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HFS Tables of Contents: 87-187-288-188-289-189-290-190-291-191-292-192-293-193-294-194-295-195-2

Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990-10-08

  1. HFS 1990-10-08 Volume 2
    1. International Technology Transfer: Progress in Development: Concentration on Basics
    2. Organizational Design and Management: Cost-Justifying Human Factors Support
    3. Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Considerations in Office Environments
    4. Organizational Design and Management: Panel
    5. Organizational Design and Management: Overview of Management and Organizational Effects on Industrial Safety
    6. Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Enhancement of Individual and Team Performance
    7. Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Individual Differences in Man-Machine Interaction
    8. Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Individual Differences in Dynamic Spatial Reasoning
    9. Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Individual Differences in Human Performance
    10. Safety: Protective Equipment
    11. Safety: Safety and Hazard Communication
    12. Safety: Highway Safety: Identifying and Coping with the Impaired Driver
    13. Safety: The Arnold Small Lecture in Safety
    14. Safety: Panel
    15. Safety: Risk Perception
    16. Safety: Aviation Safety and Analysis
    17. Safety: Safety Potpourri
    18. Safety: Transportation Safety
    19. Special Sessions: Demonstrations
    20. System Development: Requirements Analysis and Design
    21. System Development: Modeling
    22. System Development: Emergencies in Complex Systems
    23. System Development: Panel
    24. System Development: Applied Decision Making
    25. System Development: Human Factors in the Maintenance and Inspection of Aircraft
    26. Test and Evaluation: Large-Scale System Evaluation
    27. Test and Evaluation: Methods and Tools
    28. Test and Evaluation: Models and Methods
    29. Test and Evaluation: Human Factors Measurement: The Challenge
    30. Test and Evaluation: Verbal Protocols as a Research Tool in Human Factors
    31. Test and Evaluation: Methods and Tools
    32. Training: Training Task Analysis
    33. Training: Training Methodology
    34. Training: Cognition and Training
    35. Training: Team Training
    36. Training: Training Media
    37. Training: Panel
    38. Training: Software Tools for Training
    39. Visual Performance: Physiological Measures of Human Performance
    40. Visual Performance: Panel
    41. Visual Performance: Visual Mechanisms in Human Performance
    42. Visual Performance: Spatial Displays
    43. Visual Performance: Object Displays
    44. Visual Performance: Cognitive Processing
    45. Visual Performance: Visual Performance Applications
    46. Visual Performance: Designing Aviation Displays
    47. Visual Performance: Visual Issues in Advanced Displays

HFS 1990-10-08 Volume 2

International Technology Transfer: Progress in Development: Concentration on Basics

Controlled English for International Technical Communication BIB- 815-819
  J. Peter Kincaid; Margaret Thomas; Kimberly Strain; Ivonne Couret; Kevin Bryden
The Implications of Schema Theory Reading Research to Technology Transfer in Developing Countries BIB- 820-823
  Gayle L. Nelson
Acquisition of Skills for New Plant Start-Up in Singapore Along with a Plan to Retain Employees BIB- 824-826
  Herman Birnbrauer
Primary Human Factors Considerations in the Transfer of Large-Scale Technological Systems to Developing Countries BIB- 827-831
  Najmedin Meshkati

Organizational Design and Management: Cost-Justifying Human Factors Support

Pay Me Now or Pay Me Later -- But How Much? BIBA 832-833
  Randolph G. Bias
This introductory paper to the symposium on Cost-Justifying Human Factors Support makes the point that human factors professionals vying for development resources must quantify the value of their support. It asks the question "How can we better cost-justify our human factors support"? It then introduces the other five panelists who will proceed to answer the question.
Cost-Justifying Human Factors Support -- A Framework BIBA 834-838
  Deborah J. Mayhew
This paper is part of a symposium on Cost-Justifying Human Factors Support. The preceding paper sets the stage for and motivates the topic. This paper provides a broad framework for performing a cost/benefit analysis for any collection of (or any single) human factors tasks and activities that might be added to a development project. Although the emphasis is on software human factors, the framework would apply equally well to hardware human factors projects. The perspectives of both vendor companies and internal data processing organizations serving internal users are taken into account. Other papers in the symposium offer particular case histories supporting the cost/benefit approach outlined here, and offer a manager's perspective on the cost/benefit analysis technique.
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Usability Engineering Techniques BIBA 839-843
  Clare-Marie Karat
A methodology for computing the value of iterative usability work is presented using data from a series of three usability tests of each of two software applications. The cost-benefit analysis methodology provides software development managers a basis for making pragmatic decisions about human factors work. The projected dollar value of the reduction in end user time on an application task based on data from the first to the third test is compared to the costs of the usability work. The analysis shows a 2:1 dollar savings-to-cost ratio for a relatively small development project and a 100:1 savings-to-cost ratio for a large development project. Sources of additional savings are examined. Methodological techniques employed during the iterative usability testing are highlighted and the tradeoffs concerning use of these techniques for human factors, software development schedule, and economic reasons are discussed. Cost-benefit analysis is one of several mechanisms that generate product management support for human factors work and may facilitate a better understanding of the value of incorporating human factors work in software development.

Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Considerations in Office Environments

Computer Use in the Scientific Office BIB- 844-848
  Doug Miller; Donald D. Davis; Frank Elio
Perceptions of Work Environment and Psychological Strain across Categories of Office Jobs BIB- 849-853
  Pascale C. Sainfort
Electronic Performance Monitoring, Job Design and Psychological Stress BIB- 854-858
  Katherine J. S. Rogers; Michael J. Smith; Pascale C. Sainfort
Computer-Aided Facilities Diagnostics: A New Software Tool for the Armory of the Macro-Ergonomist BIB- 859-863
  Alan Hedge; Dana Ellis

Organizational Design and Management: Panel

The Case for Integrating Human Factors and Industrial-Organizational Psychology BIB- 864-865
  Carlla S. Smith; Ogden, Jr. Brown; Eduardo Salas; Grace Waldrop
Diffusing Human Factors Expertise: Human Factors Training in the Client Community BIB- 866-867
  John G. Geirland; Michelle Robertson; Gunilla Bradley; Bruce Lierman

Organizational Design and Management: Overview of Management and Organizational Effects on Industrial Safety

Overview of Management and Organizational Effects on Industrial Safety BIB- 868-870
  Donald L. Schurman; Joel J. Kramer
Influence of Organizational Factors on Safety BIB- 871-875
  Sonja B. Haber; Daniel S. Metlay; Deborah A. Crouch
Empirical Studies of Candidate Leading Indicators of Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: An Expanded View of Human Factors Research BIB- 876-880
  Mary L. Nichols; Alfred A. Marcus
A Structure of Influences of Management and Organizational Factors on Unsafe Acts at the Job Performer Level BIB- 881-884
  Nancy S. Anderson; Donald L. Schurman; John Wreathall
Types, Tokens and Indicators BIB- 885-889
  James Reason

Organizational Design and Management: Macroergonomic Enhancement of Individual and Team Performance

Total Quality Management within a Navy Organization: Assessing the Transformation Process BIB- 890-894
  Delora M. McDaniel; Amy L. Culbertson; Tom L. Diamond; Linda M. Doherty
MANPRINT Enhancement Methods: Organizational Change Process Review BIB- 895-898
  Joseph I. Peters; Stephen P. Masterson; Glen Hewitt
The Adjustment to a Slowly Rotating Shift Schedule: Are Two Weeks Better Than One? BIB- 899-903
  James C. Duchon; Christopher M. Keran
Macroergonomic Considerations in Determining Minimum Safe Crew Size on Maritime Vessels BIB- 904-906
  Hal W. Hendrick; Martha Grabowski

Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Individual Differences in Man-Machine Interaction

Social Influence and Preference of Direct-Manipulation and Keyboard-Command Computer Interfaces BIBA 907-911
  Michael S. Wogalter; Richard L. Frei
Direct-manipulation and command-based computer interfaces have each found their own following among microcomputer users. This study explores some of the differences between these two groups of computer users. Participants completed a questionnaire that requested their microcomputer usage and ownership, usage and preference of various command methods and pointing devices, the microcomputers most of their friends use, the microcomputer they would be most willing to purchase next, and their preference for several models of microcomputers. The results showed that participants preferred pointing devices (e.g., mouse) compared to other input methods (e.g., arrow keys) regardless of their prior usage. They tended to use an interface similar to that of their friends' and they reported greater willingness to purchase a computer with an interface similar to the one they most often use. In general, the results suggest that social influence and interface familiarity are important factors in determining which interface people choose to use. Being surrounded by others who use a similar computer interface eases the burden (in terms of effort, time, and expense) of obtaining relevant computer information. An implication of this work is that these variables may hinder approval and acceptance of improved computer interface designs offered by human factors specialists.
Interruption of a Monotonous Activity with Complex Tasks: Effects of Individual Differences BIB- 912-916
  Ph. Cabon; A. Coblentz; R. Mollard
Modeling Individual Differences at a Process Control Task BIB- 917-921
  C. Michael Lewis
The Iowa Silent Reading Test's Comprehension Section: Local Norms and Predictive Validity for Usability Studies BIB- 922-926
  James R. Lewis

Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Individual Differences in Dynamic Spatial Reasoning

Individual Differences in Dynamic Spatial Reasoning BIB 927-928
  James W. Pellegrino
Factors Governing Performance in a Visual Interception Task BIB- 929-933
  Susan C. Fischer
Individual Differences in Strategic Processing in a Dynamic Spatial Reasoning Task BIB- 934-938
  Daniel T. Hickey
An Analysis of Performance in a Two Object Arrival Time Task BIB- 939-943
  David Law
Individual Differences in Real-Time Information Coordination: Relating Dynamic Spatial and Verbal Information BIB- 944-948
  Kevin A. Morrin

Personality and Individual Differences in Human Performance: Individual Differences in Human Performance

An Evaluation of Performance-Based Tests Designed to Predict Success in Primary Flight Training BIB- 949-953
  D. J. Blower; D. L. Dolgin
Driver Locus of Control: Age and Sex Differences in Predicting Driving Performance BIB- 954-958
  Lila F. Laux; John, Jr. Brelsford
Differences in Time-Sharing Ability Between Successful and Unsuccessful Trainees in the Landing Craft Air Cushion Vehicle Operator Training Program BIB- 959-961
  T. Nontasak; D. L. Dolgin
Do Intraclass Correlation Coefficients Index Interrater Agreement? BIB- 962-965
  Robert P. Mahan; Charles E. Lance; Julie A. LaPointe

Safety: Protective Equipment

The Effect of Law and Training on All-Terrain Vehicle Riders' Safety-Related Behaviors BIB- 966-970
  James P. Foley; Mark R. Lehto
Motorcycle Helmet Retention Devices: Convenience and Comfort BIB- 971-975
  David R. Thom; Michael Cann
Quantifying Subjective Reactions to Wearing Protective Equipment BIB- 976-980
  Max Vercruyssen; Barbara Jex Courter
Measure of Work Performance Decrement Due to Respirators BIB- 981-983
  Neil J. Zimmerman; Cindelyn Eberts; Gavriel Salvendy; George McCabe

Safety: Safety and Hazard Communication

The Effect of Symbols on Warning Compliance BIB- 984-987
  Linda S. Jaynes; David B. Boles
Human Factors Design of an AIDS Prevention Pamphlet BIB- 988-992
  Michael E. Wiklund; Beth A. Loring
Automotive Maintenance and Safety Preparedness among Drivers: Aspects of Age and Gender BIB- 993-997
  David L. Mayer; Lila F. Laux
Emerging Methodologies for the Assessment of Safety Related Product Communications BIB- 998-1002
  Timothy P. Rhoades; J. Paul Frantz; James M. Miller

Safety: Highway Safety: Identifying and Coping with the Impaired Driver

Highway Safety: Identifying and Coping with the Impaired Driver BIB- 1003-1004
  David Shinar
Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: Evaluating Simple Behavioral Tests and their Effects on Driving Decisions BIB- 1005-1009
  Fredrick M. Streff; Michael J. Kalsher
The Effects of Raised Lane Markers on the Accident Involvement of Older and Alcohol-Impaired Drivers BIB- 1010-1014
  David Shinar; James C. Fell
Recognition of the Drug-Impaired Driver by Examination of Behavioral and Physiological Signs BIB- 1015-1019
  Marcelline Burns

Safety: The Arnold Small Lecture in Safety

Hazard Management: Principles, Applications and Evaluation BIB- 1020-1024
  Karl U. Smith

Safety: Panel

Smart Vehicles: New Directions for Human Factors Safety Research BIB- 1025-1026
  Michael Perel; H. Keith Brewer; Wade Allen

Safety: Risk Perception

Perceived Automobile Safety as a Function of Body Style, Cosmetic Design Variation, and Viewing Distance BIB- 1027-1031
  Dennis B. Beringer
Gender Differences in Traffic Accident Risk Perception BIB- 1032-1036
  David M. DeJoy
Factors Involved in Risk Perception BIB- 1037-1041
  S. David Leonard; G. William, IV Hill; Hajime Otani
Drivers as Decision Makers at Rail-Highway Grade Crossings BIB- 1042-1046
  Neil D. Lerner; Donna J. Ratte

Safety: Aviation Safety and Analysis

Requirements for an Aircraft Mishap Analysis System BIB- 1047-1051
  John F. Courtright
Pre-Flight Risk Assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Helicopters BIB- 1052-1056
  Robert J. Shively
Analysis of General Aviation Accidents During Operations Under Instrument Flight Rules BIB- 1057-1061
  C. Thomas Bennett; M. Schwirzke; C. Harm
Vigilance in Transport Operations: Field Studies in Air Transport and Railways BIB- 1062-1066
  R. Mollard; A. Coblentz; Ph. Cabon

Safety: Safety Potpourri

Response Covariation as a Design Consideration in Developing Workplace Safety Interventions BIB- 1067-1071
  Fredrick M. Streff; Michael J. Kalsher
Analysis of Selected Scaffold-Related Fatal Falls BIB- 1072-1076
  Thomas G. Bobick; Catherine A. Bell; Ronald L. Stanevich; Dwayne L. Smith; Nancy A. Stout
Development of a Workstation Software Package to Support Probabilistic Safety Assessment BIB- 1077-1080
  Wendy J. Reece; David I. Gertman
Predicting the Effects of Stress on Performance BIB- 1081-1085
  P. A. Hancock; M. H. Chignell; M. Vercruyssen

Safety: Transportation Safety

Headlight Use BIB- 1086-1090
  Daniel Johnson
Designing Antecedent Strategies for Increasing Safe Driving: A Pledgecard for Encouraging Belts and Discouraging Booze BIB- 1091-1094
  Katrin A. Gamble; Michael J. Kalsher

Special Sessions: Demonstrations

A Testbed for the Evaluation of Computer Aids for Enroute Flight Path Planning BIB- 1095
  Philip J. Smith; Chuck Layton; Deb Galdes; C. Elaine McCoy
TAWL Operator Simulation System (TOSS) -- Version 4.0 BIB- 1096
  Laura A. Fulford; David B. Hamilton; Carl R. Bierbaum
DAS: A Graphical Computer System for the Collection of Musculoskeletal Discomfort Data BIB- 1097
  Norka Saldana

System Development: Requirements Analysis and Design

Substituting Rapid Prototyping for Task Analysis for a Major System Upgrade Project: Lessons Learned BIBA 1098-1102
  Robert E. Richards; James C. Byers; David G. Kuipers; Beva Gay Gilbert; Lon N. Haney
Performing a front-end analysis (FEA) is a required part of user training, documentation, and interface development for nuclear-related systems (NUREG CR/0737, DOE Order 5480.6). A traditional FEA for a large existing system can be extremely expensive and require many months to complete. Performing a complete front-end analysis on an emerging or changing system can be even more costly. In some cases, this may be almost impossible because the data required for the later steps in the analysis simply do not exist or are constantly changing. The use of rapid prototyping is less time consuming than the traditional top-down (or sequential front-to-back) approaches used to develop the training, documentation, and human-computer interfaces for new or evolving systems. In addition, it provides for enhanced communication between the analysts, designers, and end users of the system. This paper details the approach taken and the lessons learned for one example of rapid prototyping as applied to a nuclear facility upgrade.
New Challenges for Iterative Software Design of a Panel-Oriented Interface BIBA 1103-1107
  Greta L. Myers; Deborah A. T. Larnerd
Gould's (1987) iterative design principle was applied to the design and development of a large, complex interface. Specific challenges we faced in implementing his recommended design approach included the sheer volume of panels in the interface, communication across the design team, excess baggage stemming from the previous interface, management of design changes, and translation into multiple languages. Our methods of facing those challenges are documented, and the lessons we learned in the process are detailed.
Workstation Design for ATC Systems BIBA 1108-1112
  Russell A. Benel; Louis M. Adams
Developing a workstation for the next generation Air Traffic Control system (AAS) represents a significant design challenge. Not only are a large number of potentially conflicting requirements identified for this workstation, but several unique features of those requirements exacerbate the potential problems. For example, a large (20 X 20 inch) CRT is the primary visual display. This must move to both an inline and wraparound console configuration. The system must accommodate a large range of user sizes and be acceptable to approximately 16,000 air traffic controllers. A team of controllers has participated in the iterative design effort through reviews, demonstrations and hands-on evaluation. The key feature of all design activities is the narrowing of alternatives as the design approaches production release. This paper addresses this process and suggests how this process may be managed to ensure a satisfactory outcome.

