HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | HYSTAN Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
HYSTAN Tables of Contents: 90

NIST Hypertext Standardization Workshop

Fullname:Proceedings of the Hypertext Standardization Workshop
Editors:Judi Moline; Dan Benigni; Jean Baronas
Location:Gaithersburg, Maryland
Dates:1990-Jan-16 to 1990-Jan-18
Publisher:National Institute of Standards and Technology
Standard No:NIST Special Publication SP500-178; hcibib: HYSTAN90
  1. Hypertext Models Discussion Group
  2. Data Interchange Discussion Group
  3. User Requirements Discussion Group
  4. Papers
  5. Appendices
Proceedings of the Hypertext Standardization Workshop BIBAK 1
  Judi Moline; Dan Benigni; Jean Baronas
This report constitutes the proceedings of a three day workshop on Hypertext Standardization held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on January 16-18, 1990. Efforts towards standardization of hypertext have already been initiated in various interested organizations. In recognition of these existing efforts, NIST sponsored the Hypertext Standardization Workshop organized by the Hypertext Competence Project of the National Computer Systems Laboratory.
   The major purpose of the Hypertext Standardization Workshop was to provide a forum for presentation and discussion of existing and proposed approaches to hypertext standardization. The stated workshop goals were to consider hypertext system definitions, to identify viable approaches for pursuing standards, to seek commonality among alternatives whenever possible, and to make progress towards a coordinated plan for standards development, i.e. a hypertext reference model. The workshop announcement solicited contributed papers on any aspect of hypertext standardization, including assertions that standardization is premature or inadvisable. Approximately 30 contributions were received and distributed to the 65 workshop participants on the first day.
   The workshop included plenary sessions and three discussion groups. This proceedings includes the papers selected for presentation in plenary sessions, reports of the discussion groups, and supplementary materials. Major conclusions of the workshop were that the discussion groups should continue their technical efforts, and that NIST should sponsor at least one more workshop to provide a forum for public discussion of progress.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Hypertext, Standards
Introduction BIB 3-4
  Leonard Gallagher

Hypertext Models Discussion Group

Reference and Data Model Group (RDMG): Work Plan Status BIBA 9-13
  H. Van Dyke Parunak
A reference model is a structured description of some domain that can be used to compare existing implementations in that domain, design new implementations, and (most important for our purposes) map out possible areas for standardization and show their relation to one another. The main output of the RDMG during the NIST workshop was a work plan for arriving at such a reference model. The work plan that we propose has the following structure, where the flow of activity is down the page (except for the single feedback loop), and where activities marked by '*' received significant attention during the workshop.
    *Compare Existing
    Models (DTL)
    *Organize Ontology
    Rank Concepts by Centrality
    Inventory Existing Systems
    Construct "Implementation" Model
    Select Areas for Standards

   The rest of this document defines each of these steps, and reports what we have done in each of them.
   This document summarizes the portion of the final RDMG presentation that I delivered on 18 January 1990. It represents my perception of the deliberations of the group, but has not been reviewed or formally approved by the other members.
Reference and Data Model Group: Comparison of Three Models BIBA 15
  John J. Leggett
The Reference and Data Model working group spent 45 minutes comparing and contrasting the R-model, Dexter and Lange reference models. David Stotts, Danny Lange and John Leggett spent another 90 minutes over dinner discussing the three models. A summary was provided by John Leggett during the final plenary session. As these three models are currently under development, the comparisons are rather broad in nature. It is interesting to note that the three models were developed independently and with varying levels of collaboration. The results of these discussions are presented below in mostly tabular form.
Hypertext Reference Model Group: Responses to "Issues for Discussion Group Consideration" BIB 17-18
  James Black

Data Interchange Discussion Group

Summary of the Hypertext Interchange Group BIB 21-22
  Tim Oren
Note on Representing Anchors BIBA 23-25
  Tim Oren
An ad hoc subgroup of the Interchange working group met to compare various proposals for archival interchange. It was composed of Ed Fox, Steve Newcomb, Tim Oren, and Victor Riley. These notes are the result of that meeting. They are a first pass which has not been considered by any other group. See the summary of the Interchange group for context and definition of terms.
   We chose to proceed by focusing on the anchor or "anchor-like" portion of each proposal. We began by considering how the features of the Intermedia Interchange could be added to the HIP proposal, and expressed the result in HIP-like terms. We then attempted to reconcile this result with the formalism and language of the pertinent sections of HyTime. Note that this applies only to anchors, and there may be additional difficulties in reconciling layering strategies when we look at the link layers of the various proposals.

