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HFS Tables of Contents: 87-187-288-188-289-189-290-190-291-191-292-192-293-193-294-194-295-195-2

Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987-10-19

  1. Modeling, Evaluating, and Enhancing Organizational Design and Management Systems
  2. Transportation Safety
  3. The Use of Physiological Measures in Aviation-Related Research
  4. Space
  5. Human Performance and Information Processing II
  6. Workload and Performance
  7. Age Research on Skill Acquisition, Assessment, and Change and Applications to Design
  8. Panel
  9. Ergonomic Design
  10. Hands and Gloves
  11. Mining, Safety, Sleep Deprivation, and Stressors
  12. Delivery of Army Training via Computer Conferencing: An Empirical Evaluation of a Rising Technology -- Report of Year One
  13. Communications III
  14. Database Access and Format
  15. Approaches to Consumer Product Design
  16. Vision and Inspection
  17. Ergonomics, Organizational Management, and Technology Transfer
  18. Panel
  19. Automatic Processing, Visual Search, and Mental Workload
  20. Displays II
  21. Random Access II
  22. Environmental Design
  23. Warnings: Where Are We Now -- Where We Should Go from Here
  24. Potpourri
  25. Dealing with Technology and Automation: Interaction of Machine and Organizational Systems
  26. Development of Test Methods
  27. Visual and Auditory Detection Performance
  28. Controls
  29. Display Formatting and Information Retrieval
  30. Panel
  31. Safety of Products and Processes
  32. Training Requirements
  33. Vision, Color Vision, and CRTs
  34. Simulators/Training
  35. Tools and Techniques for Interface Design
  36. Work Physiology and Human Performance
  37. Managing the Human Side of Organizational Design and Management
  38. Training Evaluation and Research
  39. Design and Evaluation
  40. Systems Development Medley

Modeling, Evaluating, and Enhancing Organizational Design and Management Systems

Introducing and Promoting Human Factors in the Real World: A Case Study BIBA 732-735
  Linda Rich
The application of human factors research outside academic and vendor domains has been limited, with corporate systems development departments often unaware of the field. Introducing human factors within a corporation requires addressing organizational context issues in the particular setting. At Chemical Bank a pilot project was conducted to introduce and promote the application of human factors in the design of interactive computer systems. The project involved comparative usability evaluations of existing systems, and development of recommendations for institutionalizing human factors within the development process. The project sought to tailor recommendations to the organizational context. This paper discusses the Chemical Bank project and presents an analysis of the underlying causes limiting the use of human factors techniques in that organization.
Environmental, Psychological and Organizational Correlates of Employee Health in Offices: A Proposed Model BIBA 736-740
  Alan Hedge; Sheena Wilson; P. Sherwood Burge; Alastair S. Robertson; Jon Harris-Bass
In a survey of 4373 office workers, sampled from 47 office sites across the U.K., correlates of work-related illness were investigated. Results showed that a variety of factors influence the prevalence of 10 work-related symptoms which are characteristic of the "sick building syndrome". Path analysis was used to develop a model to represent causal associations. This model proposes that work-related illness is affected by architectural/environmental factors, individual/psychological factors, and occupational/organizational factors. The implications of this for health promotion are outlined.
Function Modeling Applied to Human Factors Engineering Productivity Improvement BIBA 741-745
  Gary Kress; Richard P. Kaplan
A function modeling methodology was used to analyze and graphically describe the activities and work products of an industrial human factors engineering (HFE) group. A model was constructed representing the HFE functions and describing the information that interrelates them. Data was collected to estimate the amount of staff effort devoted to each of the functions. The model: (a) identifies where actual practice departs from desired practice; (b) pinpoints where and how critical project deliverables are generated, (c) provides the basis for a standardized approach to the conduct of HFE; and (d) serves as a training vehicle for new staff members. The results of the data collection showed that 83% of HFE activities are devoted directly to performing technical functions. These efforts reflect a "classical" Human Engineering approach which emphasizes human-machine system analysis, design and evaluation. Less staff effort is devoted to the larger Human Factors domain which is concerned, per se, with personnel subsystem issues.
Human Factors in Education: Strategic Planning for the Future BIBA 746-750
  Daniel M. Jesse; Donald J. Monatgue
This paper will describe the progress and future design of a project to develop an expert system for strategic planning in education. The importance, applicability, the methodology, objectives and anticipated results will be described in detail along with the educational and scientific importance such a system is capable of achieving.

Transportation Safety

The Tracometer as an Intoxication Warning Device BIBA 751-755
  Y. Ian Noy
An experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of developing an in-vehicle skill-based drunk driver detection and deterrence system. The experiment compared two well-developed psychomotor test devices, the Tracometer and the Critical Tracking Task (CTT), for their ability to detect alcohol intoxication. The Tracometer employed a pursuit tracking task whereas the CTT employed a compensatory tracking task. Twenty male subjects, aged 19 -30 were trained on the Tracometer and the CTT over a three day period. On two subsequent test days, they were treated with either a placebo or alcoholic beverages designed to bring their peak Blood Alcohol concentration (BAC) to 1.2% (1200 mg/L). On each day, the subjects were tested once before treatment and six times after treatment at hourly intervals as their BAC levels declined. The results indicate that the Tracometer was more sensitive than the CTT to the effects of alcohol over a wide range of BAC levels. At a BAC level of 0.8%, performance on the Tracometer deteriorated by 16% whereas performance on the CTT deteriorated by only 7%. Using optimized pass/fail protocols, the Tracometer failed 60% of subjects with BAC in the range .08 - 1.0%, whereas the CTT failed 34%. At BAC levels above 1.0%, the Tracometer failed about 85% whereas the CTT failed 40%. These results clearly illustrate the potential of the Tracometer as a test of alcohol intoxication. Although the impetus behind the study was the development of drunk-driving countermeasure, the technology can be easily extended to include other applications.
The Optimism Bias and Traffic Safety BIBA 756-759
  David M. DeJoy
In this study, college students were asked to rate their overall accident likelihood, driving skill, and level of safety relative to other drivers. They also made comparative risk judgements for a variety of specific accident situations. Consistent with previous research, subjects perceived themselves as safer, more skillful, and less likely to be involved in an accident than other drivers. Optimism increased with driving experience, but was unrelated to age or sex. Substantial optimism was also evident in response to the specific accident situations, and further analysis indicated that the perceived controllability of the accident was a strong predictor of optimism. The importance of controllability in this study is consistent with research on other life events, and suggests that perceptions of control play an important role in the optimism bias.
All-Terrain Vehicles: A Human Factors and Safety Analysis BIBA 760-761
  Tarald O. Kvalseth
This summary outlines the primary points of a paper concerning a human factors and safety analysis of the all-terrain vehicle (ATV). The ATV has become a popular consumer product and is being widely used in various work related environments. However, the safety of the different ATV designs is being seriously questioned, and the ATV related accident rates are showing alarming trends. In addition to giving such accident statistics, the paper to be presented will be concerned with various safety-related aspects of ATVs such as (1) the design of warning decals and owner's manuals, (2) safety devices, (3) thumb-operated versus twist throttles, (4) seat design, (5) luggage rack designs and (6) the unique operating characteristics and instability conditions. Two safety devices designed by this author and his students to prevent the ATV from tipping over backwards are discussed and the results of field test, and possibly a video demonstration, are presented.
Stopping Performance in Familiar and Unfamiliar Vehicles BIBA 762-765
  Thomas A. Ranney; Nathaniel H. Pulling
Lack of vehicle familiarity is a contributing factor in motor-vehicle accidents. It may also contaminate results in experiments where subjects are required to drive unfamiliar vehicles or driving simulators. An instrumented driving range, including a signalized intersection, was developed to evaluate driving performance in subjects' own vehicles. Fourteen drivers completed approximately fifty laps of the one-half mile closed course in their own vehicles and in an unfamiliar passenger van. Their task was to stop at the stop line following the change of the traffic signal from green to yellow. Brake reaction time, smoothness of deceleration, approach speed, and stopping accuracy were recorded. In the unfamiliar van, brake reaction times were faster and drivers were more likely to stop considerably before the stop line than in their own vehicle. Deceleration was slightly smoother in the unfamiliar van. Individual differences in approach speed were stronger than differences associated with vehicles. Overall performance was influenced more by the position of the vehicle at yellow onset than by vehicle familiarity. Results were interpreted as suggesting heightened driver awareness in the unfamiliar vehicle. Implications for the safety of drivers in unfamiliar vehicles are discussed. The use of unfamiliar vehicles in driving performance research and problems of data analysis resulting from the use of drivers in their own vehicles are also discussed.
Driving Performance as a Function of Time on the Road BIBA 766-769
  Thomas A. Ranney; Valerie J. Gawron
The effects of driving times were examined in two experiments, both involving two-hour drives. Experiment 1 used a fully instrumented vehicle on a closed course under nighttime conditions. Experiment 2 used an interactive driving simulator. In Experiment 1 effects of driving time were increases in the frequency of right-side lane departures, decreased speed, and increased speed variability, all consistent with decreased arousal associated with fatigue. Driving time effects in Experiment 2 included increased reaction time and reaction-time variability to signs as well increases in speed, lateral acceleration and in overall performance as reflected in pay, indicating compensation for the effects of fatigue. Differences between the experiments were examined as possible explanations for differences in results.

The Use of Physiological Measures in Aviation-Related Research

Physiological Correlates of Behavioral Performance on the Mathematical Processing Subtest of the CTS Battery BIBA 770-773
  Robert L. Yolton; Glenn Wilson; Iris Davis; Kathy McCloskey
To assess the relationship between behavioral, subjective and physiological measures of mental workload, 10 adult subjects solved equations with 1, 2 or 3 plus or minus operators (the Math Processing subtest of the CTS battery). Following extensive training, individual test sessions were held during which reaction times, subject workload ratings and a set of physiological measures were recorded. Reaction times and subjective workload ratings increased with the number of operators in the equations, but heart rhythm, eye blinks and peripheral temperature showed no systematic relationships to the number of operators. The P-300 event related potential decreased in amplitude and latency and a late position component recorded at Cz decreased in amplitude and increased in latency as the number of operators in the equations was increased.
Evaluating a Spatial Task: Behavioral, Subjective, and Physiological Correlates BIBA 774-778
  Kathy McCloskey
A spatial task, taken from the Criterion Task Set (CTS) battery, was used to examine task load effects on a variety of physiological indices. This task had been shown with earlier validation data (reaction time and subjective ratings) to possess three different levels of task load (Shingledecker, 1984). Task event-related evoked potentials (EPs), heart rate and heart rate variability, and eyeblink measures were obtained while ten subjects performed the three levels of the spatial task. The amplitudes of the P2, N2, and P3 of the EPs differentiated between the low task level, and the medium and high. Medium and high did not differentiate. The latencies of the N1, N2, and P3 were shorter for the low task level than for the medium and high. Again, medium and high did not differentiate. The amplitude and latency of the EP components suggest that this task possesses only two levels of information processing complexity. Heart rate and heart rate variability did not differentiate between task levels, only between a no-task baseline and all other levels of the task. Both heart rate indices did show a time-on-task effect, suggesting that these measures are good indicators of overall bodily arousal. None of the eyeblink measures showed sensitivity to any levels of the task.
Physiological Data Used to Measure Pilot Workload in Actual Flight and Simulator Conditions BIBA 779-783
  Glenn F. Wilson; Brad Purvis; June Skelly; Penny Fullenkamp; Iris Davis
Three physiological measures of workload; heart rate, eye blink, and EEG were recorded from eight experienced A-7 attack aircraft pilots. Each pilot flew the same familiar training mission three times; one mission in the lead position of a four ship formation and the other as wing, and once in an A-7 simulator. The mission lasted approximately 90 minutes and consisted of take-off, low altitude terrain following, high G maneuvers, inflight navigational updates, weapons delivery, and a high altitude cruise to base, ending in a formation landing. The data show significant differences between simulated and actual flights for all measures. There were also significant differences between mission segments for each pilot. The heart rate data most obviously reflect the changes in workload level throughout the mission and between flight position and simulator. Blink rate and duration were sensitive to changing visual attentional demands. The EEG data showed differences between the actual flight missions and the simulator.
Heart Rate Averages as Workload/Fatigue Indicators During OT&E BIBA 784-785
  Stephen M. Rokicki
The purpose of this methodology is to allow a macro-level assessment of workload during long duration test flights without interfering with aircrew duties or imposing non-mission workload by using subjective methods. Using this method allows an initial analysis of heart rate data, mission profile, and mission tasking to indicate areas of concentration for micro-level workload data collection and analysis. Initial results of this method indicate that this use of cardiovascular data does highlight unanticipated workload areas for further evaluation.

Space

Handgrip Strength with the Bare Hand and in the NASA Spacesuit Glove BIBA 786-790
  J. Richard Roesch
This study examined handgrip strength with the bare and spacesuit-gloved hand, in three hand and two elbow positions. Sixteen subjects from the suited-subject pool at NASA/Johnson Space Center gripped a hand dynamometer encased in a vacuum changer designed to simulate the pressure differential of the spacesuit in space. With the bare hand (at one atmosphere), there was an effect for hand position and a hand-position x elbow-position interaction. With the spacesuit-gloved hand, there was only an effect for hand position. Two different pressure differentials (psid) were used: the glove at 0.5 psid was responsible for a 35% grip decrement (when compared to bare handgrip); the glove at 4.3 psid (normal operating pressure) was responsible for a 42% grip decrement. Bare and gloved-handgrip were positively correlated with hand size, body weight, height, and forearm circumference. Post-hoc, subjects were grouped by hand size; the four subjects in the XL hand-size group lost an average of 17% in grip in the glove at 4.3 psid (when compared to the glove at 0.5 psid); the group lost 12%; the M group lost 9% and the S hand-size group lost less than 1%. The larger the hand, the greater was the grip strength decrement due to increased pressure in the glove.
Telerobotic Control of a Dextrous Manipulator using Master and Six-DOF Hand Controllers for Space Assembly and Servicing Tasks BIBA 791-795
  John M. O'Hara
Two studies were conducted evaluating methods of controlling a telerobot: bilateral force reflecting master controllers and proportional rate six degrees of freedom (DOF) hand controllers. The first study compared the controllers on performance of single manipulator arm tasks, a peg-in-the-hole task, and simulated satellite orbital replacement unit changeout. The second study, a Space Station truss assembly task, required simultaneous operation of both manipulator arms (all 12 DOFs) and complex multiaxis slave arm movements. Task times were significantly longer and fewer errors were committed with the hand controllers. The hand controllers were also rated significantly higher in cognitive and manual control workload on the two-arm task. The master controllers were rated significantly higher in physical workload. There were no significant differences in ratings of manipulator control quality.
Use of Infrared Telemetry as Part of a Nonintrusive Inflight Data Collection System to Collect Human Factors Data BIBA 796-799
  Angelo J. Micocci
This paper presents the rationale for development and use of an infrared (IR) telemetry device as one portion of a Nonintrusive Inflight Data Collection System (NIDCS). The NIDCS is comprised of three data-collection methods which will be evaluated in concert with each other to present a comprehensive story of Human Factors issues involved in spaceflights and the determination of solutions for these problem areas.
Crew-Induced Load Measurement for Space Operations BIBA 800-802
  Ruthan Lewis
A method has been developed to simulate and measure crew-induced and reactive loads for a variety of intravehicular and extravehicular tasks. The need for this information has expanded in parallel with the complexity of space operations, i.e. satellite servicing, on-orbit construction, use of interactive workstations, etc. The method employs the use of a dynamometer attached to an adjustable support and a 3-axis force/torque platform. Translational and rotational hand/arm forces and torques, and foot reaction forces and torques may be measured simultaneously. The apparatus has been designed for on-orbit and ground-based usage. Beyond explanation of the instrumentation, the presentation will address data on forces effected by crewmembers, and applications, implication, and integration of the information with regards to planning space operations and design of crew-interfaced items.
Habitability in Long-Term Space Missions BIBA 803-805
  Frances E. Mount
Given its objective of being permanent and manned, the United States Space Station should be planned, designed and built to maximize the crew's contribution to space station effectiveness.
   This paper presents an overview of some of the activities, both in progress and completed, covering the concerns of crew habitability and crew productivity for the propose United States Space Station.
   Various methods and tasks have been incorporated to increase the data base of man/systems information. This information will enhance habitability and crew performance during our Space Missions.
   A synopsis of some of the activities, designed to add data for the enhancement of the man/systems component of the proposed space station, is given.
   The Man-Systems Division of NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, has been the centerpoint for all the activities listed.
Human-Telerobot Interactions: Information, Control, and Mental Models BIBA 806-810
  Randy L. Smith; Douglas J. Gillan
NASA is currently working on the Space Station which will be a permanently manned orbiting space laboratory when it becomes operational in the mid 1990's. A part of the Space Station will be a teleoperated robot (telerobot) with arms for grasping and manipulation, feet for holding onto objects, and television cameras for visual feedback. The objective of the work described in this paper is to develop the requirements and specifications for the user-telerobot interface and to determine through research and testing that the interface results in efficient system operation. The focus of the development of the user-telerobot interface is on the information required by the user, user inputs, and design of the control workstation. Closely related to both the information required by the user and the user's control of the telerobot is the user's mental model of the relation of the control inputs and the telerobot's actions.