System Development: Modeling

The Army MANPRINT IDEA (Integrated Decision/Engineering Aid) BIB- 1113-1116
  Thomas B. Malone; Christopher C. Heasly; David R. Eike
Task Analysis/Workload (TAWL): A Methodology for Predicting Operator Workload BIB- 1117-1121
  David B. Hamilton; Carl R. Bierbaum
Model Validation, Sensitivity Analysis, and Utilization with Micro SAINT: A Case Study BIB- 1122-1126
  Louis Tijerina; Delia Treaster

System Development: Emergencies in Complex Systems

Mathematical Description of Crew Response Times in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies BIB- 1127-1131
  Barry H. Kantowitz; Alvah C., Jr. Bittner; Yushi Fujita
Modeling Operator Performance in Emergencies BIB- 1132-1136
  David D. Woods; Emilie M. Roth; Harry E., Jr. Pople
Decision Making in an Emergency: When Information is Not Enough BIB- 1137-1141
  William A. Wheeler; Patricia A. Bolton; Thomas F. Sanquist
Cockpit Distractions: Precursors to Emergencies BIB- 1142-1144
  Valerie E. Barnes; Willam P. Monan

System Development: Panel

Verbal Protocols as a Research Tool in Human Factors BIBA 1145-1147
  Gerhard Deffner; Harry L. Snyder; Alvah C., Jr. Bittner; Carolanne Fisher; Detlef Rhenius; Penelope M. Sanderson
Verbal protocols have been used for many years in different research contexts, but there still is no clear consensus about the validity of the technique and methods for maximizing validity in an applied setting; how to standardize the collection and analysis of protocols; and last but certainly not least, whether the resulting data is worth the effort.
   This panel discussion is a companion to a symposium at this conference which presents empirical studies and human factors applications of verbal protocol techniques. The panel will focus in more depth on issues raised in that earlier session, with the goal of providing guidance for practical applications of the technique.

System Development: Applied Decision Making

Methodology for Determining the Human Role in the Strategic Defense System Command Center BIB- 1148-1152
  Donna L. Cuomo; Anthony P. Rizzuto
Automated Tactical C2 Systems: Do They Support the Decision Maker? BIB- 1153-1157
  John A. Whittenburg
Application of Human Engineering to a Shipboard Damage Control Console BIB 1158-1162
  Kathryn Permenter Callahan; Clifford C. Baker; Thomas B. Malone; Franklin D. Pearce
An Integrated Embedded Training and Decision Aiding Design Methodology BIB- 1163-1166
  Joan M. Ryder; Allen L. Zaklad; Floyd A., III Glenn; Wayne W. Zachary

System Development: Human Factors in the Maintenance and Inspection of Aircraft

Human Factors in the Maintenance and Inspection of Aircraft BIB- 1167
  William T. Shepherd
A Program to Study Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection BIB- 1168-1170
  William T. Shepherd
Advanced Technology for Aviation Maintenance Training: An Industry Status Report and Development Plan BIB- 1171-1175
  William B. Johnson
Organizational Context for Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection BIB- 1176-1180
  James C. Taylor
Task Analysis of Aircraft Inspection Activities: Methods and Findings BIB- 1181-1185
  C. G. Drury; P. Prabhu; A. Gramopadhye

Test and Evaluation: Large-Scale System Evaluation

Examining Human-System Interactions: The HSYS Methodology BIB- 1186-1189
  Susan G. Hill; Jerry L. Harbour; Christopher Sullivan; Bruce P. Hallbert
Using HSYS in the Analysis of Human-System Interactions: Examples from the Offshore Petroleum Industry BIB- 1190-1194
  Jerry L. Harbour; Susan G. Hill
Experimental Evaluation of a Diagnostic Rule-Based Expert System for the Nuclear Industry BIB- 1195-1199
  Conny B. O. Holmstroem; William R. Nelson
Empirical Identification of User Information Requirements in Command and Control Evaluation BIB- 1200-1203
  Marvin C. McCallum; Alvah C., Jr. Bittner; Richard V. Badalamente

Test and Evaluation: Methods and Tools

Assessing Icon Appropriateness and Icon Discriminability with a Paired-Comparison Testing Procedure BIBA 1204-1208
  Regis L. Magyar
Traditional methods of evaluating icon comprehension and discriminability have relied on a sequence of multiple screening tests to measure various aspects of icon meaning, image content, and the user's perception of the icon. The most frequently used procedures have been the icon appropriateness test to determine the best conceptual design from a group of icon candidates, followed by the icon matching test to ensure that individual icons are not confused with others in a set. This paper describes an automated paired-comparison test procedure that provides reliable measures of both icon appropriateness and icon discriminability using the same test method with a single metric. The procedure was validated in two experiments involving the design and evaluation of two different mouse-pointer icons. In Experiment 1, the procedure was used as an icon screening test to determine the most appropriate and meaningful icon that best represented each concept from two different sets of proposed icon variants. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was then used to confirm the discriminability of the final icon selections, and to verify the accuracy of results from the initial appropriateness test.
Development and Evaluation of a Digital Critical Tracking Task BIB- 1209-1213
  Jonathan F. Antin; W. Patrick, Jr. Gatewood; Richard S. Dunn
Assessment of Workload in a Field Environment BIB- 1214-1218
  Michelle R. Sams; Richard E. Christ
Manpower, Personnel, Training and Safety (MPTS) Simulation Tools: Network and Simulation for Workload Assessment and Modeling (SIMWAM) BIB- 1219-1223
  Mark Kirkpatrick; Thomas B. Malone; Christopher C. Heasly; Clifford C. Baker

Test and Evaluation: Models and Methods

Empirical Models Based on Data from Several Experiments BIB- 1224-1228
  Sung H. Han; Robert C. Williges; Beverly H. Williges
Relative vs. Absolute Rating BIBA 1229-1232
  T. S. Liu; S. Narayanan; V. Subramanian; S. Konz
Making relative and absolute judgments of alternatives is compared.
   Relative judgments, following Saaty's procedure, require that each possible pair of conditions be compared. The subject indicates which member of the pair is preferred, then gives the magnitude of the preference on a 1-9 scale. The scores are entered into a matrix and eigenvectors calculated for each subject in each condition. These eigenvectors then are evaluated in a conventional subjects x conditions analysis of variance.
   Two experiments are reported which show relative rating using eigenvectors is a more sensitive rating instrument than absolute rating.
   Experiment 1 compared discomfort glare for three simulated streetlight luminances. Experiment 2 evaluated the likability of various fonts when used on transparencies with two sizes of fonts (subtending .57 or .72 °), two styles (bold and regular) and three types (executive, roman and sans serif).
   The relative rating method is a "more sensitive instrument." It has two disadvantages. One, it requires evaluation of all possible pairs of conditions by the same subject so the experiment itself may take longer. Second, the program to calculate the eigenvectors is not presently available in a standard statistical package such as SAS or SPSS.
A Usability Testing Method Employing the "Trouble Model" BIBA 1233-1237
  Toshiyuki Asahi; Hitoshi Miyai
This paper proposes a technique to apply the protocol analysis method to usability testing. The "trouble analysis" method is offered for data analysis tasks. These techniques involve a procedure to improve time efficiency and convenience. As a criterion for data analysis, a "trouble model", which consists of 22 trouble categories, is also offered. Most of the problems in a user-interface can be identified by extracting troubles from the verbal protocols using the model. In the trouble analysis technique, analyses of the human cognitive/thought processes, which usually requires expert knowledge and a lot of time, are not taken into consideration. Quick and easy detection of problems is first considered. The "trouble analysis" technique contributions to usability testing were empirically verified through 9 tests, employed on different kinds of products. The evaluation extent limitation, and user behavior during trouble situations, are also discussed.
Guide for Human Performance Measurements BIB- 1238-1240
  Valerie J. Gawron; Leonard Cipriano; Edwin Fleishman; Fred Hegge; Ed Lehman; David Meister; John Reising

Test and Evaluation: Human Factors Measurement: The Challenge

Human Factors Measurement: The Challenge BIB 1241-1242
  David Meister; Thomas Enderwick; Alvah Bittner; Barry Kantowitz
An Alternative Measurement Paradigm BIB- 1243-1247
  D. Meister
Some Pragmatic Issues of Measurement BIB- 1248-1252
  Thomas P. Enderwick
Human Factors Measurement: Nature, Problems, and Strengthening BIB- 1253-1257
  Alvah C., Jr. Bittner
Can Cognitive Theory Guide Human Factors Measurement? BIB- 1258-1262
  Barry H. Kantowitz

