Synote Second Screening: Using Mobile Devices for Video Annotation and Control BIBAKFull-Text 41-44
  Mike Wald; Yunjia Li; George Cockshull; David Hulme; Douglas Moore; Aidan Purdy-Say; James Robinson
This paper describes a new important enhancement to Synote, the freely available, award winning, open source, web based application that makes web hosted recordings easier to access, search, manage, and exploit for learners, teachers and other users. The feature supports 'flipped' classrooms and allows students to ask questions through annotations on their personal mobile devices while also being able to remotely control and play relevant video fragments.
Keywords: Second Screen; Recorded Lectures; Learning; Flipping Classroom

Digital Content and Media Accessibility

A Comparison of the Listening Speed of the Korean TTS for the Blind: Based on Their Screen Reader Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 49-52
  Heeyeon Lee; Yujin Jang; Ki-Hyung Hong
The purpose of this study was to examine the listening speed of the Korean TTS for the blind based on their screen reader experiences. Among ten participants, five people have used a screen reader and the other five had few experiences of using a screen reader. Participants were asked to recall what they heard after they listened to the same sentences for ten repeated sentence sets, and they were asked to recall what they heard after they heard different sentences for the five random sentence sets. For all sentence sets, sentences were provided with fifteen differentiated speeds ranged from 0.8 to 3.6. The results showed that there were positive correlations between participants' screen reader experiences and their listening speed of the Korean TTS, and between the familiarity of sentences and the differences in the listening speed.
Keywords: The Blind; Screen Reader; TTS; Listening Speed
Dynamic Subtitle Authoring Method Based on Audio Analysis for the Hearing Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 53-60
  Wootaek Lim; Inseon Jang; Chunghyun Ahn
The broadcasting and the Internet are important parts of modern society that a life without media is now unimaginable. However, hearing impaired people have difficulty in understanding media content due to the loss of audio information. If subtitles are available, subtitling with video can be helpful. In this paper, we propose a dynamic subtitle authoring method based on audio analysis for the hearing impaired. We analyze the audio signal and explore a set of audio features that include STE, ZCR, Pitch and MFCC. Using these features, we align the subtitle with the speech and match extracted speech features to subtitle as different text colors, sizes and thicknesses. Furthermore, it highlights the text via aligning them with the voice and tagging the speaker ID using the speaker recognition.
Keywords: The Hearing Impaired; Media Accessibility; Dynamic Subtitle; Speaker Recognition
Communicating Text Structure to Blind People with Text-to-Speech BIBAKFull-Text 61-68
  Laurent Sorin; Julie Lemarié; Nathalie Aussenac-Gilles; Mustapha Mojahid; Bernard Oriola
This paper presents the results of an experiment conducted with nine blind subjects for the evaluation of two audio restitution methods for headings, using Text-To-Speech. We used specialized audio and two voices to demarcate headings. This work is part of a research project which focuses on structural in-formation accessibility for the blind in digital documents.
Keywords: Accessibility of Digital Documents; Blind People; Document Structure; Text-to-Speech; Specialized Audio
TTS-Based DAISY Content Creation System: Implementation and Evaluation of DaisyRings™ BIBAKFull-Text 69-76
  Kosei Fume; Yuka Kuroda; Taira Ashikawa; Yoshiaki Mizuoka; Masahiro Morita
Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) content is expected to gain popularity gradually among the visually impaired according to the prevalence of e-book reading devices and the development of text-to-speech (TTS) technology. However, the development of DAISY-formatted e-books, which is undertaken by volunteers, is a time-consuming process, making it difficult to meet end user requirements. In this report, we propose a content transliteration system that can convert plain text to DAISY content including formatted HTML and audio data via automatic TTS technology. Furthermore, using the graphic user interface of the proposed system, users can correct text and accent information by inputting ruby-type data. Through this functionality, we aim to target support for transliteration workers such as volunteers, teachers, and parents to make and edit contents easily and quickly for the visually impaired. Finally, we present the results of a preliminary evaluation using the proposed method in order to compare it with the conventional method.
Keywords: Transliteration; Text-to-speech; DAISY; Accessibility; Visual disability; Dyslexia
Patterns of Blind Users' Hand Movements BIBAKFull-Text 77-84
  Vassilios Argyropoulos; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Aineias Martos; Magda Nikolaraizi; Sofia Chamonikolaou
The main focus of the present study lies on patterns and characteristics of hand movements when participants with blindness receive typographic meta-data (bold and italic) by touch through a braille display. Patterns and characteristics were investigated by the use of six-dot braille and eight-dot braille code in conjunction with types of reading errors. The results depicted that the participants' reading errors (phonological type) were similar in both braille codes. In addition, the participants performed more fluid hand movements when they used the six-dot braille code, whereas they spent less time when they were reading through eight-dot braille. The focus of the discussion was placed on the importance of the development of a suitable design of tactile rendition of typographic signals through six or eight-dot braille code in favor of better perception and comprehension.
Keywords: Typographic Signals; 6-dot Braille; 8-dot Braille; Braille Display; Blindness; Patterns of Hand Movements; Reading Errors
Dialogue-Based Information Retrieval from Images BIBAKFull-Text 85-92
  Pavel Hamrík; Ivan Kopecek; Radek Ošlejšek; Jaromír Plhák
Our concept of communicative images aims to provide graphical information by means of dialogue interaction, which is suitable for people with various disabilities. Communicative images are graphical objects integrated with a dialogue interface and linked to an associated knowledge database which stores the semantics of the objects depicted. This paper deals with the utilization of formal ontologies for the process of image annotation and dialogue-based investigation in the context of assistive technologies.
Keywords: Ontologies; Picture Semantics; Dialogue Systems

Years of the Web: Weaving Accessibility

Annotation Tool for the Smart Web Accessibility Platform BIBAKFull-Text 93-100
  Sébastien Aupetit; Vincent Rouillé
Active and passive accessibility are two manner to improve web accessibility. While active accessibility mostly relies on norms and recommendations, it is practically proved that it is not sufficient. Passive accessibility is achieved by a posteriori content transformations. The Smart Web Accessibility Platform (SWAP) is a set of open source tools designed to tackle the passive accessibility problem of web contents. This article presents the goals and aims of SWAP through its main components: the proxy, the server and the annotation tool. The annotation tool is built using the proxy of SWAP. We explain how such design allows the annotation tool to be maintainable, independent of the browser and very flexible compared to other design.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Annotation Tool; Proxy; Smart Web Accessibility Platform; Web Page Transformation
Iberoamerican Observatory of Web Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 101-108
  Carlos Benavidez; Claudia Cardoso; Jorge Fernandes; Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo; Henry Gutiérrez; Loïc Martínez-Normand
The web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) were first published 15 years ago. Since then, there has been a lot of progress in web accessibility, but much work is still needed to reach good levels of accessibility. It is therefore important to measure the degree of accessibility of current websites and the rate of improvement. There have been several studies on the implementation of web accessibility in Europe and the world, but such studies are unstable, with a methodology and sample that changes from year to year. The Iberoamerican Observatory presented in this paper aims to correct this situation, coordinating the work of the observatories of the different participating countries, so that all use the same methodology and a consistent sampling and data structure. Thus, results can be compared within the same country and with the other countries of the region.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Review; Benchmarking; Monitoring
Checking Web Accessibility with the Content Accessibility Checker (CAC) BIBAKFull-Text 109-112
  Eduard Klein; Anton Bolfing; Markus Riesch
The internet has become an indispensable tool for the access of in-formation. However, most websites are not sufficiently accessible for people with disabilities. Accessibility problems originate from either the underlying CMS systems or from content authors disregarding fundamental accessibility requirements. With the Content Accessibility Checker CAC we give a tool at hand to specifically red-flag possible accessibility issues to authors. The checking criteria form a subset of the WCAG 2.0 standard and are published as a checklist for authors and publishers. CAC is available as a browser plugin and is published as open source on github. It is based on JavaScript and can be ex-tended with specific checking rules. In checking mode it detects accessibility is-sues on a website, highlights it with an overlay in the web browser and gives hints and recommendations on improving web accessibility.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; E-Inclusion; Design for All
AdaptNow -- A Revamped Look for the Web: An Online Web Enhancement Tool for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 113-120
  Roberto Dias; Sergi Bermúdez i Badia
Elderly population will become the largest age group of our society in the next twenty years. Consequently, we need to be able to accommodate technologies to the needs of this population. AdaptNow is a web-based application that allows users to adapt existing webpages and turn them more accessible and user friendly. Users can do so directly from any web browser thanks to AdaptNow's user personalization and automatic adaptation artificial intelligence algorithms. In this paper we present the design and implementation of AdaptNow, a solution that improves navigation on the web for elderly users.
Keywords: Web Enhancements; Elderly Users; Accessibility; Human Computer Interaction
Accessibility of E-Commerce Websites for Vision-Impaired Persons BIBAKFull-Text 121-128
  Roopa Bose; Helmut Jürgensen
We report the results of a detailed analysis of the problems encountered by blind or vision-impaired persons when accessing web sites which use technologies like, for example, flash animation, JavaScript, HTML 5. We also examine typical accessibility problems found in e-commerce websites, especially in on-line shopping. We check our findings against the WCAG 2.0 accessibility guidelines and provide detailed recommendations for changes or additions to these guidelines.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; WCAG; Screen Readers; E-Commerce Website Accessibility
jCAPTCHA: Accessible Human Validation BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Matthew Davidson; Karen Renaud; Shujun Li
CAPTCHAs are a widely deployed mechanism for ensuring that a web site user is a human, and not a software agent. They ought to be relatively easy for a human to solve, but hard for software to interpret. Most CAPTCHAs are visual, and this marginalises users with visual impairments. A variety of audible CAPTCHAs have been trialled but these have not been very successful, largely because they are easily interpreted by automated tools and, at the same time, tend to be too challenging for the very humans they are supposed to verify. In this paper an alternative audio CAPTCHA, jCAPTCHA (Jumbled Words CAPTCHA), is presented. We report on the evaluation of jCAPTCHA by 272 human users, of whom 169 used screen readers, both in terms of usability and resistance to software interpretation.
Benefits and Challenges of Combining Automated and User Testing to Enhance e-Accessibility -- The European Internet Inclusion Initiative BIBAFull-Text 137-140
  Mikael Snaprud; Kamyar Rasta; Kim Andreasson; Annika Nietzio
The European Internet Inclusion Initiative (EIII) presents a new approach by combining the benefits of automated and user testing in order to improve both the quality and the coverage of evaluation results. This paper provides an overview of the challenges posed by online accessibility assessment and outlines the initial steps towards the combination of automated and user testing in the form of crowd sourcing.
Accessibility of MOOCs BIBAKFull-Text 141-144
  Marco Bohnsack; Steffen Puhl
The paper gives a short overview on the topic of Massive Open Online Courses and providers of MOOC infrastructure. Selected MOOC-platforms are reviewed for accessibility with different set-ups of common screen-reading software and browsers. No platform was fully accessible, most lacked correct language markers and an accessible design. The results show that accessibility was not in focus when the platforms where built, thus excluding impaired people and not fulfilling the claim that MOOCs are open to everyone.
Keywords: Accessibility; MOOCs
A First Look into MOOCs Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 145-152
  Najd A. Al-Mouh; Atheer S. Al-Khalifa; Hend S. Al-Khalifa
Since the inception of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), millions of people have benefitted from their provided content. Yet, the question we need to ask is: how accessible are MOOCs especially to the Visually Impaired People (VIP)? In this paper we look thoroughly into the accessibility problems VIP face while using one of the well-know MOOCs environments (Coursera.org) and provide some recommendations to improve its accessibility.
Keywords: Accessibility; WCAG; MOOCs; e-Learning; Screen readers; Blinds
How to Increase Contrast Using Color Inversion BIBAKFull-Text 153-156
  Josef Köble
This paper discusses why the inverted foreground and background colors should also be considered when calculating contrast with regard to accessibility. It is even possible to achieve an enhanced contrast for a pair of inverted colors while the pair of non-inverted colors meets the minimum contrast according to the WCAG 2.0. Implementing this benefit would support users with low vision, especially those who need high contrast.
Keywords: Luminance contrast; High contrast; Color inversion; Inverted Color