Human Performance and Information Processing II

Evaluation of Algorithms for Combining Independent Data Sets in a Human Performance Expert System BIBA 811-814
  Valerie J. Gawron; David J. Travale; Colin Drury; Sara Czaja
A major problem facing system designers today is predicting human performance in: 1) systems that have not yet been built, 2) situations that have not yet been experienced, and 3) situations for which there are only anecdotal reports. To address this problem, the Human Performance Expert System (Human) was designed. The system contains a large data based of equations derived from human performance research reported in the open literature. Human accesses these data to predict task performance times, task completion probabilities, and error rates. A problem was encountered when multiple independent data sets were relevant to one task. For example, a designer is interested in the effects of luminance and font size on number of reading errors. Two data sets exist in the literature: one examining the effects of luminance, the other, font size. The data in the two sets were collected at different locations with different subjects and at different times in history. How can the two data sets be combined to address the designer's problem?
   Four combining algorithms were developed and then tested in two steps. In step one, two reaction-time experiments were conducted: one to evaluate the effect the number of alternatives on reaction time; the second, signals per minute and number of displays being monitored. The four algorithms were used on the data from these two experiments to predict reaction time in the situation where all three independent variables are manipulated simultaneously. In step two of the test procedure, a third experiment was conducted. Subjects who had not participated in either Experiment One or Two performed a reaction-time task under the combined effects of all three independent variables. The predictions made from step one were compared to the actual empirical data collected in step two. The results of these comparisons are presented.
Integrated Operator-Plant Process Modeling and Decision Support for Allocation of Function BIBA 815-819
  Jack C. Schryver; Helmut E. Knee
Human operator simulation models can play an important information role in the allocation of functions in person-machine systems. A prototype simulation model system developed at ORNL is described in which a human operator model (INTEROPS) and a nuclear power plant (NPP) process model are dynamically integrated. INTEROPS is a cognitive / performance simulation model which is itself a dynamic integration of a SAINT task network model and a knowledge-based subsystem which reasons with uncertainty. Potential contributions of INTEROPS to NPP advanced control design are evaluated.
Perceptual and Motor Determinants of Efficient Data Entry BIBA 820-824
  David Raij; Daniel Gopher; Ruth Kimchi
Two scales were constructed to separately evaluate the perceptual and motor difficulty of the finger chords employed to enter letters in a newly designed chord keyboard, developed to provide an efficient alternative to the existing QWERTY keyboard. The index of motor difficulty evaluated the biomechanical problems associated with the execution of the 31 possible chord combinations of five-fingers. The perceptual index scaled the difficulty of identifying the spatial pattern created by each of the 31 chords. A regression equation that was based on the two indexes accounted for about 60% of the variance of actual typing on the chord keyboard. Perceptual and motor determinants appear to be equally potent and mostly independent in their influence on efficient data entry performance.
Effects of Cooling and Flavoring Drinking Water on Psychological Performance in a Hot Environment BIBA 825-829
  Richard F. Johnson; Shelley R. Strowman
During exposure to a hot environment, unacclimatized soldiers may not voluntarily drink enough water to compensate for the loss of fluids. This study evaluated whether, with increased voluntary drinking (due to cooling and/or flavoring the drinking water), the soldier (a) will be less likely to report feelings of discomfort and symptoms of heat illness and (b) will also be better able to maintain his ability to perform psychomotor and cognitive tasks. On each of four test days in a heat chamber, eight subjects were permitted to drink ad lib only one of four beverages: cool water, warm water, cool flavored water, or warm flavored water. The subjects felt more uncomfortable and reported more symptoms of heat illness under the warm water conditions. Psychomotor performance (manual dexterity) and cognitive performance (logical reasoning) were significantly degraded under the warm water conditions but only after at least four hours of heat exposure. Flavoring the water had no effect on any of the measures. It is concluded that under hot weather conditions, degradation in psychological performance may be attenuated if soldiers are provided cool as opposed to warm drinking water.
An Integrated Investigation into the Relative Effects of Alcohol on Various Human Behavioral Processes BIBA 830-833
  Heidi Ann Hahn; Dennis L. Price
A comprehensive study of the relative effects of alcohol on various behavioral processes was conducted. The results indicated the following descending hierarchy of impairment: (1) mediational processes; (2) motor processes; (3) communication processes; and (4) perceptual processes. These findings were compared to a literature-based hierarchy developed by other authors and discrepancies were explored.

Workload and Performance

Measuring Pilot Workload in a Motion Base Simulator: III. Synchronous Secondary Task BIBA 834-837
  Barry H. Kantowitz; Michael R. Bortolussi; Sandra G. Hart
This experiment continues earlier research (Kantowitz, Hart, & Bortolussi, 1983) conducted in a GAT-1 motion-base trainer to evaluate choice-reaction secondary tasks as measures of pilot workload. The earlier work used an asynchronous secondary task presented every 22 sec regardless of flying performance. The present experiment uses a synchronous task presented only when a critical event occurred on the flying tasks. Both 2- and 4-choice visual secondary tasks were investigated. Analysis of primary flying-task results showed no decrement in RMS error for altitude, indicating that the key assumption necessary for using a choice secondary task was satisfied. Reaction times showed significant differences between Easy and Hard flight scenarios as well as being able to discriminate among flight tasks.
The Effect of Experience on Subjective Ratings for Aircraft and Simulator Workload During IFR Flight BIBA 838-841
  Carl J. Mallery
This research is the result of a need to evaluate the effect of new complex cockpit systems on pilot workload. The goal of this research is to determine if the Pilot Objective/Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (POSWAT) ratings of workload obtained in a simulator are comparable to ratings obtained in an aircraft. In this study twenty experienced instrument rated subject pilots flew the same three simulated instrument cross-country flights. During these flights the pilots gave POSWAT workload ratings at one-minute intervals. The results show, that in general increased experience decreases POSWAT workload ratings for a given taskload.
A Componential Analysis of Pilot Decision-Making BIBA 842-846
  B. Barnett; A. Stokes; C. D. Wickens; T. Davis; R. Rosenblum; F. Hyman
In an effort to construct and validate an information-processing model of pilot decision-making, a microcomputer-based system, known as MIDIS, has been developed. A parallel effort resulted in the compilation of a cognitive test battery designed to assess individual differences in those cognitive attributes determined to be important in effective decision making. The processing model of pilot judgment is validated to the extent that pilots with strengths in particular cognitive attributes perform well on those decision scenarios determined to impose demands on those same abilities. Forty professional, instructor, and student pilots served as subjects in this validation study. The results reported here represent data from twenty of the highly-experienced instrument-rated pilots. The results indicated that the cognitive test of running memory span provided a valid predictor of the optimality of pilot's judgments. A test of risk assessment predicted pilot confidence and latency in the decision choices. Few of the other tests, including a test of declarative knowledge, provided significant correlations with the three attributes of decision performance for the pilots in the group studied to date.
The Effect of Processing Code, Response Modality and Task Difficulty on Dual Task Performance and Subjective Workload in a Manual System BIBA 847-851
  Yili Liu; Christopher D. Wickens
We report here the first experiment of a series studying the effect of task structure and difficulty demand on time-sharing performance and workload in both automated and corresponding manual systems. The experimental task involves manual control time-shared with spatial and verbal decision tasks of two levels of difficulty and two modes of response (voice or manual). The results provide strong evidence that tasks and processes competing for common processing resources are time shared less effectively and have higher workload than tasks competing for separate resources. Subjective measures and the structure of multiple resources are used in conjunction to predict dual task performance. The evidence comes from both single task and from dual task performance.

Age Research on Skill Acquisition, Assessment, and Change and Applications to Design

Repeated Measures Battery for the Aged BIBA 852-856
  Richard H. Shannon
A battery of 29 reliable, valid and repeatable cognitive and psychomotor paper-and-pencil tests, with each test measuring a specific construct, was used to assess the performance of 48 older males and females. These subjects were divided into three separate age groups: 55-60, 65-70, and 75-80 years. In addition, a group of 16 men and women aged 25-35 served as a control group. This battery is divided into three sub-batteries (A, B and C) which were given on three separate weeks. The emphasis of this paper will be to describe the results of the nine tests contained in sub-battery C. Each test of a basic ability was analyzed separately across a total of five days and fifteen trials, with three trials being given each day. Total test time for each trial was approximately 35 minutes.
Cognitive Skill Acquisition: A Developmental Approach BIBA 857-861
  Betty Jo Casey; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Twenty-eight studies from five different categories of tasks were examined for age-dependent training effects across the ages of seven to ninety. Four general patterns of results emerged from these studies. First, sensorimotor differences were found across the age groups. Second, although there were definite age differences, practice effects were evident for all ages. Third, ability-dependent differences within age groups were observed. These differences may be eliminated with consistent training. Finally, performance on certain task components, primarily those utilizing well-developed automatic processes, remained relatively stable across the life span. These patterns of performance are interpreted from a "connectionist" viewpoint and explained in terms of priority and associative mechanisms of learning.
A Norm-Independent Technique for Assessing Physical Ability of the Severely Disabled BIBA 862-865
  Deanna J. Clay
A new technique for assessing the physical ability of the severely disabled was developed. One of the distinguishing properties of this technique is that it is norm-independent. That is, it does not reference a normal scale of performance, thus it does not compare the performance of a disabled person to a standard established by able-bodied persons.
Computers and the Elderly: A Review of the Literature and Directions for Future Research BIBA 866-870
  Cynthia L. Tobias
Microcomputers could help reduce two of the principal fears of the elderly: inadequate income and loss of independence; yet there are indications that the elderly do not use computers very extensively because they see them as too complicated or because some of the physical impairments of advancing age make using standard systems too difficult for them. Previous research has shown a high degree of interest in computers among the aging, even in those over 85; however, the research has not focused on the elderly's special needs in the human-computer interface. Research is required on alternative input devices, such as the touchscreen and voice recognition, on menus and screen design, and on the use of color for coding or display background.

Panel

Human Factors Society Human-Computer Interaction Standards Committee Draft Proposal Version 1.2 BIBA 871-873
  Andrew M. Cohill; Patricia Billingsley; Evelyn Williams; Walter Gilmore; James Williams
The purpose of this reference model is to identify all topic areas that might be covered by guidelines or standards relating to the human-computer interface and to provide an organizational structure for those topics that will allow guidelines or standards to be developed in an incremental yet systematic fashion. By "human-computer interface" we mean those aspects of a computer system that both affect the user and have implications for software design.
   Our approach to the development of guidelines will be based on an attempt to determine those areas of the human interface which have sufficient importance and data available to merit an attempt to standardize.

Ergonomic Design

Comparing Worker Perceptions to Engineering Measurements of VDT Workstations and Environmental Conditions BIBA 874-878
  Pascale Carayon; Michael J. Smith; Kathleen Miezio
Twenty-five employees of the purchasing department of a large state agency participated in the study. Overall, self-ratings of working conditions were very similar to the engineering measurements.
Task, Seat Adjustability, and Postural Change BIBA 879-883
  Marvin J. Dainoff; Leonard Mark; Robert Moritz; David Vogele
Modern ergonomic chairs provide a variety of adjustment capabilities. Chairs may afford a posture in which the operator is tilted forward, or leaning backward. Recent studies suggest that the former posture is optimal for copy intensive work while the latter is optimal for screen intensive work. However, clear instruction to operators regarding these relationships is important. At the same time, some chair mechanisms allow postural adjustments to be fixed at a variety of orientations, while others "float" with the movement of the operator. Findings of the current study replicate earlier work with fixed mechanisms, while indicating that postural adjustment with dynamic chairs will critically depend on contextual factors such as adjustability of seat height.
A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of an Award Winner BIBA 884-888
  John K. Schmidt; Kragg P. Kysor; William Campanella
A post-occupancy evaluation was conducted on a academic hall to determine if its renovation and expansion achieved its goals. Generally, survey results suggest that the structure met its objectives, However, it was found that some aspects, apart from the design concept, were not well integrated and resulted in user discomfort and diminished building utility. It is recommended that all aspects of a building, to include space utilization, furnishings and environmental control systems, be considered when constructing work spaces.
Computer-Aided Learning Support for Environmental Design Students BIBA 889-893
  Stephen Brown
Intelligent CAD systems could be a useful vehicle for disseminating Human Factors principles among non Human Factors designers. Limitations of current CAD systems are discussed and an experimental system is described. It is suggested that future CAD systems should be less than expert, should be responsive to different learning styles and should employ a variety of electronic media at the user interface.