Test and Evaluation: Verbal Protocols as a Research Tool in Human Factors

Verbal Protocols as a Research Tool in Human Factors BIBA 1263-1264
  Gerhard Deffner
The five papers in this symposium are aimed at providing empirical background for addressing the questions of how useful, and also how usable, verbal protocol methodology is within the field of human factors. Research approaches range from experimental to case study, and topics range from comparative assessment of procedural variations in verbal protocols, to their applications in unique task domains. Both types of research have shown encouraging results, which will be discussed in terms of potential standardization of procedure, and of wider use and application of verbal protocol methodology.
Evaluation of Concurrent Thinking Aloud Using Eye-Tracking Data BIBA 1265-1269
  Detlef Rhenius; Gerhard Deffner
In a series of studies we address the two questions of: 1) Do verbalizations reflect concurrent thought, and 2) Does concurrent thinking aloud differ from normal thinking? The design of experimental tests was based upon Ericsson and Simon's model of thinking aloud, incorporating variation of how information is represented in short term memory. Eye-movement recordings were used as a source of additional data, allowing us to go beyond a mere analysis of solution time and accuracy. Comparing verbalizations and eye-movement data, we arrived at a positive answer to the first of our initial questions. The second question was approached on several levels, always involving a comparison of 'think-aloud groups' with silent controls. We found no differences with respect to accuracy, but longer solution times in think-aloud groups. In a final experiment, the influence of thinking aloud on concurrent task performance could be narrowed down to an effect which only persists through the early stages of familiarization with tasks. We conclude that concurrent verbalization is a viable tool in the study of cognitive processes.
Concurrent versus Retrospective Verbal Protocol for Comparing Window Usability BIBA 1270-1274
  Victoria A. Bowers; Harry L. Snyder
A traditional concurrent verbal protocol method was compared to a heavily cued retrospective verbal protocol in which users were presented with a video tape of their performance to help them recall their thoughts after task completion. The two methods of protocol were employed in a comparison of two different size monitors. Subjects were required to complete 12 tasks which varied in the number of windows required simultaneously on the monitor. The subjects' performance, as measured by steps to completion, task completion time, and errors committed, was compared across monitors and protocol methods. Subjective data were also collected in the form of task difficulty ratings, as well as a global measure of user satisfaction. Verbal data were compared to assess any information differences due to the methods of collection or the monitor sizes.
   No performance or subjective differences were found between the two protocol methods. The kinds of information gathered were quite different for the two methods, with concurrent protocol subjects giving procedural information and retrospective protocol subjects giving explanations and design statements. Performance data, as well as subjective data, indicated that on tasks that require that one or two windows be present simultaneously, there were no differences between the two monitor sizes. As the number of simultaneous windows increased, however, the large monitor's advantages became apparent. Tasks which require that four windows be present simultaneously were judged to be easier and required fewer steps on the large monitor than on the small monitor.
The Playback Method of Protocol Analysis Applied to a Rapid Aiming Task BIBA 1275-1279
  T. J. Triggs; B. H. Kantowitz; B. S. Terrill; A. C., Jr. Bittner; T. E. Fleming
The analysis of subjective verbal protocols can provide valuable information additional to that obtained from traditional objective data sources. The most frequently used type of protocol analysis is of the "think-aloud" report where operators verbalize as they perform a task of interest. However, while this concurrent method has been usefully applied to high-level cognitive tasks that are accomplished over extended periods, it is generally considered to be less appropriate for short-duration tasks where the emphasis is on speed of performance. This study reports on the application of a new protocol method to a speeded task based on a procedure where the computer "plays back" the experimental trials and shows the subject's response. The verbal response of the subject was recorded during the playback, augmented by prompts from the experimenter. Several aiming tasks requiring rapid movements to a target were examined using this method. The data obtained from the protocol analysis were a valuable adjunct to the actual performance results, and demonstrated that the new method appears to be a satisfactory procedure for obtaining protocols for rapidly performed tasks. Where movements involving both hands were involved, the verbal protocols supported a divided attention hypothesis for performance over a competing motor-program hypothesis. The reports implied that the movement characteristics were under conscious control requiring division of attention.
Verbal Protocol Analysis in Three Experimental Domains Using SHAPA BIBA 1280-1284
  Penelope M. Sanderson
SHAPA is an interactive verbal protocol analysis tool based on Ericsson and Simon's (1984) recommendations for verbal protocol analysis (Sanderson, James, and Seidler, 1989). It provides a "shell" for carrying out protocol analysis. This paper shows how SHAPA has been used in three different domains: (1) the control of a complex continuous process, (2) a task where subjects give navigational information to active or passive listeners, and (3) the control of a simple city transport system. These examples show how SHAPA can help researchers collect data about the frequencies with which certain categories of verbalization occur and determine the patterns into which they fall.
The Value of Thinking-Aloud Protocols in Industry: A Case Study at Microsoft Corporation BIBA 1285-1289
  Susan Denning; Derek Hoiem; Mark Simpson; Kent Sullivan
Thinking-aloud protocols traditionally have been used by academic researchers as a qualitative data collection method. This method is currently gaining acceptance in industry usability testing. The Usability Group at Microsoft has adopted the thinking-aloud protocol as a primary method for obtaining data from users. We have found the method valuable not only because it is valid for gathering qualitative data, but also because it is responsive to the constraints we face and the organizational culture we work within. The issue of validity has been discussed in detail by researchers such as Deffner & Rhenius and Ericsson & Simon. Our case study further pursues the validity of thinking-aloud protocols and also discusses how this method allows the researcher to work within industry constraints and incorporate changes into the product within a small time frame. Finally, our case study demonstrates how thinking-aloud protocols fit in well with Microsoft corporate culture where understandable and persuasive results are needed. This case study will have particular relevance for usability practitioners in industry.

Test and Evaluation: Methods and Tools

Workload and Strategic Adaptation Under Transformations on Visual-Coordinative Mappings BIB- 1290-1294
  J. K. Caird; P. A. Hancock; M. G. Wade; M. Vercruyssen
Task Analysis: A Polyhedral Dynamics Approach BIB- 1295-1298
  Luiz M. Cabral
Validation of a Driving Simulation Facility for Instrument Panel Task Performance BIB- 1299-1303
  Ko Kurokawa; Walter W. Wierwille

Training: Training Task Analysis

Taking Cognitive Task Analysis into the Field: Bridging the Gap from Research to Application BIBA 1304-1308
  Richard E. Redding
Cognitive methods of task analysis have been used for training development. Although quite promising, these methods are generally time consuming and labor-intensive, and require considerable expertise. This has precluded their full use in field training situations. Economical, practical and user-friendly methods are needed which can be integrated easily with current approaches. This symposium paper discusses the potential of cognitive task analysis as well as the practicality problem. Of particular concern is how cognitive methods can receive widespread application among training practitioners -- how to transition theory and research in cognitive task analysis into mainstream training development programs.
Cognitive Task Analysis for the Real(-Time) World BIBA 1309-1313
  Mark S. Schlager; Barbara Means; Chris Roth
As part of a review and evaluation of the Federal Aviation Administration's air traffic control (ATC) training program, we tested whether cognitive task analysis techniques could help identify the knowledge, skills, and strategies used by proficient controllers, at a level appropriate for deriving instructional objectives. Our approach involved modifying commonly-used methods (e.g., interviews and think-aloud protocols) for use in a real-time, real-world task domain. Expert controllers were videotaped performing realistic ATC scenarios. We then elicited "play-by-play" analysis of the scenario from other expert controllers and retrospective protocols from the subjects. Other techniques were used to obtain convergent data on controllers' knowledge representation and organization. The methodology was successful in describing several cognitive components of ATC expertise that had previously defied explication at a level of detail appropriate for instruction. We discuss briefly training implications and other ways in which we have used the data.
Analyzing the Cognitive Demands of Problem-Solving Environments: An Approach to Cognitive Task Analysis BIBA 1314-1317
  Emilie M. Roth; David D. Woods
We describe an approach to cognitive task analysis that utilizes two mutually reinforcing analyses. One analysis focuses on building a description of the cognitive demands imposed by the world that any intelligent agent would have to deal with (a model of the cognitive environment). The second analysis, conducted in parallel, is an empirical investigation of how practitioners, both experts and less skilled individuals, respond to the task demands (a performance model). We then discuss how a cognitive simulation can support a cognitive task analysis.
Applying Knowledge Engineering to Training and Technology Transfer BIBA 1318-1322
  Gary A. Klein; Beth Crandall
"Knowledge engineering" refers to the process of getting rules out of the heads of experts and into expert systems. A broader field include a variety of "low technology" applications. If we think of knowledge as a valued resource, analogous to petroleum, this suggests four aspects of knowledge engineering: (a) locating sources of expertise in organizations; (b) assaying the cost/benefits of engineering the expertise; (c) acquiring the knowledge; and (d) codifying the knowledge. In this paper we discuss knowledge engineering strategies and applications beyond expert systems.
Knowledge Acquisition and Representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) BIBA 1323-1327
  Thomas L. Seamster; David R. Eike; Troy J. Ames
This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this objective by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures. This approach has resulted in a knowledge acquisition process that places a great emphasis on both the domain expert's knowledge structures and solutions steps. Concept sorting tasks combined with scaling analysis techniques are being used for organizing and analyzing domain concepts. These techniques have been used to identify the critical STOL commands, the related concepts, and significant problems that will direct the design of the tutor's user interface as well as the production rules of the expert module.

