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HFS Tables of Contents: 87-187-288-188-289-189-290-190-291-191-292-192-293-193-294-194-295-195-2

Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991-09-02

  1. International Technology Transfer: Panel
  2. Organizational Design and Management: Panel
  3. Organizational Design and Management: Psychosocial Issues in Hazard Management and Nuclear Power Plants
  4. Organizational Design and Management: Panel
  5. Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Tools
  6. Organizational Design and Management: Teams and Collaborative Work
  7. Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Focus on Job Conditions and Shiftwork
  8. Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Workload Transition: A Neglected Phenomenon
  9. Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: What a Difference a Difference Makes
  10. Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Differences that Enhance -- Differences that Detract
  11. Safety: Warnings and Safety Communications
  12. Safety: Warnings and Hazard Prevention
  13. Safety: Safety Instructions and Warnings: Theories and Practice
  14. Safety: New Methods for the Identification, Modeling, and Quantification of Errors of Commission in Human Reliability Analysis
  15. Safety: Industrial Safety
  16. Safety: Human Factors Issues in Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems
  17. Safety: Decision Making in Younger and Older Drivers
  18. Safety: Potpourri: Fatigue, Slips, and Computer Tools
  19. Special Sessions: Panel
  20. Special Sessions: Demonstrations
  21. Special Sessions: Lecture-Poster
  22. Special Sessions: Joint CTG/CPTG Symposium:
  23. System Development: Future Systems
  24. System Development: Panel
  25. System Development: Tools, Methods, and Simulation
  26. System Development: Tools and Methods and ...
  27. System Development: Nuclear Systems
  28. System Development: Panel
  29. Test and Evaluation: Models and Tools: Development, Application, and Validation
  30. Test and Evaluation: Interpreting and Organizing Human Factors Concepts and Information
  31. Test and Evaluation: Development and Application of Measurement Techniques
  32. Test and Evaluation: Evaluation Methods and Techniques
  33. Test and Evaluation: How to Make T&E Results Usable and Truly Useful
  34. Training: Will Simulator-Like Sickness Have Impacts on Training in Virtual Environments?
  35. Training: Naturalistic Decision Making
  36. Training: Visual Issues in Training
  37. Training: Panel
  38. Training: Potpourri
  39. Training: The Training of Expertise
  40. Visual Performance: Display Quality
  41. Visual Performance: Stereoscopic Displays
  42. Visual Performance: Color Displays and Eye Movements
  43. Visual Performance: Attention and Workload
  44. Visual Performance: Electro-Optic/Infrared Technology and the Human-Machine Interface
  45. Visual Performance: Displaying Information
  46. Visual Performance: Compatibility and Cognitive Processing
  47. Visual Performance: Visual Performance Applications
  48. Visual Performance: Integrating Information

International Technology Transfer: Panel

A Panel on the International Transfer of Ergonomics Technology -- Potential Impediments and Remedial Techniques BIB- 899-900
  Stuart O. Parsons; Andrew S. Imada; Elizabeth Lambie; Najmedin Meshkati; Kageyu Noro; Harold E. (Smoke) Price; Gennady E. Zhuravljov

Organizational Design and Management: Panel

A Macroergonomic Vision of the Year 2000: What in the World Are We Doing? BIB- 901-902
  Andrew S. Imada

Organizational Design and Management: Psychosocial Issues in Hazard Management and Nuclear Power Plants

Integrating Quality Management and Hazard Management: A Behavioral Cybernetic Perspective BIB- 903-907
  Thomas J. Smith; Thomas L. Larson
Management and Organizational Indicators of Process Safety BIB- 908-912
  Susan B. Van Hemel; Edward M. Connelly; Paul M. Haas
Psychosocial Work Strain of Maintenance Personnel During Annual Outage and Normal Operation in a Nuclear Power Plant BIB- 913-917
  Lena Jacobsson; Ola Svensson
Team Interaction Skills Evaluation Criteria for Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Operators BIB- 918-922
  Joseph Montgomery; Catherine Gaddy; Jody Toquam

Organizational Design and Management: Panel

Technostress: Fad, Fallacy, or Fact? BIBA 923-924
  Janet J. Turnage; William C. Howell; Philip Nicholson; Thomas B. Sheridan; Lawrence M. Schleifer; Mark T. Bolas
The purpose of this panel discussion is to bring together a broad range of individuals who are concerned with the possible negative effects of advanced computerized technologies. The term "technostress" was coined by Craig Brod, in his 1984 book of the same title, to describe the personal and behavioral effects of computerization on humans. Effects range from computer-related phobias and anxieties to over-identification with new technologies. Human factors specialists have thus far not specifically addressed the concept of technostress, perhaps in part because of the clinical underpinnings of the term, because it is not sufficiently defined and operationalized to lend itself to scientific scrutiny (including multi-determination and multi-finality), and/or because we have tended to focus on issues of computer user-friendliness on a micro rather than macro level. The importance of this panel, therefore, is of an epistemological nature. What is technostress? Can we as human factors professionals incorporate the concept into our research, our models, our applications? If not, why not? If so, how?

Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Tools

Macroergonomic Tools & Strategies: An International Overview BIBA 925-929
  Michelle M. Robertson
Macroergonomic tools and intervention strategies that have been developed internationally to solve complex, organizational and technical systems problems are reviewed in this paper. These tools are loosely grouped into three categories: 1) systems tools/simulation and modeling, 2) technology transfer, and 3) participatory ergonomics. The features that characterize and define the tools are discussed and a description of their use and implementation within organizations are examined in detail. The strengths and weaknesses of each macroergonomic tool are also presented. Some of the commonalities among the various macroergonomic tools and strategies are enumerated along with future recommendations for developing and expanding macroergonomic tools. The issue of developing a potentially robust and generalized international macroergonomic database is analyzed.
A New View of Quantifying Organizational Climate through the Work Environment Scale BIBA 930-933
  Barrett S. Caldwell
This paper presents and demonstrates the advantages of an alternative scoring procedure for Rudolf Moos' Work Environment Scale (WES: Insel & Moos, 1987). The WES measures ten aspects of the organizational and psychosocial work environment. As such, the WES provides a significant macroergonomic tool for quantitative exploration of the effects of organizational design and implementation efforts. These measures have shown to be significantly related to organizational behaviors, effects of organizational change interventions, and occupational stress and health response. However the current scoring procedure presents interpretation difficulties because of statistical complications in the scoring. The new scoring procedure emphasizes individual item decomposition and a new data transformation, which provide increased and more coordinated information about an organization. More specific comparisons between organizations, or between groups within organizations, are possible. Examples are presented from research on park rangers and communications workers. Item analysis of the WES provides increases in quantification of organizational climate variables, allows for additional knowledge to be learned from previously collected WES data in a wide variety of occupational settings, and provides a new direction for quantitative discussions in organizational climate research and development.
A Novel Approach to Clarifying Organizational Roles BIB- 934-938
  Stanley Caplan; Suzanne Rodgers; Harry Rosenfeld
Participatory Ergonomics for Seating -- Need for User-Oriented Approach BIB- 939-943
  H. Takeoka; S. Yamada; K. Noro

Organizational Design and Management: Teams and Collaborative Work

Collaborative Decision Making in Dynamic Systems BIBA 944-948
  Bruce G. Coury; Michele Terranova
Operators of power plants, management decision makers and military commanders are often faced with collaborating and coordinating decision making efforts with other people while simultaneously interacting with computer-based control or information systems. We view such activities as collaborative decision making and consider the communication and coordination involved in those tasks to be the essence of team performance. The purpose of this paper is to outline the important factors in collaborative decision making and identify the important issues relevant to communication and coordination in complex, dynamic systems. A model of collaborative decision making in dynamic systems will be described that relies on three important elements: decision making; communication; and the user interface.
Team Performance in Dynamic Systems BIBA 949-953
  Kevin N. Hooper; Bruce G. Coury; Michele Terranova
Teamwork is a critical component of complex decision making in dynamic systems. The research presented in this paper is concerned with team performance and the design of operator interfaces for dynamic systems. Thirty-six people were trained to supervise a simulated fluid processing plant using either a Graphic (Gr) Display or an Alphanumeric (Al) display. Baseline individual performance was obtained for operator ability to optimize system performance and diagnosis system failures. After individual performance was measured, operators were paired into teams. Teams were comprised of operators who had used either the same display or different displays as individuals, thus creating three types of teams: the AlAl team; the GrGr team; and the GrAl team. Each team supervised the simulated fluid processing plant in the same way as individuals, optimizing system performance while simultaneously diagnosing component failures. Results showed that, in general, teams were better able to control the system and diagnose failures than individuals; they were able to minimize fluid deviation from a set-point, used fewer control actions to control the system, required less time to diagnose failures, and probed the system less for information concerning component status. The GrAl team produced the best overall performance of the three types of display teams.
Individual and Team Communication in a Dynamic Task BIBA 954-958
  Michele Terranova; Diane Hartley; Bruce G. Coury; Kevin N. Hooper
The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an experiment designed to study communication and its role in performance on a task shared between two human operators. Specifically, the experiment addressed the effects of system representations and communication on individual and team performance. As individuals, the operators had independent access to a computer interface that represented system information either in a graphic or an alphanumeric format. In the second phase of the research, operators were paired into teams to supervise the system. Two operators supervised the simulated fluid flow process, coordinating system control and failure detection responsibilities through their voice-mediated communication. Teams were comprised of operators using graphic, alphanumeric, or a combination of both graphic and alphanumeric information. Protocol analysis, specifically a think aloud methodology, was used in order to study the cognitive strategies used by individual operators to supervise the system, and to identify the types of communication that lead to the best performance. Performance comparisons were made between operators performing as individuals and in teams. Team communication was analyzed and related to system performance. Both the amount of communication and content of the communication was related to effective individual and team performance. Discussion focused on the application of these results to the design of advanced controls, operator interfaces, and operator communication.
Toward a Framework for Structured Job-Collaboration Design BIBA 959-963
  Vitaly Dubrovsky; Anatoly Piscoppel
This paper introduces the idea that job design and design of collaboration are inseparable. On this basis, job design is reformulated as job-collaboration design. Combining activity theory and systems approach, the paper introduces several functional-structural models and interprets conventional job design decisions in terms of the modeling operations. It describes a sequence of stages for the first phase of structural job-collaboration design, which uses the introduced models and results in a design of the ideal job-collaboration network, which is supposed to function strictly according to the standards. Structured methodology for designing social support mechanisms, which compensate deviations from the standards experienced by real organizations is on our future agenda.

Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Focus on Job Conditions and Shiftwork

Job Conditions and Intentions to Quit BIB- 964-968
  William Cohen; Katherine J. Sanders; Michael J. Smith
Effects of Status on Group Decision Making: Ad Hoc versus Real Groups BIB- 969-973
  Vitaly Dubrovsky; Sivayya Kolla; Beheruz N. Sethna

Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Workload Transition: A Neglected Phenomenon

Workload Transition: A Neglected Phenomenon BIB- 974-975
  Beverly Messick Huey; Harold P. Van Cott
Teams in Transition: Analogous Systems BIB- 976-979
  Christopher D. Wickens
Vigilance and Workload BIB 980-981
  Joel S. Warm; William N. Dember; Jonathan P. Gluckman; Peter A. Hancock
Workload Transition: Job Design and Training Issues BIB- 982-986
  Joyce L. Shields; Michael E. Maddox

Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: What a Difference a Difference Makes

Performance Differences in Psychomotor and Dichotic Listening Tests among Landing Craft Air Cushion Vehicle Operator Trainees BIB- 987-990
  T. Nontasak; D. L. Dolgin; D. J. Blower
Individual Differences in Airline Captains' Personalities, Communication Strategies, and Crew Performance BIB- 991-995
  Judith Orasanu
Individual Differences in Computerized Test Performance for Systems Integration in Cockpit Management BIB- 996-1000
  Randall M. Chambers; Mihriban Whitmore
Comparing the Cattell 16PF Profiles of Male and Female Commercial Airline Pilots BIB- 1001-1004
  Marla L. Galloway; Charles D. Ogle; Frederick V. Malmstrom

Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Differences that Enhance -- Differences that Detract

Detecting People Who Can Detect Targets BIB- 1005-1009
  Linda G. Pierce; Lloyd M. Crumley; P. Andrew Clifford
Variations in Troubleshooting Skill as a Function of Psychological Arousal BIB- 1010-1014
  David L. Morrison; Yap Lai Meng; Caroline Farley
The Godfrey-Laux Alcohol Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions Assessment Battery BIB- 1015-1019
  Sandra S. Godfrey; Lila F. Laux
An Individual Differences Approach to Fitness-for-Duty Assessment BIB- 1020-1023
  Robert S. Kennedy; William P. Dunlap; Janet J. Turnage

Safety: Warnings and Safety Communications

Adequacy of Responses to Warning Terms BIBA 1024-1028
  S. David Leonard; Elisabeth Creel; Edward W. Karnes
Previous research has indicated that many persons have difficulty in describing the seriousness of hazards that are associated with some terms frequently used in warnings. Alternative explanations for this failure could be lack of understanding or simply inability to express their knowledge. Two studies were conducted in an effort to get more definitive information about what the general public knows about these terms. The obtained evidence suggested that many terms commonly used alone in warnings are not adequate to inform users of the extent of the hazards associated with those warnings. These results are discussed in terms of the need for completeness in warnings.
What Makes a Warning Label Salient? BIBA 1029-1033
  Michael A. Rodriguez
Existing research indicates warning labels are generally ineffective due to users ignoring them. One goal of the present experiment was to illustrate the importance that warning labels be as salient as possible. Features of salience examined in past research are size of the label, location, bold print, etc. The present study tests the effectiveness of warning label color and shape in terms of subject compliance, retention of label details, and perception of danger level. Results indicated that a written label surrounded by a shape resulted in higher compliance than a label with no surrounding shape. Color had significant effects only when used in conjunction with shape. A red label elicited a higher rating of potential danger, with green next, and black and white the lowest. A red octagon was significantly more effective than other combinations in terms of invoking a greater retention of label detail and also drawing higher ratings of perceived danger. A neutral shape elicited both lower subject compliance and fewer compliance points.
A Most Critical Warning Variable: Two Demonstrations of the Powerful Effects of Cost on Warning Compliance BIBA 1034-1038
  Thomas A. Dingus; Jill A. Hathaway; Bruce P. Hunn
The effects of cost on warning compliance have been demonstrated in several previous studies. These studies have shown that cost reduction can dramatically increase compliance with a warning label's intent. The current paper describes two studies which support these previous findings under situations of household consumer product and recreational protective equipment use. In addition, these studies demonstrate that cost reduction can positively influence behavior under circumstances known to be detrimental to warning effectiveness. Such circumstances include low risk perception, familiar products, and inadequate warning labels/signs. These studies also show that increasing the cost associated with warning compliance, even a seemingly minor amount, can have devastating effects on compliance rates. These results indicate that the greatest effort possible should be taken to reduce compliance cost in hazardous situations when warnings are relied upon for hazard control.
Two Reasons for Providing Protective Equipment as Part of Hazardous Consumer Product Packaging BIB- 1039-1042
  Thomas A. Dingus; Bruce P. Hunn; Steven S. Wreggit

Safety: Warnings and Hazard Prevention

A Revised Model of the Warning Process Derived from Value-Expectancy Theory BIB- 1043-1047
  David M. DeJoy
Product Evaluations and Injury and Assessments as Related to Preferences for Explicitness in Warnings BIB- 1048-1052
  Kent P. Vaubel; John W., Jr. Brelsford
Development of Child-Resistant Latches to Prevent Child Assess to Home Swimming Pools BIB- 1053-1057
  Donna Ratte; Neil Lerner; Richard Huey
Recognition of Traffic Sign Symbols in the Field during Daytime and Nighttime BIB- 1058-1062
  Helmut T. Zwahlen; Xiaohong Hu; Murali Sunkara; LuAnn M. Duffus

Safety: Safety Instructions and Warnings: Theories and Practice

A Model for Designing and Evaluating Product Information BIB- 1063-1067
  James M. Miller; J. Paul Frantz; Timothy P. Rhoades
Receiver Characteristics in Safety Communications BIB- 1068-1072
  Kenneth R. Laughery; John W. Brelsford
Product Warnings in Theory and Practice: Some Questions Answered and Some Answers Questioned BIB 1073-1077
  Alan L. Dorris

Safety: New Methods for the Identification, Modeling, and Quantification of Errors of Commission in Human Reliability Analysis

New Methods for the Identification, Modeling, and Quantification of Errors of Commission in Human Reliability Analysis BIB 1078-1079
  Heidi Ann Hahn; John A., II de Vries; Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Thomas G. Ryan
Identification of Human Errors of Commission Using Sneak Analysis BIBA 1080-1084
  Heidi Ann Hahn; John A., II de Vries
Sneak Analysis was adapted for use in identifying human errors of commission. Flow diagrams were developed to guide the analyst through a series of questions aimed at locating sneak paths, sneak indications, sneak labels, and sneak timing. An illustration of the application of this methodology in a nuclear environment is given and a computerized tool to support Sneak Analysis is described.
Modeling the Influence of Errors of Commission on Success Probability BIBA 1085-1089
  Harold S. Blackman
A new method for modeling the influence of errors of commission is presented. This method extends the modeling done in HRA event trees to more accurately represent the population of potential human errors associated with errors of commission. The modified HRA event trees are called commission event trees (COMETs). The fundamental difference between COMETs and HRA event trees is that COMETs model errors of commission and deal with the problem of cascading errors often encountered when errors are either intentional or latent in nature. An illustration of the application of COMET is given for an error of intention in a nuclear control scenario.
INTENT: A Method for Calculating HEP Estimates for Decision Based Errors BIBA 1090-1094
  David I. Gertman
Contemporary human reliability assessment techniques applied in the nuclear industry need to address more that simple errors of omission, errors of selection, and errors in task execution. The inadvertent selection of the wrong control from a bank of controls, skipping a step in a procedure by mistake, or the misreading of a display or indicator are representative of these classes of error. The distinction between simple errors and errors involving higher level cognitive processes has been acknowledged previously. As a next step, it is desirable to determine (1) the situations which promote the occurrence of low frequency high consequence decision based errors, (2) a classification scheme or framework for these errors, and (3) the expected failure rates for these errors once entry level conditions for their occurrence have been met. This presentation addresses 1 and 3 above, and presents a method for estimating errors associated with misunderstanding procedures, confusion regarding system response and inadequate problem solving. A function defining the relationship between composite performance shaping factors and human error probabilities is presented as well.