Hands and Gloves

The Effects of Gloves on Maximum Holding Time BIBA 894-897
  David J. Cochran; Ram R. Bishu; Michael W. Riley
Considerable work is now done while wearing gloves on tasks that require that considerable grip forces be exerted and maintained for extended times. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two common working gloves on the time a person can exert a constant grip force as a function of that person's maximum grip force. A simple endurance experiment was conducted to verify that the same relationship between holding time and grip force (as a percentage of maximum grip force under the same conditions) is valid for grip with gloves as is present in other muscular exertions. Subjects were first evaluated for maximum grip force on a standard hand dynamometer with bare hands and while wearing each of the gloves. They then participated in trials to evaluate grip endurance at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of the maximum grip for each condition (bare hand, a leather glove, and a cotton glove). Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data gathered to determine if the holding time differed for bare hand or glove conditions. This analysis showed no differences between the conditions. This study shows that the effect of a glove on endurance can be predicted by the effect of that glove on the maximum grip force that can be exerted. This will be of value to those persons who design or evaluate work tasks where gloves are required.
A Method for Measuring the Effect of Grip Surface on Torque Production during Hand/Arm Rotation BIBA 898-900
  Ruthan Lewis
Control of a manually handled object may be dependent on a variety of factors. Among these are frictional properties and geometry of the surfaces in contact with each other, position and alignment of the object and the operator, strength of the operator, etc. Control of the object is pertinent to properly direct the object or tool and to minimize the effort required of the operator during its use (i.e. by coordinating the mechanical advantage of the object and the operator). Evaluation of this feature may then help to improve the design and intent of the object or tool. The particular interface of interest in this presentation is the type of surface to be gripped and rotated by the space-gloved hand during a simulation of an on-orbit construction technique. An isokinetic method has been used to examine the effect of surface-type on performance measures including torque production, position of the peak torque, and angular distance rotated. The methodology supported a realistic viewing and simulation of the actual technique, yet also allowed controlled experimentation of the scenario with usable results characterizing each surface-type. The technique may be varied according to the application, and will be described.
Glove Effect on Strength: An Investigation of Glove Attributes BIBA 901-905
  Ram R. Bishu; Sanjay Batra; David J. Cochran; Michael W. Riley
A number of human performance capabilities are compromised with gloves. Explanations for the strength decrements with gloves have ranged from lack of tactile feedback when wearing gloves, to improper fit, to individual and task differences. An attempt has been made in this investigation to develop a predictive relationship between strength decrements and glove characteristics. Fifteen subjects participated in an experiment involving a grip and a grasp task with three gloves and a bare handed condition. Tenacity, snugness, suppleness and the material thickness were objectively measured as glove attributes. Significant Task and Glove effects were found. Results suggest that the glove size may not matter much in performance whereas resistance to sliding is an important performance determinant when using gloves. The results suggest that the strength decrements are complex functions of a number of glove attributes.
Gender and Handedness in Grip Strength -- A Double Whammy for Females BIBA 906-910
  Glenn D. Miller; Andris Freivalds
With increasing numbers of women entering into jobs traditionally held by men, it has been found that tools and equipment originally designed for the "average man" do not fit women, smaller men or other persons. Thirty college students (7 females, 8 dominant left handed males and 8 dominant right handed males) squeezed alternately with both dominant and non-dominant hands twice a Lafayette dynamometer at 5 grip span settings.
   The results indicated that grip strength increased with increasing grip span up to the preferred grip span. Female grip strength was 53% of male grip strength. The non-dominant hand produced 89.6% of dominant hand grip strength. More interestingly both male and female left handers exhibited nearly identical grip strengths for both hands, leading one to suspect that left handed people are being forced to adapt to a right handed world. It thus appears that certain female workers may be at a double disadvantage with gender and left handedness reducing grip strength by 2/3. However, tools and equipment can be modified to accommodate weaker individuals.
Evaluation of Conventional, Serial, and Chord Keyboard Options for Mail Encoding BIBA 911-915
  Rose Mae M. Richardson; Ronald U. Telson; Christopher G. Koch; Susan T. Chrysler
The motivation for the experiment was the integration of a work station display component and a suitable data entry device. Keying performance with three candidate keyboards was evaluated: (1) a one-handed conventional calculator keyboard, (2) a two-handed 10-key serial keyboard, and (3) a two-handed 10-key chord keyboard. Subjects were trained to criteria on a numerical data entry task and subsequently tested for performance in encoding five-digit strings. Measures of encoding response time and encoding errors showed a substantial advantage in training time for the calculator keyboard and two-handed serial keyboard over the two-handed chord keyboard.
Scenario Analyses of Finger Injuries in Industrial Accidents BIBA 916-919
  Dean G. Jensen
Injuries to fingers accounted for the highest proportion of injuries (17%) during a five year period in a large petro-chemical manufacturing complex. The injuries occurred most frequently for those jobs that involve manipulating tools, machinery, and materials. Scenario analyses carried out of the 1223 finger injuries indicated that the most common prior activities were assembling or disassembling equipment (32%) and materials handling (28%), accident events were impact with an object (40%) or a tool that slipped or missed the workpiece (27%), and injury events were being caught between objects (25%), being hit by moving objects (19%), or being cut by objects (13%). Some suggestions for interventions follow from these patterns.

Mining, Safety, Sleep Deprivation, and Stressors

Demographics Profile and Safety Aspects Pertaining to the Mining Population BIBA 920
  Shail J. Butani
In order for the Bureau of Mines (BOM) to focus health and safety research on the human factor element of the mining operations, it is essential to quantify and characterize the composition of the entire mining workforce with respect to occupation, job experience, age, education, region, etc. The BOM in 1986 began conducting a probability sample survey to measure the population characteristics of the mining industry workforce. The demographics profile provides information to questions such as "What is the socio-economic background of the population?", "What are the differences between the various groups of workforce?", etc. This paper will discuss the utilization of the data which are being collected on a continuing basis. In particular, this paper will outline how the demographic data are used in identifying those sectors of the population that are exhibiting higher than average accident rates. This information will be used to improve and expand mine health and safety research, and to customize training and safety programs for specifically identified demographic sectors of the mining industry population.
Preliminary Recommendations for Handling and Lifting Materials in Underground Low-Coal Mines BIBA 921-925
  Sean Gallagher; Thomas G. Bobick; Richard L. Unger
The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed preliminary recommendations for handling materials in low-seam coal mines in an effort to reduce the incidence and cost of low-back pain in underground coal mines. Three main approaches to reducing back injuries are discussed: a) research and development of task specific materials-handling hardware that would reduce the number of manual lifts in underground coal mines, b) examining the supply-handling systems currently in use at low-seam coal mines through task analysis, and c) examining the lifting capacity of low-seam coal miners in the restricted postures that must be used in underground mines. Bureau of Mines research finding and recommendations are presented and discussed.
Research to Determine the Frequency and Cause of Injury Accidents in Underground Mining BIBA 926-930
  Brian E. Shaw; Mark S. Sanders
A systems approach was used to investigate 188 underground mining accidents. A team of raters assessed the relative contribution of 10 causal factors in each accident case. The results illustrate the importance of human error and management in the causal chain of accidents.
Behavioral Effects of Multiple SCBA Stressors: Safety Research for Recommending Federal Standards BIBA 931-935
  Max Vercruyssen; Nina Turner; Tina Mihaly; James Hodgson; Elie Kamon
This paper reports the effects of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) stressors and work intensity on mental functioning and reported clinical symptoms. A methodology involving maximal exertion treadmill running (simulation of an emergency-like escape from an underground mine following a disaster) was used in addressing specific issues relevant to the development of safe emergency procedures where the use of SCBAs is warranted.

Delivery of Army Training via Computer Conferencing: An Empirical Evaluation of a Rising Technology -- Report of Year One

Delivery of Army Training via Computer Conferencing: An Empirical Evaluation of a Rising Technology -- Report of Year One BIBA 936
  Robert E. Richards
This symposium consists of four related presentations on the application of computer conferencing to Army training. These presentations will be followed by a short presentation by a distinguished discussant. It should be noted that the work being reported was performed for the United States Army Research Institute (ARI).
   The first presentation provides an overview of computer conferencing, discusses the training needs of the Army Reserve Component (RC), and looks at the potential match between the capabilities of computer conferencing and the RC training needs. A brief introduction is given of the first year's research study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in support of ARI. A two-group design was adopted to look at the effects of augmenting an existing correspondence course with computer conferencing.
   The second presentation discusses the data obtained from the study and presents preliminary results (the online class has been completed but the correspondence tests have not all been submitted nor have the study-related posttests and retention tests been completed by all the subjects). The types of data presented and discussed include activity data which was gathered as the online course proceeded, various kinds of survey data, and performance and completion data.
   The third presentation looks at the online course experience using process observation technique. Some results of the analysis to date are presented, with various examples from the online transcripts illustrating the types of behaviors and interpersonnel interactions observed. The examples are woven together with commentary and clarifying notes.
   The final presentation is a summary of lessons learned and a list of "gaps" that need to be filled by further research. As with many new areas, what is known at this point in time is overshadowed by what is not known. Important areas needing further research include instructor training and selection, course adaptation methods (how to take existing content and objectives and teach them via computer conferencing), and the entire area of logistics (including hardware, software, and support). As a result of the first year's efforts, the researchers are soberly aware of the difficulties and costs associated with using computer conferencing for training but are also optimistic that given the appropriate type of content, properly trained instructors, willing students, and sufficient logistical support, there is a real place for this technology in delivering training to the Army reserve component.
Computer Conferencing: Lessons Learned and Further Research BIBA 937-940
  Ruth H. Phelps; Robert E. Richards
Although data analysis of the computer conferencing study being conducted is not yet complete, we have been able to identify, at this point in the investigation, many valuable lessons learned and gaps in knowledge and experience. Lessons learned are presented in the areas of hardware and software, logistics, training, and the instructor. Research gaps are then identified and described. This paper is presented in the hopes that others beginning similar efforts or research can benefit and to begin to build a sound foundation for making decisions on the appropriate use of this technology.
Computer Conferencing -- Can It Help the Army Train? BIBA 941-945
  Robert E. Richards; Ruth H. Phelps
A brief overview of computer conferencing is given as an introduction to discussing the use of computer conferencing to provide Army reserve component training. A description of the Army reserve component training requirements is given relative to those capabilities provided by computer conferencing (e.g. asynchronous). Finally, the study that was performed under contract to the United States Army Research Institute by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is described. A two group design was used -- a control who took an existing Army course via correspondence only, and an experimental group who took the same course using the same materials augmented by computer conferencing.
Analysis of Quantitative Data Derived from Computer Conferencing BIBA 946-950
  Heidi Ann Hahn
Four classes of quantitative data may be generated when training via computer conferencing is implemented. These include activity data, survey data, performance tests, and completion rates. One of the challenges presented to users of the technology revolves around how these data can be meaningfully employed. This paper describes these data classes, their sources, and their utility to the data analyst.
Online Process Observation BIBA 951-955
  Bruce Kaplan
Process observation techniques for face-to-face interactions were applied in the online environment found useful for identifying some fundamental issues in the design and implementation of computer conferences for training. Key questions were found to include: How receptive will students be to computer conference delivered training; How is effective participation defined online and what participation requirements, if any, are necessary to create a successful learning environment online; What level of formality and degree of structure is useful; What kind of community development or social life is required to support training through computer conference? Exploring these questions about online process and observation provided guidance to those working to develop effective online instruction.

Communications III

Voice Recognition Technology Potential for a Complex Map Query System BIBA 956-960
  Daryle Jean Gardner-Bonneau; John Robert Bonneau; Bengt Martin Ahlstrom
The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of mouse, keyboard and voice inputs to a complex map database query system. The system, developed at FDA 53 in Linkoping, Sweden, is a multi-purpose one; the particular application involved here is one developed for monitoring water traffic on Lake Vattern. In a 4 x 2 within-subjects design, throughput was measured for mouse, keyboard, voice-english, and voice-swedish queries, both pre-composed and user-composed. An error analysis was also conducted. Results of the pilot study indicated that while voice was superior for pre-composed query entry, it was not necessarily superior for the entry of user-composed ones. System changes designed to improve performance in the voice and mouse input modes are discussed.
Context, Repetition and Synthesized Speech Intelligibility BIBA 961-965
  Monica A. Merva; Beverly H. Williges
Two studies were conducted to explore the effects of various parameters on rule-based synthetic speech intelligibility. Experiment I examined the effect of situational context clues and speech rate on synthesized speech intelligibility. Subjects who received pragmatic context information prior to each message had transcription error rates 50% lower than those who received no context information. Speech rates of 250 words per minute (wpm) yielded significantly more transcription errors than rates of 180 wpm. In Experiment II, the effects of speech rate, message repetition, and location of information in a message were examined. Transcription accuracy was best for messages spoken at 150 or 180 wpm and for messages repeated either twice or three times. Words at the end of messages were transcribed more accurately than words at the beginning of messages. Subjective ratings indicated that subjects were aware of errors when incorrectly transcribing a message even though no feedback was provided.
The Role of Temporal Parameters in Recall of Synthetic Speech BIBA 966-968
  Thomas J. Ayres
The limited-duration articulatory store which has been proposed as the basis of the memory span could involve either a playback or a production mechanism. In order to compare these, immediate serial recall was studied with auditorily-presented lists of digits with durations of 120-300 msec and pauses of 60-240 msec. Memory span declined for decreasing item duration, an effect largely attributable to loss of intelligibility. The results suggest that memory span depends on an active process rather than on passive playback of the memory trace.
The User-Computer Interface in a Telecommunications Engineering System: Impacts of Automation BIBA 969-972
  Lisa L. Thrush; Greta L. Myers; Luther D. McMillen
A common scenario in both manufacturing and human-computer interaction is that of people linking independently-designed systems. People receive output from one system, modify it and then input it into the next system in the process. In computer systems, manual data entry tasks introduce the possibility of both human errors and delays. With increased automation and integration of computer systems, many of these human links can be eliminated. Removing the human link between independently-designed systems does not remove the user from the system network. Rather, it places the user in the role of exception processing, controlling, monitoring and responding to the overall network of systems. This new role brings with it the requirement for an expansion of user knowledge to include a complete understanding of the system network and skills for technical problem solving. It further requires that the system's design include appropriate means of notifying exception processors, a system administrator and management of system status and production volume. The appropriate combination of these components will make a substantial contribution toward the development of a successful integrated computer system.