Towards e-inclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities

Easy to Surf -- What Makes Websites Accessible to People with Intellectual and Learning Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 157-160
  Gabriela Antener; Anton Bolfing; Stefania Calabrese
Special needs of intellectually and mentally challenged people are generally not considered in ICT, not even in exemplary accessible websites. In this paper we reveal our scientific approach on how to develop guidelines closing this gap. We describe the process of extracting relevant and easy-to-understand directives from scientific literature addressing different aspects of user interfaces and different cognitive abilities. Considerations on how to further develop and improve these beta guidelines and on how to implement the gained insights in the World Wide Web are discussed.
Keywords: Intellectual Disability; Learning Disability; Guidelines; Projects; Development; E-Inclusion; Evaluation; Accessible Websites; Need for Development and Research
"Easy-to-Read on the Web": State of the Art and Needed Research BIBAKFull-Text 161-168
  Klaus Miesenberger; Andrea Petz
In this paper, we present results from work done within the project WAI-Act and an online-symposium [1] initiated and put in place by the W3C/WAI RDWG (Research and Development Working Group) aiming at raising awareness and collecting / de-riving concise and up-to-date recommendations, guidelines, standards and tools for enhancing the web experience for users with cognitive disabilities and other groups facing problems with "standard" information on the Web and its applications.
Keywords: Easy to Read; Web; Cognitive Disability; SPLD; Inclusion
Testing the Perceived Ease of Use in Social Media BIBAKFull-Text 169-176
  Julia George; Nils Dietzsch; Michael Bier; Hannes Zirpel; Alexander Perl; Susanne Robra-Bissantz
In the last few years, social media spread around the globe. Being a substantial and integral part in today's everyday life of many people, especially online social networks (OSNs) changed communication behavior fundamentally. Unfortunately, not everybody is integrated in this "new everyday life" yet. In our research, we focus on this important issue of e-inclusion and participation of people with intellectual disabilities in social media. In the context of this paper, we will present a methodology on how to evaluate the perceived ease of use of social media applications by people with intellectual disability. Moreover, we will pre-validate this methodology by applying it in a test setting with a customized barrier-free OSN, developed in our research group. This is the first step for developing a target group specific acceptance model, based on the technology acceptance model.
Keywords: Acceptance Testing; Online Social Networks; Experiment; Triangulation
People with Learning Disabilities Using the iPad as a Communication Tool -- Conditions and Impact with Regard to e-inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 177-180
  Cordula Edler; Matthias Rath
This paper presents results of an interdisciplinary pre-study that involved people with and without learning disabilities using iPads as a communication tool in their everyday life for self-confidence and empowerment. Main results highlight the accessibility challenges still prevalent: not usability leading to a lack of acceptance; but poor level of awareness of the relevance of media-literate action for the target group; insufficient coaching / personal support; insufficient technical accessibility and assistance.
Keywords: Cognitive Disabilities; Empowerment; Usability; Accessibility

The Impact of PDF/UA on Accessible PDF

Implementing PDF/UA in Microsoft Word -- How Can PDF/UA Become an Everyday Part of Document Authoring? BIBAKFull-Text 181-184
  Roberto Bianchetti; Samuel Hofer; Markus Erle
The ISO-standard PDF/UA-1 with its clearly-defined requirements promises a new era of accessible document creation. But users of word processing software are often overwhelmed when they try to understand how to fulfill the requirements. This leads to our focus in this paper: how can every document author using Microsoft Word be able to create a PDF/UA compliant PDF document without deep knowledge of PDF accessibility or time-consuming quality assurance and remediation? We present a workflow model which enables in combination with a special Word-Add-In the easy creation of accessible PDF documents without special training.
Keywords: PDF; Accessibility; PDF/UA; Document; Template; Workflow; Microsoft Word
PAVE: A Web Application to Identify and Correct Accessibility Problems in PDF Documents BIBAKFull-Text 185-192
  Luchin Doblies; David Stolz; Alireza Darvishy; Hans-Peter Hutter
This paper describes the implementation of the PDF Accessibility Validation Engine (PAVE). PAVE is a web based application for identifying and correcting accessibility issues in PDF documents. The accessibility analysis is based on the PDF/UA standard.
   We previously introduced the idea of such a system in [1]. The entire application runs on a web server, allowing users to both analyze a PDF document in regard to accessibility issues and then to directly fix these issues within the browser, thus relieving them from installing software. A simple and intuitive user interface allows both experts as well as users with only little previous knowledge of PDF accessibility to work with PAVE.
Keywords: Accessibility; Document Accessibility; Visual Impairment; Tagged PDF; PDF/UA; Web Content Accessibility Guidelines; Screen Readers
Correcting "Last Mile" Errors -- Quality Assurance of PDF/UA Documents without Being a Developer BIBAKFull-Text 193-196
  Roberto Bianchetti; Samuel Hofer; Markus Erle
With the ISO-standard PDF/UA-1 and the free PDF accessibility checker (PAC) 2 it is possible to validate PDF documents for accessibility very easily based on clearly defined requirements. But users who evaluate their documents are often faced with hard to correct errors because the mainstream authoring programs do not fully support PDF/UA yet. Remediation is tedious and time-consuming and sometimes even impossible with available tools. Therefore we worked out the main "last mile" errors and developed a special tool for "quickfixing" these errors -- even for document authors without PDF accessibility knowledge on expert level. In this paper we present this approach and the tool.
Keywords: Accessibility; Evaluation; PDF; PDF/UA; Remediation
PDF Accessibility Checker (PAC 2): The First Tool to Test PDF Documents for PDF/UA Compliance BIBAKFull-Text 197-201
  Andreas Uebelbacher; Roberto Bianchetti; Markus Riesch
In 2012, the new standard PDF/UA (ISO 14289-1) was published, specifying the requirements for accessible PDF documents. The Matterhorn Protocol by the PDF Association details the list of 136 test conditions that need to be fulfilled, but so far, there was no test tool to check a given PDF document against these requirements. This paper presents the PDF Accessibility Checker 2.0 (PAC 2), which is the first tool that allows for an automatic test of those 108 test conditions which can be tested fully automatically. The tool provides a detailed report of a document analysis, and various features such as visual inspection of standard violations, supporting further improvement of the PDF document. As the PAC 2 is free of charge and can be used without technical knowledge, the tool promotes PDF accessibility among a wider user group and has the potential to increase compliance of PDF documents with the respective accessibility standard.
Keywords: Accessible PDF; PDF/UA; ISO 14289-1; PDF Analysis
A Strategic Approach to Document Accessibility: Integrating PDF/UA into Your Electronic Content BIBAKFull-Text 202-204
  Adam Spencer; Karen McCall
Many countries, provinces and states have legislation mandating the accessibility of documents and formatted content. There are now existing and emerging standards for specific content formats such as PDF. The question remains as to why there are so many recently produced inaccessible documents if we have tools, legislation and standards clearly mandating accessible documents.
Keywords: PDF/UA; AODA; Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act; Information Communication Technology; ICT; Procurement; Training; Standard; Organizational Policy