Safety: Industrial Safety

The Perceptual Determinants of Workplace Hazards BIB- 1095-1099
  David Shinar; Oded M. Flascher
The Role of Work Practices in Occupational Accidents BIB- 1100-1104
  Anne-Marie Feyer; Ann M. Williamson
A Task Analytic Investigation of Safety in Industrial Radiography BIB- 1105-1109
  William A. Wheeler; Jody Toquam
Real-Ear Attenuation under Laboratory and Industrial Test Conditions as Provided by Selected Hearing Protectors BIB- 1110-1114
  John G. Casali; Min-Yong Park

Safety: Human Factors Issues in Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems

Human Factors in the TravTek Demonstration IVHS Project: Getting Information to the Driver BIBA 1115-1119
  Rebecca N. Fleischman; Janeth T. Carpenter; Thomas A. Dingus; Francis E. Szczublewski; Mark K. Krage; Linda G. Means
Advanced Driver Information Systems (ADIS) have the potential to assist drivers in choosing and reaching destinations by supplying information that is more complete and timely than is currently available. These rapidly developing information and communication technologies are also expected to bring about improvements in traffic network efficiency and safety. However, presenting new information to drivers raises a number of human factors concerns such as the potential for information overload and distraction from primary driving tasks. The challenge to driver/system interface designers is to maximize usability and learnability, minimize attentional demand and information density, and provide choices for individuals. The TravTek project is presented as an example of how human factors concerns can be addressed within the constraints of a particular ADIS system and of how human factors engineering and research can be integrated into the system design process.
Human Factors Research on Future Automotive Instrumentation: A Progress Report BIBA 1120-1124
  Paul Green; Marie Williams; Colleen Serafin; Gretchen Paelke
This paper describes a 2-1/2 year project concerning human factors and future driver-information systems. The project goals are to (1) develop human factors guidelines, (2) devise test methods for safety and ease of use, and (3) develop a model that predicts driver performance when using these systems.
   A literature review has been completed and focus groups that identified driver needs have been conducted. In addition, a method was developed to select the most beneficial systems using accident reduction, congestion relief, and driver needs/wants as the criteria. Consequently, car phones, navigation, traffic information, vehicle monitoring, and hazard warning systems were selected for further study. Preliminary versions of each have been designed and laboratory tests are in progress. Usability tests in a driving simulator and on the road are scheduled.
Human Factors in Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems: A Look to the Future BIBA 1125-1129
  Truman Mast
To achieve greater mobility and safety in highway travel, the Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System (IVHS) concept links the vehicle, driver, highway, and traffic management team using advanced communications and computer-controlled technology. In the near future we will see considerable change in the basic nature of the driving task and the way traffic is managed in the U.S. These changes are driven by the urgent need to address the serious problems of increased traffic congestion, energy waste, high fatality and injury rates, and environmental pollution. Human factors considerations are critical in the design and operation of IVHS. The driver-vehicle and driver-highway interfaces will be altered and will require optimization. Traffic control centers will perform more complex functions and will need the best possible ergonomic design. Traffic management teams will need to be properly configured and trained to meet effective performance criteria for more demanding work conditions. This paper will discuss IVHS human factors issues from the perspective of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It will also review FHWA's IVHS human factors research and development needs and strategies for the near future. The issues and planned FHWA activities for IVHS human factors will be discussed in terms of four elements: Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO), and Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS).

Safety: Decision Making in Younger and Older Drivers

Age and the Perception of a Modulating Traffic Signal Light in a Field Location BIB- 1130-1133
  Lawrence T. Guzy; Nancy Pena-Reynolds; Richard D. Brugger; Herschel W. Leibowitz
Driving Habits of the Elderly -- A Survey BIB- 1134-1138
  Ram R. Bishu; Betty Foster; Patrick T. McCoy
Factors Influencing Drivers' Left Turn Decisions BIB- 1139-1143
  P. A. Hancock; J. K. Caird; S. Shekhar; M. Vercruyssen
Laboratory and Closed-Course Measures of Driver Decision Making BIB- 1144-1148
  Thomas A. Ranney

Safety: Potpourri: Fatigue, Slips, and Computer Tools

Countermeasures to Loss of Alertness in Motor Vehicle Drivers: A Taxonomy and Evaluation BIB- 1149-1153
  Robert R. Mackie; C. Dennis Wylie
Sleep Deprivations and Irregular Work Schedules BIB- 1154-1158
  Ph. Cabon; R. Mollard; A. Coblentz
Load Carrying and Slip Length BIB- 1159-1161
  Tom B. Leamon; Kai Way Li

Special Sessions: Panel

The Potomac Chapter's Proactive Initiative BIB 1162-1163
  Thomas B. Malone; Thomas M. Granda

Special Sessions: Demonstrations

Demonstration of the Visual Transition Test Bed -- Prototype (VTTB-P) BIB 1164
  Christopher C. Heasly; Thomas M. Granda; Randy M. Perse; Patricia J. Vingelis
Event Capture and Analysis Tools for Graphic User Interfaces BIBA 1165
  Monty L. Hammontree; Billy W. Hensley; Jeffrey J. Hendrickson
This was a demonstration of a set of tools used to: 1) compare and evaluate software applications and prototypes; 2) evaluate documentation and instructional material; and 3) process video tape recordings of human-computer interaction (HCI). These tools include an event capture tool, which records events related to objects in graphical user interfaces, data filtering tools, which translate and aggregate user-generated events into meaningful characterizations of the interaction, and a multimedia data analyzer, which couples event logs and video recordings from HCI testing sessions.
A Testbed for Teaching Problem Solving Skills in an Interactive Learning Environment BIBA 1166
  Stephanie A. E. Guerlain; Philip J. Smith; Thomas E. Miller; Susan M. Gross; Jack W. Smith; Sally Rudmann
An interactive learning environment was developed with the goal of empirically testing the effectiveness of various teaching strategies in improving problem solving performance. The domain chosen was transfusion medicine since it involves solving complex, multiple solution problems which are typically found to be difficult (Elstein, Shulman, and Sprafka, 1978) and because normal performance of this task calls for marking data sheets with intermediate conclusions, thereby improving the chances of the computer correctly inferring the student's reasoning. The testbed, called TMT (for Transfusion Medicine Tutor), monitors for errors, builds a model of what a student knows and can select teaching strategies based on human tutoring models that were developed from earlier studies. The testbed will be used to collect data of a student's performance in conditions where the degree of teaching and type of feedback are manipulated. A number of broadly applicable issues can be explored in this framework such as the difference between expert and student problem solving strategies, the effectiveness of different teaching strategies, and the importance of modeling student knowledge and providing visual feedback when developing an interactive learning environment. Preliminary results of our experiments, a demonstration of the testbed, and a discussion of how it was implemented will be presented in the demonstration session.
An Electronic Assistant for Scientific Investigation Working Prototype BIBA 1167
  Anne Schur; Dave Feller; Mike DeVaney; Jim Thomas; Morgan Yim
Although many automated tools support the productivity of professionals (engineers, managers, architects, secretaries, etc.), none specifically address the needs of the scientific researcher. The scientist's needs are complex and the primary activities are cognitive rather than physical. The individual scientist collects and manipulates large data sets, integrates, synthesizes, generates, and records information. The means to access and manipulate information are a critical determinant of the performance of the system as a whole. One hindrance in this process is the scientist's computer environment, which has changed little in the last two decades. Extensive time and effort is demanded from the scientist to learn to use the computer system. A common paradigm that meets the critical requirement of facilitating information access and retrieval by the chemist is demonstrated. This paradigm was embodied in EASI, a working prototype that increased the productivity of the individual scientific researcher.
Demonstration of the US Army Human Engineering Laboratory's HFE/MANPRINT IDEA (Integrated Decision/Engineering Aid) BIB 1168
  Thomas B. Malone; Christopher C. Heasly; Randy M. Perse
Seeing Beyond the Obvious: Understanding Perception in Everyday and Novel Environments BIB 1169
  Mary K. Kaiser; Dennis R. Proffitt; Ellen A. McAfee
Demonstration of Enlarged Target Area and Constant Visual Feedback to Aid Cursor Pointing Tasks BIB 1170
  Glenn A. Osga
Demonstration of Lockheed's Computer-Human Interface Rapid Prototyping (CHIRP) Toolkit BIB 1171
  Robert J. Remington
Anesthesia Simulation -- Demonstration BIB- 1172
  Sue Bogner; N. Ty Smith; David Gaba; John Williams
HSYS: A Computerized Methodology for Analyzing Human Performance in Complex Operational Settings BIBA 1173
  James C. Byers; Jerry L. Harbour; Cheryl A. Wilhelmsen
This demonstration presents HSYS, a computerized methodology for analyzing human performance in complex operational settings. HSYS was developed in an attempt to better understand the interactional relationship between humans and operational systems (Hill, Harbour, Sullivan, and Hallbert, 1990) and to examine the many factors which influence Human-SYStem interactions. HSYS focuses on system interactions from the human's perspective and is built around a linear model of human performance, termed the Input-Action Model. The HSYS program automates much of the process of investigating human performance using Flowcharts based on the Input-Action Model. So far, HSYS has been designed and used primarily as an incident investigation tool. It is conceived, however, that HSYS might be useful as an analytical development tool where the Flowcharts would be used to examine whether all aspects that may influence human performance have been considered.
Using GOMS Models and Hypertext to Create Computer-Based Medical Procedures: A Demonstration BIB 1174
  John W. Gosbee; Shannon Halgren; Leo Gugerty

Special Sessions: Lecture-Poster

Human Factors at the Department of Energy National Laboratories BIB- 1175-1179
  Daniel J. Pond; Robert M. Waters

Special Sessions: Joint CTG/CPTG Symposium:

Designing New Products and Services: Integrating Market Research, Human Factors and Industrial Design BIB 1180
  Robert W. Root; David N. Aurelio

System Development: Future Systems

Knowledge as Design: A Methodology for Overcoming Knowledge Acquisition Bottlenecks in Intelligent Interface Design BIBA 1181-1185
  Michael D. McNeese; Brian S. Zaff
This paper documents the historical perspective of 'knowledge as design' as a natural human philosophy which necessarily resulted in user centered design praxis. A revival of this philosophy is called for in the presentation of the advanced knowledge and design acquisition methodology. The application of this methodology for overcoming bottleneck problems and alleviating brittleness in the Pilot's Associate is described and evaluated. The paper discusses three specific techniques designed to capture these perspectives: IDEF modeling, concept mapping, and design storyboarding. An integrative structure combining these techniques is proposed as an interactive way to let users, as well as other design team members, assimilate, progressively deepen, and combine knowledge for the purpose of developing intelligent systems and human-machine interface designs. Results indicate that pilots were able to successfully reveal their own comprehension of an air-to-ground mission and transform conceptual knowledge into actual designs for an intelligent pilot-vehicle interface.
The Soldier System -- The Army's Future Vision BIB- 1186-1189
  Jane A. Simpson; Lawrence E. Symington
Future Systems Development: Limits on Vision BIBA 1190-1193
  Russell A. Benel
What we know about the rationale for the requirements for the new design is limited by the imperfect understanding of the current system and our inability to divorce ourselves from that past. This provides the basis for a conundrum. How can we become sufficiently knowledgeable and avoid the biases inherent in the process of acquiring that knowledge simultaneously? Consider carefully the lessons of history and evaluate whether the legacy of the previous system and its predecessors accelerates or retards progress toward the future. To capitalize on our experience we need to recognize facts and mythology in our understanding of the way things are and need to be. The most important question to ask is "Why?". Without a true understanding of why, we can't develop effective, user-centered alternatives to the current system and our efforts will reduce to mere technology replacement.
The Human Technology Project in Japan BIB- 1194-1198
  Sawaaki Yamada; Harold E. (Smoke) Price