Database Access and Format

User-Computer Interface Requirements for Remote Access Data Bases BIBA 973-977
  Elizabeth A. Roop; David R. Eike; Christopher C. Heasly
Remote Access Data Base (RADB) technology offers a variety of opportunities for rapidly acquiring and disseminating information. However, if the exchange of information is to be optimized, issues concerning the RADB user-computer interface (UCI) must be identified and addressed. For the purposes of this study, the major issues in the operation of RADBs focused primarily on the search and retrieval requirements of the remote user, who is unlikely to be willing to devote much time or effort to learn about the data base system. Many remote users will fall into the category of low sophistication with regard to details of the design and operation of the system. To resolve these issues, it is desirable to include features in the RADB UCI which will enhance the effectiveness and power of the search while minimizing the effort required to master use of the system.
   Differences in features related to the design and operation of the user-computer interfaces of the various RADB shells were identified from product literature. These differences were translated into questionnaire items designed to allow respondents to indicate the relative importance of each feature. The survey was organized into three areas: user access, search and retrieval protocols, and on-line help. Users ranging in experience from daily access to yearly access, were surveyed. The data were subjected to the appropriate statistical analyses. The preliminary results revealed that query procedures and search and retrieval protocols are of utmost importance to the users surveyed. Guidelines of RADB UCI design were developed from the results of both the surveys and literature reviews.
Learning Hierarchical Menu Systems: A Comparative Investigation of Analogical and Pictorial Formats BIBA 978-982
  Jayson M. Webb; Arthur F. Kramer
The studies investigated the relative efficacy of different instructional aids for the learning and use of a hierarchical database system. Previous research has suggested that subjects who study a spatial map of the structure and objects in a database perform better on data retrieval tasks than subjects who study other types of material. The results of the present studies suggest that analogies are useful instructional aids for learning hierarchical databases.
The Effects of Different Data Base Formats on Information Retrieval BIBA 983-987
  Deborah Boehm-Davis; Robert Holt; Matthew Koll; Gloria Yastrop; Robert Peters
This research examined the effects of three different data base formats on the information retrieval performance of users. Spatial, tabular, and verbal forms of two data base domains (airline and thesaurus) were constructed, along with questions that required users to search through the data base to determine the correct response. Three types of questions were designed -- spatial, tabular, and verbal. The data indicate that users are faster and more accurate in responding to the questions when the format of the information in the data base matches the type of information needed to answer the question. While the importance of matching data base format to query type may seem to be obvious, it would appear that the designers of most current data base systems have not taken this into account.

Approaches to Consumer Product Design

Applying Human Factors in Anesthesia Monitoring BIBA 988-992
  Sydney Hudspith
The ergonomics of the anesthesia workstation have been examined, and a novel apparatus for monitoring depth of anesthesia has been developed. The depth measuring apparatus works by detecting esophageal motility during anesthesia and displaying the resulting data to the clinician. Esophageal activity is mediated by the vagus nerve and brain stem, and co-varies with the degree of brain stem activity, therefore it can be used to estimate depth of anesthesia. Moreover, the location and availability of the esophagus allow minimally-invasive monitoring of many other vital functions and the displaying of these functions of a single integrated monitor. This enables the clinician to derive from a single low-risk monitoring site a more comprehensive picture of the patient's physiological state. Data derived from clinical trials and research now underway in the UK and US tend to support these views. Now in its embryonic form, this research is being directed toward an integrated anesthesia monitor which will ultimately improve the ergonomics and economics of anesthesia delivery.
Pull-Tear Strength Capabilities in Adults BIBA 993-996
  Sheik N. Imrhan
Forty-four adults between the ages of 22 and 40 years were tested for maximal volitional pulls with the fingers, similar to some pull-tear forces employed for opening packages with tear strips. Twelve different pull conditions were tested -- 3 types of pull X 2 directions of pull X 2 hands. Results indicated that the type of pull, characterized by the type of pinch employed, had marked effects on the force attainable, but direction and hand laterality were not significant factors. These results have important implications for design of tear strips on packages.
If Controls in the Catalogs Just Won't Do, then Top-Down Design is Right for You BIBA 997-999
  William K. Wenger
Any human-artifact interface ultimately depends on the characteristics of available control, displays, and other components. Human factors' role is often merely that of performing hardware trade-offs and making recommendations. This consumer's approach deviates from human factors' proper function of initiating and contributing optimum control/display designs. In line with the latter, a new hand control was designed for use in environments where off-the-shelf controls were found to be inadequate.
RAPID -- Software for Prototyping User Interfaces BIBA 1000-1004
  Stephen Metz; Rose Mae Richardson; Mohammed Nasiruddin
The present paper described 1) the operation of a software tool for interface prototyping -- RAPID -- that is designed for software designers and human engineering specialists to use in support of design iteration and experimentation and 2) an application of this prototyping tool in the development of consumer products. RAPID simulates the appearance and function of small control panels including commonly-used displays and controls using the Smalltalk-80 computing environment The experience of using the design tool in a product development effort has provided a means of evaluating the success of this approach for supporting the product development cycle and improving the quality of the human-machine interface.

Vision and Inspection

Computer Work Stations: Preferred Posture and Line of Sight BIBA 1005-1008
  K. H. E. Kroemer
Ergonomic design of the computer work station can not rely on assuming an upright body position, but must accommodate various and varying postures.
Visual Inspection for Multiple Flaws: Effects of Long-Term Inspector Experience BIBA 1009-1013
  Michael L. Matthews
In a simulation of industrial quality control inspection, performance was tracked over a period of three months using target conditions which had previously been shown to produce performance decrements with multiple flaws. Feedback on performance was supplied to inspectors at the end of each day's work. Results showed that by the end of the period, multiple fault inspection performance was equal to or slightly better, in both accuracy and latency, than previous data obtained with single fault conditions. This finding raises concerns over previous studies which have attempted to address the issue of the supposed performance decrement associated with increasing the size of the target set.
The Effects of Magnification and Allowed Viewing Time on the Inspection of Printed Circuit Boards BIBA 1014-1018
  Joseph H. Goldberg; John Micalizzi; Sean A. O'Rourke
Industrial inspectors are becoming more dependant on the stereoscopic microscope for detecting microminiature defects in electronic components. The present study investigated the effect of magnification on the detection of scratch defects in the etching of printed circuit boards. Ten subjects were tested under 3 levels of magnification (10x, 16x and 30x) with the time for each view adjusted so that the total viewing time remained constant. Results showed a significant increase in inspector sensitivity (d') at the 30x magnification level. Inspector sensitivity in the 10x and 16x conditions was not significantly different. These results suggest that improvements in inspector performance through magnification are possible without increasing inspection time.

Ergonomics, Organizational Management, and Technology Transfer

Cultural Perspectives in Participatory Ergonomics BIBA 1019-1022
  Andrew S. Imada; Michelle M. Robertson
This paper examines the generalizability of participatory ergonomics to different cultures. Studies using participatory strategies to introduce ergonomic solutions are reviewed across three distinct cultures. The results lead us to believe that these effects are sufficiently robust and not culture or method bound. Four lessons can be learned from these participatory interventions: 1) Interventions should build on local customs; 2) Solutions should be practical and understandable to the participating end-users; 3) Culture should be used as a resource for solving design and cross-cultural problems; and 4) Synergy between the culture and the intervention will enhance the success and magnify problems of the intervention.
Managerial and Personnel Considerations of Ergonomics of Technology Transfer to Newly Industrializing Countries BIBA 1023-1027
  Michaela Mansfeld
The importance of recognizing human factors in technology transfer to Newly Industrializing Countries and identifying the increase in complexity of these factors as the human aspect crosses cultural, ethnic and national boundaries is becoming more evident. These considerations are proving to be major determining factors of the success of the technology transfer projects. This paper cites examples and discusses such differences in anthropometrics, physiological aspects, perceptual and cognitive characteristics, and the managerial considerations of work attitudes, training, and translation. These differences need to be identified not only abroad, but also in the U.S., as business with foreign nationals done in the U.S. increases. In other words, human factors in technology transfer should not be limited to developing countries, but should also be applied to operations within the U.S., as visiting foreign nationals also need to be trained.
The Power of Systems Science: The Synthesis of Information from Individual Disciplines: Starting with Ergonomics, Organizational Design, and Management BIBA 1028-1029
  Glen R. Gallaway
The value of information comes when it is used. The information obtained in our behavioral science disciplines needs to be synthesized to better represent a realistic description of the real world. A knowledge center for synthesizing information from various disciplines is proposed. This center would initially deal with Ergonomics/Organizational Design and Management (ODAM) information in the following thrust areas: 1) Building an information base of ergonomic and ODAM information (may be network of present bases); 2) Developing a taxonomy of the topic area; 3) Synthesizing the information; and 4) Gathering the tools that support: a) Obtaining information; and b) Use of the information.
Dependance of Technology Transfer on Organizational Issues: Awareness is the First Step to Understanding BIBA 1030-1034
  Glen R. Gallaway
The transformation and movement of technical product and/or service information between individuals, between an individual and an organization, between organizations, etc., might be considered a simple definition of technology transfer. It is often assumed that technical, scientific, and engineering functions determine the quality of technology transfer but there are many other controlling factors. The degree with which the data transferred is mission directed, needed, useful, timely, applicable, and practical for both the sender and receiver has an equally important effect on technology transfer. Individual, organizational, administrative, and management functions have a major role in determining whether these additional issues of technology transfer are met. It is imperative that both technical and support portions of an organization continually examine their effectiveness to meet changing technical objectives of the total organization, and re-structure as needed to meet those objectives to ensure the highest quality and quantity transfer of technological information.
A Proposed Model to Facilitate the Ergonomic Implementation of VDT-Based Data Entry Jobs in Industrially Developing Countries BIBA 1035-1039
  Steve M. Rosenberg
Extensive research has been conducted in Western Developed Countries on office ergonomics. The results of this research are presently being assimilated and integrated in Western offices. Concurrently there has been a movement to shift data entry operations to Industrially Developing Countries (IDC). The purpose of this paper is three-fold: 1) To stimulate consciousness among Human Factor professionals that VDT data entry work is being introduced into the developing countries by Western, primarily American, Multinational Corporations (MNC). 2) To explore methodology for applying established ergonomic principals to data entry tasks in IDC. 3) To propose a system model that addresses the unique ergonomic factors of data entry work being performed in IDC.

Panel

MANPRINT Perspectives: R&D/Production and Government/Industry BIBA 1040-1041
  Joseph I. Peters; William O. Blackwood; Michael L. Fineberg; Mark Johnson; William Ehly; Bernard M. Carona; George S. Council; Lawrence D., Jr. Howell
This panel session is intended to be responsive to continued, high-level attention given by the U.S. Army to its MANPRINT (Manpower and Personnel Integration) initiative and to the continued, if not increasing, interest expressed by the human factors community in MANPRINT efforts. LTC William O. Blackwood from the U.S. Army MANPRINT Policy Office will precede the panelists' presentations with a brief MANPRINT overview. MANPRINT interests will then be discussed by panelists representing four perspectives along two dimensions as represented in Figure 1 [to be found in the text].
The Case of the Missing Human Factors Data BIBA 1042-1043
  Leighton L. Smith; William W. Banks; Alphonse Chapanis; Colin Drury; Hal W. Hendrick; Jack I. Laveson; David Meister; Harold P. Van Cott
Human factors practitioners are continuously running into inadequate or missing data. This situation prevents or impedes the resolving of design dilemmas at hand.
   Why is this so? Is it because there are not enough researchers working in the empirical community? Are the empiricists not generating enough data?
   Perhaps the data that are being compiled are unusable. Is it because the data are redundant? Is it because the data are incompatible with other data sets? Are the current data sets too specific, i.e., ungeneralizable to broad applications? Or are the data that are available invalid, i.e. generated improperly?
   Are there any avenues that human factors specialists can pursue which would resolve this problem? Are there any policies or practices which could be developed which, if followed, would ensure more effective and usable data in the future?
   Is there any interest among Human Factors Society members to advocate any of the suggested activities? If so, how should this interest be best utilized?
   The panel will be represented by members from the practitioning community, the research community, and the academic community. The panel will be comprised of members of the Human Factors Society who will bring with them over a century of accumulated experience and thousands of published pages on human factors topics.

Automatic Processing, Visual Search, and Mental Workload

The Interaction of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Consistency in the Development of Skills BIBA 1044-1048
  Natalie A. Oransky; Paula R. Skedsvold; Arthur D. Fisk
An experiment is reported that was conducted to examine the possible value of high-order consistency in skill development. Subjects made judgments about ordinal properties of stimuli. The presence or absence of consistency was defined by the type of decision -- consistent or varied decisions. In both decision conditions the stimuli were inconsistent at the individual stimulus level; however, subjects making consistent decisions concerning the stimuli could make use of consistent relationships among the stimuli. Subjects in the consistent decision were faster and more accurate at identifying target stimuli when compared with the inconsistent decision subjects. In addition to the quantitative differences, subjects receiving consistent decision training were qualitatively different in performance when compared to the inconsistent decision group. The pattern of results from the present experiment is quite consistent with previous memory/visual search investigations. The experiment supports the suggestion that local level (or stimulus based) consistency is not necessary for automatic process development if task relevant high-order (or global) consistency can be identified and used by the trainees.
Perceptual Learning: Theory and Practice BIBA 1049-1053
  Donald L. Fisher; Christopher Young
Perceptual learning is required in a number of different contexts. Certain paradigms have been found to speed this learning, others to slow if not altogether inhibit it. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, an experimental test is described of an alternative explanation or model of the finding that perceptual learning is facilitated in consistent mapping tasks, but not in varied mapping ones (Schneider and Shiffrin, 1977). Second, it is shown how the model can be used to select from a set of equally acceptable graphical or symbolic representations of an object that representation which minimizes the time it takes to find the object in a visual search task.
Automatic Processing through the Back Door BIBA 1054-1056
  John M. Flach; Paul M. Grunzke
This study examined performance in a consistent mapping visual search task in which subjects were required to make discriminations within the disjoint, target, and distractor sets as well as between the sets. The within set discrimination was variably mapped across blocks of trials. The results show strong practice effects consistent with the development of automatic processes.
Absolute Magnitude Estimation and Relative Judgement Approaches to Subjective Workload Assessment BIBA 1057-1061
  Michael A. Vidulich; Pamela S. Tsang
Two rating scale techniques employing an absolute magnitude estimation method, were compared to a relative judgement method for assessing subjective workload. One of the absolute estimation techniques used was an unidimensional overall workload scale and the other was the multidimensional NASA-Task Load Index technique. Thomas Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process was the unidimensional relative judgement method used. These techniques were used to assess the subjective workload of various of single- and dual-tracking conditions. The validity of the techniques was defined as their ability to detect the same phenomena observed in the tracking performance. Reliability was assessed by calculating test-retest correlations. Within the context of the experiment, the Saaty Analytic Hierarchy Process was found to be superior in validity and reliability. These findings suggest that the relative judgement method would be an effective addition to the currently available subjective workload assessment techniques.
A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Investigation of Time Sharing Performance and Cognitive Abilities BIBA 1062-1066
  Jeffrey B. Brookings
Eighty-one male subjects performed four information processing tasks and six dual task combinations, and completed a battery of psychometric ability tests selected to define three first-order factors and a second-order general ability factor. Confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analyses of the performance data provided no support for a general time-sharing factor, but a model with factors corresponding to the four single tasks provided a good fit to the data. The Grammatical Reasoning factor was highly correlated with the Verbal and second-order General Ability factors, suggesting that this task may be a good single index of total attentional resources.