Accessibility of Non-verbal Communication

Multimodal Fusion and Fission within W3C Standards for Nonverbal Communication with Blind Persons BIBAFull-Text 209-213
  Dirk Schnelle-Walka; Stefan Radomski; Max Mühlhäuser
Multimodal fusion and multimodal fission are well known concepts for multimodal systems but have not been well integrated in current architectures to support collaboration of blind and sighted people. In this paper we describe our initial thoughts of multimodal dialog modeling in multiuser dialog settings employing multiple modalities based on W3C standards like the Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces.
A Mind Map for Brainstorming Sessions with Blind and Sighted Persons BIBAKFull-Text 214-219
  Dirk Schnelle-Walka; Ali Alavi; Patrick Ostie; Max Mühlhäuser; Andreas Kunz
Accessible mind maps tools are, due to their visual nature hardly available and, if available, they focus on rendering the structure, not considering nonverbal communication elements in ongoing discussions. In this paper, we describe the need for this type of communication as well as a mind map tool that is capable of processing the respective information, coming from a Leap tracking system attached to the interactive surface.
Keywords: Accessibility; Non-verbal Communication Clements; Computer Supported Collaborative Work; MindMap
Presenting Non-verbal Communication to Blind Users in Brainstorming Sessions BIBAKFull-Text 220-225
  Stephan Pölzer; Klaus Miesenberger
In co-located meetings, which are part of our professional and educational lives, information exchange relies not only on information exchange using artifacts like bubbles in mind-maps or equations presented on electronic whiteboards in classrooms, but also to a large extent on non-verbal communication. In the past much effort was done to make the artifact level accessible but also non-verbal communication heavily relies on the visual channel to which blind people do not have access. Thereby co-located meetings are seen as first domain to research accessibility of non-verbal communication, which are well defined and should lead to more general research on access to non-verbal communication. We present a first prototypical system which allows experimenting with access to non-verbal communication elements by blind people using both the input from a "human" transcriber or automatic tracking and recognition of non-verbal communication cues.
Keywords: Co-located meetings; Non-verbal Communication; Blind User
Towards an Information State Update Model Approach for Nonverbal Communication BIBAFull-Text 226-230
  Dirk Schnelle-Walka; Stefan Radomski; Stephan Radeck-Arneth; Max Mühlhäuser
The Information State Update (ISU) Model describes an approach to dialog management that was predominantly applied to single user scenarios using voice as the only modality. Extensions to multimodal interaction with multiple users are rarely considered and, if presented, hard to operationalize. In this paper we describe our approach of dialog modeling based on ISU in multiuser dialog settings employing multiple modalities, including nonverbal communication.
Virtual Braille-Keyboard in Co-located Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 231-236
  Emre Zaim; Markus Gruber; Gottfried Gaisbauer; Peter Heumader; Stephan Pölzer; Klaus Miesenberger
Our daily live is no longer imaginable without touch devices. Besides standard touch devices as mobile phones and tablets also touch-tables have the chance to find their way into our daily lives. Co-located meetings can be seen as a good application area for touch-tables. They can present the artifact information layer to the whole group. On touch surfaces virtual keyboards are used by sighted people for text input and text manipulations. For blind people, such keyboards are only accessible with a decreased working speed. In co-located meetings, manipulation of artifacts (for instance bubbles of mind-maps) is very dynamic. Therefore, a decreased working speed to generate and manipulate textual inputs makes an equal participation of blind people in co-located meetings impossible. The ongoing work is concerned with the development of a virtual Braille-keyboard to allow a better integration of blind users into co-located meetings.
Keywords: Braille-keyboard; Blind user; Co-located Meetings; Touch devices
Accessibility of Brainstorming Sessions for Blind People BIBAKFull-Text 237-244
  Andreas Kunz; Klaus Miesenberger; Max Mühlhäuser; Ali Alavi; Stephan Pölzer; Daniel Pöll; Peter Heumader; Dirk Schnelle-Walka
Today, research focuses on the accessibility of explicit information for blind users. This gives only partly access to the information flow in brain-storming sessions, since non-verbal communication is not supported. Advances in ICT however allow capturing implicit information like hand gestures as important part of non-verbal communication. Thus, we describe a system that al-lows integrating blind people into a brainstorming session using a mind map.
Keywords: Accessibility; Mind map; Non-verbal Communication Elements

Emotions for Accessibility (E4A)

Detection and Utilization of Emotional State for Disabled Users BIBAKFull-Text 248-255
  Yehya Mohamad; Dirk T. Hettich; Elaina Bolinger; Niels Birbaumer; Wolfgang Rosenstiel; Martin Bogdan; Tamara Matuz
In this paper, we present an experimental approach to design systems sensitive to emotion. We describe a system for the detection of emotional states based on physiological signals and an application use case utilizing the detected emotional state. The application is an emotion management system to be used for the support in the improvement of life conditions of users suffering from cerebral palsy (CP). The system presented here combines effectively biofeedback sensors and a set of software algorithms to detect the current emotional state of the user and to react to them appropriately.
Keywords: Affective Computing; Machine Learning Algorithm; Disabled Person; Context; Emotion; Emotion Management; User Interface; E-Learning; Web-Based
Influence of Emotions on Web Usability for Users with Motor Disorders BIBAKFull-Text 256-259
  José Laparra-Hernández; Juan-Manuel Belda-Lois; Álvaro Page; Alberto Ferreras Remesal
Emotions are related with many key cognitive processes during human computer interaction (HCI). The aim of this study was to validate usability recommendations depending on user profile, to check the effect of the emotional state on HCI and to compare physiological response analysis and questionnaires. 10 control users and 10 users with upper limb disorders were involved. An orthogonal design with seven usability parameters were used to generate 16 websites with different styles but with the same content. Galvanic skin response and facial electromyography on the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscles were used to assess emotional response, which are related to arousal and valence respectively; and user opinion was collected using a questionnaire. The results showed significant correlations between questionnaires and physiological signals, which are more sensitive to web parameters effect; and most of usability recommendations improve usability but only have a significant influence on users with motor disorders.
Keywords: Usability; Emotions; Physiological Response; User with Motor Disorders; Websites
User Participation in the Design of an Alternative Communication System for Children with Diskinetic Cerebral Palsy Including Emotion Management BIBAFull-Text 260-263
  Juan-Manuel Belda-Lois; Amparo López-Vicente; José Laparra-Herrero; Rakel Poveda-Puente; Alberto Ferreras-Remesal
People with Diskinetic Cerebral Palsy (DCPs) has speech disorders limiting physical and social activity. Alternative Communication is an alternative to improve capacity. However, participation of DCPs in the development process of DCPs is very uncommon. In this contribution, new methodologies to improve participation of DCPs in a new communicator using physiological signals for interaction is described.