System Development: Panel

Task Instructions and New Technologies: Still a Problem BIB 1199-1200
  Valerie E. Barnes; Susan Hill; Sue Bogner; Asaf Degani; Bob Smillie

System Development: Tools, Methods, and Simulation

Development of an AEGIS Combatant Integrated Survivability Management System (ISMS) Modeling Tool BIB 1201-1205
  Randy M. Perse; Kathryn P. Callahan; Thomas B. Malone
CREWCUT: A New Tool for Predicting Human Performance in Conceptual Systems BIB- 1206-1209
  Tom Plocher; John F., III Lockett; Peter Kovach; Jeffrey Powers
CREWCUT -- A Tool for Modeling the Effects of High Workload on Human Performance BIB- 1210-1214
  Beth Hahler; Susan Dahl; Ron Laughery; John Lockett; Brenda Thein
The Use of Fast-Time Simulation in Predicting Multioperator-System Efficiency BIB- 1215-1218
  Milt Stretton; Dick Swiontek; John Morris; Jane Conway; John Wachter

System Development: Tools and Methods and ...

An Observational Study of User Interface Design Practice BIBA 1219-1222
  Benedicte Due; Anker Helms Jorgensen; Janni Nielsen
Most studies of decision making in user interface design have been based on post-hoc interviews. To convey the realm of user interface design practice we conducted a longitudinal study of one designer in an organisation while designing an in-house database system. We applied the participant observation method. The observations revealed that the design took place in a highly turbulent organisational context, the working situation was extremely fragmented, and the information available on the users' tasks was incomplete and contradictory. Under these circumstances the designer adopted an ad-hoc design strategy. No specifications and plans were made. Instead, prototypes were developed aiming at getting feedback from users; however the users were much more concerned with organisational consequences of the system. In the prototypes, the user interface was literally designed from the upper left corner of each screen. Little explicit evaluation was made and drafts became promoted to the real system. Thus, the decisions became disjointed incrementals to the existing systems and work practise, i.e. the decision strategy was muddling through.
Capturing and Representing Decision Processes in the Design of an Information System BIBA 1223-1227
  Bruce G. Coury; Susan Motte; Lawrence M. Seiford
Incorporating the decision processes used by people in complex decision tasks is one of the most significant challenges facing designers of information systems. The need to capture and represent those decision processes is a fundamental part of the development of any information system and requires input from users. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to the design of information systems that identifies the information needs of the user, reveals the reasoning process and decision strategies employed by users to make decisions, and represents those processes and information requirements in such a way as to enhance system development. The research combines user needs analysis with cognitive modeling to provide the basis for the design of a prototype information system. The paper shows how user needs analysis provides the knowledge and information necessary to cognitively model the decision processes of users in a particular problem domain.
The Dynamics of Trust in a Supervisory Control Simulation BIBA 1228-1232
  John D. Lee
As automated controllers supplant human intervention in controlling complex systems, the operator's role changes from that of an active controller to that of a supervisory controller, interacting with the system by engaging different degrees of automatic and manual control. Because manual and automatic control have different capabilities and limitations, improperly allocating function between automatic and manual control can have negative consequences for system performance. The operator's decision to perform a task manually or automatically depends, in part, upon the trust the operators invest in the automatic controllers (Muir, 1989). Consequently, the factors influencing trust, as well as the dynamics of trust need to be identified.
   This research examines changes in operators' trust during an interaction with a simulated semi-automatic pasteurization plant. The results of this research show how trust develops as the operators interact with the system, as well as how trust changes in response to faults in the system. An ARMAV time series model of trust is proposed as a first step in developing a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of trust. The ARMAV analysis supports a quantitative understanding of the "inertia" observed in the both the gradual development of trust and the decline and recovery with the occurrence of faults. The findings in this paper form a foundation on which future research might build, eventually leading to a more complete understanding of the factors mediating an operator's allocation of function in a supervisory control situation.

System Development: Nuclear Systems

Nuclear Power Plant Alarm Systems: Problems and Issues BIBA 1233-1237
  John M. O'Hara; William S. Brown
Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies issues to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator.
Emerging Issues for Procedures in the Nuclear Industry BIB- 1238-1242
  Carol A. Tolbert; Christopher J. Moore; Douglas R. Wieringa
Advanced Control Room Evaluation: General Approach and Rationale BIB- 1243-1247
  John M. O'Hara; Jerry Wachtel
Development of a Human Factors Engineering Program for the Canadian Nuclear Industry BIB- 1248-1252
  J. D. Beattie; J. S. Malcolm

System Development: Panel

Evaluative Techniques for Automation Impacts on the Human Operator BIB 1253-1254
  Kevin Corker; Richard W. Pew; Bertram W. Cream; Barry R. Smith; Keith A. Butler; Carroll N. Day; Donald L. Monk; Michael J. Young; David D. Woods

Test and Evaluation: Models and Tools: Development, Application, and Validation

Integrating Micro Saint, HOS, and Anthropometric Models: A New Tool BIB- 1255-1259
  Susan Dahl; Lori Hood; K. Ronald Laughery; Jonathan Kaplan
On Validating Human Performance Simulation Models BIBA 1260-1264
  Jianqiao Liao; Paul Milgram
This paper addresses some of the difficult and elusive problems associated with validating human performance simulation models. Simulation validity can be subclassified into input validity, structure validity and output validity. Of these, output validity is the most objective and also the most important, because it determines whether or not the purpose of the modelling effort can be met. In testing for output validity analysis of variance alone is not sufficient for validating human performance simulation models, as is often taken for granted by many researchers. A more systematic approach is proposed and implications discussed. The approach is based on considering analysis of variance in terms of the power of the test and a predetermined level of acceptable differences between model and reality.
Data Bridging: Statistical Methods for Integrating Results Across Studies BIBA 1265-1269
  Sung H. Han
A procedure is described for integrating data sets from several studies based on a sequential research strategy. A data bridging technique is used so that the results of three previous studies can be combined to build integrated second-order empirical models. The previous studies investigateed 10 independent variables, but 16 uninvestigated interactions from the complete set of items in a second-order model were not investigated in these studies. To select the best data points for examining these uninvestigated interactions, the maximization of |X'X| criterion was used. A computer program was developed to calculate the determinant value of X'X matrix for each candidate data point. Each selected data point was then analyzed to determine multicollinearity of the uninvestigated interactions. From these analyses, six additional data points were selected to examine the 16 uninvestigated interactions. Results from six additional data points along with the previous data sets were combined to build second-order empirical models using polynomial regression. The empirical models were then analyzed to choose the best models in terms of statistical properties such as variances of coefficients and prediction variances of the models. This procedure is discussed as a method for integrating data collected through sequential experimentation into an empirical model describing the functional relationships among independent variables. This approach increases the generalizability of data used in the design and evaluation of human factors interfaces which involve a large number of factors.
Fuzzy Expert System for Selection of Chairs for Elementary School Pupils BIB- 1270-1274
  Takeshi Fujita; Kageyu Noro

Test and Evaluation: Interpreting and Organizing Human Factors Concepts and Information

The Epistemological Basis of Human Factors Research and Practice BIBA 1275-1279
  David Meister
Different types of knowledge (experimental, empirical, and experiential) combine with assumptions, beliefs, models, and theories to determine what Human Factors (HF) researchers and practitioners study and do. In research, problems of epistemology and meaning arise because one must interpret the meaning of effects produced in a study. In design, epistemology underlies the relationship between behavioral design variables and their anticipated performance effects.
Understanding What We Think We Know: The Role of Content Analysis in T&E BIBA 1280-1283
  William A. Wheeler; Tammy E. Fleming
Though we are quite clever in developed ways to measure and express system performance, including human system performance, we frequently, stop short of understanding what our results mean. One reason for this is that we do not have cost effective and efficient ways to use the richness of data available in written or verbal information. Techniques of protocol and content analysis provide ways to use such data, but are usually too expensive and time consuming to use in applied settings. This paper explores the possibility of human factors specialists using commonly available personal computers and software in ways that allow practical analysis of verbal and written material as part of a T&E effort.
Human Factors Taxonomy BIBA 1284-1287
  Valerie J. Gawron; George Anno; Edwin A. Fleishman; Edwin D. Jones; E. J. Lovesey; Lana E. McGlynn; Grant McMillan; Richard E. McNally; David Meister; Lawrence O'Brien; David M. Promisel; Tammy Ramierez; Bruce L. Smith
This paper: 1) describes the need for a human-factors taxonomy; 2) identifies existing taxonomies from the scientific, training, test and evaluation, and mission modeling disciplines; 3) lists the rules used in combining these taxonomies into a single, coherent taxonomy; 4) presents the taxonomy at its top levels; and 5) provides a source for obtaining a copy of the AIAA Human-Factors Taxonomy standard.
A Conceptual Framework for Classifying and Measuring Cognitive Skills BIBA 1288-1292
  John A. Modrick
A framework is presented for classifying the cognitive skills exercised in deploying and managing resources in competitive situations. Behavioral task descriptions are partitioned into four cognitive levels: functions, procedures, skills, and abilities. A cognitive procedure is defined as a goal-directed, semi-structured, flexible sequence of actions in an emergent situation, adapted to deviations from nominal values for local conditions, terrain, environment, and adversarial actions. A procedure is represented as Cognitive Procedure Script (CPS), a sequence of actions required to achieve an operational goal. Actions in a CPS must be reduced to detectable response/event sequences for carrying out the actions: Implementing Steps (IS). To infer a candidate CPS being executed a computer maintains a temporal record of IS and searches for patterns that correspond to an action in a CPS. The CPS is represented also as a sequence of states and subgoals instrumental to a final goal. Each state is defined by situational conditions, subgoal, state maintenance behavior, action to transition to the next state, and the IS for executing the action. Implications for task analysis and measures of task complexity are discussed. A long range strategy is presented for developing and validating a Cognitive Skills Taxonomy to support decisions about manpower, personnel, and training during system design.