Displays II

Advanced Head-Up Display (HUD) Symbology: Aiding Unusual Attitude Recovery BIBA 1067-1071
  John P. Zenyuh; John M. Reising; James E. McClain; Diana J. Barbato; David C. Hartsock
The head-up displays (HUD's) of today's fighter aircraft present numerous symbology formats to the pilot which are essential for successful performance of a variety of flight tasks from navigation to weapons delivery. One common element in all of these formats is the pitch ladder, designed to provide the pilot with aircraft attitude even in the absence of external visual cues. Unlike the head down attitude director indicator (ADI), the HUD pitch ladder's intent is to aid the pilot in recovering from an unusual attitude while staying head-up. The purpose of this research was to compare the relative effectiveness of two changes to current pitch ladder symbology designed to enhance the pilot's ability to recover from unusual attitudes -- the use of angled pitch bars versus standard straight pitch bars and multicolor versus the standard monochromatic symbology. The results showed that, in extreme unusual attitudes, the use of both the angled pitch bars and color contributed to better flight performance. In the non-extreme attitudes however, where the horizon line is always visible, the standard symbology was sufficient for recovery.
Pictorial Format Displays for Two-Seat Fighter-Attack Aircraft BIBA 1072-1076
  Robin L. Martin; Thomas C. Way
Use of pictorial displays was explored as one solution to the complexity of modern aircraft and missions. A simulator crew-in-the-loop study was conducted to evaluate the utility and crew acceptance of pictorial formal displays for two-seat fighter-attack aircraft, to determine whether utility and crew acceptance were affected by application of color, and to recommend format changes based on the results. Pictorial formats were developed in both color and monochrome for the Head-Up Display and tactical, situation, and system status displays. Sixteen operational two-man aircrews learned the formats and flew them in mission simulation. Opinion, workload, and performance data were collected. The crews clearly supported the concept of pictorial formats, preferred the color version, and provided critiques of specific formats.
An Assessment of Display Formats for Crew Alerting and Guidance BIBA 1077-1081
  Linda LaLumiere-Grubbs; Barry L. Berson; George P., Jr. Boucek; Charles Anderson; Leland G. Summers; Samuel Metalis
During the last 13 years the investigation of crew alerting during non-normal situations has progressed from the study of a single system, altitude monitoring, to a consideration of the total system. The result of this progression is that a highly self-contained system concept has been defined that will facilitate an effective crew response to both normal and non-normal situations. The concept system is intended to not only monitor aircraft systems and flight operations, but also provide improved guidance and status information. The form the information takes will ultimately affect the timeliness of information perception, processing, and crew performance. This paper describes three studies conducted to assess the relative effectiveness of selected display formats in communicating time-critical information to commercial airline pilots. A part-task simulation was used to collect response time and number of errors. Format type, format complexity, and format symbology were varied in this evaluation. Results showed that response to symbolic formats without alphanumerics was faster and more accurate than to symbolic formats with alphanumerics or alphanumeric only formats. These results were incorporated into a full mission aircraft simulator for evaluating the effectiveness of the system concept and eventual incorporation into FAA guidelines for future commercial aircraft.

Random Access II

User Interface Prototyping: A Review of PC-Based Tools and their Features BIBA 1082-1086
  Robert C. Schwalm; Mark E. Thomas; Robert J. White; R. Don Williams
User interface prototyping refers to the part of the system design process that quickly identifies and presents user needs as a model of the system being developed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of PC-based user interface prototyping, identifies the features which characterize effective prototyping tools, and compares and contrasts different PC-based prototyping tools based on the strengths and limitations of each. Comparisons to more powerful and more expensive prototyping environments are also presented. Finally, the requirements for development of an advanced PC-based prototyping tool are discussed.
A Desktop Expert System as a Human Factors Work Aid BIBA 1087-1090
  Craig S. Hartley; John R. Rice
The advent of increasingly powerful microcomputers, coupled with the development of small, feature-packed expert systems now makes it cost effective to provide workers with relatively inexpensive desktop expert systems. In order to evaluate the value of such systems as work aids for human factors engineers, we developed a small demonstration system using a commercially available expert system development tool, NEXPERT (tm), released in 1985 by Neuron Data, Inc. of Palo Alto, CA. We selected a candidate problem area based on four criteria: 1) the problem domain had to be small enough to be covered comprehensively by a relatively small knowledge base; 2) the problem domain had to be potentially useful to video display terminal (VDT) screen designers; 3) appropriate information had to be readily available in human factors guidelines, published reports, and journal articles; and 4) the problem should provide the opportunity to exercise as many of the features of NEXPERT as possible. The topic area we selected was "video display screen color". Our goal was to produce a job performance aid (JPA) that non-human factors VDT screen designers could use to select appropriate colors for screen features. Because the system users typically have little or no formal training in human factors, the JPA has to supply color recommendations in the form of clearly stated requirements, but with the decision rationale and additional references also immediately available for users wanting more information. Using the expert system shell provided by NEXPERT, we constructed a knowledge base containing more than one hundred IF ..., THEN ... rules representing knowledge gained from a detailed literature review. We initially validated our expert system by posing a wide variety of hypothetical design problems and assessing its conclusions against our expectations. Based on our work so far, we have concluded that small expert systems can be useful in providing human factors expertise to system designers. We believe that increasing use of expert systems may soon lead to changes in the typical current scientific publication format to include knowledge base rules provided by the author(s).
The Effective Use of Color for Text on the IBM 5153 Color Display BIBA 1091-1095
  Mary J. Lalomia; Alan J. Happ
The goal of this research was to provide a set of criteria for the effective use of color on the IBM 5153 Color Display. Available guidelines provide direction but not the detail required for application programmers. This study examined character legibility and subjective preference for color combinations in text in an application program. The effectiveness of color combinations was defined as a joint function of response time and subjective rating. The graphs of foreground/background color relationships show the observers' performance as a function of their preference. The results indicated the flexibility of black or blue backgrounds. The findings are discussed with respect to principles of human perception.
Fit for Humans: A New Look for the Finite Intersection Test BIBA 1096-1100
  Timothy P. Barry; John Reising; John Zenyuh
The recent introduction of microcomputers to the business and research communities has vastly increased the population of users exposed to general purpose software programs. These users, however, often lack the level of sophistication and computer expertise characterized by those who interact with minicomputers or mainframes, making the development of user-friendly general purpose software very challenging. This paper describes the conversion of a multivariate statistical software package from operation on a mainframe computer to a microcomputer and the redesign of its human-computer interface, allowing the program to be employed by a more diverse user population.

Environmental Design

Dry Environments: The Influence of Low Humidity on Comfort and Health BIBA 1101-1104
  Joseph E. Laviana; Frederick H. Rohles; Linda I. Hoffberg
Individuals are routinely subjected to dry environments. These conditions may result from geographic areas, the heating of indoor spaces, or specialized settings (e.g. commercial aircraft cabins). This paper examines the affect of low humidity from two perspectives: comfort and health. Results indicate that the dry-bulb temperature is only 7.8 times more important than relative humidity (rh) in determining the subjective thermal response, and that rh has a greater role in determining how men feel than how women feel. Additionally, it was shown that a perceivable level of annoyance is experienced by both wearers and nonwearers of soft contact lenses at or below 30% rh, and this effect becomes most pronounced after four hours. Other findings indicated that the perception of varying odor intensity levels (e.g., cigarette smoke) is higher in dry environments; several studies are also reported showing the health related benefits of humidification.
Occupant Perception of the Work Environment BIBA 1105-1108
  Frederick H., Jr. Rohles; James E., Jr. Woods; Philip E. Morey
Twelve features of the indoor environment representing the thermal, acoustical, lighting and air quality constituents were rated according to their percentage contribution to the quality of the indoor space by 111 advanced engineering students and 89 clerical workers. The resulting mean percentages were: temperature 15.8; brightness of the lighting, 11.0; tobacco smoke, 9.8; loudness of the sound, 8.7; noisy distractions, 8.5; lighting glare, 7.9; odor, 7.5; air movement, 7.2; humidity, 7.1; dust, 6.7; shadows, 5.1; and pitch, 4.7. The results showed that the thermal environment was judged to be significantly more important (p < .01) than the other three constituents, that the loudness and pitch of the sound was significantly (p<.01) more important to the student sample than to the clerical sample, and that temperature was perceived as more critical (p < .05) to the clerical sample than to the student sample.
An Evaluation of Some VDT Lighting Variables BIBA 1109-1112
  Stephan Konz; Corwin Bennett
It has been difficult to differentiate statistically among lighting conditions. A questionnaire, using 12 positive adjectives, was developed which was sensitive enough to show differences among lighting variables. Twenty subjects each spent 20 minutes in each of 12 conditions. The 12 conditions were all combinations of screen glare (high and low), ambient light source (kiosk and kiosk + ceiling), and document luminance (25, 160 and 320 cd/m²). The criterion was put on a scale of 0-100%. Kiosk + ceiling lighting (score = 69%) was preferred to kiosk lighting (59%). Medium document brightness (73%) was preferred to high (63%) and low (56%). Low glare was preferred to high glare (61%).
Illumination Levels in Offices with Visual Display Units BIBA 1113-1115
  Robert Yearout; Stephan Konz
This paper investigatest the optimal illumination levels for offices equipped with visual display units (VDUs). Twenty-four paid subjects keyed in typical word processing data for 6 min per condition. General illumination was provided by a mixture of indirect and direct lighting sources. This illumination was held at 350 lux at the workstation. The experimental variables for the 6 conditions were: (1) two illuminations of the room wall and (2) three illumination levels in the area directly ahead of the operator. When VDU workstations are illuminated at 350 lux to eliminate glare, operators prefer an intermediate illumination level (800 lux) in the office space to their front over 415 lux or 1170 lux. Operators also preferred increased brightness contrast on the wall. Design should consider not only the workstation itself but also the surrounding.

Warnings: Where Are We Now -- Where We Should Go from Here

Warning Effectiveness: What Do We Need to Know? BIBA 1116-1120
  Jerry L. Purswell; Richard F. Krenek; Alan Dorris
The forensic area of practice for human factors engineers has brought into sharp focus the differences of opinion which exist regarding the effectiveness of warnings in bringing about safe behavior on the part of the user of a product. This paper addresses the major issues which the authors believe must be researched further to provide the definitive answers needed regarding the effectiveness of warnings in a variety of possible applications. A review of the literature will demonstrate that there are few studies of warning effectiveness per se, while there are many studies that address such issues as the need for warnings and presumed criteria for preparing effective warnings. It is suggested that further research is needed which addresses warning effectiveness in actual use situations, and in turn identifies the importance of such variables as stimulus energy level, information overload, risk perception, cost of compliance and the interaction of warnings, instructions and training.

Potpourri

A Field Evaluation of Office Chairs BIBA 1121-1122
  George J. Burri; Sara J. Czaja; Colin G. Drury; Martin G. Helander
Ten ergonomic office chairs, chosen from a sample of eighty-four, were evaluated in an ergonomic field study. Twenty office employees used each of the chairs for one day. The chairs were evaluated using four different methods: a chair feature evaluation checklist, a ranking procedure, general comfort and body part discomfort ratings. The first two methods produced positive results, including significant differences between the chairs. The chair users generally had difficulties in perceiving and expressing their comfort and discomfort associated with the latter two methods. The study identified several distinct features related to chair comfort, including the design of the seat pan, back rest, arm rests and ease of adjustability.
Evaluation Metrics and a Tool for Control Panel Design BIBA 1123-1127
  Susan L. Palmiter; Jay Elkerton
In the use of control panels for the automotive industry, consistency and usability are of major importance. General qualitative guidelines exist for the designer, but there is currently a lack of quantitative human factors data for control panel designs. A state of the art design tool which provides the designer with ergonomic usability guidelines and structure is needed. As part of the current research, a computer-based tool which provides a quantitative analysis of the ergonomic quality of a control panel layout has been created. This tool is a tailored Auto-CAD program for the IBM PC which provides features to encourage consistency and structure in the design of control panel layouts. Extending the work by Tullis (1983) on alphanumeric display metrics, four graphical metrics for the overall and functional design levels are included as part of the design tool. These metrics are: 1) Overall Density -- rate of free space to occupied space, 2) Local Density -- how closely placed the design entities are to each other, 3) Layout Complexity -- position irregularity of functional areas, and 4) Display Grouping -- number of functions and number of controls and displays. In this effort, the design metrics and the design tool have been developed.
Dorsiflexion of the Human Ankle as it Relates to Ski Boot Design in Downhill Skiing BIBA 1128-1132
  Jasper E. Shealy; David A. Miller
This study is part of an on-going series of studies that relate to Alpine or Downhill Ski Boot Design. In current Alpine skiing, the ski boot is an integral part of the ski boot-binding system. One of the roles of the ski boot is to protect the ankle from excessive dorsiflexion during forward falls, as the ski boot is levered out of the heel binding. A boot designer needs to know what the ranges of dorsiflexion are for human ankles so that the allowable forward flex built into the ski boot will not exceed some specified level. That specified level should be such that a large part of the population will not exceed a safe level of dorsiflexion. The stiffening of the ankle by voluntary contraction of the muscles that control the ankle joint cannot be relied upon since the reaction time to contract the muscles will be greater than the time available to the skier under many circumstances. This study looks at the maximum voluntary dorsiflexion of a group of people (n=64) similar to a skiing population. The anatomical and biomechanical posture of the subjects was intended to represent typical skiing situations; therefore, the subjects were measured in a weight bearing, flexed knee, upright posture. The age, gender, height, weight and skiing experience of the subjects was recorded as independent variables. The maximum voluntary dorsiflexion of the ankle was the dependent variable. Ten subjects were measured while the knee was kept in a straight or extended posture. The analysis indicates that there is no statistically significant relationship between dorsiflexion and any of the independent variables. The mean dorsiflexion was 42.7 degrees, the 5th% value was 28.5 and the 95th% was 56.7 degrees. The straight knee posture reduces the effective dorsiflexion by 8.5 degrees. Current standards permit as much as 40 to 45 degrees dorsiflexion. The implications are that current standards are excessive, a reasonable limit would be something under 30 degrees. Such a limit, or less, is consistent with the maximum dorsiflexion found in most current ski boots.
Human Factors Evaluation of Gas Turbine Expert System BIBA 1133-1137
  Christopher G. Koch
A research and development project is under way to specify, design, construct, and evaluate a user interface system to meet the unique requirements of a delivery vehicle for a knowledge-based system applied to gas turbine electronics maintenance and trouble-shooting. The prototype user interface is a portable device with text display, video and overlay graphics display, voice recognition and speech production, special-function keypad, and printer. A modular software structure based on a serial communications protocol between user interface device and expert system host computer provides flexibility, expandablity, and a simple, effective user interface dialog. A human factors field evaluation is being conducted to assess aspects of system usability: device hardware, system operability, information presentation effectiveness, and user training.
Successful Implementation of an Injury Prevention Program BIBA 1138-1140
  Albert J. Macek
Impressive reductions in injury rate were achieved in a cooperative program that included industrial human factors. The other players in the program include the medical department nurses, the safety engineers, production engineers, supervisors and production workers. The explanation offered for the program's apparent success is that responsibility and accountability for industrial human factors improvement is distributed among the various departments involved.
Human-Machine Function Allocation in Manufacturing and Assembly Operations BIBA 1141-1143
  Steven L. Johnson; O. Felix Offodile
The paper discusses a methodology to allocate functions to people and/or machines based upon the requirements of the tasks to be performed and the capabilities of each system. Although function allocation has been addressed within the human factors community for many years, the approach discussed offers two primary advances in the context of manufacturing and assembly systems. First, the state-of-the-art in automated systems, robotics, flexible manufacturing systems, methods analysis and human factors are integrated into a multi-disciplinary approach. Second, the methodology will provide manufacturing engineers with an easily understood procedure for assigning tasks to the appropriate system on cost/capability basis.