User Requirements Discussion Group

Report from the User Requirements Working Group BIBA 29-35
  Robert J. Glushko
This report summarizes meetings held on January 16-17, 1990 during a workshop on Hypermedia Standardization held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD. In addition to the author, the members of the Working Group for User Requirements were Carol Adams, Peter Aiken, Jean Baronas, Denise Bedford, Tim Berners-Lee, Valerie Florence, Kevin Gamble, Louis Gomez, Seymour Hanfling, Kathryn Malcolm, Cathy Marshall, Fontaine Moore, Dan Olson, Duane Stone, Clifford Uhr, David Wojick and Don Young. The group followed an agenda set by NIST to identify the current state of affairs, important driving and constraining factors, potential areas for standardization, and research needs.
   Complete consensus on these complex topics was impossible in two days for a group this size, so this report emphasizes the majority themes for the issues that received the most attention. I apologize for my own biases, which undoubtedly show through.


Hypertext Interchange Format -- Discussion and Format Specification -- Draft 1.3.4 BIBA 39-47
  Jeremy Bornstein; Victor Riley
The Hypertext interchange format described here is based on the work of the Dexter group, an industry coalition of hypertext researchers interested in a standard for hypertext data exchange. This paper describes the result of a collaboration towards this end between Jeremy Bornstein and Frank Halasz, with significant input from other members of the Dexter group, most notably Tim Oren. The work took place during the summer of 1989, and a demonstration is planned for the Hypertext '89 conference in November of 1989.
Standards for Hypertext Source Files: The Experience of UNIX Guide BIB 49-58
  P. J. Brown
Standards: What Can Hypertext Learn from Paper Documents? BIBA 59-70
  Fred Cole; Heather Brown
Hypertext literature tends understandably to concentrate on what is new and to ignore, or take for granted, the properties of hypertext that are also present in paper documents. The purpose of this paper is to consider how the expertise that exists in standards and models for paper documents can be used to save effort when designing a standard for hypertext, and how to make hypertext and paper document standards compatible. Section 2 discusses some relevant similarities between paper and hypertext documents. Section 3 introduces relevant aspects of the Office Document Architecture (ODA) [1] and suggests ways to build on ODA to create a standard that combines the strengths of the two areas.
Standards for a Hypermedia Database: Diachronic vs. Synchronic Concerns BIBA 71-81
  Gregory Crane
This paper outlines the perspectives of a professor in one traditional branch of the humanities (Classics). My colleagues and I are engaged in creating a hypermedia database on ancient Greek civilization, but our work is intended to explore the generic issues of building a complex hypermedia database, and Perseus was conceived as a model for what should (and no doubt should not) be done. We have encountered a number of problems along the way that must be solved before information disseminated in a hypermedia environment can have more than marginal impact on intellectual activity. This paper addresses hypermedia databases: although much of our work revolves around texts and still images, we can see that sound, animation, and motion video are also basic categories of information. This paper at least views hypertext as a subset of hypermedia.
   The argument of this paper can be summarized simply. Standards for hypermedia must emerge before hypermedia databases can be fully useful, but long-lived standards can only emerge after we know much more about how people will use hypermedia databases. Since we can do qualitatively different things in a hypermedia environment, we must assume that usage patterns will emerge. Practically speaking, we can expect to see short term interchange tools so that we can move data from one hypertext system to another, but we should be prepared to abandon these standards if they prove too inflexible. The rest of this paper outlines some pragmatic concerns.
The Trellis Hypertext Reference Model BIBA 83-93
  Richard Furuta; P. David Stotts
We describe a hypertext "meta-model" -- one that provides an organization for the architecture of a hypertext model. The specific meta-model presented was developed in the context of the Trellis hypertext model. However the organization seems generally applicable to other models as well. As such the meta-model may be a good candidate for a hypertext reference model, and so we call it the Trellis hypertext reference model. In this report we first describe the Trellis hypertext reference model, and then discuss the relationship of some hypertext-defined concepts to the reference model.
The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model BIBA 95-133
  Frank Halasz; Mayer Schwartz
This paper presents the Dexter hypertext reference model. The Dexter model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is divided into three layers. The storage layer describes the network of nodes and links that is the essence of hypertext. The runtime layer describes mechanisms supporting the user's interaction with the hypertext. The within-component layer covers the content and structures within hypertext nodes. The focus of the model is on the storage layer as well as on the mechanisms of anchoring and presentation specification that form the interfaces between the storage layer and the within-component and runtime layers, respectively. The model is formalized using Z [19], a specification language based on set theory. The paper briefly discusses the issues involved in comparing the characteristics of existing systems against the model.