Test and Evaluation: Development and Application of Measurement Techniques

Measures of Physician Mental Workload BIB- 1293-1297
  Dennis A. Bertram
User Field of Laser Protective Lenses BIB- 1298-1301
  Barbara A. Jezior; Cynthia L. Blackwell; Vicki M. Shearer
Methods for Test and Evaluation of Night Vision Goggle Integrated Helmets BIB- 1302-1306
  Kathy McCloskey; Robert L. Esken; Eric L. Scarborough
Testing a Subjective Metric of Situation Awareness BIB- 1307-1311
  Michael A. Vidulich; Edward R. Hughes

Test and Evaluation: Evaluation Methods and Techniques

A Rank-Based Method for the Usability Comparison of Competing Products BIB- 1312-1316
  James R. Lewis
Selecting Space Station Freedom Hardware BIB- 1317-1320
  Nancy B. Mitchell
Abilities Evaluation Method for Military Intelligence Personnel BIB- 1321-1325
  Beverly G. Knapp; Sally A. Seven; Frederick A. Muckler; Allan Akman
Recognition Measurement: Computer-Based and Paper-Based Methods BIBA 1326-1330
  Pat-Anthony Federico
According to a within-subjects design, 83 naval pilots and flight officers were administered computer-based and paper-based tests to assess recognition of aircraft silhouettes in order to determine the relative reliabilities and validities of these two measurement modes. Estimates of internal consistencies, equivalences, and discriminative validities were computed for multiple performance measures. It was established that the relative reliabilities and validities derived for these two assessment schemes were contingent upon the employed multivariate measurement criteria, i.e., percentage correct responses, average response latency, and average degree of confidence in recognition judgments, as well as the statistical criteria used to ascertain the comparative quality of these two modes of testing.

Test and Evaluation: How to Make T&E Results Usable and Truly Useful

How to Make T&E Results Usable and Truly Useful BIBA 1331
  Richard E. Christ; David Meister
The rationale for a discipline of test and evaluation (T&E) is that systems are developed to achieve certain purposes. This is true whether the systems in question are purely hardware, software, training, socio-political, or some combination of these or still other system types. The major objectives of test and evaluation are to determine whether the systems achieve their purposes and, if they do not, to determine how they can be improved. The human factors results of this effort must be both usable and useful if the T&E practitioner is to have credibility.
   The usability of T&E results is a function of the adequacy of the methods used for collecting and analyzing data in the context of real-world constraints, a world in which there may be frequent departures from an ideal test and evaluation environment. The measurement problems inevitably encountered include those associated with the disparity between the engineering and behavioral science disciplines, the complexities of experimental control in operational situations and operational fidelity in non-operational settings, and the absence of direct translations between human performance and the performance of the larger system of which the human is a part.
   The usefulness of T&E results is a function of how relevant they are to the decision makers who are managing the system development program, as well as those other individuals who are designing, developing, operating, maintaining, or using the outputs of the system. Unlike the human factors specialist, the T&E "customer" is generally not concerned with a search for the truth. Rather, the customer frequently needs only that information necessary to answer very specific questions. We will fail in our responsibility as human factors professionals if we do not provide the type of information, in the proper format, that will influence the decisions and behavior of the user of that information.
   Both the usability and the usefulness of human factors test and evaluation efforts must be properly addressed by T&E researchers and practitioners. This is true if for no other reason than for the sheer pragmatic need to get continuing support and funding for our discipline.
   The first two papers in this symposium will emphasize the usability of results in the real-world context of the T&E environment and the last two will emphasize the usefulness of the results to the sponsor or user. The participants have had multiple opportunities to reconcile and more clearly address differences in the positions they espouse through exchanges and critiques of their respective papers.
Robust Testing and Evaluation (T&E) of Systems BIBA 1332-1335
  Alvah C., Jr. Bittner
Using "robust" testing and evaluation (T&E) components will ensure system T&E success despite unanticipated resource and schedule shocks. Selected tools for building robust T&E plans, methods, and analysis components are described. These robust tools provide a beginning framework that the practitioner can build upon to achieve successful T&Es.
The User Oriented Evaluation Process: A Process for Preserving User Needs during Iterative System Test and Evaluation BIBA 1336-1340
  Steven Hunt; Anne Schur
A system development process, called the User Oriented Evaluation (UOE) process, and an evaluation tool were created to place greater emphasis on user needs during computer system development. The UOE process is an iterative method for design that emphasizes the role of the user as the initiator of system requirements; evolutionary design requirement definition by enabling users and developers to experiment through the use of prototypes at all phases of system design; and appropriate utilization of developer and user areas of expertise. The evaluation tool is an integral part of the UOE process and provides the ability to solicit on-line meaningful feedback from users in real-time, and a means to capture a user's on-going experience with the computer system. The paper contains a description of the UOE process and the evaluation tool, the capabilities of each and the history of their development.
A Multifaceted Approach to Enhance Operator Services for Regional Telephone Companies BIBA 1341-1345
  Robert J. Lysaght; Carla J. Springer; Robert R. Moritz; Jody E. McCain
Approximately 9 to 10 billion calls are handled by telephone operators of the Bell Operating Companies throughout the U.S.A. on a yearly basis. Bell Communications Research has an Operator Services Ergonomics district that employs a multifaceted approach to improving operator efficiency and comfort, and providing guidance on both the operator and customer human interfaces for new services. The approaches taken represent a recognition of several key factors that dictate and/or influence the type of test and evaluation conducted and how the results from such tests are conveyed to decision makers.

Training: Will Simulator-Like Sickness Have Impacts on Training in Virtual Environments?

Will Simulator-Like Sickness Have Impacts on Training in Virtual Environments? BIB- 1346-1347
  Robert S. Kennedy
Spatial Orientation and Dynamics in Virtual Reality Systems: Lessons from Flight Simulation BIBA 1348-1352
  Michael E. McCauley; Thomas J. Sharkey
Artificial representations of virtual worlds are becoming more common due to advances in the technology of image generation and display systems. Application areas include flight simulation, mission rehearsal, teleoperator systems, and virtual reality systems. System developers should be forewarned that some proportion of users will experience perceptual anomalies and symptoms of motion sickness as a result of travel through virtual space.

Training: Naturalistic Decision Making

Can Decision Analysis Define the Goals of Training? BIB- 1353-1357
  Marvin S. Cohen
Another Look at Decision Training BIB 1358-1362
  William C. Howell
Models of Skilled Decision Making BIB- 1363-1366
  Gary A. Klein; Caroline E. Zsambok

Training: Visual Issues in Training

Skill Acquisition and Task Performance in Teleoperation Using Monoscopic and Stereoscopic Video Remote Viewing BIBA 1367-1371
  David Drascic
There are many tasks hazardous to human life which can be accomplished remotely through telerobotic control. Robot technology has advanced to the stage where teleoperated manipulators are versatile and effective enough to be used successfully in a wide variety of circumstances. As telerobotic systems become more sophisticated, it is important to ensure that the human-machine interface is adequate for the task. One very important type of feedback information that is missing from standard telerobotic control stations is the immediate and compelling binocular coding of depth, which is thwarted through the use of standard monoscopic ("2D") video systems, making the operator dependent on other less salient visual depth cues. This is unfortunate, since most telemanipulation tasks require operators to have a good sense of the relative locations of objects in the remote world.
   To that end, a practical Stereoscopic Video (SV) system was developed that is compatible with standard video display and recording equipments. An experiment was conducted to examine the potential benefits of SV for teleoperation. The results showed that SV can aid teleoperation by reducing task execution times, reducing error rates, and reducing the time needed for training.
Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Terrain Features Relevant for Simulating Low-Altitude Flight BIB- 1372-1376
  James A. Kleiss
Contextual Change and Skill Acquisition in Visual Search: Does the Rate of Change Affect Performance? BIBA 1377-1381
  Mark D. Lee; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
The present investigation examined the effects of training context on the development of a skill in a semantic category visual search task. Thirty-two subjects were trained in a visual search task which allowed the separate examination of feature learning and attention strengthening. Subjects were trained in a Consistently Mapped (CM) condition which allowed both feature learning and attention strengthening, "Attenuated Strength" search conditions which allowed only feature learning, and a Variably Mapped (VM) condition which allowed neither feature learning or attention strengthening. The present experiment also examined the temporal characteristics of feature learning by manipulating the training context which was defined as the number of trials in a row that a particular search condition appeared. There were four different training contexts used (1, 5, 10, and 50) and eight subjects were assigned to each. Each subject performed 11,000 training trials. Analysis of the reaction time (RT) data indicated that within each training context, RT was fastest for the CM condition, intermediate for the Attenuated Strength conditions, and slowest for the VM condition. The results also suggest that 10 trials were sufficient for feature learning to occur. Furthermore, while there was evidence of attention strengthening in the CM condition there was no evidence of attention strengthening in the Attenuated Strength conditions. For inconsistent tasks that allow feature learning, the rate at which the context changes is a critical variable in determining final task performance.