Dealing with Technology and Automation: Interaction of Machine and Organizational Systems

A Methodology for System Redesign: Automating an Outdated Purchasing System BIBA 1144-1146
  Linda Carlson; Ann Hammer; Amy Mathis; James Pawlowski; Robert Schwaim; Robert White
This presentation discusses the approach to and results of a major program to redesign the purchasing system of a large corporation. The discussion summarizes the methodology used to evaluate the existing system and to recommend a work environment for the new system.
The Role of the Human Factors Designer in an Integrated Computer System BIBA 1147-1150
  Greta L. Myers; Lisa L. Thrush; Joseph J. Limanowski
This paper addresses the changing role of the human factors professional in the design of integrated computer systems for telecommunications engineering. Specifically, with the advent of such software, the human-computer interface is at times replaced by a computer-computer interface. With humans removed from the direct processing function, should human factors designers be removed from the design function as well? Our experience has shown that there is in fact a continuing need for our expertise, as long as humans remain in the process in any role. With the changing roles of our users, however, the focus of our efforts should change. The quality and utility of an automated computer system will be optimized by the early and persistent involvement of human factors designers in task analysis, user identification, function allocation, system design, user education, and quality assurance.
An Evaluation of Office Automation BIBA 1151-1155
  William F. Stubler; Bret A. Charipper; Lewis F. Hanes
A measurement program was designed to assess benefits derived from the pilot implementation of an office automation system at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division. The system featured IBM PROFS, graphics software, and computation software hosted on an IBM mainframe computer. Managers, engineers, and secretaries were included in the test group (N = 40) and control group (N = 30) to ensure that each group accurately represented NFD. Measurement tools included an attitude survey and document evaluation logs, which were distributed to the test and control groups before and after the system was installed. In addition, a user evaluation survey was distributed to only the test group after they had had access to the system for five months. Although usage of the system was moderate, benefits were identified for activities associated with document preparation and distribution, message sending, calendar use, and computations. These benefits encouraged management to proceed with full scale implementation of the office automation system.
Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development: A Macroergonomics Perspective BIBA 1156-1160
  Michelle M. Robertson; Ann Majchrzak
This paper examines and discusses the implications of a macroergonomic perspective for assimilating advanced manufacturing technological innovations into an organization's human infrastructure. A framework for integrating sociotechnical systems and advanced manufacturing technology design is presented which identifies first-and second-order effects of the new technology on the human infrastructure. The Human Infrastructure Impact Statement (HISS) operationalizes these concepts into a systematic assessment tool. This paper ends with a brief list of some of the pertinent macroergonomic decisions that a manager and macroergonomist must consider in implementing and designing Advance Manufacturing Technologies.
The Effects of an Automated Maintenance Management System on Organizational Communication BIBA 1161-1165
  Marjorie B. Bauman; Donna Churchill-Teran; Harold P. Van Cott
This paper describes Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored case studies of two nuclear power plants that automated their maintenance management system in an effort to improve maintenance processing. These case studies evaluated the impact of an automated maintenance management system (AMMS) on the organizational interfaces and information requirements of a variety of system users. The goal of the project was to provide guidance to the electric power industry in maintenance management system design. A product of the investigation was a set of guidelines for use by utilities in conducting a front-end functional requirements analysis to help define major information requirements and organizational and data file interfaces.

Development of Test Methods

Human Centered Design and Analysis Model for Chemical Defense Shelters BIBA 1166-1169
  Stephen B. Hottman; Michael E. Post
This paper presents a human centered computer simulation model for the ingress, egress, and bi-directional processing of personnel through the contamination control area (CCA) of a collective protection system. Collective protection systems are being developed by the Armed Forces to provide an area where individuals may rest, sleep, and eat without the need to wear individual protective clothing in a chemical warfare environment. Individuals enter these collective protection systems through a contamination control area by following a set of procedures for decontamination and removal of their protective clothing. The purpose for developing this computer model was to provide a means for detailed analysis and design of a CCA prior to actual prototype or operational test and evaluation. It can be used to analyze alternative operational scenarios for systems that have already been constructed. The program structure was developed as part of an iterative task analytical approach which was used to design a prototype collective protection system. The model generates a visual representation of the process on the computer monitor. It includes distributions of process times and arrival intervals. The model can be used to determine the effects of variations in process times, variations in process time distributions, training effects, and alternative hardware configurations. This model could be modified to analyze or design almost any process that is comprised of a series of sequential tasks or operations.
Incorporating Human Engineering into a SDI Simulation BIBA 1170-1173
  K. M. Zechmeister; R. L. Evans
Human Engineering methods were employed to critique a SDI simulation software package. The areas of human performance measures, subjective responses, number of options to view, commonality of different sections, and user support functions were evaluated. This was for the intent of creating a program that was "user-friendly" and would require a minimal amount of training time. A naive user was provided a checklist and asked to score the input and output interface modules while creating a scenario. Written text followed the checklists which included detailed examples for increasing the efficiency in the designated deficient areas. This let to incorporating changes for a more effective program, reducing cost and time.
Comparing Three-Dimensional Representations of Data to Scatterplots BIBA 1174-1178
  Cary Robb Jensen; Loy A. Anderson
Jensen (1985) described a method for presenting data in a three-dimensional format that would typically be presented in a scatterplot. The present paper compared these two methods of presenting data. Twenty-four subjects, all of whom had completed an undergraduate class in statistics, were presented with sets of graphs depicting bi-variate data that varied in correlation from about 0.0 to about .99. Three different data groups were depicted as both scatterplots and as three-dimensional graphs. Subjects rank ordered these sets of graphs on the basis of the degree of relationship present. For each set of graphs the order the subject chose was compared with the known order using Spearman's rho. In the early trials, performance was better with the scatterplots, but by the last trial there was no difference between presentation methods for two out of the three data groups presented. The implications and limitations of these data are discussed.
Microcomputer Human Operator Simulator (HOS-IV) BIBA 1179-1183
  Regina M. Harris; Helene P. Iavecchia; Lorna V. Ross; Steven C. Shaffer
This paper describes the 4th-generation model of the Human Operator Simulator (HOS-IV) as implemented on an IBM PC AT microcomputer. HOS is a general purpose simulation tool for modeling the cognitive, perceptual, and motor activities of an operator who is performing a set of tasks during the course of a mission. HOS provides the capability to model the hardware system and the external environment which impact operator workload and system performance. Discussed are the new features of HOS-IV including the user-oriented interface, knowledge representation scheme, and enhanced modeling capabilities.

Visual and Auditory Detection Performance

A Detection Theory Method for the Analysis of Visual and Auditory Displays BIBA 1184-1188
  Robert D. Sorkin; Donald E. Robinson; Bruce G. Berg
A signal detection method for evaluating different display codes and formats is described. The method allows one to determine how an observer aggregates information from multiple element displays. The method can be used to assess the relative importance of specific spatial or sequential elements of the display. The efficacy of different formats and arrangements thus can be compared. The paper describes the theoretical basis for the method and briefly summarizes data from several types of visual and auditory displays.
Further Investigation of Contrast Sensitivity and Visual Acuity in Pilot Detection of Aircraft BIBA 1189-1193
  Melvin R. O'Neal; Robert E., II Miller
Contrast sensitivity (CS) has been reported (Ginsburg et al., 1983) to be strongly related to pilots' aircraft detection performance; however, examination of their results shows a lack of consistency for the CS at any particular spatial frequency to correlate with detection, even for days with similar visibility conditions. To further investigate this relationship, sixty-seven (67) USAF pilots were divided among 8 groups, individually isolated in a bus near the end of a runway on separate days, and detected a T-38 jet aircraft during about 8 landings. CS was measured using the criterion-free two-alternative, temporal forced-choice (2 AFC) technique on the Optronix and with the Vistech VCTS 6500 chart. Visual acuity was assessed at three contrast levels using 3%, 6%, and 85% contrast Regan charts. The mean detection distance of each group ranged from 4.77 to 6.73 miles, and intersubject difference within any group was 0.64 to 2.21 miles. For these partly-cloudy to cloudy weather conditions, neither contrast sensitivity nor visual acuity correlated well with pilot detection of actual aircraft. There was a lack of consistency for the CS at any particular spatial frequency to correlate with detection distance. The best indicator of the pilots with worse detection distances was the performance on the 6% contrast visual acuity chart; with all 5 pilots in the lower 10% of visual performance also being the worst or second worst at aircraft detection in their group.
Contrast Sensitivity as a Predictor of Complex Target Detection BIBA 1194-1197
  David Shinar; Ehud Gilead
A class of undergraduate students were screened for their visual acuity and contrast sensitivity on Ginsburg's charts. The subjects obtaining the highest and lowest contrast sensitivity scores were further tested on their complex target detection time. The complex targets consisted of a tank or a human form against a background of a mountainous terrain. The main finding was that target detection time for the high contrast sensitivity subjects was less than half of that of the low contrast sensitivity subjects. Differences in visual acuity between the two groups did not explain the differences in reaction time.
Signal Detection Performance as a Function of Fourier Description of Symbols BIBA 1198-1201
  William P. Marshak; John C. Osarczuk
Performance on a signal detection task was explainable by differences between the two dimensional Fourier transforms of the background and target stimuli. A signal detection experiment by Marshak and Osarczuk (1984) used target and background stimuli designed to systematically differ in spatial frequency and orientation. They found that the hypothesized Fourier differences increased sensitively and decreased decision time. The present paper reports the Fourier analysis of those stimuli which verify and quantify the stimulus manipulation. Multiple regressions were computed using differences in frequency and orientation to explain performance. The results were that 83 percent of d-prime and 74 percent of the decision time variance could be explained by the Fourier differences. These findings indicate that fourier descriptions of symbols may be used to predict their effectiveness in work station environments.
Estimating Positions and Speeds of Objects on the CRT After the Screen Goes Blank BIBA 1202-1205
  Frederick V. Malmstrom; William A. Perez; Christopher P. Brezovic
In this study, 24 subjects with 20/20 correctible vision participated in a 3 x 3 x 2 visual estimation experiment. The stimulus was a dot or "ball" bouncing clockwise around a 12° visual angle square according to laws of ideal physics. At the end of the first collision, the ball disappeared, and subjects were then required to estimate where on each wall the ball would subsequently impact. The ball was presented at speeds of 3.5°, 6.7°, 10.0° visual angle/sec. Results indicated that there was a linear relationship in the times required to estimate the positions of the ball after 1, 2, and 3 bounces; however, the positional accuracy deteriorated rapidly after 3 bounces and about 8 seconds. Results also suggested that the speed at which the moving stimulus is observed also influences the speed at which one later imagines the moving object. We believe there is a "default" speed at which subjects optimally prefer to imagine moving objects, and that speed is around 5° to 8° of visual angle/sec. We suggest that simple motion presented on CRT displays might be accurately projected ahead by the subject when it is presented at this default speed.

Controls

Fine Motor Control with CBR Protective Gloves BIBA 1206-1210
  Demetrios Karis
Using a within-subjects design, performance on a continuous cursor control task was measured in three conditions: no gloves, flight gloves, and a combination of three gloves worn simultaneously for chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) protection. Twelve subjects used their left ring finger on a two-axis force controller to move a cursor on a CRT. After centering it over one of eight possible targets, they depressed the controller to designate the target and end a trial. Time to acquire the target and accuracy in centering the cursor over the target were recorded. Subjects had faster acquisition times in the two glove conditions with no increase in errors, although only the difference between the CBR gloves and no-gloves was statistically significant. My explanation for these findings is that the thickness of the gloves may have improved the fit of the fingertip in the force controller, which was concave, and also prevented the finger from slipping by increasing the coefficient of friction between the finger and the controller.
Resources, Confusions, and Compatibility in Dual Axis Tracking: Displays, Controls, and Dynamics BIBA 1211-1215
  Martin L. Fracker; Christopher D. Wickens
Dual axis compensatory tracking was investigated as a function of whether error displays were integrated or separated, whether axis controls were integrated into one stick or remained separate, and whether the control dynamics on the two axes were the same or different. Tracking error increased and control activity decreased as a function of the summed difficulty of the two control dynamics. Integrated displays and integrated controls both led to increased confusions between tracking axes although error was unaffected. Importantly, performance was also affected by whether the integrality of displays matched that of controls. These results suggest that dual axis tracking is subject to independent effects of resource competition, confusions, and Wickens' (1986b) compatibility of proximity principle.
Cognitive Processes during Instrument Landing BIBA 1216-1220
  Thomas J. Higgins; Mark H. Chignell
Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in the cockpit require a deeper understanding of the cognitive processes of the pilot. This paper describes ongoing research concerned with developing cognitive models of pilot behavior that can support the development of expert systems and machine reasoning within the cockpit. An experiment is reported where the behavior of pilots within a flight simulator is observed. Verbal instructions given by the controlling pilot in a "division of labor" task are used to identify salient features of pilot cognitive models of the task. The results of this experiment are interpreted in terms of their implications for the development of future expert systems within the cockpit. Continued research on the cognitive models used by pilots should permit the development of a knowledge base that will assist display design, training programs, and research on mental workload within the cockpit.

Display Formatting and Information Retrieval

Application of Tullis' Visual Search Model to Highlighted and Non-Highlighted Tabular Displays BIBA 1221-1225
  Pratapray (Paul) Thacker; T. S. Tullis; A. J. G. Babu
This paper presents a comparison of experimental results with predictions obtained from Tullis' (1984) model of search times for tabular displays. Three levels of information density for displays with and without highlighting were used in a series of experiments. The highlighting of information was done by adding graphic boundaries (lines). Two levels of highlighting were used. A question-answer type of visual search was performed for two different tasks. The search time results are discussed and a method for utilizing Tullis' model for highlighted displays is suggested.
A Contrast of Guideline Recommendations and Tullis's Prediction Model for Computer Displays: Should Text be Left-Justified? BIBA 1226-1228
  Gail A. Fontenelle
Two experiments investigated the effect of layout complexity for performance at varying levels of practice on four types of information extraction tasks. Layout complexity is defined as the number of unique horizontal and vertical starting positions of items in the display (Tullis, 1984). In the first study, layout complexity was manipulated by either left-justifying or not left-justifying text. In the second study, subject viewed a third experimental screen that displayed the starting positions of items in a completely unpredictable pattern. Moderate violations of the typical guideline recommendation that alphanumeric data be left-justified did not increase user search time across all four tasks in either the first or second study. Furthermore, severe violations of the recommendation did not increase user search time for three tasks (find label, scan data, and compare label). However, when subjects compared multiple data values, the random format did increase user search time. Though performance using the three experimental screens was comparable across the four tasks with only one exception, subjective ratings demonstrated differences between the three formats.
An Axiomatic Model of Information Presentation BIBAHTML 1229-1233
  Gary Perlman
The goal of information layout is to physically display information to reinforce the underlying structure of the information. In this paper, I describe an axiomatic model of information layout. The model has three levels: (1) a device-independent representation for structured information, (2) set of axioms (or rules) relating information structure with display attributes, (3) a set of device dependent display attributes used to distinguish differences and show similarities in information structure. The model infers, using logical deductions from its axioms, how display attributes should be used to show the structure of information. A prototype software system exists that allows interactive design and evaluation of screen layouts. Future research is planned to develop an expert system to aid in the automatic design of layouts, and to refine the prototype into a usable system.