Games and Entertainment Software: Accessibility and Therapy

Digital Video Games for Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment BIBAKFull-Text 264-271
  Arlene Astell; Norman Alm; Richard Dye; Gary Gowans; Philip Vaughan; Maggie Ellis
Digital video games offer opportunities for older adults with cognitive impairment to engage in meaningful activities. However, to achieve this benefit digital video games are needed that take account of the players' cognitive impairment. This paper reports work with older adults with cognitive impairment due to dementia to find out how they can best be prompted to initiate and play games independently, what sorts of digital video activities they like to play, and if playing digital video games is engaging. The results demonstrate that older adults with cognitive impairment can learn to play new digital video activities and can be prompted to play independently through visual and auditory cues. Their behaviour indicates features of Flow similar to that reported in other gaming studies.
Keywords: Dementia; Games; Engagement; Enjoyment
"Gardener" Serious Game for Stroke Patients BIBAKFull-Text 272-275
  Ágnes Nyéki; Veronika Szucs; Péter Csuti; Ferenc Szabó; Cecilia Sik Lanyi
This study introduces a serious game, "Gardener", which is one of the games planned within the "StrokeBack" project. The aim of this game is to support the rehabilitation process of stroke patients with upper limb impairments and damaged psychomotor abilities.
Keywords: serious game; stroke patients; rehabilitation
Towards an Interactive Leisure Activity for People with PIMD BIBAKFull-Text 276-282
  Robby van Delden; Dennis Reidsma; Wietske van Oorsouw; Ronald Poppe; Peter van der Vos; Andries Lohmeijer; Petri Embregts; Vanessa Evers; Dirk Heylen
We address the possibilities of truly interactive systems for people with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD). These are intended to improve alertness, movement and mood. We are working on an interactive ball that follows body movement and an interactive floor mat for this target group. We explain the key features in the design that are essential for the possible success.
Keywords: Snoezelen; Interactive Therapy; Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities; PIMD; Interactive Ball; Interactive Floor Mat
Blind Bowling Support System Which Detects a Number of Remaining Pins and a Ball Trajectory BIBAKFull-Text 283-288
  Makoto Kobayashi
Blind bowling is known as one of the popular sports for the visually impaired people. They can enjoy the bowling with sighted assistant who tells them a number of remaining pins, a ball trajectory, and scores. Bowling is such a well-adapted sports for the visually impaired people, nevertheless they want to acquire all of the information by themselves without support by the assistant. To fill this need, a prototype system was developed as a first step. The system detects the remaining pins and ball trajectory in the area of arrow marks using simple image processing. Severe visually impaired player tested the function of remaining pins and the results proved that the system works well and it is useful and helpful for them. Addition to it, unexpected advantage was discovered. With the prototype system, bowling game became more enjoyable for the blind player since they can also acquire information of remaining pins of other players.
Keywords: Blind Bowling; Remaining Pins; Trajectory; Image Processing
Interacting Game and Haptic System Based on Point-Based Approach for Assisting Patients after Stroke BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Mario Covarrubias; Alessandro Mansutti; Monica Bordegoni; Umberto Cugini
This paper describes a system that combines haptic, virtual reality and game technologies in order to assist repetitive performances of manual tasks to patients, which are recovering from neurological motor deficits. These users are able to feel virtual objects by using a haptic device, which acts as a virtual guide taking advantages of its force feedback capabilities. A virtual environment is used forming a haptic interface between the patient and the game. The haptic device is driven under the users movements and assisted through the Magnetic Geometry Effect (MGE). Preliminary evaluation has been performed in order to validate the system in which two different tasks have been performed (throw down bricks in an hexagonal tower without and with haptic assistance) with the aim to obtain more information related to the accuracy of the device.
Keywords: Haptic interface; Virtual Reality; Post-stroke Rehabilitation; Gaming
Exploring the Usage of 3D Virtual Worlds and Kinect Interaction in Exergames with Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 297-300
  Hugo Paredes; Fernando Cassola; Leonel Morgado; Fausto de Carvalho; Silvia Ala; Francisco Cardoso; Benjamim Fonseca; Paulo Martins
The combination of the potentialities of the interactive technologies, like exergames and the emerging motion capture devices with the ability of 3D virtual worlds for socialisation and context, can produce a platform to promote the physical activity of its users, which leverages its potential. The OnlineGym is an exploratory project based on an online 3D virtual worlds platform that allows users to interact with the system through the use of a motion capture device. This paper discusses the chosen technological approaches and the preliminary results of the experiments performed with users.
Keywords: Active Ageing; Virtual Worlds; Physical Activity; OnlineGym
Games for Wireless Cubes in Cognitive Enhancement Therapy BIBAKFull-Text 301-308
  Krzysztof Dobosz; Magdalena Dobosz; Tomasz Depta; Tomasz Fiolka; Marcin Wojaczek
Sifteo Cubes is an interactive tactile entertainment solution with own unique control interface gestures. The aim of the study was the use of games for wireless cubes in the rehabilitation of people with cognitive impairment staying in the neurology department of the hospital. Most of the exercises provided by physiotherapists can be classified into specific groups of tasks using the same way to resolve. During the analysis of sets of exercises, the following main categories of tasks are proposed: anagrams, memory games, and reflex games. As a part of a pilot program of introduction wireless cubes to the rehabilitation of people with brain injuries, three sample games, one from each category were developed.
Keywords: Wireless Cubes; Rehabilitation; Cognitive Impairment
Mobile Gamebook for Visually Impaired People BIBAKFull-Text 309-312
  Krzysztof Dobosz; Jakub Ptak; Marcin Wojaczek; Tomasz Depta; Tomasz Fiolka
The goal of the project was to create a mobile game application for Android OS platform that follows the rules of playing a gamebook. Developed application interacts with user using touch and speech interface, which is crucial in case of blind users. The paragraphs and general game data should be stored in external XML document. Game implementation introduced a form of entertainment for users with vision disabilities and established a speech and tactile interface implementation, which could be also used in implementation of other games, which target blind players.
Keywords: Gamebook; Blind People; Mobile Devices; XML

Implementation and Take-up of eAccessibility

Accessibility and Inclusion Requirements for Future e-Identity Solutions BIBAKFull-Text 316-323
  Trenton Schulz; Lothar Fritsch
Future e-identity services will need to be accessible for people with different types of abilities. We review current sets of accessibility guidelines and standards, current assistive technology, and current e-identity technology to determine accessibility and inclusion requirements for a future e-identity solution. For our project, we found that the area we could influence the most was the development of user interface for the client for e-identity and focused on these areas with the assumption that users would have access to inclusive cards and card readers. The requirements are divided into content and presentation, control and operation, legal requirements, testing, and help and support. We also provide possible areas for future research.
Keywords: Accessibility; e-Identity; Smart Cards
Roadmap to eAccessibility BIBAKFull-Text 324-331
  Andrea Petz; Klaus Miesenberger
Within three main topical areas, the eAccess+ network identified and consulted relevant stakeholder groups, analyzed and discussed the state of the art in eAccessibility, supported stakeholders in working on key issues to foster eAccessibility and disseminated experiences and knowledge all over Europe. Finally, all findings were connected and combined within a roadmap document to find appropriate future actions to support eAccessibility and its uptake.
Keywords: eAccessibility; Accessibility; Roadmap; Web Accessibility; Digital TV; iDTV; Total Conversation; Self-Service-Terminals; Accessible Documents; Accessible Tourism; Education on (e)Accessibility
Web Accessibility for Older Readers: Effects of Font Type and Font Size on Skim Reading Webpages in Thai BIBAKFull-Text 332-339
  Sorachai Kamollimsakul; Helen Petrie; Christopher Power
Most guidelines for making websites accessible for older people have been developed for the Latin alphabet. Currently, there are no web design guidelines for the Thai language or for Thai older people. Our research investigated the effect of font type and size in Thai on skim reading for Thai younger (21-39 years) and older (59-72 years) adults. There were two levels of font types (Conservative and Modern, which correlate to serif and sans serif types, respectively) and three levels of font sizes (12, 14, 16 point). There was a significant effect of font type on reading time per web page, but not for font size or age group. There was also a significant main effect of font type and font size on reader preferences, but no effect of age group. These findings form the basis of recommendations for evidence-based web design guidelines for the Thai language.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Older Adults; Web Design Guidelines; Font Type; Font Size; Thai Language
Self-Service Terminals for Older and Disabled Users: Attitudes of Key Stakeholders BIBAKFull-Text 340-347
  Helen Petrie; Jenny S. Darzentas; Christopher Power
Self-service terminals (SSTs) are becoming an increasing important part of the service landscape for both the public and private sector. There is very little information regarding the current state of accessibility practice in this area. This paper presents the results of interviews with 22 stakeholders in the supply and deployment communities for SSTs regarding their knowledge of accessibility issues. The analysis of these interviews helps explain the current poor state of accessibility of SSTs. In addition, we analysed academic literature on self-service technology, particularly from the management and marketing disciplines, to understand their perspectives and see how these could inform the accessibility debate. Finally, building on these analyses, we make recommendations for the ways forward to improve SST accessibility and that of self-service in general and provide an initial information resource to help improve current practice.
Keywords: Self-Service Terminals (SSTs); Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs); Older People; People with Disabilities
Speaking the Language of Web Developers: Evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR) BIBAKFull-Text 348-355
  David Swallow; Christopher Power; Helen Petrie; Anna Bramwell-Dicks; Lucy Buykx; Carlos A. Velasco; Aidan Parr; Joshue O Connor
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a new accessibility information resource, the Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR), for assisting web developers in the creation of accessible websites and applications. Evaluations were conducted with 26 web developers in which they had opportunity to use both WebAIR and an existing accessibility information resource, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, to perform accessibility testing on their own websites. The results indicate that a number of design decisions relating to the language, organisation and comprehensiveness of WebAIR have been successful in improving access to web accessibility information that supports web developers' practices.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Web Developers; Web Accessibility Guidelines; Web Accessibility Information Resources

Accessibility and Usability of Mobile Platforms for People with Disabilities and Elderly Persons