Training: Panel

Assessing Aircrew Performance in Complex Tactical Environments BIB 1382-1384
  Wayne L. Waag; Herbert H. Bell; Anthony Ciaverelli; Douglas Eddy; Roger Schvaneveldt; Don Vreuls

Training: Potpourri

Use of Voice Technology for Language Training BIBA 1385-1389
  J. P. Kincaid; Margaret Thomas; David Arnold; Ann-Elise Lindeis
This paper describes the Language Technology Project at the University of Central Florida. The Goal of this project is to develop, evaluate, and commercially produce language courseware and training techniques for personal computers (PCs), including IBM and Macintosh, equipped with voice interfaces. The primary emphasis of the Language Technology Projects has been in the development of demonstration courseware. The second area is the evaluation of courseware, including research regarding effective computerized instructional strategies. Informal field-testing of one package in an Orange Country (Florida) elementary school suggests that the style of instruction is readily compatible with students as young as the first garde. Several studies have also provided insight into instruction design.
Development of a Measure of Training Program Effectiveness for Nuclear Power Plants BIB- 1390-1394
  Edward M. Connelly; Paul Haas; Susan B. Van Hemel; John Wreathall
Networked Simulation for Team Training of Space Station Astronauts, Ground Controllers, and Scientists: A Training and Development Environment BIB- 1395-1399
  Ankur R. Hajare; Daniel T. Wick; James J. Bovenzi
Scheduling Information Feedback to Enhance Training Effectiveness BIBA 1400-1402
  Diane E. Nicholson; Richard A. Schmidt
If skill learning is evaluated in terms of performance on retention or transfer tests, recent evidence has shown that systematically reducing the frequency of augmented information feedback in training facilitates learning, as compared to practice with augmented feedback on every trial. However, in past experiments feedback frequency and scheduling have been confounded. In the present experiments, we separated these variables, showing that both reduced feedback frequency, and the particular scheduling of feedback presentations, are important variables for maximizing learning.

Training: The Training of Expertise

The Analysis of Expert Performance in the Redesign of the En Route Air Traffic Control Curriculum BIB- 1403-1407
  Richard E. Redding; John R. Cannon; Bruce C. Lierman; Joan M. Ryder; Janine A. Purcell; Thomas L. Seamster
The Transfusion Medicine Tutor: Methods and Results from the Development of an Interactive Learning Environment for Teaching Problem-Solving Skills BIBA 1408-1411
  Philip J. Smith; Thomas E. Miller; Susan Gross; Stephanie Guerlain; Jack W., Jr. Smith; John Svirbely; Sally Rudmann; Patricia Strohm; Deborah K. Galdes
Investigations of students and practicing medical technologists indicate that both groups make significant numbers of errors tasks such as antibody identification. One potential solution to help with this problem is to provide access to a computerized learning environment in which users can get exposure to a larger and much broader set of problems than would otherwise be possible. This paper describes such a learning environment, the Transfusion Medicine Tutor, and discusses the ways in which it supports guided discovery learning.
Representing Expert Knowledge for Instructional System Design: A Case Study BIBA 1412-1416
  Sallie E. Gordon; Rhonda A. Kinghorn; Kim A. Schmierer
This paper describes the process by which an AI knowledge engineering technique was used for performing knowledge acquisition within the context of Instructional System Design. The method is a type of cognitive task analysis in which conceptual graphs are developed using several complementary knowledge acquisition methods. The graphs can be used to explicitly represent a variety of knowledge types including semantic, rule, and implicit knowledge. We outline the process by which we applied the method to represent expert knowledge for instructional design in the domain of engineering mechanics, and describe modifications and lessons learned from the application.
Team Member Shared Mental Models: A Theory and Some Methodological Issues BIBA 1417-1421
  Sharolyn A. Converse; Janis A. Cannon-Bowers; Eduardo Salas
This paper discusses the hypotheses that shared mental models enhance teamwork skills, and that superior teamwork skills increase the quality of team performance. Methodological problems encountered in the development and evaluation of shared mental models are discussed. These issues include selection of mental models that teammates should share, methods of measuring mental models, training mental models, and validation of the relationships between shared mental models, teamwork skills, and successful team performance.

Visual Performance: Display Quality

Contrast Sensitivity and English Letter Recognition BIBA 1422-1426
  Doug Poynter
Threshold luminance contrast for letter recognition is dependent upon the amount of color contrast present, the background luminance, letter size, the age of the observer, and level of glare. Mathematical descriptions of these relationships are presented, and a model of contrast sensitivity composed of these functions is proposed. Limitations of the model, initial tests of its validity, and potential applications are discussed.
Visual Display Highlighting and Information Extraction BIBA 1427-1431
  Tony J. Brown
This research examined the influence of computer-generated highlighting on visual search performance and information extraction. The tasks used to examine information extraction were a detection task (presence or absence of visual features), a localization task (knowledge of target's location), and an identification task (word identification). For each of the three tasks there were twelve highlighting techniques that were presented among displays of varying sizes (i.e., 3, 12, 24 items). The study tested twenty-five subjects, with a total of 30,480 screens being viewed. The results suggested that all the highlighting techniques tested were detected and localized more quickly and accurately than the non-highlighted condition. The identification task required the greatest amount of attention (i.e., processing time), and suggested a final stage of visual search where the content of a visually highlighted message is recognized. During all three tasks the information highlighted by color or by an enclosed frame was not influenced by changes in set size, and demonstrated the benefits associated with these visual display highlighting techniques. There was also partial support for the idea that some techniques may draw attention away from the item being highlighted (Fisher and Tan, 1989), while others may allow the highlighted item to "pop out" at the viewer (Treisman and Gormican, 1988). These findings also have implications for the presentation of computer-generated highlighting on visual display terminals.
Image Quality Determines Differences in Reading Performance and Perceived Image Quality with CRT and Hard-Copy Displays BIBA 1432-1436
  Gerard C. Jorna
The effects of physical image quality on reading and on perceived image quality from CRT and hard-copy (photograph) displays were studied. The results showed that as the image quality of a display increased, indicated by an increase in the value of the modulation transfer function area (MTFA), the reading speed and subjective image quality ratings increased. This change in reading speed and perceived image quality occurred similarly for both hard-copy and soft-copy conditions. If the image qualities of the displayed text are similar, hard-copy and soft-copy displays will yield equivalent reading speeds.
The Perception of Flicker in Various Ambient Light Conditions and at User Adjustable Screen Brightness Levels BIBA 1437-1441
  Kenichi Akagi; Barbara Kelly
The forgoing experiment was designed to observe and measure users' perception of flicker, also referred to as Critical Fusion Frequency (CFF) at a variety of controlled ambient light levels in a setting that was designed to approximate a range of realistic user environments. The goal of the study was to determine the phosphor type and refresh rate required to eliminate flicker perception for the majority of our sample of forty-eight (48) participants.

Visual Performance: Stereoscopic Displays

Exocentric Judgements in Real Environments and Stereoscopic Displays BIBA 1442-1446
  Stephen R. Ellis; Gregory K. Tharp; Arthur J. Grunwald; Stephen Smith
Spatial direction errors during interpretation of perspective images, such as 3D map displays, may originate from misjudgment of the orientation of the viewing direction used to make the display. One source of these errors could be perceptual evidence of the display surface. Two experiments are reported in which the same judgement exocentric task was presented, but the cues to the picture surface were reduced or eliminated by presenting the task as a stereoscopic, virtual image or by a geometrically matched physical model. A theory developed to model exocentric direction errors on perspective displays has been fitted to the data from these two experiments. The parameters estimated from the fit in both experiments indicate that the subjects may be more correctly estimating the viewing direction than in ordinary perspective displays. Consequently, in some real world or stereo viewing conditions, errors in estimating the viewing direction are not likely to dominate exocentric direction errors.
Perceived Spatial Layout of a Simulated Scene as a Function of Experience BIBA 1447-1451
  J. K. Caird; P. A. Hancock
A critical question in simulation is the degree of correspondence or alignment between what is seen in a generated graphics world and it's intended actual physical structure. An allied concern, is the role of perceptual experience as a potential influence on this perceived spatial layout. The present experiment examined the potential for these perceived distortions. Eight observers estimated the location of nine object locations embedded in a graphical scene of a traffic intersection. Participants were asked to judge the relative and absolute distances between objects in the display. Half the subjects viewed the intersection after driving for thirty minutes through the simulated traffic world while the remaining participants did not receive any prior experience. A multidimensional scaling analysis revealed differences between simulator and no simulator experience groups for absolute and relative 3-D solutions. Scaled representations of actual and perceived spaces are discussed in the framework of a model of perceived spatial layout and with respect to human factors issues in the use of both simulated and virtual worlds.
A Comparative Study of Rotational and Stereoscopic Computer Graphic Depth Cues BIBA 1452-1456
  Randy L. Sollenberger; Paul Milgram
The present research investigated the effectiveness of rotational and stereoscopic display techniques as applied to practical applications in computer graphics. In the described experiments, depth perception was evaluated by examining accuracy in a 3D path-tracing task, with stimulus displays resembling the structure of cerebral angiograms. In the first experiment, task performance was determined without 3D enhancements, with either technique used alone and with both techniques combined. The results indicated that performance improved using either technique, however, performance with rotational displays was superior to stereoscopic displays, and performance was best when both techniques were combined. The results of a second experiment revealed that rotational displays were no better than stereoscopic displays enhanced with multiple static viewing angles. The experimental findings are discussed in terms of the visual information available using either 3D display technique as well as with respect to the hardware requirements of both display systems. The results are also related to the weighted additive model of depth perception.
Enhancement of 3-D Video Displays by Means of Superimposed Stereo-Graphics BIBA 1457-1461
  Paul Milgram; David Drascic; Julius J. Grodski
This paper describes a number of aspects of a display technology under development, which involves the integration of stereoscopic computer graphics and stereoscopic video displays. The background and justification for this development are discussed, based on the need of operators of remotely controlled vehicles and/or manipulators to estimate absolute sizes and locations of objects at a remotely viewed site. The basic technology involves superimposing an interactively controllable computer-generated stereographic cursor onto a stereoscopically viewed video image. Absolute measurements can be made with this system, based on relative comparison of cursor position with target object location. Experimental results are presented in which the ability of subjects to perform such tasks was investigated. In general, results were promising; subjects were able to align virtual pointers with real targets essentially as well as they were able to manipulate real objects. A number of implications of this technology for the enhancement of three dimensional video displays are discussed.