Panel

Achievement of Organizational Effectiveness: Success Cases and Challenges for the Future of Human Factors BIBA 1234-1235
  Mark S. Hoffman; Robert F. Bachert; Earl A. Alluisi; Susan M. Dray; Glen R. Gallaway; Susanne M. Gatchell; Hal W. Hendrick
The purpose of this panel session was to expose participants to the many different evolving roles of human factors engineering in today's industries. Discussants were senior human factors professionals representing computer, government, military, automotive, and commercial industries. Successes and challenges for the human factors profession were identified in each type of industry. Panel discussions focused around the functional roles of human factors within organizations and identifying critical skills necessary for the human factors practitioners to be successful. A synopsis of the views presented during the panel discussions is presented below.

Safety of Products and Processes

Consumer Behavior Considerations in Product Design BIBA 1236-1240
  Joseph P. Ryan
This paper has, as its primary objective, the provision of Guidelines for product designers to assist in safe design of consumer products. Presentation of the Guidelines is based on a Human Factors Perspective of consumer behavior in the reasonable and foreseeable use and mis-use of consumer products. The Guidelines for Safe Consumer Product Design included in this paper emphasize the valuable source of Human Factors available to Designers. The paper concludes that safe product design can be planned and designed into products that will reduce the risk of injury, or even death, in product use.
Safety and Seat Constraints for a Turreted Weapon System BIBA 1241-1242
  Jerome J. Congleton; Dennis Bingham; Doug Gondella
Of primary concern to the Army is the compliance of crew workstations to MANPRINT so as to enhance operator comfort and safety in performance of the specified tasks. This paper discusses the methodology and design tools utilized to provide Crew Seats for the Army Tank -- Turreted Air Defense Weapon System. In particular, the use of the Cad System -- Ideas for generating anthropometric models for the 5th percentile male lightly clothed and the 95th percentile male in arctic clothing from MIL-HDBK-759A and the design constraints on MIL-STD-1472C will be reviewed. Potential environmental factors affecting safety and human performance, potential areas of concern regarding entry and egress, potential areas of concern regarding workspace, and the Turreted Weapon System seat requirements will be discussed.
Process Control: Safety Issues and Answers in Sweden and Norway BIBA 1243-1245
  Daryle Jean Gardner-Bonneau
During the first eight months of 1987, the author had the opportunity to visit Sweden and Norway. Since Sweden is noted as a leader with respect to occupational safety and health practices, and is also well know for its innovations in the utilization of technology, the author decided to spend some time studying safety issues and answers with regard to process control. Though the work is ongoing at the time of this report, this article contains a summary of the material collected and the observations made, to date. It should not be considered as a technical paper, but as a report of the current activities in Sweden. Individuals interested in more information about the projects discussed should contact the author.
Speech Discrimination in Noise: The Influence of Hearing Protection BIBA 1246-1250
  John G. Casali; Matthew J. Horylev
A psychoacoustic study was performed to determine speech discrimination performance in several noise conditions with the use or non-use of industrial hearing protection. The independent variables included: (1) subject hearing configuration (unoccluded and earplug-, earcap-, or earmuff-occluded), noise intensity level (60, 83 dBA), and noise spectral type (low frequency, white, high frequency). Subjects' hearing level was used as a blocking variable. All factors were found to significantly influence speech discrimination performance, as measured using phoneme scoring. These are discussed in some detail in the paper.

Training Requirements

Key Army Decision Maker Concerns about Training Performance Measurement and Assessment BIBA 1251-1255
  Dee H. Andrews; Betty Mohs
This study explored an area of Army training performance measurement and assessment (PMA) which has apparently not been examined. It provides an understanding about Army training PMA requirements and uses, and reveals a number of PMA issues which should be more closely examined in the future. The methodology adapted for the study combined elements of Policy Capturing Analysis with elements of Policy Implications Analysis and the Delphi Technique.
Determining Training Requirements for Mechanical Maintenance Personnel BIBA 1256-1260
  Carol A. Freligh
The purpose of this paper, Determining Training Requirements for Maintenance Personnel, was to conclude a finished generic task analysis for mechanical maintenance personnel. This paper will provide the necessary background information to enable a group to set up a task analysis to make available the information to analyze the training requirements for mechanical maintenance personnel. Determining training requirements for different job positions within an industry that has maintenance personnel is a situation tackled by training departments on a daily basis. The bottom line is efficient and cost effective learning.
Training Development for Complex Cognitive Tasks BIBA 1261-1265
  Joan M. Ryder; Richard E. Redding; Peter F. Beckschi
This study evaluated current training methodologies, particularly Instructional Systems Development (ISD), and recent developments in cognitive science to determine how training procedures should be modified to support training for tasks which require complex cognitive skills. We content that ISD is still viable if procedures are developed for the training of cognitive skills. An important component of ISD which needs to be modified to support training of cognitive skills is the task analysis. We discuss the need for integrating efficient and cost-effective cognitive task analysis methodologies with traditional analysis methods.

Vision, Color Vision, and CRTs

Effects of Common Fluorescent Illumination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test BIBA 1266-1270
  Christopher S. Calhoun
Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test (FM-100) error scores were compared for two illuminating conditions. The first illuminant was a simulation of CIE standard illuminant C, the recommended illuminant for the FM-100, and the second illuminant was a commonly used fluorescent. An evaluation of some common error patterns was also performed.
The Influence of Color on Visual Search and Subjective Discomfort using CRT Displays BIBA 1271-1275
  Michael L. Matthews; Karin Mertins
Visual search and decision making performance together with subjective fatigue were investigated over a four hour time block as a function of display foreground and background chromaticity, using colors matched for equivalent brightness. Although some small differences in performance related to chromaticity were observed, these were not exacerbated over time. On the basis of the performance data obtained and the subjective reports, there would appear to be no support obtained for the general recommendation to avoid the use of red and blue stimuli either alone or in combination in CRT displays.
An Evaluation of Methods for Producing Specific Colors on CRTs BIBA 1276-1280
  David L. Post; Christopher S. Calhoun
Experiments were performed to evaluate several methods for generating colors having specific CIE chromaticity coordinates and luminances on a CRT. The methods' accuracies are characterized and avenues for improvement are suggested.
Towards a New Approach to Vision: Applications to Robots and Humans BIBA 1281-1285
  John G. Kreifeldt; Ming C. Chuang
A description of a novel and very speculative approach to new research directions for human vision with application to robotic vision is described. The goal of the approach is to propose a plausible, implementable, spatial perception model for human vision and apply this model to a stereo robot vision system. The model is based on computer algorithms variously called "Multidimensional Scaling", well known is psychology and sociology but relatively unknown in engineering. These algorithms can reconstruct a spatially accurate model to a high level of metric precision of a "configuration of points" from low quality, error prone non-metric data about the configuration. ALSCAL -- a general purpose computer package adaptable for this purpose is being presently evaluated. This is a departure from typical engineering approaches which are directed toward gathering a low volume of highly precise referenced data about the positions of selected points in the visual scene and substitutes instead an approach of gathering a high volume of very low precision relative data about the interpoint spacings. It would seem that the latter approach is the one actually used by the human vision system.
   The results are highly encouraging in that the agreement between test configurations of two and three dimensional configurations of points are very faithfully reconstructed from as low as 10 points in a configuration using only rank ordered (i.e. non-metric) information about interpoint spacings. The reconstructions are remarkably robust even under human-like "fuzzy" imprecision in visual measurements.

Simulators/Training

The Effects of Simulator Delays on the Acquisition of Flight Control Skills: Control of Heading and Altitude BIBA 1286-1290
  Gary E. Riccio; Jeffrey D. Cress; William V. Johnson
The effects of simulator delays on performance, control behavior, and transfer of training were investigated with a group of subjects who had no experience with fight control tasks. Two types of aircraft were simulated: one with highly responsive dynamics and one with sluggish dynamics. Subjects were assigned to one of four time-delay conditions and to one of the two aircraft types. In the first phase of the experiment, subjects participated in fifty trials (ten trials per day) with a particular time delay (50, 100, 200, or 400 milliseconds). After this "training" phase, all subjects "transferred" to the minimum time-delay condition (50 milliseconds) for another fifty trials. The experimental task required that the subjects maintain constant heading and altitude in the presence of pseudo-random roll-rate and pitch-rate disturbances. There were statistically significant effects of time delay on root-mean-square heading and altitude errors in both the training and transfer phase of the experiment. The effect of delay on transfer of training was greater for the aircraft with sluggish dynamics.
Flight Simulation Training using Standard and Non-Standard Tasks BIBA 1291-1295
  Kimberly A. Reardon; Celia G. Oliver; Rik Waren
The use of computers for cue generation and the safety inherent in simulators permits new "tasks" which are impossible in real flight. We are investigating the potential efficacy of using a particularly striking non-standard task, namely flying at zero-altitude and even below ground. Our hypothesis was that increased experience with optically violent displays during training would improve performance during the testing phase of maintaining low, above ground flight. In the training phase half of the subjects maintained zero altitude while the other half flew as low as possible without crashing. Contrary to our hypothesis the low-trained subjects had a lower standard deviation and mean altitude than the zero-trained subject in testing. Although our hypothesis was not supported, the concept of exploring novel ways of using flight simulators deserves further attention.
On-Board Electronic Warfare Simulator (OBEWS): Designing the Ground Support Subsystem (GSS) Man Machine Interface BIBA 1296-1300
  Gregory M. Wilford
This paper reports on the development of the On-Board Electronic Warfare Simulator (OBEWS) Ground Support Subsystem (GSS). The discussion will take place on two levels. At the top level, the theme of embedded training and the role that the OBEWS program will have in proving the feasibility of the concept will be discussed. At the second and more detailed level, the intensive human factors engineering effort undertaken in the design/development of the OBEWS GSS man machine interface (MMI) will be presented. A description of the resulting MMI will be included. The paper concludes with recommendations and lessons learned at both levels.
Quantifying Some Information Processing Requirements of the Pilot's Instrument Crosscheck BIBA 1301-1305
  Joseph L. Bunecke
Previous research concerning the pilot's visual scan is descriptive/predictive in nature. This experiment quantitatively demonstrates the information processing aspects of one instrument monitoring technique. The results imply that experienced pilot eye movement patterns reflect workload minimization strategies developed early during flight training.

Tools and Techniques for Interface Design

Five Macintosh Tools for Human Factors Engineering BIBA 1306-1310
  Craig S. Hartley; John R. Rice
The Apple Macintosh computer has achieved remarkable acceptance by engineering design groups because of its graphics capability, innovative and consistent user interface, and quality software. As one group of human factors engineers using the Macintosh in our daily work, we have developed various tools that help us complete common human factors design tasks more quickly and efficiently than we could otherwise. This paper describes our use of several software applications that we have found to be invaluable in performing our work. The five tools described include: Spreadsheet Task Analysis, a business oriented software tool we have easily adapted to perform detailed human factors task analysis; Typeface Design Software, a selection of Macintosh typefaces that meet human factors standards; Expert System Screen Design Aid, an expert system development tool demonstrating a human factors work aid; Anthropometric Modeling, software-based anthropometric drawings that can be scaled to meet the designer's specific needs; Draw/Paint Programs and Databases, a database of various controls, switches, displays and other hardware components for mockup representations, and a collection of system hardware architecture drawings. We will provide copies of our public domain software to interested individuals within the human factors community as one step toward establishing a Human Factors Macintosh User Group.
CRT Typeface Design and Evaluation BIBA 1311-1314
  Walter Bender; Ruth Ann Crespo; Peter J. Kennedy; Richard Oakley
Reading text from a video display screen is a relatively new modality of human communication. This new technology presents advantages and limitations never considered in the design of typefaces for printed communication. It is well know that people read faster from printed text than from a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). This paper discussed some of the current work to improve CRT readability. Specifically, we have developed software to be used by a typography designer to design anti-aliased (or "grayscale") CRT typefaces. A new anti-aliased typeface was designed and tested for readability. It was found that readability was significantly improved with this new typeface. This paper describes some of our recent work in this area. The typeface design software and examples of text rendered in a new typeface will be demonstrated on an analog color display.
MENUDA: A Knowledge-Based Menu Design Expert System BIBA 1315-1319
  Kuocheng A. Parng; Vernon S. Ellingstad
An experimental knowledge-based menu design assistant (MENUDA) was developed to aid the design of menu systems. A conceptual model was first developed to provide a structured construct to organize knowledge of menu system design from the available literature, and to serve as a paradigm for the development of the MENUDA system. The knowledge base and the user interface of the MENUDA system were developed under an interactive microcomputer environment supported by Texas Instruments' Personal Consultant Plus. The current version of the MENUDA system is described in the paper. In addition, the methodology used to derive rules in the MENUDA knowledge-based and the appropriateness of employing a knowledge-based expert system approach to providing use interface design guidelines are discussed.
Display Formatting: An Expert System Application BIBA 1320
  Jean R. Gehlen; David Schwartz
Expert systems must often rely on probabilistic information to solve complex problems. Computer output may consist of more than one possible solution, leaving the final decision to the user. The amount of output and its mode of presentation need to be tailored to the application. In situations requiring fast and accurate decision making, as in military systems, output must be presented in a concise and easy to interpret format. Six presentation variables which could affect alternative selection performance were examined in an experiment: information quantity (4 or 8 numbered alternative values), format (tabular or bar graph), order (ordinal presentation of the alternative numbers or their associated values), bar graph layout (vertical or horizontal bars), bar graph labels (no labeling or labeling of each bar with its associated value), and table type (probability or rank values). The variables were combined into 24 different display formats; each of 24 subjects was tested on all the formats. The task consisted of finding the probability or rank values in the order specified on the top of the CRT screen (high value to low or low to high) and entering the associated alternative numbers on a keyboard. Mean response time and mean errors, over five trials, were the measures of performance on each display format. Results of the analyses indicated that the best display format in terms of the speed and accuracy of selection performance was the 4-alternative vertical bar graph with ordered probabilities and labeled bar values.