A Multimodal Tablet-Based Application for the Visually Impaired for Detecting and Recognizing Objects in a Home Environment BIBAKFull-Text 356-359
  Rabia Jafri; Syed Abid Ali
Object recognition solutions for the visually impaired based on a single modality cannot provide optimal performance under all circumstances, since each modality is best suited for particular usage scenarios. An object recognition application for the visually impaired, meant for a RFID-enabled tablet, which combines three approaches -- RFID-based, visual-tag computer vision based and non-visual tag computer vision based -- into a single piece of software is, therefore, presented in this paper. This solution has the benefits of being portable, accessible, low cost (the user needs only an RFID-enabled tablet, some inexpensive passive RFID tags and some visual tags (which can be printed out for free)) and more robust in a wider range of conditions than the approaches it is comprised of. The application will be adapted to other mobile platforms and devices (e.g., RFID-enabled smartphones) in the future.
Keywords: Object Recognition; Computer Vision; Blind; Visually Impaired; Mobile Application; Assistive Technologies; RFID; Visual Tags; Multi-Modal Recognition
Usage Situation Changes of Touchscreen Computers in Japanese Visually Impaired People: Questionnaire Surveys in 2011-2013 BIBAKFull-Text 360-368
  Takahiro Miura; Masatsugu Sakajiri; Haruo Matsuzaka; Murtada Eljailani; Kazuki Kudo; Naoya Kitamura; Junji Onishi; Tsukasa Ono
This paper demonstrates the usage of touchscreen interfaces in the Japanese visually impaired population by means questionnaire surveys conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013. In 2011 and 2013, we carried out usage situations of touchscreens and the reasons why some of them did not use it. The surveys in 2012 and 2013 comprised the questionnaire items regarding specific manipulation situations of touchscreens. Some of the results indicate that an increasing number of visually impaired people used and required to use touchscreen computers; some of them did not want to use it because they were satisfied with conventional cell phones, and because they are waiting for the device which can feedback tactually; the users of touchscreen computers with total and partial visual impairments mainly uses double-tapping after tracing for selecting buttons and objects; The proper uses and manipulations of smartphones and tablet computers mainly depends on the application usability and the screen size, respectively.
Keywords: visually impaired people; touchscreen computers; usage conditions
Accessible Single Button Characteristics of Touchscreen Interfaces under Screen Readers in People with Visual Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 369-376
  Takahiro Miura; Masatsugu Sakajiri; Murtada Eljailani; Haruo Matsuzaka; Junji Onishi; Tsukasa Ono
Regardless of the improvement of accessibility functions, people with visual impairments have problems using touchscreen computers. Though the size of accessible objects may differ for visually impaired users because of the manipulations under screen readers are different from those without screen readers, the characteristics of desired objects and useful gestures on the touchscreen computers for the visually impaired remain unclear. In this paper, our objective is to clarify the accessible single button characteristics and preferable gestures for visually impaired users of touchscreen computers. We studied these characteristics by evaluating the single button interaction of touchscreen interfaces for visually impaired people under a screen reader condition. As a result, the performance of task completion time on selecting task with a single button decreased as the button size became larger; they were ranked in descending order of double-tapping after flicking, double-tapping after tracing, and split-tapping after tracing.
Keywords: Visually Impaired People; Touchscreen Computers; Manipulation under Screen Reader Condition; Accessible Button
Tablet-Based Braille Entry via a Framework Promoting Custom Finger Spacing BIBAKFull-Text 377-382
  Stephanie Ludi; Michael Timbrook; Piper Chester
This paper outlines the development of the AccessBraille framework, an iOS framework designed to provide a Braille keyboard to an iOS application. The proof-of-concept app developed with this framework is presented as an example of how the framework can be utilized, demonstrating its use across multiple contexts where Braille entry is used. The AccessBraille keyboard framework provides a natural way for blind users to enter US Type 1 or Type 2 Braille text into an app. The keyboard allows for users to customize finger placement for comfort and hand size. User feedback was solicited through observation on the task of entering Braille using the framework at various stages of development. In addition, feedback was gathered for the deployed app itself. The feedback will provide input into the prioritization of revisions and new features.
Keywords: Braille; Framework; Tablet; Visually Impaired
Nonvisual Presentation, Navigation and Manipulation of Structured Documents on Mobile and Wearable Devices BIBAKFull-Text 383-390
  Martin Lukas Dorigo; Bettina Harriehausen-Mühlbauer; Ingo Stengel; Paul Dowland
There are a large number of highly structured documents, for example: newspaper articles, scientific, mathematical or technical literature. As a result of inductive research with 200 blind and visually impaired participants, a multi-modal user interface for non-visual presentation, navigation and manipulation of structured documents on mobile and wearable devices like smart phones, smart watches or smart tablets has been developed. It enables the user to get a fast overview over the document structure and to efficiently skim and scan over the document content by identifying the type, level, position, length, relationship and content text of each element as well as to focus, select, activate, move, remove and insert structure elements or text. These interactions are presented in a non-visual way using earcons, tactons and speech synthesis, serving the aural and tactile human sense. Navigation and manipulation is provided by using the multitouch, motion (linear acceleration and rotation) or speech recognition input modality. It is a complete solution for reading, creating and editing structured documents in a non-visual way. There is no special hardware required. For the development, testing and evaluation of the user interface, a flexible platform independent software architecture has been developed and implemented for iOS and Android. The evaluation of the user interface has been undertaken by a structured observation of 160 blind and visually impaired participants using an implemented software (App) over the Internet.
Keywords: Assistive Technology; User Interface; Multi-Modal; Nonvisual; Presentation; Navigation; Manipulation; Earcons; Tactons; Multitouch; Gestures; Motion; Mobile Devices; Smart Phone; Smart Watch; Smart Tablet; Wearable Devices; Document; Structure; Mathematics; Accessibility; Blind; Visual Impairment
Never too Old to Use a Tablet: Designing Tablet Applications for the Cognitively and Physically Impaired Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 391-398
  Luuk Muskens; Rico van Lent; Alexander Vijfvinkel; Paul van Cann; Suleman Shahid
People live longer than ever before and the population of elderly is increasing. Many elderly visit day care centres in order to avoid loneliness and continuously look for new methods of entertainment. A possible new mean of entertainment can be found in the use of tablet applications. However, due to the physical and/or cognitive impairments of these elderly, most tablet applications are not accessible. This research tries to design an elderly-friendly entertainment application. Several design guidelines were determined via a literature review and a contextual inquiry for the design of three prototypes. These prototypes successfully eliminated problems concerning button size, navigation, readability of the fonts and swiping. Furthermore, results indicated that the elderly had a strong preference for the design which had a low number of icons, a more direct way of giving information, no deep hierarchy, larger buttons with immediate feedback when pressed, a clear notification that the screens had changed and the screens which used bright colours were more effective.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Design Principles; Cognitively and Physically Impaired Elderly; User Interface Design
Tablets in the Rehabilitation of Memory Impairment BIBAKFull-Text 399-402
  Krzysztof Dobosz; Magdalena Dobosz; Tomasz Fiolka; Marcin Wojaczek; Tomasz Depta
The aim of this study was the analysis of existing sets of rehabilitation exercises for possible adapting them to mobile devices (tablets). We analyzed more than 300 different memory tasks presented on the pages of workbooks. Numerous tasks were classified to different categories because of the type of content and cognitive functions trained. For each type there was assigned a certain number of specific tasks. In each type the feasibility of adaptation for tablets (full, partial, impossible) and complexity of interaction (entering characters, indication, drag&drop) were evaluated. That is a big help for many older people (most of the patients in the Rehabilitation Center), because they have problems entering text with the virtual keyboard displayed on the screen.
Keywords: Mobile Devices; Memory Impairment; Rehabilitation

Portable and Mobile Platforms for People with Disabilities and Elderly Persons

Transit Information Access for Persons with Visual or Cognitive Impairments BIBAFull-Text 403-410
  German Flores; Benjamin Cizdziel; Roberto Manduchi; Katia Obraczka; Julie Do; Tyler Esser; Sri Kurniawan
We are developing a location-based information delivery system to facilitate efficient and safe use of public transportation by people who have visual or cognitive impairments. This system comprises Wi-Fi beacons (access points) that are placed at bus stations and inside bus vehicles. Users of this system receive information on their cell phone, without the need for GPS or for Internet connectivity. The system allows one to receive information about an upcoming bus at a bus stop and to select a specific bus line. Once the desired bus arrives, the system automatically connects to the access point on the bus vehicle and remains connected while the user is riding the bus. The user can specify a desired bus stop, and the system informs the user (by a speech message) with enough advance notice when the bus is approaching the stop.
Indoor Navigation System for the Visually Impaired Using One Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Barometer to Guide in the Subway Stations and Commercial Centers BIBAKFull-Text 411-418
  Jesus Zegarra Flores; René Farcy
The main research about indoor navigation is about the use of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or Ultra Wide band technology for locating one person in a building. These systems give an absolute position of the person; however, it is mandatory to put the hotspots of every technology in the building for calculating this position. An Inertial Measurement Unit is usually placed on the foot because, it is easier to compute the distance. The aim of this work is to use inexpensive sensors which come in a Smart Phone, which are handheld, or belt mounted for guiding one visually impaired in two main tests: the subway station and the commercial center. We are not intending neither to put any hotspot or landmarks on the place nor to use the IMU on the foot for ergonomic reasons. The results and performances are better in the subway stations than in the commercial centers.
Keywords: Visually Impaired; Mobility; IMU; Subway Stations; Commercial Centers
Communication System for Persons with Cerebral Palsy BIBAKFull-Text 419-426
  Yohan Guerrier; Janick Naveteur; Christophe Kolski; Franck Poirier
People with disabilities may encounter many communication difficulties. Our main goal is to develop a communication system, called COMMOB, designed to assist people with cerebral palsy in different contexts: at home, at work and in public places. After a brief review of the different categories of assistive communication systems, our user-centered design approach is presented. It was tested in a public place in the context of a help request by a cerebral palsy person in a wheelchair. The result concerns particularly the response rate. The assistive power of COMMOB was rated from the respondents' and the user's point of view. The main lesson to be learned is that the most difficult was to attract the attention of people and to engage the interaction.
Keywords: Communication; mobility; cerebral palsy (CP); communication aid; COMMOB
Determining a Blind Pedestrian's Location and Orientation at Traffic Intersections BIBAKFull-Text 427-432
  Giovanni Fusco; Huiying Shen; Vidya Murali; James M. Coughlan
This paper describes recent progress on Crosswatch, a smartphone-based computer vision system developed by the authors for providing guidance to blind and visually impaired pedestrians at traffic intersections. One of Crosswatch's key capabilities is determining the user's location (with precision much better than what is obtainable by GPS) and orientation relative to the crosswalk markings in the intersection that he/she is currently standing at; this capability will be used to help him/her find important features in the intersection, such as walk lights, pushbuttons and crosswalks, and achieve proper alignment to these features. We report on two new contributions to Crosswatch: (a) experiments with a modified user interface, tested by blind volunteer participants, that makes it easier to acquire intersection images than with previous versions of Crosswatch; and (b) a demonstration of the system's ability to localize the user with precision better than what is obtainable by GPS, as well as an example of its ability to estimate the user's orientation.
Keywords: Visual Impairment; Blindness; Assistive Technology; Smartphone; Traffic Intersection
The Design and Evaluation of the Body Water Management System to Support the Independent Living of the Older Adult BIBAKFull-Text 433-436
  Airi Tsuji; Naoki Yabuno; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
Aiming for older adult's comfortable and independent outing, we are researching and developing the body water management system according to their outing schedule, their surrounding environment, and their activities like eating and drinking. In this paper, we describe our proposed system, the physiological formula for non-invasive estimation of the body water balance and the method of calculating the suggestion timing.
Keywords: Elderly People; Dehydration; Context Driven; Body Water Balance
An Investigation into Incorporating Visual Information in Audio Processing BIBAFull-Text 437-440
  Ender Tekin; James M. Coughlan; Helen J. Simon
The number of persons with hearing and vision loss is on the rise as lifespans increase. Vision plays an important role in communication, especially in the presence of background noise or for persons with hearing loss. However, persons with vision loss cannot make use of this extra modality to overcome their hearing deficits. We propose automatically utilizing some visual information in hearing aids through the addition of a small wearable camera. Our initial results show potentially significant benefits to incorporating low level robust visual cues when the background noise is high. This technique can potentially benefit all persons with hearing loss, with substantial improvements possible for the speech perception performance of persons with dual sensory loss.
Indoor Positioning for Visually Impaired People Based on Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 441-444
  Thomas Moder; Petra Hafner; Manfred Wieser
Autonomous navigation is a critical factor for visually impaired people. Outdoors, positioning based on ubiquitous signals is available, contrary indoors no ubiquitous navigation solution does exist. Because of the implementation of screen-reader software into mobile devices, visually impaired people start using smartphones. This paper focuses on the abilities of an indoor positioning purely based on sensors already present in smartphones nowadays. Therefore, algorithms specifically designed for low-cost sensors are developed. The outcome of these algorithms, which process the accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer and barometer data and a WiFi fingerprinting, is integrated within a mathematical filter to get a final position and heading information.
Keywords: Indoor Positioning; Visually Impaired People; Smar