Visual Performance: Color Displays and Eye Movements

Effects of Color-Coding, Retention-Interval, and Task on Time to Recognize Target-Updates BIBA 1462-1465
  Rebecca M. T. Jubis
This study examined the relative effects of color, shape, and color+shape codes on time to recognize whether or not targets were updated in sequentially-presented diagrams. These relationships were examined with different retention-intervals (RIs) and tasks, with and without updates. Response-time was faster with color+shape or color than shape, across tasks and across RIs, whether or not targets were updated. However, the benefit of both color conditions was greater when targets were updated and subjects performed a distractor task during the RI; i.e., color showed a greater resistance to interference effects.
Effects of Display Luminance on the Recognition of Color Symbols on Similar Color Backgrounds BIBA 1466-1470
  Robyn L. Crawford; Mona L. Toms; Denise L. Wilson
This study examined the effects of display luminance on the ability of human observers to recognize color symbols displayed against similar color backgrounds. The Signal Detection paradigm was utilized and subject sensitivity, as measured by d', was the primary measure of interest. The symbol colors were red, green, and blue. Background colors were .01 to .07 1976 CIE/UCS units distant from the symbol color. Luminance levels ranged from 11.85 cd/m² to 127.25 cd/m². The symbols were presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT) under ambient lighting of two lux. Display luminance was found to affect subject sensitivity, d', as a function of symbol-background color combination. The results imply that display luminance for the presentation of blue symbology on bluish backgrounds is optimal at 19 cd/m². For the red and green symbol-background conditions, display luminance between 56 and 93 cd/m² yields the best performance.
Experimental Evaluation of an Adaptable Acoustic Color Coding Interface System BIBA 1471-1475
  Floyd A., III Glenn; Allen L. Zaklad; Joan M. Ryder; Lee S. Goodman
Although a large amount of research has been performed to develop principles and guidelines for the effective use of color in display coding, very little of it has dealt with the color coding of continuously varying data -- also known as pseudo-coloring. This research is investigating the application of pseudo-coloring to the display of data from sonar systems, in order to enhance target detection and classification performance. A scheme has been developed for adaptable pseudo-coloring of sonogram displays, called an Adaptable Acoustic Color Coding Interface System (AACCIS), in which the sensor operator adjusts one or two dimensions of control of the color coding scheme in order to optimize performance in operational detection and classification tasks. Two experiments were performed to: (1) select specific adjustment parameters for user control, and (2) compare task performance between a few alternative adjustable and non-adjustable color codes.
Using Eye Movements to Classify Search Strategies BIBA 1476-1480
  Martha E. Crosby; W. Wesley Peterson
This paper describes a study which employed eye tracking to investigate visually searching lists. An experiment was designed to test if "cognitive style" influences search strategies. We examined the search patterns of subjects as they viewed lists of sorted and randomly ordered columns. We found that cognitive style was a good predictor of the scanning strategies of ordered lists. For the unordered lists, efficient, systematic searching was performed by college students but not by high school students.

Visual Performance: Attention and Workload

Utility of Secondary Task as a Workload Assessment Technique BIBA 1481-1485
  Pamela S. Tsang; Velma L. Velazquez
Recently Navon (1984) suggests that much of the dual task data that lend support to resource theories are methodologically flawed and that there are non-resource related mechanisms such as outcome conflict that could explain dual task data equally well. If Navon's concerns can be validated, the current view of workload as a resource-related concept would have to be revamped. The present research examined performance tradeoff -- demonstration of resource allocation -- with the optimum-maximum method. The optimum-maximum method was a variation of the secondary task technique proposed by Navon to encourage maximum joint task performance without conveying to the subjects that task performances must tradeoff. A continuous tracking task and a Sternberg memory task were used; three priority levels were used to induce resource allocation. An absence of performance tradeoff with the optimum-maximum method would support Navon's claim that performance tradeoffs may not be true indications of resource competition or task demand and therefore not reliable reflection of mental workload. Performance tradeoff was observed when the tracking task was optimized. When the Sternberg task performance was optimized, Sternberg performance was sensitive to the priority manipulations but the concurrent tracking performance was not. Peripheral vision was proposed to have protected the tracking performance when subjects were visually focusing on the Sternberg stimuli. However, the peripheral vision hypothesis could not account for the graded performance changes across priority levels. The present data suggest that the resource view is still a useful concept and the secondary task technique still could provide informative disclosure about task demand and mental workload.
Performance Feedback and the Optimum-Maximum Procedure BIBA 1486-1490
  Barry P. Geottl; Jane Joseph
The present experiment examines the effects of on-line feedback in the optimum-maximum procedure proposed by Navon (1985). Twenty Clemson University students performed a dual-task consisting of two compensatory tracking tasks. Subjects performed three different dual-task combinations in which the tracking dynamics of the two tasks was varied. Each tracking task was optimized at three levels. One group received on-line feedback on both tasks, the other group did not. Results indicated modest performance trade-offs between tracking tasks. The performance trade-offs appeared to be stronger when on-line feedback was used. These data demonstrate the effects of on-line feedback on dual-task performance and suggest that conclusion concerning resource trade-offs may depend on whether performance feedback is provided.
Effects of Feedback on Perceived Workload in Vigilance Performance BIB 1491-1494
  Ami B. Becker; Joel S. Warm; William N. Dember; Peter A. Hancock
Cardiorespiratory Measures of Workload during Continuous Manual Performance BIB- 1495-1499
  Richard W. Backs; Arthur M. Ryan; Glenn F. Wilson

Visual Performance: Electro-Optic/Infrared Technology and the Human-Machine Interface

Electro-Optic/Infrared Technology and the Human-Machine Interface BIB 1500-1501
  Theodore J. Doll
Human Factors Issues in the Use of Night Vision Devices BIBA 1502-1506
  Mary K. Kaiser; David C. Foyle
Electro-optical imaging systems have been integrated into rotorcraft operations, allowing pilots to fly at very low altitudes and avoid obstacles in reduced visibility. The hardware characteristics of these systems result in visual displays which differ significantly from unaided, daylight vision. The impact of these differences on perceptual performance (and, ultimately, on pilotage) is poorly understood. In this paper, we identify critical human factors concerns suggested by field data and review empirical studies of performance on flight-relevant perceptual tasks, notably depth and distance perception. Hardware modifications to improve man-system performance are suggested.
Computer-Generated Infrared Imagery for Combat-Vehicle Identification Training BIBA 1507-1511
  Albert D. Sheffer; J. Michael Cathcart; Nickolas L. Faust; James I. Montgomery; Theodore J. Doll
Development of a computer-based system for generating simulated infrared (IR) imagery is described. The system provides realistic representations of IR targets and backgrounds for training soldiers in combat vehicle identification (CVI). Simulations of several fielded IR sensors enables system users to generate training imagery sets, both snapshots and animated sequences, showing realistic sensor effects. The system is workstation-based and has a user interface that permits a non-expert to generate desired imagery sets from menus of available models and scenarios.
PC-Based System for Thermal Image Identification Training BIBA 1512-1516
  Robert LaFollette; John Horger; Barbara O'Kane
The U.S. Army's CECOM Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics (C2NVEO) has been conducting a series of human perception tests to complement results of field tests. The perception tests score military observers on their ability to identify and recognize simulated thermal images of combat vehicles. The results of these tests are used to develop and refine the Night Vision FLIR Performance Model (FLIR90/ACQUIRE) which predicts range performance for human target acquisition using different sensor designs.
   During the analysis of an early group of tests it became apparent that observers needed to be trained to equal levels of competence before taking the tests. For this purpose, we created a software package designed to teach observers about thermal signatures and to help the observer become more familiar with the target set used in our tests. In the following months we trained and tested dozens of soldiers and civilians with various backgrounds. These training and testing sessions provided a large database of observations for analysis.
   The paper includes discussions of the simulation techniques used to produce the test and training imagery and a description of the software package used for training. Conclusions are discussed in light of the patterns of learning achieved by the training and some implications for the human perception of tactical targets.
Target Acquisition Criteria for Human Observers BIB- 1517-1521
  Grant R. Gerhart

Visual Performance: Displaying Information

Effectiveness of Coding Schemes in Rapid Communication Displays BIBA 1522-1526
  Sarah J. Swierenga; Kenneth R. Boff; Rebecca S. Donovan
An important issue in implementing Rapid Communication (RAPCOM) display technology is the manner in which information is coded within a given display sequence. This study compared performance on a search task for four single coding strategies as well as four redundant code combinations at five presentation rates. Results indicated significant differences in accuracy and reaction time for task performance using single and redundant codes at various frame durations. These findings helped to identify several potential coding formats that can be utilized in real-world settings.
Effects of Concurrent Information Load on Serial and Simultaneous Visual Display Formats BIBA 1527-1531
  John Uhlarik; Kurt M. Joseph; Michael D. Renfro
RAP-COM (rapid-communication) displays have been shown to have useful potential human-computer interactions involving high information transfer rates (cf., Matin and Boff, 1988). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of serial and simultaneous presentation of information via computer automated visual displays. Serial display formats involved rapid sequential presentation of discrete frames of information in a single spatial location. Whereas simultaneous formats consisted of presenting equivalent information in the same temporal frame, but in different spatial locations. The effectiveness of these two display formats were compared for different conditions which systematically varied concurrent information load. Surprisingly, the results indicated that in all of the variations of the tasks, simultaneous display formats were associated with faster and more accurate performance. These findings suggest that is difficult to make apriori predictions regarding performance advantages associated with automated displays.
Boutique Data Graphics: Perspectives on Using Depth to Embellish Data Displays BIBA 1532-1536
  C. Melody Carswell
Embellishing simple graphs by adding perspective, "the 3-d look," has become increasingly commonplace with the ready availability of graphics software. However, the effect of adding such decorative depth on the comprehension and recall of the graph's message has received little attention. The present study evaluated performance on common graphical formats (e.g., bar graphs, line graphs, and pie charts) constructed with and without the 3-d look. The addition of depth was associated with less accurate performance for subjects attempting to (1) estimate the relative magnitude of displayed values, (2) classify and describe trends, and (3) recall quantitative information about both specific values and trends. Although less accurate, subjects responded more quickly to the 3-d graphs when performing one type of trend classification. Line graphs, more than bar graphs or pie charts, were susceptible to the impact of decorative depth on performance. Further data suggest that the use of 3-d designs, in addition to modifying performance, may influence the attitudes formed by subjects toward the information presented in the graphs.
Perceiving Correlations from Scatterplots BIBA 1537-1540
  Joachim Meyer; David Shinar
This study investigated the effects of statistical training and various perceptual characteristics of scatterplot displays on intuitive estimates of correlations. University professors and first year undergraduate students estimated correlations from scatterplots (1) with three different levels of correlation in the data, (2) with or without a regression line, and (3) with three different types of dispersion of the data point clouds. The faculty generally used higher and a wider range of values, but both groups perceived a higher correlation when a regression line was present and both groups were equally influenced by the different types of dispersion of the point cloud. These findings indicate that the estimation of correlations from scatterplots is a perceptually based process, which is largely independent from formal statistical training.