Standardization of Hypermedia: What's the Point? BIBA 135-144
  Shoshana L. Hardt-Kornacki; Louis M. Gomez; John F. Patterson
In this paper we present multiple views on the issue of standardization of Hypermedia systems that operate over a global heterogeneous information network. To aid our analysis we introduce a reference model that captures the information flow and the information control aspects from the viewpoint of the user. This model is then used to focus the analysis of Hypermedia systems from a variety of perspectives, such as overall resources, network communication, interface building, and application writing. Based on our analysis we conclude that at this time, the components of Hypermedia systems that are ready for standardization are not necessarily Hypermedia-specific. Moreover, we strongly believe that the Hypermedia-specific aspects of these systems are not yet ready for standardization and we question the wisdom of ever standardizing certain Hypermedia specific components such as the user interface or the navigation tools. In addition, we conjecture that it may be desirable to standardize a generic set of tools that can be used to build these components so as to guarantee that the access to the information stored in future Hypermedia systems will not be impaired.
A Formal Model of Hypertext BIBA 145-166
  Danny B. Lange
In this paper a formal specification of an abstract model of hypertext is presented. The Vienna Development Method (VDM) is used in this specification. Experiences with a prototype hypertext system and studies of other existing hypertext systems are captured in this formal specification. Basically datamodel of hypertext is suggested. In this model three main abstract data types of hypertext are formally defined: nodes, networks and structures. The abstract data types are applied to the concepts of object-oriented databases and a "hyperbase" is defined.
A Multi-Tiered Approach to Hypertext Integration: Negotiating Standards for a Heterogeneous Application Environment BIBA 167-177
  Catherine C. Marshall
Hypertext is most useful as a technology when it is embedded in an application: a paperless technical manual, a notetaker, a specification management system, or any other task domain where it is useful to represent and manipulate the structure of text. We feel that it is important to connect system requirements for hypertext with the situation of use; thus standardization efforts should be directed at enhancing the ability to embed hypertext in heterogeneous applications environments.
   This paper addresses a specific application and task environment -- using hypertext as a medium for a shared notetaker that will be used in the intelligence community -- and how it suggests a protocol-driven approach to integration. The work described in this paper includes an informal work practices study of the task environment, and the development of a functional specification for a hypertext system for notetaking.
   From the study and the development of a specification, we postulate that standardization of a multi-tiered system of linking protocols will help address the closed-world problem that we have encountered in NoteCards and many of the other second-generation hypertext systems without specifying rigid standards for applications that want to share information to a greater or lesser extent with a hypertext substrate. Such a system of protocols can be based in part on existing work on hypertext exchange and hypertext reference models.
   First we will briefly describe the task environment and present an informal model of the task. Then we will go on to describe linking and anchoring requirements in support of this task. Finally, we will argue that a multi-tiered system of linking protocols will not only meet the needs that we have already identified, but will be adaptable as the environment changes and will facilitate information sharing. It is this set of protocols that we propose should be standardized based on negotiations between applications developers and the hypertext community.
Explanatory Cover Material for Section 7.2 of X3V1.8M/SD-7, Fifth Draft BIBA 179-188
  Steven R. Newcomb
The mission of the ANSI X3V1.8M Music in Information Processing Standards (MIPS) committee is to develop a Standard Music Description Language (SMDL) to enable interchange of musical documents. The committee has chosen to represent the structure of the information represented by SMDL as a Standard Generalized Markup Language (ISO 8879-1986) Document Type Definition (an "SGML DTD").
   In the course of its work (which began in 1986), the MIPS committee developed a general model for the representation of schedules for the execution of events. When it confronted the problem of representing music in several of its normal contexts, such as the interdependently synchronized lighting, staging, and orchestra cues in musical comedy and opera, the MIPS committee developed SGML-based means of representing links within and among documents. These means are what is set forth in the following extract (Section 7.2 ["General Links"] of the fifth draft of X3V1.8M/SD-7 ["Hypermedia/Time-based Document Subset"].