Training: Training Methodology

Prediction of Tank Gunnery Simulator Performance Using the APTS Battery BIBA 1328-1332
  James P. Bliss
This research investigates the efficacy of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a battery of tests measuring basic psychomotor, cognitive, and spatial abilities, to predict complex psychomotor performance on two part-task tank gunnery simulators, TOPGUN and the Videodisk Gunnery Simulator (VIGS). It was hypothesized from past research that the Manikin, Simultaneous Pattern Comparison, and Four-Choice Reaction Time subtests of the APTS would be predictive of TOPGUN and VIGS performances. Additional research goals were to examine the stabilities and reliabilities of APTS, TOPGUN, and VIGS. Forty male undergraduate students were tested on the APTS; afterward, they completed either TOPGUN (N = 20) or VIGS (N = 20) training. Results obtained indicated that Code Substitution, Manikin, and Pattern Comparison were predictive of tank gunnery simulator performance at the p = .01 level. It is concluded that 1) these results need to be replicated, due to the complexity of the analyses conducted, 2) the APTS were found to be very stable and reliable, but TOPGUN and VIGS measures were unreliable, and 3) the unreliable simulator measures limited APTS' surrogate potential.
Training Requirements Development for the Theater Air Command and Control Simulation Facility (TACCSF) BIBA 1333-1336
  Jerry M. Childs; William H. Acton
The purpose of this paper is to describe an abbreviated Instructional Systems Development (ISD) approach that was adopted to support identification of training requirements for two system management positions in the Theater Air Command and Control Simulation Facility (TACCSF). TACCSF is a large scale, man-in-the-loop air defense simulation facility located on Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. A tailored ISD approach was used to support the evaluation of existing training-related documentation and materials. A 41 X 64 cell Training Resources Matrix was generated. Training requirements were arrayed vertically and training resources were listed horizontally in the matrix. The matrix was used to help define and develop preliminary training requirements, resources, and training plans. Results of the analyses were useful, and would be improved by including more detailed information in the data base.
Development of a Part-Task, CBI Trainer Based Upon a Cognitive Task Analysis BIBA 1337-1341
  Richard E. Redding; Bruce Lierman
This paper describes the task analysis procedures and data obtained to support development of a part-task trainer for a CBI military training system (as well as various training aids and recommendations), and the trainer design and evaluation. This was part of a two-year R&D program which was unique in that the trainer was designed based upon data derived from an integrated task analysis methodology which incorporated both cognitive and behavioral methods. Because the task to be trained, electronic warfare, is an area with a complex conceptual base and heavy decision-making components, the task analysis was primarily cognitive. The task analysis provided information about expert versus novice mental models, and effective heuristics and algorithms for problem solving.
Meeting the Training and Development Needs of Knowledge Workers: What We Are Learning at EG&G Idaho, Inc. BIBA 1342-1346
  Robert E. Richards; Lamar A. Palmer; Sheri L. Martin
During the last decade, many commentators have preached the need to improve the quality, productivity, and training of the American workforce. Many of the observations relative to our future competitiveness have been unsettling, if not alarming. Accordingly, prescriptions for change have included such things as doubling and tripling training budgets. Most case studies in the popular literature talk about the management and improvement of manufacturing enterprises. In contrast, this paper deals with the challenges facing knowledge workers and, specifically, those of the Nuclear Reactor Research and Technology Department (NRRT) of EG&G Idaho, Inc. where a full-blown training needs analysis was conducted. The findings, in brief, indicate that a majority of the knowledge workers, especially the scientists and engineers, had at least some training needs that were not being adequately met. Lack of emphasis, scarcity of time, and limited availability of relevant, technical, training were the primary reasons. The employees also noted that they believed the experts needed to provide the training were their colleagues already working within the Department and that on-the-job training and other individualized training methods would be most effective. The employees expressed a strong interest in the company instituting a career development program. Based on this analysis, the NRRT has taken several steps to better the training needs. These findings, which would appear to be typical for knowledge workers nation-wide, underscore the vital importance of leaders seriously assessing and responding to the needs of a vital national resource -- the knowledge workers.

Training: Cognition and Training

Attention Theory as a Guide to Part-Training for Instruction of Naval Air-Intercept Control BIBA 1347-1351
  Anthony D. Andre; Gavan Lintern
Air-intercept control is a complex Navy combat task which requires a radar operator to advise a pilot of optimum headings for avoiding, meeting, or intercepting other aircraft. The goal of the research reported here was to explore procedures for teaching some critical elements of air-intercept control with a pc-based version of the training simulation that is normally used for instruction. Principles derived from attention theory, and in particular Multiple Resource Theory (Wickens, 1984), were used to guide the development of two part-training strategies. In one strategy, specific skill-based elements of the task were taught in isolation and were then recombined into the whole task. In another strategy, an abstract procedural task was added by isolating those features that contributed to the spatial and temporal coherence of the whole task. A transfer of training design was used to test these two part-training conditions. The procedural-based version of the task emerged as a training strategy that could help students develop resistance to potentially disruptive effects of making the task more difficult. The results are viewed as supporting an approach to training that attempts to alleviate resource overload so that learning may proceed with maximum efficiency while, at the same time, allowing critical task elements related to time-sharing skills to be practiced.
Are They Shooting at Me?: An Approach to Training Situational Awareness BIBA 1352-1356
  Steven J. Kass; Daniel A. Herschler; Michael A. Companion
This study tests the effectiveness of a training strategy to improve situational awareness skills. The training approach suggested by this study is to expose subjects initially to only those cues relevant to the task. When other extraneous cues are added, these subjects should be better at extracting those familiar cues relevant to the task than subjects who are first exposed to both relevant and irrelevant cues. Subjects trained with only the relevant cues were able to identify a significantly higher percentage (60%) of patterns than subjects trained in the cluttered environment (43%).
   The results support the use of the proposed training strategy for situational awareness. Signal detection theory and state-dependent learning theory are discussed in relation to the findings.
Development of Automatic Processing with Alphanumeric Materials BIBA 1357-1361
  F. Thomas Eggemeier; Andrea B. Granitz; Timothy E. Rogus; Eric E. Geiselman
This research investigated the development of automatic processing with alphanumeric materials that are representative of those processed by operators of some complex information systems. According to automatic processing theory, consistently mapped (CM) components of complex skills can be automatized with extensive practice, such that they are performed rapidly and accurately with minimal effort. Experiment 1 compared the effects of 3200 training trials in a memory search paradigm with alphanumeric materials under CM and variably mapped (VM) conditions. Dissimilar target and distractor sets were used. The results were consistent with the development of automatic processing in the CM condition. Experiment 2 examined the effect of similar target and distractor sets on CM performance. The results of Experiment 2 indicate that target/distractor similarity significantly affected CM performance. Such similarity therefore represents an important factor to be considered in the design of training programs to support the development of automatic processing with complex alphanumeric materials.
The Effects of Training on Statistical Reasoning BIBA 1362-1366
  Scott F. Jones; Nancy J. Cooke
The methods which people use to reason about everyday events and the strategies they employ have received much attention throughout the years. One aspect of this history is the debate about whether learning rules or examples most facilitates transfer of knowledge to a different domain. This research attempted to answer this question through two experiments. The first experiment concentrated on defining the dimensions along which subjects perceived problems which embodied statistical heuristics. The results identified a contextual dimension along which subjects classified the problems. The second experiment was conducted to determine if the contextual dimension or the problem domain dimension could best account for transfer of training. The results indicated that the training transferred to all novel problems, however, training did not transfer to a different set of problems presented to the subjects as a phone survey. Explanations for this lack of transfer are discussed.

Training: Team Training

The Effectiveness of Aeronautical Decisionmaking Training BIB- 1367-1371
  Alan Diehl
A Comparison of Two Types of Training Interventions on Team Communication Performance BIB- 1372-1376
  Donald L. Lassiter; Jeremy S. Vaughn; Virginia E. Smaltz; Ben B., Jr. Morgan; Eduardo Salas
A Model for Evaluation and Training in Aircrew Coordination and Cockpit Resource Management BIB- 1377-1381
  Robert Simon; Daniel T. Risser; Eugene A., Sr. Pawlik; Dennis K. Leedom
Does Crew Coordination Behavior Impact Performance? BIB- 1382-1386
  Rene'e J. Stout; Janis A. Cannon-Bowers; Eduardo Salas; Ben B., Jr. Morgan

Training: Training Media

Display Design Guide for Visual Media BIB- 1387-1390
  Jada D. Brooks; Richard D. Gilson; Harley R. Myler
Individual Differences and Training Program Development BIB- 1391-1395
  Richard E. Redding
Factors Related to Skill Degradation and their Implications for Refresher Training BIB- 1396-1399
  JoAnn C. Rullo; L. Bruce McDonald
Human Factors Considerations in the Design of Displays and Switches for a Flight Simulator's Onboard Instructor/Operator Station (IOS) BIB- 1400-1404
  Thomas L. Seamster; Richard H. Glass

Training: Panel

Network and Virtual-World Technologies for Training: A Panel Presentation and Discussion BIB- 1405-1406
  Earl A. Alluisi; James S. Cary; L. Neale Cosby; Robert L. Kloecker; Franklin L. Moses