People with Cognitive Disabilities: AT, ICT and AAC

Extended Scaffolding by Remote Collaborative Interaction to Support People with Dementia in Independent Living -- A User Study BIBAFull-Text 445-450
  Henrike Gappa; Gabriele Nordbrock; Manuela Thelen; Jaroslav Pullmann; Yehya Mohamad; Carlos A. Velasco
IT-based assistive services offer the potential to support the independent living of people with dementia provided that they accommodate their specific needs. Due to their declining cognitive functions, these users face among other issues a diminishing capacity for problem solving and attention focus. As a consequence they get easily distracted and finally lost while using assistive services. To counteract such situations it is necessary to implement scaffolding features that will assist users in navigating through all relevant sub-tasks. In our user study it was evaluated whether remote collaborative interaction -- obtained by offering family carers remote access to assistive services running in the homes of the relatives they care for -- could serve as an extended scaffolding feature. The user study has shown promising results because the vast majority of users even in later stages of dementia understood this concept and could achieve a task in collaborative interaction with their relatives.
Effective Application of PALRO: A Humanoid Type Robot for People with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 451-454
  Kaoru Inoue; Naomi Sakuma; Maiko Okada; Chihiro Sasaki; Mio Nakamura; Kazuyoshi Wada
PALRO is a humanoid type robot which can communicate with human through voice. This paper describes effective application for people with Dementia of PALRO. PALRO, a humanoid communication robot (Fujisoft Co Ltd.). It responds to users' speaking and even remembers faces of over 100 people. Our team wanted to see how seniors with dementia would react to PALRO and it's programs. We concluded that the effectiveness of PALRO is encourage people with dementia to interact with others, verbal and non-verbal interactions with others, et cetera.
Keywords: Communication Robot; Robot Therapy; Occupational Therapy; Dementia
The Feasibility and Efficacy of Technology-Based Support Groups among Family Caregivers of Persons with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 455-458
  Sara J. Czaja; Richard Schulz; Dolores Perdomo; Sankaran N. Nair
With the aging of the population the numbers of people with a chronic condition such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are expected to increase. Most people with a chronic condition, such as AD, are cared for by a family member. Although caregiving can be rewarding many caregivers experience emotional distress and physical comorbidities. In this regard, there a broad range of interventions aimed at decreasing caregiver stress. Despite the proliferation of these interventions they have only met with limited success for a variety of reasons. Information technology offers the potential of enhancing the ability of caregivers to access needed services and programs. This paper evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of technology-based psychosocial intervention for family caregivers of AD patients. Overall, the results indicated that the caregivers were enthusiastic about the program, found the technology easy to use, and indicated that the intervention enhanced their access to resources, support and caregiving skills.
Keywords: Caregiving; Technology; Dementia Patients
Making Music Meaningful with Adaptive Immediate Feedback Drill for Teaching Children with Cognitive Impairment: A Dual Coding Strategy to Aural Skills BIBAKFull-Text 459-462
  Yu Ting Huang; Chi Nung Chu
Seventeen fifth graders of elementary school in Taipei were administered a web-based AIFD learning system where they practiced aural skills in response to musical intervals, pitch identifications, and rhythms then tested on their recall of these aural skills while using adaptive immediate feedback drill as cues. The pre and post-tests resulted in a significant increase in scores from the pre-test to post-test (t (16) = 2.759, p = .014). Advanced analysis showed significant differences were observed between the pre and post-tests only for the interval recognition (t (16) = 2.634, p = .018). The result of the interviews showed that the teachers and the parents hold positive views on this AIFD learning system. They were satisfied with the progress of the students' aural skills, participation during the class, and preference on music.
Keywords: Aural Skills; Intellectual Disabilities; Adaptive Immediate Feedback Drill
Evaluating New Interaction Paradigms in SEN Teaching: Defining the Experiment BIBAKFull-Text 463-470
  Paloma Cantón; José L. Fuertes; Ángel L. González; Loïc Martínez
New devices have made their way into everyday life in recent years, opening the doors to new ways of interacting with computers, providing different, and potentially better, solutions to some problems. But this raises the question of if there is any way of measuring whether or not these new devices are suitable. This paper presents a strategy for evaluating the suitability of new interaction devices in the context of teaching children with special educational needs.
Keywords: SEN; Education; Touch; Touchless; Gesture; Assessment; User Interface; Kinect; Interaction Paradigms
How to Make Online Social Networks Accessible for Users with Intellectual Disability? BIBAKFull-Text 471-477
  Carmit-Noa Shpigelman; Carol J. Gill
Participation in online social networks has considerable potential to empower people with intellectual disability who might experience social isolation in the real world. However, this issue has received little research attention. In response to this challenge, we conducted an accessible online research survey to learn how adults with intellectual disability use and perceive Facebook. Results from 58 respondents indicated that they use Facebook much as non-disabled users do to connect with family members and real-world friends. At the same time, the respondents reported challenges such as privacy setting and literacy demands. We discuss these findings and how to make social networking sites accessible for this population.
Keywords: Online Social Networks; Facebook; Accessibility; Disability

Autism: ICT and AT

Improving Social and Communication Skills of Adult Arabs with ASD through the Use of Social Media Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 478-485
  Alaa Mashat; Mike Wald; Sarah Parsons
People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) find it hard to communicate and interact with other people. Although technology has been involved in sup-porting people with ASD in developed countries, research on such technologies has been mainly related to Western culture. Arab adults with ASD require sup-port for improving their social skills. However, cultural differences could limit the usability of existing technologies. The proposed study aims to investigate the use of social networks for supporting Arab adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger syndrome in order to improve their abilities in social situations such as family relations and friendships, considering the influence of culture and tradition views on the usability and sociability of social media technologies.
Keywords: Accessibility; Usability; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Arabs; Adults; Social Media; Technology; Social Skills; Communication
The Role of User Emotional Attachment in Driving the Engagement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Using a Smartphone App Designed to Develop Social and Life Skill Functioning BIBAKFull-Text 486-493
  Joseph Mintz
There has been, in the last ten years, a fast developing interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in particular, in the use of such technology to support children with ASD (Autistic Spectrum Disorders). The HANDS project developed a software application for mobile Smartphones based on the principles of persuasive technology design, which supports children with ASD with social and life skills functioning -- areas of ability which tend to be impaired in this population. Issues with the application of a behaviorist approach to the complex social field of special educational needs are considered. An argument is made for the need for 'thick' persuasive applications which take account of such complexity including the role of mediating factors. Particular focus is given to qualitative results indicating that user emotional attachment is one such key factor.
Keywords: User Emotional Attachment; Autism; Special Educational Needs; Instructional Design; Persuasive Technology
Gamification for Low-Literates: Findings on Motivation, User Experience, and Study Design BIBAKFull-Text 494-501
  Dylan Schouten; Isabel Pfab; Anita Cremers; Betsy van Dijk; Mark Neerincx
This study investigated the effects of the gamification elements of scaffolding, score and hints on the user enjoyment and motivation of people of low literacy. In a four-condition within-subjects experiment, participants per-formed mental spatial ability tests with the aforementioned elements. Quantitative results were inconclusive, but post-test interviews provided insights on the limited effectiveness of the gamification elements. Complex questionnaire wording, high task difficulty, and an improperly situated task environment all contributed to ceiling effects in the influence of scaffolding. Score was found to be ineffective without proper contextualization connecting the numerical score to clearer performance measures. Finally, the underused hints functionality has indicated the need for adequate 'mixed initiative' support.
Keywords: Literacy; Gamification; Motivation; User Enjoyment
Designing Tangible and Multitouch Games for Autistic Children BIBAKFull-Text 502-505
  Weiqin Chen
Tangible multitouch tabletops allow multiple users to interact with physical and virtual objects simultaneously and afford natural and intuitive social interactions. Although some applications have shown that multitouch tabletop technology is an applicable technology with potentials for children with ASD, more research is need to understand how to take advantage of the affordance of this technology. This research presents an effort in exploring the potentials of tangible and multitouch games for children with ASD.
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; Tangible User Interfaces; Multitouch; Tabletop Games; Children
You Talk! -- YOU vs AUTISM BIBAKFull-Text 506-512
  Alessandro Signore; Panagiota Balasi; Tangming Yuan
This paper reports our work in developing a mobile application, which helps autistic children communicate with those around them, by using PECS symbols to formulate a sentence and later on speak it out loud. The application in question has gone through a rigorous development process: both the requirements gathering and evaluation for this project have been conducted with experts in the world of autism in order to further establish the soundness of the work. All the issues that were found throughout the evaluation, which was carried out as a cognitive walkthrough, were fixed and suggested additional functionalities were taken into consideration in order to enhance the application with more features. A user-based evaluation, which was conducted in order to further establish the validity of the work, proved that the application was well accepted by the autistic community in the virtual world.
Keywords: Autism; Autistic; Verbal Impairment; PECS; Makaton
A Game-Based Intervention for Improving the Communication Skills of Autistic Children in Pakistan BIBAKFull-Text 513-516
  Muneeb Imtiaz Ahmad; Suleman Shahid; Johannes S. Maganheim
In this paper, we discuss the design and evaluation of a computer game "Guess Who" which was used as a tool to encourage social interaction in autistic children. We performed an evaluation of the game for a span of six weeks at an autistic school in Pakistan. We present the qualitative results collected from the weekly feedback taken from teachers against every child's behavior. We also present the video analysis results that give us information about the amount of social interaction among children while playing the game.
Keywords: Autistic Children; Games; Social Communication