   When it became clear that this model would be useful for the representation of the scheduling of non-musical (as well as musical) events multimedia and hypermedia documents, the committee extracted the time model from the other, strictly music-related portions of SMDL, gave the model a name ("HyTime"), and placed it in its own Standing Document, X3V1.8M/SD-7. In the current draft of SMDL, Standard Music Description Language (SMDL) is an application of HyTime. (The rest of SMDL is described in X3V1.8M/SD-8.)
   When HyTime's "General Links" facilities were discussed at the NIST Hypertext Workshop, it turned out that the Dexter, Intermedia, and HyTime models all decomposed the problem of document addressing in much the some way, although their jargon was dissimilar. The "Room 705 Ad Hoc Group" (Ed Fox, Steve Newcomb, Tim Oren, and Victor Riley) succeeded in showing how the "anchor" concept in the three models could be merged. It is anticipated that the NIST Hypertext Workshop will have significant impact on succeeding drafts of HyTime.
Toward Open Hypertext: Requirements for Distributed Hypermedia Standards BIBA 189-196
  Tim Oren
Much discussion of hypertext standards has centered on the transfer of closed, static hypertext document bases among various platforms and organizations. While there is an undoubted need focused on the use of hypertext with optical media and technical documentation, the thesis of this position paper is that any standard based primarily on this limited application will be necessarily flawed.
Toward a Reference Model for Hypermedia BIBA 197-211
  H. Van Dyke Parunak
A necessary first step in discussing standardization in a domain is the development of a reference model for that domain, a high-level framework within which specific topics for discussion can be defined and discussed. This paper offers a "straw" version of such a framework as a basis for discussion, and discusses the "standardizability" of various detailed subjects within that framework.
An Interchange Format for Hypertext Systems: The Intermedia Model BIBA 213-222
  Victor A. Riley
Realization of the potential for information sharing that is inherent in hypertext systems depends on the ability to readily exchange data between those systems. A format for exchanging link-related data between first-order hypertext systems has been designed, and partially implemented, for the Intermedia system. The design is described to the individual field level. An example of usage for Intermedia link-related information is provided. The import, export, and verification utilities created for the interchange format are also described.
Strawman Reference Model for Hypermedia Systems BIBA 223-246
  Craig W. Thompson
This paper provides a strawman reference model that can be used for comparing and reasoning about hypertext/hypermedia systems. It begins with a glossary of hypermedia terms. Agreeing on these provides a common vocabulary for developing the reference model. The reference model itself is presented in terms of basic features all hypermedia systems have, advanced features some hypermedia systems have, and open features that hypermedia systems share with other computer systems. These features represent independent dimensions which can be used to classify or compare existing hypermedia systems and to contrast them with near-miss related systems. Based on the features, the architecture of an ideal hypermedia system is described that covers existing hypermedia systems. The architecture is modular. A consequence is that discussion of standards or a more detailed reference model can focus on one module at a time, avoiding movement toward a portmanteau standard. The final section of the paper evaluates some areas where consensus and eventual standardization of hypermedia systems is possible and would be valuable. An appendix references some standards related to hypermedia systems. Another appendix is an initial document log listing references important to hypermedia standardization.


Hypermedia Bibliography BIBA 249-264
  Paul Kahn
Since the last time we compiled this bibliography in November 1987 for the Hypertext '87 Workshop, there has been an explosion of hypertext literature. When we started the bibliography project at IRIS in 1983, we thought it would be possible to collect every book, conference paper and journal article on the subject of hypertext. In 1989, that seems an impossible goal. We hope our collection includes a large portion of the current literature, but every day we learn of new papers that are not part of our collection.
   This version, prepared for distribution by NIST, contains only references to material we have been able to collect over the past six years. The reference list differs substantially from the 1987 version. In 1987 there just were not that many papers focused entirely on hypertext, so we included in the bibliography many papers that, while only tangentially related to the topic of hypertext, had been influential in helping us think about the subject. Now that there are so many papers focused solely on hypertext, we have opted to narrow the scope of the bibliography and include only those references that are exactly on the topic.