Training: Software Tools for Training

Building an Intelligent Tutoring System: Some Guidelines from a Study of Human Tutors BIBA 1407-1411
  Deborah K. Galdes; Philip J. Smith
One reason that intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) are rarely found outside of the research lab has to do with the guidelines available to developers of these systems. First, some of these guidelines are stated as general, abstract goals such as "adapt to the student." What ITS developers need, however, are specific strategies and techniques which can be implemented in an ITS to accomplish those goals. Second, not all of the guidelines have an empirical basis.
   One solution to both of these problems is to study human tutors. This paper demonstrates this approach, and discusses an empirical study of human tutors which was conducted to address these issues. Specifically, it discusses
  • 1) the knowledge acquisition method which we designed to capture the
        appropriate empirical data,
  • 2) how we used this method to study human tutors and students in the medical
        problem-solving domain of immunohematology (blood banking),
  • 3) several guidelines which appeared to drive the tutors' behavior (e.g.,
        "limit the number of interrupts to the student"), and
  • 4) specific tutoring strategies which can be incorporated into an ITS to make
        its behavior follow these guidelines.
  • Knowledge Engineering for Hypertext Instructional Systems BIBA 1412-1416
      Sallie E. Gordon; Vicki Lewis
    Hypertext is increasingly being used in training and education to provide an alternative (non-linear) presentation format for both verbal and graphic information. While hypertext provides a very flexible format for structuring information, this flexibility itself can lead to information that is structured in a vague or inconsistent form. We suggest that hypertext system designers perform "knowledge engineering" just as AI system designers do. This includes acquiring some body of knowledge in a systematic fashion, determining the global structure to be imposed on the information, and then using explicit algorithms to structure the information into hypertext form. This paper contains two separate but complementary components that address the latter two processes. First, we describe certain features and issues specific to instructional applications of hypertext, and provide some suggestions for structuring the system to accommodate those features. We then present an algorithm for engineering hypertext information, the Cluster Coherence Algorithm. While the algorithm was developed specifically for instructional applications, it is also relevant and applicable to other types of hypertext and hypermedia systems.
    Performance, Throughput, and Cost of In-Home Training for the Army Reserve: Using Asynchronous Computer Conferencing as an Alternative to Resident Training BIBA 1417-1421
      Heidi Ann Hahn; Robert L., Jr. Ashworth; Ruth H. Phelps; James C. Byers
    Asynchronous Computer Conferencing (ACC) was investigated as an alternative to resident training for the Army Reserve Component (RC). Specifically, the goals were to (1) evaluate the performance and throughput of ACC as compared with traditional Resident School instruction and (2) determine the cost-effectiveness of developing and implementing ACC. Fourteen RC students took a module of the Army Engineer Officer Advanced Course (EOAC) via ACC. Course topics included Army doctrine, technical engineering subjects, leadership, and presentation skills. Resident content was adapted for presentation via ACC. The programs of instruction for ACC and the equivalent resident course were identical; only the media used for presentation were changed. Performance on tests, homework, and practical exercises; self-assessments of learning; throughput; and cost data were the measures of interest. Comparison data were collected on RC students taking the course in residence. Results indicated that there were no performance differences between the two groups. Students taking the course via ACC perceived greater learning benefit than did students taking the course in residence. Resident throughput was superior to ACC throughput, both in terms of numbers of students completing and time to complete the course. In spite of this fact, however, ACC was more cost-effective than resident training.
    Responsive Text: A Training Environment for Literacy and Job Skills BIBA 1422-1425
      Michael Hillinger
    Industrial training manuals must often convey sophisticated information to an audience with less than proficient literacy. This paper presents an overview of a hypertext-based system that can compensate for reader deficiencies, serving as an instructional tool for basic literacy skills, as well as means to making job-related information available to training populations with below average reading ability.

    Visual Performance: Physiological Measures of Human Performance

    Towards the Real-Time Measurement of Mental Workload BIBA 1426-1430
      Darryl G. Humphrey; Arthur F. Kramer; Erik J. Sirevaag
    The primary goal of this study was to explore the utility of event-related brain potentials (ERP) as real-time measures of mental workload. To this end, subjects performed two different tasks both separately and together. One task required that subjects monitor a bank of constantly changing gauges and detect critical deviations. Difficulty was varied by changing the predictability of the gauges. The second task was mental arithmetic. Difficulty was varied by requiring subjects to perform operations on either two or three columns of numbers. Two conditions that could easily be distinguished on the basis of performance measures were selected for the real-time evaluation of ERPs. A bootstrapping approach was adopted in which one thousand samples of n trials (n = 1 to 75) were classified using several measures of P300 and Slow Wave amplitude. Classification accuracies of 90% were achieved with 15 trials. Results are discussed in terms of potential enhancements for real-time recording.
    The Use of Single Event Evoked Cerebral Potentials to Predict Stimulus Identifications BIB- 1431-1435
      Christopher C. Smyth
    The Negative Difference Event-Related Brain Potential During Cross-Modality Time-Sharing BIB- 1436-1440
      Christopher Sullivan
    Physiological and Subjective Evaluation of a New Aircraft Display BIBA 1441-1443
      Glenn F. Wilson; Edward Hughes; John Hassoun
    Physiological, subjective and mission effectiveness measures were evaluated to test their relative sensitivity and diagnosticity to pilot workload in a part-mission simulation. Two different radar displays were evaluated in an air-to-air simulated scenario using an advanced horizontal situation format display vs the conventional radar display. Data were recorded during the ingress and engagement portions of the mission. The engagement segments were associated with higher subjective workload estimates, smaller cardiac IBIs, fewer eye blinks and shorter duration eye blinks. The new display was associated with shorter duration eye blinks than the current generation display. None of the other measures were associated with statistically significant changes due to display type.

    Visual Performance: Panel

    A Forty-Year Perspective on Compatibility Phenomena: A Panel in Honor of Arnold M. Small, Sr. BIB 1444-1446
      Robert W. Proctor; Daniel J. Weeks; Earl A. Alluisi; J. Richard Simon; Barry H. Kantowitz

    Visual Performance: Visual Mechanisms in Human Performance

    Effect of Image Polarity on VDT Task Performance BIBA 1447-1451
      Harry L. Snyder; Jennie J. Decker; Charles J. C. Lloyd; Craig Dye
    Three experiments were conducted in which positive and negative contrast on visual display terminals were directly compared. Operator tasks included visual search and reading, with accuracy and timeliness of response measured. In all cases where significant differences exist, better performance was obtained with negative contrast (dark characters or symbols on a lighter background). The increases in performance range from a low of 2.0 percent to a high of 31.6 percent. Based on the above results, we believe that there are significant advantages in visual task performance obtained from the selection of negative contrast displays.
       Current standards that require negative contrast appear to be justified, while future revisions of ANSI/HFS 100-1988 and other standards should seriously consider incorporating negative contrast as a recommendation or requirement.
    Maintenance of Correct Accommodations in Red, Green, and White Light Environments BIBA 1452-1455
      Edward Trautman; Mary Ann Trautman; Vernon Ellingstad
    This project explored the practical importance of ambient color as a concern for maintaining human visual accommodation. Correct accommodation and regression toward resting point accommodation were considered in broadband red, broadband green and white environments. The involvement of voluntary control of accommodation was manipulated by requiring extended performance on a difficult visual task across four light levels. Declining light levels and increased time-on-task were found to degrade the accuracy of accommodation, while manipulation of ambient color produced differences attributable to chromatic aberration. Differential abilities associated with red, green or white conditions were not apparent, as no statistically significant interactions were evidenced. Results of these and other related findings generally suggest that, allowing for chromatic aberration of the lens, the human eye maintains visual accommodation equally well across varied color conditions. Maintenance of correct accommodation and regression to the resting point of accommodation do not appear to be influenced by ambient color.
    Visual Mechanisms and Predictors of Far Field Visual Task Performance BIBA 1456-1460
      Andrew V. Barber
    Visual mechanisms involved in target detection, recognition, and tracking were examined. Relationships were analyzed in the context of simulated combat, focusing on the short range air defense weapon operator. Objectives were to identify visual ability interrelationships, predictors of performance, and interactions with target characteristics, directional cuing and experience. Good predictors included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, resting focus, near focal point, and blur interpretation. Many of these abilities interacted with the independent variables, producing differential effects on performance. Visual abilities logically grouped into three principal components. Active accommodation predicted target detection and identification; passive accommodation predicted detection and acquisition; and image interpretation predicted acquisition, identification and tracking. Results supported the three visual subsystems theory, based on neurophysiological evidence of pathways in the brain corresponding to specific visual functions.
    Character Aspect Ratio and Design Tradeoffs BIBA 1461-1464
      Benjamin L. Somberg
    The American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Workstations specifies that character height-to-width ratios be within the range of 1:0.7 to 1:0.9. The empirical literature, however, fails to provide unequivocal support for that requirement. In designing CRT displays there is a complex interaction among several parameters, including character aspect ratio and character height. The present study compared a font with a character aspect ratio within the range allowed by ANSI/HFS 100-1988 to a font with a character aspect ratio outside that range. Using three different visually-intensive tasks, no real performance differences between the two fonts were observed. The study demonstrated that meeting individual design specifications, such as those provided in ANSI/HFS 100-1988, does not necessarily produce the most legible character set. It is argued that a performance-based compliance procedure may allow more flexibility in the design of visual display workstations.