Access to Mathematics, Science and Music

Intelligent Tutoring Math Platform Accessible for Visually Impaired People BIBAKFull-Text 519-524
  Piotr Brzoza; Michal Mackowski
Nowadays there are many problems with the access to scientific and educational materials for visually impaired people. It especially refers to learning mathematic. Only a small number of such materials is published in a form accessible for blind and low vision people. Particularly, it limits significantly disabled persons to participate in education research and engineering works in many science and technology disciplines. Fortunately new technological solutions, such as e-learning become more and more popular, and many universities use it to improve educational offer and create new possibilities for disabled people. However, in many cases it may cause the problems with accessibility. The article presents developed, intelligent, interactive tutoring platform for math teaching. Currently, the platform is used in the process of education of students from Faculty of Mathematics at Silesian University of Technology, and disabled students from others faculties of the University. The research results clearly indicate the improvement of learning quality by visually impaired people, and also confirm the efficacy of designed rules for adapting mathematical formulas to visually impaired people needs.
Keywords: e-Learning; Mathematics; Accessibility; Visual Impaired
Gesture-Based Browsing of Mathematics BIBAKFull-Text 525-532
  Shereen El Bedewy; Klaus Miesenberger; Bernhard Stöger
This paper is introducing a new concept which is combining gestures and speech in applications to help people navigate through Mathematica notebooks. The application can be used by all people, but it is targeting visually impaired people specifically. On the basis of the $1 gesture recognition algorithm our definition of gestures started and advanced to include the enhancements that took place in the $1 gesture recognition itself. The prototype system allows users to navigate through the Mathematica notebooks on the basis of the tree structure receiving speech as an output. Finally the evaluation and the conclusion that sums the basic concept and the user feedback is also provided in this content.
Keywords: Mathematics; Mathematica Notebooks; Touch Gestures; Visually Impaired People; Speech Output; Gesture Recognizers
Towards the 8-Dot Nemeth Braille Code BIBAKFull-Text 533-536
  Aineias Martos; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Vassilis Argyropoulos; Despina Deligiorgi
In this work, a language-independent design methodology for the systematic development of an 8-dot braille code, has been applied to the Nemeth code. First, we set the design principles: compression, intra-similarity, inter-similarity, unambiguity, consistency and foresight. Then, we follow the Nemeth principles: non enclosure, just in time information, be true to the print, good mnemonics and continuous notation. Finally, we introduce 24 transition rules from 6- to 8-dot Nemeth code. Indicative results of the methodology are also presented.
Keywords: Braille; 8-Dot Braille; Nemeth Code; Assistive Technologies
AudioFunctions: Eyes-Free Exploration of Mathematical Functions on Tablets BIBAFull-Text 537-544
  Marzia Taibbi; Cristian Bernareggi; Andrea Gerino; Dragan Ahmetovic; Sergio Mascetti
It is well known that mathematics presents a number of hindrances to visually impaired students. In case of function graphs, for example, several assistive solutions have been proposed to enhance their accessibility. Unfortunately, both hardware tools (e.g., tactile paper) and existing software applications cannot guarantee, at the same time, a clear understanding of the graph and a full autonomous study. In this paper we present AudioFunctions, an iPad app that adopts three sonification techniques to convey information about the function graph. Our experimental evaluation, conducted with 7 blind people, clearly highlights that, by using AudioFunctions, students have a better understanding of the graph than with tactile paper and existing software solutions.
Markdown -- A Simple Syntax for Transcription of Accessible Study Materials BIBAKFull-Text 545-548
  Jens Voegler; Jens Bornschein; Gerhard Weber
Transcription of study materials into accessible formats is a challenging but necessary task. The sources of study materials vary from images to multimedia files, which often have to be transcribed manually. A fully accessible target format such as HTML is the goal of every transcription process, supported by guidelines and helpful tools. Therefore the transcribers have to deal not only with the content but also with the right usage of the used tools. We show that the usage of the easy to use Markdown language can improve the technical quality and accessibility of the resulting documents. For further improvements of the transcription process several helping tools are presented to simplify and speed up the process as well.
Keywords: Transcription; Image Description; LaTeX; HTML; Markdown; SVG; Accessibility; Transcription Process Optimization; Pandoc; Gladtex
Making Graph Theory Algorithms Accessible to Blind Students BIBAFull-Text 549-556
  Lukáš Másilko; Jirí Pecl
The authors of the proposal are teachers of mathematics for students with visual impairment at Masaryk University (Brno, Czech Republic). When giving instruction, they face the following problem: how can blind people use a given mathematical algorithm in view of the fact that they follow all the information in linear way. Often the instructors have to decide whether to adapt such an algorithm or let blind students work with it in the same manner as their sighted peers do. Their goal is to find an optimal set of methods which would respect blind people's linear manner of working with information and at the same time be sufficiently effective. In their paper, the authors will present several adaptations of two algorithms of Graph Theory. They will assess the pros and cons of all the proposed modifications.
Braille Capability in Accessible e-Textbooks for Math and Science BIBAKFull-Text 557-563
  Katsuhito Yamaguchi; Masakazu Suzuki; Toshihiro Kanahori
DAISY or accessible EPUB3 could be a good solution to make e-textbooks more accessible. However, unfortunately, a good method to include Braille in them is not established, yet. Due to complicated Situations in Braille notations, automatically converting print contents, especially, ones for math/science into Braille has its own problem. Furthermore, Braille translation in Japanese is usually context-dependent. After reviewing those situations and how Braille is currently treated in DAISY, what are required for Braille capability in DAISY/ accessible EPUB3 are discussed. Based on our DAISY/EPUB3 authoring tools, "ChattyInfty3," and Braille editor, "BrailleInfty," a practical solution to realize the Braille capability is given.
Keywords: Braille; e-textbook; mathematics; DAISY; Accessible EPUB3
MathMelodies: Inclusive Design of a Didactic Game to Practice Mathematics BIBAFull-Text 564-571
  Andrea Gerino; Nicolò Alabastro; Cristian Bernareggi; Dragan Ahmetovic; Sergio Mascetti
Tablet computers are becoming a common tool to support learning since primary school. Indeed, many didactic applications are already available on online stores. Most of these applications engage the child by immersing the educational purpose of the software within an entertaining environment, often in the form of a game with sophisticated graphic and interaction. Unfortunately, this makes most of these applications inaccessible to visually impaired children. In this contribution we present MathMelodies, an iPad application that supports math learning in primary school and that is designed to be accessible also to visually impaired children. We describe the main challenges we faced during the development of this didactic application that is both engaging and accessible. The application, currently publicly available, is collecting enthusiastic reviews from teachers, who often contribute with precious insight for improving the solution.
An Interactive Workspace for Helping the Visually Impaired Learn Linear Algebra BIBAKFull-Text 572-579
  Bassam Almasri; Islam Elkabani; Rached Zantout
In this paper an interactive workspace designed to help visually impaired students practice the fundamentals of linear algebra is introduced. Unlike most of the approaches, this interactive workspace aims at enhancing math manipulation abilities for students who are visually impaired, mainly dealing with linear algebra expression that requires more complicated techniques in accessing. Read-expression, Hide-Row/Column, and Text-Tools are examples of techniques that the workspace implements. Such techniques are invoked by hot access keys which in turn with audio feedback allow the user to navigate and edit the linear algebra expression, access its elements especially matrices, find the solution and save it for further review and edit. The methodology followed is to list all the operations required in Linear Algebra. Then the tasks which require visual abilities were isolated and implemented in the framework.
Keywords: Accessibility; Linear Algebra; Visually impaired
The LEAN Math Accessible MathML Editor BIBAKFull-Text 580-587
  John A. Gardner
This article describes the new LEAN Math application. LEAN Math will input MathML and convert it to an internal representation from which any number of accessible formats can be generated. It is useful for reading math, but its real importance is that it fills a void for blind people who need an efficient, usable tool to create, edit, and manipulate math equations in braille and/or audio. The first application of LEAN Math is as an editor for MathType equations in MS Word, the most popular scientific authoring system today. The editor can open and edit existing equations or create new ones. It also puts a word description or braille translation of the equation into the MathType alt text property. This alt text is read by any screen reader, making MathType equations in MS Word fully accessible. This paper gives a brief overview of its features.
Keywords: Accessible Math; Reading Math; Writing Math; Manipulating Math; MS Word; MathType
SVGPlott -- Generating Adaptive and Accessible Audio-Tactile Function Graphs BIBAKFull-Text 588-595
  Jens Bornschein; Denise Prescher; Gerhard Weber
Curve sketching is a hard task for blind and visually impaired pupils and students, but it is an essential part in education. To help those students as well as their colleges, teachers and other people to prepare good tactile function plots the platform independent console program SVGPlott was developed. It enables users without any special knowledge about creating graphics for blind or visually impaired people to prepare highly adaptable mathematical function plots in the SVG format, which can also be used for audio-tactile exploration. SVGPlott was developed in a user-centered design process, including teachers and users. We show that blind and sighted users can prepare function plots including key as well as an automatically generated textual description not only for tactile, audio-tactile and print output, but also for usage on a dynamic tactile pin device and as a high contrast visualization for low vision people.
Keywords: Accessible SVG; Science and Mathematics; Function Graph Plots; Tactile Graphics; Audio-Tactile Graphics; Adaptability of Graphics; Style Sheets; User Groups; Blind and Visually Impaired Users; Tactile Pin Device; Accessibility
Free Tools to Help Blind People with Musical Learning BIBAFull-Text 596-601
  Nadine Jessel
This paper describes solutions to improve the access to music for blind people. These solutions are proposed during the European project Music4VIP. The objective of the project is to help teacher to teach music to blind pupils and to create tools which will enable blind people to learn music independently. A method base on SUS questionnaire is described and used to have a quick feedback for users. These first results indicate that users perceive our solution as good but these results have to be consolidated with further surveys with a large number of respondents.
The Development of a Music Presentation System by Two Vibrators BIBAKFull-Text 602-605
  Nobuyuki Sasaki; Satoshi Ohtsuka; Kazuyoshi Ishii; Tetsumi Harakawa
We have been developing the Body-Braille system, which transmits Braille characters to disabled people through vibrations on any part of the body. Five years ago, we began working on music applications of this. Using 9 micro vibrators, any melody with a sound range less than 2 octaves can be expressed by vibration. Last year, we developed the music presentation system using only two vibrators. Using special equipment (Pocket-Body braille, Pocket-Bbrll), we performed two experiments and obtained successful results for applying a small number of vibrations to music expression. The details of the system to present music tone by vibration and the results of the experiment are described.
Keywords: Body-Braille; Vibration; Deaf-blind People; Music
Multimodal Interface for Working with Algebra: Interaction between the Sighted and the Non Sighted BIBAKFull-Text 606-613
  Silvia Fajardo Flores; Dominique Archambault
In an integrated school environment for Mathematics learning, effective communication and collaboration between sighted and non sighted students and teachers is a crucial aspect. Common activities in the classroom as doing dictations, exercises and exams, become cumbersome without an adequate support. We have developed a prototype interface to support these activities using visual, speech and braille output modalities. User testing with students showed that the interface facilitated writing, manipulation and communication.
Keywords: Visual Disability; Accessibility; Mathematics; HCI
Performance Metrics and Their Extraction Methods for Audio Rendered Mathematics BIBAKFull-Text 614-621
  Hernisa Kacorri; Paraskevi Riga; Georgios Kouroupetroglou
We introduce and compare three approaches to calculate structure- and content-based performance metrics for user-based evaluation of math audio rendering systems: Syntax Tree alignment, Baseline Structure Tree alignment, and MathML Tree Edit Distance. While the first two require "manual" tree transformation and alignment of the mathematical expressions, the third obtains the metrics without human intervention using the minimum edit distance algorithm on the corresponding MathML representations. Our metrics are demonstrated in a pilot user study evaluating the Greek audio rendering rules of MathPlayer with 7 participants and 39 stimuli. We observed that the obtained results for the metrics are significantly correlated between all three approaches.
Keywords: Math Audio Rendering; Metrics; Accessibility; MathML; Usability