Visual Performance: Compatibility and Cognitive Processing

Effects of Response Symmetry upon Bi-Manual Rapid Aiming BIBA 1541-1545
  Barry H. Kantowitz
This experiment investigated effects of response symmetry in a two-handed aiming task. A first-order system with isometric controllers was used to present the task. The Motor Program hypothesis predicts better performance in a symmetric condition because only one set of parameters is required to control both hands. The Divided Attention hypothesis predicts better performance in an asymmetric condition because attention can be more readily switched between hands. Results supported the Divided Attention hypothesis because (1) accuracy was better for the asymmetric condition, and (2) the relative advantage of the asymmetric condition increased as targets became more difficult.
S-R Compatibility Effects with Orthogonal Stimulus and Response Dimensions BIBA 1546-1550
  Anthony D. Andre; Ian Haskell; Christopher D. Wickens
An experiment was conducted to assess the relative influence of several factors on performance with orthogonal stimulus-response arrays. Subjects responded to the onset of one of three aligned light circles with a press of one of three aligned response keys. The response array was aligned parallel, angled, or orthogonal to the stimulus array. The results indicated that performance with orthogonal arrays is worse than with parallel or angled S-R arrays. For the orthogonal arrangements, the results also indicate that each hand prefers a mapping directly opposite to the other hand, and that this mapping reverses when the orientation of the stimulus and response arrays are transposed. In addition, the results also revealed that the relative costs of orthogonal S-R arrangements are somewhat attenuated when the assigned mapping associates (i.e, colocates) a given display with its closest control.
Musical Notation for the Keyboard: An Examination of Stimulus-Response Compatibility BIBA 1551-1555
  Gary Biel; C. Melody Carswell; Paul Salmon; Brenda Kee
The principles of stimulus-response compatibility were used to provide a performance evaluation of an experimental notation for the keyboard in which pitch varies horizontally in visual space. Subjects performed a choice reaction time task using either the horizontal notation or a more traditional vertical notation. Half the subjects in each notation group were provided white noise and half pitch-varying feedback with responses. Responses were reliably faster with the horizontal display. Further, the superiority of the horizontal display was not dependent on the nature of the feedback. In a second experiment, performance of musicians and nonmusicians was compared using the horizontal and vertical notations. Performance by musicians was equivalent with horizontal and vertical displays and uniformly better than nonmusicians. The findings fail to support the argument that horizontal visual representations will be less useful in musical tasks because they will be incompatible with the mental representation of pitch as varying vertically from 'low' to 'high'.
Overconfidence, Preview, and Probability in Strategic Planning BIBA 1556-1560
  Christopher D. Wickens; David Pizarro; Brian Bell
This study examined biases, sources of difficulty and display support in strategic planning. Eight subjects performed a strategic planning "rescue" video game, which required them to make a series of choices regarding which node to "fly to" in order to rescue simulated casualties. After making each choice, subjects needed to fly a challenging tracking dynamics along a path to reach the next "node" in the decision space where the casualties were "rescued." The dynamics along each path could be at one of four levels of difficulty. The difficulty determined the probability that the corridor would be flown successfully and therefore casualties rescued at the other end. To maximize their score, subjects had to consider the number of casualties at each node, the length of the path to the node (the shorter the better), and the probability they would fly the path successfully (an estimate of their own performance based on past experience). Periodically subjects were asked to give explicit estimates of those probabilities, such data provided in order for us to evaluate the calibration of estimated with true probability of success. Half the flights were flown with restricted preview of only the two nodes of the immediate choice. The other half offered full preview of the whole map.
   The results revealed that (a) subjects' decisions were less optimal when full preview was offered, (b) this deficiency appeared to result because full preview led subjects to rely too much on the simple strategy of choosing routes with most casualties, and neglecting the use of more abstract probability values in guiding their choices, (c) subjects appeared to be well calibrated in their confidence of traversing paths correctly.

Visual Performance: Visual Performance Applications

Bias in Police Lineups and its Reduction by an Alternative Construction Procedure BIB- 1561-1565
  Michael S. Wogalter; Laura J. Van't Slot; Michael J. Kalsher
Use of Visual Cues by Orienteers: An Analysis of Interview Data BIB- 1566-1569
  Leslie A. Whitaker; Grayson Cuqlock-Knopp
Active Control versus Passive Observation in a Simulated Flight Task BIB- 1570-1573
  John F. Larish; George J. Andersen
Visibility of Head Up Display (HUD) for Automobiles BIBA 1574-1578
  Yasuhiro Inuzuka; Yoshimasa Osumi; Hiroaki Shinkai
The human factors benefits of the Head Up Display (HUD automobile applications are improved visibility, and prevention of view-obstruction when collecting driving information. We evaluated several HUD's considering such factors as location (in-plane location and distance), character size, brightness and color through investigations of view-point distribution, measurement of recognition time and subjective evaluation. The results made clear an appropriate range for each factor. It was also confirmed that the HUD recognition time is significantly shorter than that of the conventional instrument panel display by more than 0.1 second.

Visual Performance: Integrating Information

The Impact of Alternating Between Integral and Separable Displays in a Multidimensional Decision-Making Task BIBA 1579-1583
  Janine A. Purcell; Bruce G. Coury
Research into the format of visual displays of multidimensional data has revealed relative superiority of certain formats in relation to the nature of task demands such as fault diagnosis versus fault detection. Previous research also suggests that order of training or experience in working with alternate display formats might also influence the ability of operators to gain the full benefits of these display formats. This last factor comes into play during the redesign of existing displays and the design of multiple display environments in domains such as nuclear process control, tactical and commercial flight, and anesthesia monitoring.
   The experiment described in this paper sought to further examine and clarify the types of performance decrements that can emerge after switching visual display formats used to support a complex decision-making task (Purcell and Coury, 1988). Accuracy and response time performance demonstrated that transfer of training was asymmetric after the switch. These results indicate that the order in which operators learn to use a given format of visually displayed data can enhance or hinder their subsequent use of alternate display formats. Redesign efforts and/or the use of multiple display formats in complex decision-making settings must address these effects.
Improving the Effectiveness of Configural Displays Through Mapped Emergent Features and Color-Coded Graphical Elements BIBA 1584-1588
  Kevin B. Bennett; Mona L. Toms
When completing tasks in complex, dynamic domains individuals must consider both high-level issues (e.g., relationships among several variables) and low-level data (e.g., the values of individual variables). An important issue in display design is to determine those graphic forms that allow the efficient extraction of information at both levels. One display that has the potential to achieve these dual design goals is the configural (object) display. Research on configural displays has indicated that this type of display will facilitate the extraction of information about high-level issues if the emergent features directly correspond to the critical data relationships that exist in a domain. On the other hand, designing configural display to offset the cost that is usually associated with the extraction of low-level data has proven to be more difficult. One potential design strategy to accomplish this is to increase the perceptual salience of the lower-level display elements and color coding is one technique to achieve this. Performance for color-coded configural and separate displays was compared in two empirical investigations. For the extraction of information regarding high-level issues the configural display significantly increased accuracy with no cost in latency. For the extraction of low-level data there were no differences between the configural and separate display for accuracy, but there was a significant decrement in latency associated with the configural display. However, the results indicate that this decrement in performance dissipates with experience, and under certain conditions was not significant.
Measurement Scale and Zero Point Indicators Affect Object Display Separate and Integral Task Performance BIBA 1589-1592
  Nancy J. Dolan; Greg C. Elvers; Jeffrey Schmidt
Object displays, compared to bar displays, usually show better performance on tasks that require the operator to integrate the information presented. The cost of this benefit is that performance on separate tasks, where the operator needs to extract individual pieces of information, is typically not as good with an object display as with a bar display. One potential explanation for the decrement in performance seen when using the object display for separate tasks is the lack of a frame of reference for the separate tasks. In this study the frame of reference was manipulated by providing varying degrees of units of measure (full, partial and no tick marks) and presence or absence of a zero point. The results indicate that, if a frame of reference is present reaction time (RT) on the separate task is improved, but at the expense of the integration task. Root-mean-square (RMS) error is reduced if a frame of reference is present. A speed-accuracy trade-off was observed for the integration task with unit of measurement present. Implications for the design of object displays are discussed in light of this trade-off.
Visual Integration of Tactile Information in Telerobotics BIBA 1593-1596
  Roger A. Browse; Marcia L. McDonald
We have carried out three experiments which explore the effectiveness of various visual depictions of tactile data for the task in which subjects view a robot gripping an object and attempt to predict if the robot will be able to pick the object up. The display types tested range from simple total closing force values through to graphic three-dimensional contour plots, overlaid with force-torque vectors, with the subject having dynamic viewpoint control over the display.
   Our results suggest that an operator's utilization of such tactile displays depends on the effectiveness of the model of the gripping configuration which can be obtained through visual images of the scene. In the case of simple planar contact between gripper and object, a total force value produced maximum performance enhancement. In more complicated, or awkward non-planar gripping, the total force value was of no use, but spatially distributed force representations could still yield enhanced performance.
   Further experimentation was carried out with complex displays which subjects reported as depicting the contact forces better. It was found that these displays actually reduced performance, drawing into question the telepresence assumption that more realistic information will lead to better telerobotic operator performance.