    Visual Performance: Spatial Displays

    Symbolic Enhancement of Perspective Displays BIBA 1465-1469
      Stephen R. Ellis; Selim S. Hacisalihzade
    Two exocentric azimuth judgement experiments with a perspective display were conducted with 16 subjects. Previous work has shown these judgements to exhibit a bias possibly due to misinterpretation of the viewing parameters used to generate the display. Though geometric compensations may be used to correct for the bias, an alternate technique selected in the following 2 experiments was the introduction of symbolic enhancements in the form of compass roses. It is suggested that a compass rose with 30 degree divisions results in overall optimal azimuth estimation accuracy when accuracy and decision time are both considered. The data also suggest that the added radial lines on the compass roses may interact with normalization processes that influence the judgement errors.
    Visual Enhancements and Geometric Field of View as Factors in the Design of a Three-Dimensional Perspective Display BIBA 1470-1473
      Woodrow Barfield; Rafael Lim; Craig Rosenberg
    This study investigated the effect of providing visual enhancements to a three-dimensional (3D) perspective display on the observers ability to judge the azimuth and elevation which separated two computer-generated images. The 3D perspective scenes were modeled after displays presented previously by McGreevy and Ellis (1986) but with several visual enhancements designed to assist users in performance of the experiment tasks. The visual enhancements included: (1) the capability to rotate the perspective scenes in near real-time and, (2) the presentation of solid shaded objects in the computer-generated scenes. The results provide information on the magnitude of the errors which occur when observers are required to make directional judgements using perspective displays and on the effectiveness of several visual enhancements on the accuracy of directional judgements using a 3D perspective display.
    Orientation Information on Spatial Displays BIBA 1474-1478
      Erika J. Yungkurth; Bruce G. Coury
    This research concerns the use of orientation information by periscope operators. As periscopes in submarines are integrated with image processing systems and graphics workstations, the spatial information concerning the direction of the view of the periscope becomes more difficult to obtain. Consequently, the orientation of the periscope must be graphically represented on the workstation display. The major objective of this research was to determine the best way of displaying this type of information. The research was also concerned with the use of mental rotation by subjects to process the information, as well as the mediating effects of sex differences and spatial ability on performance in this type of task. The experiment tested two display types, outside-in and inside-out, each at two levels of complexity. The subjects were instructed to answer questions concerning the compass headings of submarines and periscopes, and the position of a periscope relative to a submarine. Results showed that the outside-in orientation would be the most preferable type of display representation, with the simple format producing the best performance. The results also revealed that mental rotation-type curves were evident for some combinations of question and display-type and that there were no differences between men and women in this task.
    Three Dimensional Display Technology for Aerospace and Visualization BIBA 1479-1483
      Christopher D. Wickens; Steven Todd
    The similarities and contrasts between scientific visualization, and the tasks imposed on the pilot and air traffic controller are highlighted. Relevant principles for 3 dimensional display design for both of these applications are stated, and an experiment is described which contrasts four graphical formats across a number of tasks involving the interpretation of a hypothetical set of scientific data. The tasks vary in the degree to which focused attention vs. integration is involved. The graphical formats were either 2 or 3D renderings and either did or did not contain contours to emphasize objectness. The results revealed that emergent features, created either by objectness or 3 dimensionality, facilitated integration performance. However, 3 dimensionality generally slowed performance on all tasks.

    Visual Performance: Object Displays

    Resource Allocation and Object Displays BIBA 1484-1488
      Pamela S. Tsang; William E. Bates
    Object displays are receiving increasing interest due to their potential contribution to display designs and to the understanding of basic visual attention mechanisms. The aim of the present research is to develop a more in depth understanding of the attention mechanisms involved in object perception. Multidimensional information was presented in the form of an object that was defined by its color, form, and size. Subjects' ability to divide and focus attention on a specific dimension of the object were examined as a function of (a) the number of irrelevant varying dimensions, (b) the uncertainty of the relevant dimension, and (c) the number of objects that the subjects simultaneously attend to. Two possible mechanisms by which processing resources can be allocated among the dimensions of an object were explored. Three task conditions with various degrees of irrelevant information were presented in a single or dual object display. The task was to identify one of the dimensions as quickly and as accurately as possible. As predicted by Kahneman and Treisman's object file model, results show that all dimensions of the object appeared to be processed. This was evidenced by the influence of the irrelevant size variation on color and form identification. However, the data suggest that although all dimensions were processed they were not processed without cost. Attention appeared to be divided among the dimensions. As the number of dimensions increased, the amount of attention available for each of the dimensions would be reduced. Further, only a small difference between the single and dual object case was detected. The small difference attests to a relative ease in selective attention between relevant and irrelevant objects.
    A Comparison of Space-Based and Object-Based Models of Visual Attention BIBA 1489-1493
      Arthur F. Kramer; Andrew Jacobson
    In the present study we examined the degree to which contour and color could be used to minimize focused attention costs. Twelve subjects performed a task in which they were instructed to respond to a centrally located stimulus and ignore flanking items. The flankers could be either compatible or incompatible with the response of the target. Additionally, the flankers could be embedded in the same object as the target or embedded in different objects. When the target and flankers were embedded in the same object, performance was poorer when the target was surrounded by response incompatible items than when it was surrounded by compatible items. However, the response compatibility effect was eliminated when the target and flankers were embedded in different objects. The results are interpreted within a Hybrid Space/Object-based model of visual attention.
    Graphical Information Processing: The Effects of Proximity Compatibility BIBA 1494-1498
      C. Melody Carswell
    The Proximity Compatibility Hypothesis (PCH) proposes that in designing displays, we should try to match the proximity (unity or similarity) of a display's components to the level of mental integration required of information represented by those components. Thus, for tasks demanding integration of information from several channels, we should display the task-relevant information in a perceptually unitary and homogeneous fashion. For tasks requiring independent processing of multiple information sources, unity and homogeneity should be minimized. The present study tested these predictions using thirteen bivariate graphs that varied in terms of the unity and homogeneity of dimensional pairings. All thirteen graphs were used to perform four tasks, with a different group of fifteen subjects performing each task. These tasks included two integration tasks, an independent processing task, and a task that combined both integration and independent processing demands. As predicted by the PCH, subjects performed the more integrative tasks better when using graphs that contained homogeneous elements combined into a single object. When less integrative tasks were performed, multi-object displays were associated with superior performance. However, the PCH failed to predict an interaction between the effects of object integration and homogeneity for the two integration tasks. While homogeneous object displays were used efficiently for both tasks, the benefits of heterogeneous object displays were specific to the task requiring logical rather than computational integration.
    Effects of Noise and Workload on Performance with Two Object Displays vs. a Separated Display BIBA 1499-1503
      Kan Zhang; Christopher D. Wickens
    This study examines the effects of stress on the processing of displayed information from two types of object displays, when dimensions were formed by the color and size of a bar, by the height and width of a rectangle, and from a separated two bargraph display. Subjects either integrated information across the two dimensions of each display or focused attention on each dimension, in a simulated airborne decision task. In Experiment 1 (14 subjects), stress was imposed via three levels of workload of a concurrent visual search task. In Experiment 2 (14 subjects), it was imposed by 88 dB helicopter noise. Results indicated that information integration was best supported by the rectangle display at higher levels of workload. Both the color bar and the bargraph display were associated with poor performance on the integration task, but were superior on the focused attention task. Hence, an emergent feature of the rectangle (its area), rather than objectness per se, was the critical element supporting information integration and disrupting focused attention. The imposition of noise enhanced the subjective feeling of stress. Noise did not influence performance on the decision task, but differentially affected the resources necessary to extract that information. Noise reduced the resource demands of both object displays and increased the resource demands of the separate bargraph display.