Blind and Visually Impaired People: AT, HCI and Accessibility

Developing Tactile Graphic Output Functions Necessitated in the Performance of Research Using Statistical Methods by Blind Persons BIBAKFull-Text 622-629
  Kazunori Minatani
It is difficult for blind persons to conduct research using statistical methods in an effective and independent manner. Jonathan Godfrey emphasized the usability of R for blind persons. His BrailleR package can be said to use is the "method of transcribing values represented in graphics into characters." The author has shown that the advantages of the "method of converting graphics into a tactile graphic." This research realized access by blind persons to graphics output by R using that method with no human intervention. The software developed through this research was employed the approach of interpreting SVG output produced by RSVGTipsDevice. It was configured that dot size and inter-dot pitch could be defined. An experiment showed that the question of which method is more effectively applied differed according to the experiment participant.
Keywords: Blind Persons; Tactile Graphics; Statistics; R; SVG
The Study of a New Actuator for a Two-Point Body-Braille System BIBAKFull-Text 630-633
  Nobuyuki Sasaki; Kazuya Nakajima; Satoshi Ohtsuka; Kazuyoshi Ishii; Tetsumi Harakawa
We have been studying the Body-Braille system that transmits Braille characters to disabled people through vibrations on any part of the body. Two years ago, we began to use a SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) device instead of a micro-vibrator. As a result, several advantages were obtained such as smaller equipment size, high resolution transmission, and low power consumption. This year, we developed test equipment for the SMA device which can supply flexible PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) parameters and performed several tests for Braille reading. The test results reveal several possibilities for using a SMA device as a communication channel.
Keywords: Body-Braille; Vibration; Deaf-blind; SMA
Design Guidelines of Tools for Facilitating Blind People to Independently Format Their Documents BIBAKFull-Text 634-641
  Lourdes M. Morales; Sonia M. Arteaga; Peter Cottrell; Sri Kurniawan
In professional and educational settings, a document's presentation can be as important as its content. Thus, blind people often rely on sighted help for fear of having their documents treated dismissively or misinterpreted as lack of professionalism or education, by sighted readers when the documents do not meet presentation 'standards'. Still, most work on helping blind people with word-processed documents focuses on the content rather than the formatting. Our work aims to enable the development of efficient tools to help blind people independently format their documents. We first sought to understand blind peoples' experiences and issues with document formatting and sighted readers' strategies and expectations regarding well-formatted documents. As a result, we compiled a set of guidelines for such tools and present them here.
Keywords: Assistive Technology; User Interface; Blind Users; Word Processors; Screen Readers
Contribution to the Automation of the Tactile Images Transcription Process BIBAKFull-Text 642-649
  Yong Chen; Zehira Haddad; Jaime Lopez Krahe
This paper presents an image conversion process on tactile maps intended for the use by people with blindness. This process is based on the image processing which includes image segmentation, shape recognition and text recognition. The proposed approach can be applied to different types of images.
Keywords: Accessibility for Blind People; Image Segmentation; Shape Recognition; Text Detection; Fuzzy Methods
Dots and Letters: Accessible Braille-Based Text Input for Visually Impaired People on Mobile Touchscreen Devices BIBAKFull-Text 650-657
  Elke Mattheiss; Georg Regal; Johann Schrammel; Markus Garschall; Manfred Tscheligi
Tailored text input methods for visually impaired and blind users are needed on touchscreen devices to support their accessibility. Therefore, we developed a new Braille-based text input method named EdgeBraille, which allows entering Braille characters by swiping one finger along the edges of the touchscreen. The approach was compared with the current standard method of a talking keyboard, first in a short-term lab study (14 participants) and then during two weeks of daily training (7 participants). Overall EdgeBraille was perceived well by the users. In terms of user performance we found no significant differences between the two methods. Based on the evaluation results and the feedback of our participants, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of Braille-based methods in general and EdgeBraille in particular, as well as possibilities for improvements.
Keywords: Text Input Method; Touchscreen; Mobile Devices; Braille; Visually Impaired and Blind Users
Real-Time Text Tracking for Text-to-Speech Translation Camera for the Blind BIBAKFull-Text 658-661
  Hideaki Goto; Takuma Hoda
Some mobile devices have been developed for helping the visually-impaired people to obtain useful information from text on documents, goods, and signboards. However, it is still difficult for the blind to find or even notice the text in the environment and to capture the images suitable for character recognition and speech synthesis. We developed a prototype of reading assistant device with a scene text locator that shows the text location by sound signals. To improve the device further, this paper proposes a real-time text tracking method that enables character recognition on-the-fly and also helps the users to obtain the text information easily and efficiently with less searching efforts. The presented method is based on our former one, and provides a new feature that it is tolerant of temporary occlusion or out-of-view of text regions.
Keywords: Reading Assistant; Scene Text Detection; Text Tracking; OCR (Optical Character Recognition); Text-To-Speech
Towards Displaying Graphics on a Cheap, Large-Scale Braille Display BIBAKFull-Text 662-669
  Elisabeth Wilhelm; Thorsten Schwarz; Gerhard Jaworek; Achim Voigt; Bastian E. Rapp
Large-scale Braille displays will make participation in modern media society easier for visually impaired people. At the moment extensive research is done on developing new technologies for affordable refreshable Braille displays. However, the developed displays often do not match the user requirements. This is because most of the engineers entrusted with the development know little to nothing about the potential users of their systems. To bridge that gap we carried out an online survey. Within this survey 69 people who either are visually impaired themselves or take care of someone who has lost his/her sight stated their opinion on how a large-scale refreshable Braille display should be designed. The results of this survey were used to build a first prototype of a large-scale refreshable braille display for displaying text and tactile graphics. This prototype relies on cheap, energy efficient microfluidic phase change actuators.
Keywords: Refreshable Braille Display; Braille; Tactile Graphics; Computer Display for the Visually Impaired