Work Physiology and Human Performance

Effect of Music on Performance in Human-Computer Interface BIBA 1321-1325
  Fariborz Tayyari; James L. Smith
The effect of music at two levels (60-65 dB and 80-85 dB), vs. no music (silent), on the performance of 40 subjects engaged in a data processing task was studied. It was found that, while the music did not disturb the overall accuracy of the task output, it increased the subjects' speed in data processing and overall productivity. The subjects showed a favorable attitude toward music being introduced at workstations.
Physiological Stresses Associated with Manual Handling of Containers of Varied Sizes and Weights: A Case Study BIBA 1326-1330
  Ashraf M. Genaidy; Jorge R. Duyos; Shihab S. Asfour
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological strain imposed on individuals engaged in unloading boxes from a truck. The actual operation was performed in one of the local industries, and was videotaped and timed. This operation served as a basis for a simulation study in the authors' laboratory. Six subjects participated in this study. Since the containers utilized in the actual operation varied greatly, empirical distributions derived from the box sizes and weights handled at that industry were developed based on a sample of 466 boxes. The frequency of handling was 20 times/min. The task duration was 30 min. Heart rate and oxygen consumption were recorded every 5 min for a period of 5 min. The results showed that the task performed can be classified as very heavy work compared to industrial tasks reported in the literature. Physiological responses showed a significant increase over time.
Lifting Physical Work Capacity as a Function of Frequency BIBA 1331-1335
  Jeffrey E. Fernandez; Robert J. Marley; Nancy B. Stubbs
A laboratory experiment using 15 male subjects was conducted to document lifting physical work capacity over the frequency range of 2 to 12 lifts per minute and to compare these values to bicycling physical work capacity. Results indicate that bicycling PWC is significantly higher than lifting PWC at the 0.05 level. A variation in lifting PWC as a function of frequency was observed. This could be attributed to lifting technique. Task design should, therefore, not only consider lifting PWC but also the frequency of lift.
Work Rhythm and Breathing Rhythm in a Repetitive Perceptual-Motor Task: The Effects of Synchronization on Performance BIBA 1336-1340
  Robert A. Henning
A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine if synchronization between the work rhythm and the respiratory biorhythm benefits perceptual-motor performance. The effect of work-respiratory (W-R) synchronization on reaction time, error rate, and perceived difficulty was evaluated for a visual choice reaction time task. Interstimulus intervals were chosen to induce a work rhythm. Prior to the experiment, the task was performed in a self-paced mode so that a baseline work rate could be identified for each subject. Each subject (N=22) then performed the task at 3 machine-paced work rhythms; 1) equal to the work rhythm of the baseline work rate, 2) 33% faster than the work rhythm of the baseline work rate, and 3) 33% slower than the work rhythm of the baseline work rate. Each condition consisted to two, 4 min trials separated by a brief rest break. Work rate (in responses per minute) was held constant across conditions through adjustments in task structure. Regression analysis revealed that W-R synchronization was associated with a 1% reduction in error rate and a 15 msec reduction in reaction time. These results suggest that W-R synchronization benefits perceptual-motor performance of repetitive tasks.
The Globe Thermometer Response under Varying Thermal Components BIBA 1341-1344
  C. H. Lee; J. D. Ramsey
This study investigates the effect of air velocity and other thermal components on the globe thermometer response. An experiment was conducted in an environmental chamber in order to measure globe temperatures under varying air velocity, relative humidity and air temperature. This study was performed under three different radiant heat levels. It was found that air velocity has a significant effect on the globe thermometer response. This effect is quantified in this study. Neither air temperature nor relative humidity was found to have a significant effect on globe thermometer response.

Managing the Human Side of Organizational Design and Management

Team Performance of a Dynamic Resource Allocation Task: Comparison of Shared versus Isolated Work Setting BIBA 1345-1349
  Denise L. Wilson; Michael D. McNeese; Clifford E. Brown
The utility of shared versus isolated operator/display setting was examined in the context of a complex, dynamic, team decisionmaking task. Both alphanumeric and graphic display formats were utilized as well as moderate and fast information presentation rates. Performance scores were significantly higher and subjective workload ratings significantly lower for the graphic display and moderate information rate conditions. No differences were found for shared versus isolated operator-display setting except in the combined "worst case" condition of alphanumeric format and fast information rates, where a slight advantage was found for the shared operator/display setting.
Performance and QWL in a Data Entry Task BIBA 1350-1354
  Paul Cornell
The effects of the work environment on performance and QWL was examined in bank proof encoding departments. A multidimensional model was proposed and included environmental factors, people factors, and organizational effectiveness. A large set of variables, measuring all aspects of the model, was reduced via stepwise regression and subjected to a canonical correlation, which yielded two variates. Job design and context were strongly linked to QWL, while job and organizational design, and the physical environment were linked to performance. The necessity of a multidimensional approach was supported by the findings. The model proved useful, but only in a limited sense.
Influence of Status on Group Interaction Processes: Electronic Mail versus Face-to-Face Discussions BIBA 1355-1359
  Jayanti Balasubramaniam
Experimental studies conducted by Siegel et al. (1986) revealed that members of decision making groups participated more equally in computer-mediated discussions than in face-to-face discussions. These studies dealt with groups of peers. The purpose of this study was to test whether computer media has an equalizing effect on participation of members of different formal statuses. The experimental design and procedure were similar to the previous study. The main difference was that each group included one high status member and three low status members and all members were of the same gender, in order to avoid effect of diffusion status. The experiment showed that, as expected, the computer media had equalizing effect on participation of group members of different formal status. While in face-to-face discussions, high status members initiated discussion more frequently, spoke more, and were more task-oriented than low status members, in computer-mediated discussions, these measures did not differ significantly for members of different statuses.
Distributed Situation Assessment under Varying Environmental Conditions BIBA 1360-1364
  Clifford K. Wong; John Lyman
This paper describes a study that is currently examining distributed problem solving performance in a simulated, dynamic battlefield situation assessment task, using computers as the interface between problem solvers and the simulated environment. There are four objectives of this study. First, identify any possible heuristics or strategies used by the group members in dealing with the problem. Second, observe how distributed situation assessment performance varies with environmentally imposed demands. Third, study human communication in both stressed and unstressed situations. Finally, examine how specific group communication protocols employed under different environmental conditions influence situation assessment performance. Thus, the overall objective of the study is to help identify and characterize human problem solving performance and human-machine performance characteristics that emerge when a computer intermediary resource is made an integral part of a distributed problem solving situation.

Training Evaluation and Research

Part-Task vs. Whole-Task Training on a Supervisory Control Task BIBA 1365-1369
  Vernol Battiste
The primary aim of training is to improve performance. Part-task training may be the more economical method, because full mission training simulators often cost more than the vehicles they simulate. However, the skills learned may not transfer effectively to performance of the complete task. This study investigated the effectiveness of Part-task training on the psychomotor portion of a supervisory control simulation. Twelve subjects were divided into Part-task and Whole-task groups and told to perform the task as quickly as possible. Part-task training was provided with the cursor-control device (a magnetic pen and pad), prior to transition to the Whole-task. Some distinct advantages of the Part-task training were: (1) The Part-task group learned the task faster; (2) The Part-task group's scores and task times continued to improve, while the Whole-task group's did not; and (3) A significant increase in speed of response for the Part-task group and almost no improvement in speed for the Whole-task group.
Evaluation of Total Contract Training (TCT) Systems BIBA 1370-1372
  Jerry M. Childs; Bruce A. Smith
This paper describes factors to be addressed in the evaluation of Total Contract Training (TCT) systems. TCT is increasingly being adopted by the military for the development, implementation, and management of total training systems.
Computer Related Training: A Case Study Comparison between Government and Industry BIBA 1373-1377
  Albert Adams
To learn how Human Factors Research can help top management create better training, a case study comparison is made of two new training departments, one in a large manufacturing corporation and the other in a state government. Using the findings from participant observer and thermodynamic system techniques, two lists for training improvement are derived: 1. Training Department Manager's Check List and 2. Future Human Factors Research.
An Investigation of the Relationship between a Basic Attributes Test Battery and Learning to Fly a VTOL Simulator BIBA 1378-1382
  Darlene A. Couchman
The objective of this research was to compare scores from modified AFHRL Basic Attributes Tests against speed and proficiency in learning to fly a VTOL simulator. Initially 184 correlational analyses were performed to determine whether there were any significant relationships among various BAT scores and the criterion measures. Based on these results, nine independent variables were selected to enter in stepwise regression equations for four criterion measures. Based on these analyses, the PortaBAT tasks appear to be stable predictors of pilot performance in a VTOL simulator.

Design and Evaluation

Cockpit Automation Concept Development for the NUH-60 (STAR) Aircraft BIBA 1383-1387
  Daniel D. Riley; Paul G. Stringer
A study was performed to derive an automation and avionics integration design concept for the NUH-60 Systems Testbed for Avionics Research (STAR) aircraft. The STAR, a one-of-a-kind reconfiguration of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter, is being developed by the U.S. Army Avionics Research and Development Activity to provide a flight demonstrator and research vehicle for state-of-the-art cockpit technology. The work was directed toward determining cockpit design preferences associated with single-pilot performances of the Army scout and utility missions. Emphasis was placed on high workload phases of the missions during which eye-out-of-the-cockpit and hands-on-controls performance capabilities would be most crucial. A number of cockpit-based design alternatives in the areas of communication, navigation, aircraft survivability equipment (ASE) operations, subsystem status monitoring, and aircraft performance computation and prediction were systematically derived and proposed.
The Application of Human Factors to the Development of Expert Systems for Advanced Cockpits BIBA 1388-1392
  Mica R. Endsley
Expert system applications must be carefully selected, designed and integrated into cockpit based on a full understanding of the pilot's tasks, requirements, and capabilities. In this paper, expert systems development issues in the following areas are identified and addressed utilizing processes, methodologies and knowledge from the human factors field: the selection of systems to automate, the elicitation of expert knowledge from pilots, role allocation between the pilot and the system, system design issues, and system evaluation. Considerations of pilot workload, situational awareness, performance and pilot acceptance are considered key to the successful design and implementation of expert systems which will truly enhance the pilot in the performance of his tasks.
The Computer-Aided Man-Model: A Safety Valve in High Technology BIBA 1393-1397
  Jan Snell
Because of rapid advances in technology, early considerations of human factors in the design process is imperative. Computer-aided man-models enable man to evaluate the world he designs before it becomes reality. Given a certain environment, can the operator see or touch that which is necessary? Does he fit comfortably in his work station? Using Prime Computer's System for Aiding Man/Machine Interaction Evaluation (SAMMIE), a 3-dimensional human factors modeling tool, a designer can make early decisions thereby relieving time and money constraints produced by late design evaluation conclusions. Technology is advancing the human population into environments with power beyond our control. The aerospace environment, particularly, is rich in hazards. Only by setting limits to the power at hand can man expect to advance further without destroying himself. The computer-aided man-model permits man to experiment with the concept of an environment before committing himself to the perils of the unknown.
Three-Dimensional Auditory Cue Simulation for Crew Station Design/Evaluation BIBA 1398-1402
  Gloria L. Calhoun; German Valencia; Thomas A., III Furness
A three-dimensional (3-D) auditory display can increase the pilot's situational awareness without requiring visual fixation. When visual acquisition is required, the directional sound can give the pilot a more rapid cue to aim the eyes or head. In order to determine the utility and performance of a 3-D auditory display for cockpit applications, a method for generating 3-D auditory cues is required for simulation. Two laboratory systems are described which create, from monaural stimuli, binaural stimuli which can be perceived as localized and stabilized in space, regardless of the listener's head position. Additionally, preliminary results of the localization performance with one approach are presented.
Evaluation of ASW Tactical Symbology BIBA 1403-1407
  Clay K. Hovey; Barry L. Berson
Twelve experienced tactical crew members served as subjects in a study which compared three synonymous sets of tactical contact symbols under conditions of color/monochrome and high/low density. Time and accuracy data of responses to stimulus displays were collected and analyzed, and subjective findings were obtained through post-experiment questionnaires and interviews. The National Tactical Data Systems symbology produced significantly better results than the two other symbologies, and was favored most by subjects. This presentation describes the study and offers an explanation of the results based on Anne Triesman's findings of preattentive visual processing.

Systems Development Medley

Practical Workload Assessment in the Development Process BIBA 1408-1410
  John B. Shafer
The objective was to structure the concept of workload in a practical way which would permit Human Factors Systems Engineers to apply this concept to various phases of the development process. Workload is a qualitative rather than absolute concept which, like motivation, is inferred to exist by measuring the relative behavioral reactions to certain conditions. Workload may be thought of as an intervening variable between physical, mental, visual, vocal, or auditory antecedent conditions, and whatever performance-based, subjective or physiological measures that may be sensitive enough to reflect changes in the antecedent conditions. The practical approach has been to consider workload as the number of things to do modified by the level of difficulty. This concept has successfully permitted HF Systems Engineers to assess operator workload at progressive levels of system development.
An Approach for Specifying and Managing Submarine Combat System Operator Interface Requirements BIBA 1411-1415
  Erica Kirchner-Dean
This paper discusses the importance of a carefully developed set of control and display standards and conventions for submarine combat systems, and the use of a requirements data base and rapid prototyping to assist in their definition. Some of the human factors issues that are confronted when attempting to develop a useful set of control and display standards are discussed. The requirements data base is also being used to assure that the proper level of interface consistency is achieved across functional interfaces. The data base incorporates attributes of Navy specified control and display requirements and attributes imposed by the human factors engineer. The data base attributes and its potential uses for defining and managing operator interface requirements are discussed.
Human Factors Simulation to Support Software Design BIBA 1416-1420
  Kevin R. Gutekunst; Richard J. Cruise
Computer simulation of the operator/system interface is a useful tool for supporting system software design. Simulation is also a flexible and cost effective method for applying human engineering analysis techniques as required by MIL-H-46855 (Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities). This paper describes the integrated methodology used to model the operator/computer interaction for a newly developed military system. The operator/computer interface was potentially complex since the operators were required to control several sensors as well as communicate intelligence information within specified time constraints. In order to focus the design process and optimize the operator/computer interface, a computer simulation using the Micro SAINT software package was performed. This simulation provided a dynamic and integrated approach for performing subsequent design trade offs and developing software interface specifications and requirements.
Development of a System Engineer Workstation BIBA 1421-1424
  Charles J., Jr. Theisen; Anthony Salvador; William J. Hoffman
This report describes human factors engineering participation in the design of a system manager's workstation. The project entailed the integration of 6 different keyboards and a wide variety of display subsystems into a single keyboard and 5 CTR displays. Due to the complexity of the system, a team approach to the design was taken which entailed instructing and guiding experts in the use of human factors principles in the development of designs. The results were well received by a review committee of system experts while being developed within an extremely time compressed schedule.
Use of Structured Development Techniques to Specify the User-System Interface BIBA 1425-1428
  Robert M. Waters
The Human Factors Engineering products from the systems requirements phase of system development were transformed into techniques consistent with structured software development techniques. These techniques supported definition of the mission functions with the context diagram; the task list was compatible with the event list; and high level functional flow diagrams are consistent with the structured data flow diagrams. In addition, the sequenced task analysis procedures used provided a structured diagraming methodology in state transition diagrams. This technique provided a method for defining MMI requirements in software engineering terminology.