    Visual Performance: Cognitive Processing

    Central Processing Load, Response Demands and Tracking Strategies BIBA 1504-1508
      Barry P. Goettl; Jane Joseph
    The present experiment investigates the processing demands associated with two tracking strategies: double-impulse and continuous. Twelve subjects performed a Sternberg memory search task concurrently with a compensatory tracking task using either strategy. Central processing demands of both tasks were manipulated as well as the response demands of the Sternberg task. The two tasks showed little resource competition for central processing resources. Response load resulted in resource competition, but did not show any strategy differences. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of understanding strategy differences for workload analysis.
    Reduction of Cognitive Workload through Information Chunking BIBA 1509-1513
      Michael J. Kahn; Kay C. Tan; Robert J. Beaton
    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether grouping of icons on complex graphic displays reduces information processing loads, as measured by the Subjective Workload Assessment Technique and error rates. In Experiment 1, between 2 and 25 symbols were presented on a computer display. Participants were asked to chunk symbols under class labels and store these labels in short-term memory. Two different display formatting variables were tested: spatial proximity grouping of icons was manipulated across three levels, while temporal grouping was manipulated across two levels. Results suggest that display grouping helps operators organize, encode, and store information into task relevant chunks and, in turn, reduces subjective workload and error rates. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, except that participants were required to remember individual icon names (i.e., participants were asked to remember as many as 25 item names). Results suggest that for chunk formation, storage, and parsing tasks, display grouping may reduce subjective workload, but not error rates.
    The Effect of Cognitive Workload, Job Enrichment Environment, and Spatial Ability on Goal Structures and Strategies BIBA 1514-1518
      Liwana S. Bringelson; Ray Eberts
    The cognitive strategies used in the performance of human-computer interaction tasks have often been described in terms of goal stack models which are equivalent to hierarchical structures of goals and sub-goals. Effects of cognitive workload, spatial ability and job enrichment (JE) environment were evaluated by using goal structures and the quality of output. Studies were performed on a memo text-editing task to evaluate methods to determine the cognitive goal structures by analyzing the keystrokes and the pauses between keystrokes. The keystrokes provide information about the nodes and goals in the structures while the pauses between keystrokes provide information about the hierarchical structure of the goals. The cognitive goal structures of individual subjects were analyzed quantitatively according to the efficiency of the strategy and the depth and breadth of the strategy. The measures of cognitive goal structures were affected by environmental manipulations of the task in an experimental study of subjects using a text-editor. In particular, in a high workload condition, performance depended upon the spatial ability of the subjects. The goal structures of high spatial subjects became shallower as workload increased and the goal structures of the low spatial subjects did not change appreciably. In the high JE condition, the high spatial subjects developed more efficient cognitive strategies while in the low JE condition these high spatial subjects were less efficient. For the low spatial subjects, job enrichment had no effect. Overall, high spatial subjects changed their cognitive goal structures and strategies dependent upon the environmental conditions whereas the low spatial subjects were invariant under different environmental conditions.
    The Effectiveness of Color-Coding in Visual Displays: Does Practice Make a Difference? BIB 1519-1523
      Rebecca M. T. Jubis

    Visual Performance: Visual Performance Applications

    Status or Recommendation: Selecting the Type of Information for Decision Aiding BIBA 1524-1528
      William M. Crocoll; Bruce G. Coury
    Decision aiding systems are becoming an important part of command and control. Selecting the best type of decision aiding information remains an important design decision. The research reported in this paper assesses the is to determine if a decision aid in an aircraft identification task should provide a recommendation for action or status information about the identity of the aircraft. Thirty-two subjects were equally divided into four groups: a control group where no decision aiding information was provided; a group who received only status information; a third group who received only recommendation information; and a fourth group who received both status and recommendation information. Results indicated that, in general, providing decision aiding information reduced the time required to identify the aircraft. Differences among the three types of decision aiding information occurred under those conditions when the decision aid was incorrect. When the decision aid provided inaccurate information, the group receiving only status information was least affected by the decision aid and was best able to correctly identify the aircraft. Recommendations for selecting the type of decision aiding information are discussed.
    Rifle Marksmanship with Three Types of Combat Clothing BIB- 1529-1532
      Richard F. Johnson; Donna J. McMenemy; Douglas T. Dauphinee
    Selective Attention with Auxiliary Automobile Displays BIBA 1533-1537
      Y. Ian Noy
    Emerging intelligent vehicle-highway systems technology will have a profound impact on the design of future driver interfaces. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate basic human factors issues relating to the design and use of auxiliary in-vehicle displays. A total of thirty healthy male and female student volunteers drove in a moving-base driving simulator and performed auxiliary cognitive tasks on a CRT display. Measures of driving performance, attentional behaviour, auxiliary task performance and workload indicated that performing auxiliary tasks while driving can significantly degrade performance. The effects were manifested even more strongly in subjects' attentional responses. Multiple Resource Theory predictions were not upheld, indicating that the nature and extent of intrusion were relatively robust with respect to task resource structure. Finally, the results provided no evidence that the payment of bonuses was effective in shifting relative resource allocation between these tasks.
    The Effects of Simulator Time Delays on a Sidestep Landing Maneuver: A Preliminary Investigation BIB- 1538-1541
      James D. Whiteley; Steven L. Lusk; Matthew S. Middendorf

    Visual Performance: Designing Aviation Displays

    Information Representations for Aircraft Attitude Displays BIB 1542-1546
      Robert K. Osgood; Michael Venturino
    Effects of Variations in Head-Up Display Airspeed and Altitude Representations on Basic Flight Performance BIB- 1547-1551
      William R. Ercoline; Kent K. Gillingham
    Aiding Type and Format Compatibility for Decision Aid Interface Design BIB- 1552-1556
      Barbara J. Barnett
    Tracking and Letter Classification Under Dichoptic and Binocular Viewing Conditions BIB- 1557-1561
      Daniel Gopher; Arthur Grunwald; Zvi Straucher; Ruth Kimchi

    Visual Performance: Visual Issues in Advanced Displays

    The Effects of Transient Adaptation on Cockpit Operations BIBA 1562-1566
      Edward J. Rinalducci; Donald L. Lassiter; Lawrence Mitchell
    Two experiments examined visibility loss as a function of sudden changes in luminance level such as those that might be experienced by a pilot in a high-performance aircraft. Luminance levels chosen were similar to those found at dawn and dusk or under nighttime conditions. In the first experiment, the observer was required to recognize test letters varying in spectral composition similar to what might be seen on a HUD. The large background field changed upwards or downwards a 1- or 2-log unit increment. Results indicated losses for both directions of change. No differences were found between the different test-letter colors. In the second experiment, the observer was exposed to changing background fields (2-log unit upward and downward changes) which were presented from O to 5 degrees from foveal fixation. In general, results indicated greater effects for background stimuli closest to central fixation (in the region of target location) and decreasing to zero with increasing eccentricity.
    Field-of-View Effects on a Simulated Flight Task with Head-Down and Head-Up Sensor Imagery Displays BIBA 1567-1571
      Michael S. Brickner; David C. Foyle
    When pilots fly an aircraft with sensor imagery rather than direct vision, their instantaneous field of view (FOV) is restricted severely. This limitation has been identified as a major human factors problem in aviation and has fostered efforts to develop displays with much wider FOVs than are currently available. Two experiments are reported investigating FOV effects in simulated flights with sensor imagery appearing on a Head-Down Display (HDD) and a Head-Up Display (HUD). The outside world was viewed via a simulated sensor image with a 25, 40, or 55 deg FOV, while the surrounding world was dark and provided no additional information. The subjects' task was to fly a slalom course without hitting the pylons or missing the intervals between pylons. The results indicate significant effects of FOV on both hits and misses for both the HDD and the HUD. In addition, performance was significantly affected by the speed of flying and the level of training. With the narrow FOV, subjects flew closer to the pylons than with the wide FOV and hit the pylons more often. These results are interpreted as an indication that subjects perceived the sensor display as the entire world rather than as a window into the world. This effect was somewhat smaller with the HUD than with the HDD, possibly because the HUD better represented a window into the world. The differences between the HUD and the HDD, however, did not reach statistical significance.
    Head Movements as a Function of Field-of-View Size on a Helmet-Mounted Display BIBA 1572-1576
      Michael Venturino; Maxwell J. Wells
    Measurements were made of subjects' head movements as they found and memorized the position of targets located around them. Four factors were manipulated: the size of the field-cf-view (FOV) with which they could view the targets, the number of targets, the background against which the targets were presented (blank or terrain), and the search instructions (slow or fast). The targets and terrain were viewed on a binocular helmet-mounted display. The dependent variables included measures of the amount of head displacement and head velocity. In the slow search trials, small FOVs produced significantly more head displacement and lower head velocities than did the large FOVs. In the fast search trials, head velocity increased with increasing FOV. The results are interpreted in terms of the disruptive effects of small FOVs on the efficient use of coordinated head and eye movements to acquire spatial information.
    The Impact of Visual Noise on Spatial Orientation BIBA 1577-1581
      Brian P. Dyre; George J. Andersen
    In aviation, effective execution of some flight maneuvers, such as rescue operations at sea, requires that pilots form a veridical perception of their position and motion with respect to the environment. Previous research has shown that human observers can determine their own motion or spatial orientation from displays simulating observers motion through a rigid three-dimensional environment (Stoffregen, 1985; Andersen & Dyre; 1987; Dyre & Andersen, 1988; Andersen & Dyre, 1989;), however, the sensitivity of spatial orientation to noise in the visual field has not been examined. The present study examined the sensitivity of spatial orientation to noise in the global optic flow field. Displays simulating observer motion along the line of sight through a volume of randomly positioned points were observed monocularly through a circular window that limited the field of view to 30 degrees. The velocity of each display varied according to a function that was the sum of four sine functions of prime frequencies (between 0.15 and 1.0 Hz). Noise was produced by randomly shifting the phase lag of the three-dimensional motion function for each individual point within the display. Two levels of lag were examined: no lag and 10 second lag. Change in posture was used as an objective measure of spatial orientation and was recorded by a Kistler force platform. When no lag was present, increased postural sway was found to occur at all the frequencies of motion simulated in the display. However, for a lag of 10 seconds subjects exhibited no increase in postural sway at the display frequencies. These results suggest that if global optic flow patterns are obscured by noise then the information important for determining spatial orientation is greatly reduced. The importance of these results for flight of maneuvers will be discussed.