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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Uuichiro Anzai; Katsuhiko Ogawa; Hirohiko Mori
Location:Tokyo, Japan
Dates:1995-Jul-09 to 1995-Jul-14
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-81795-6 ISSN 0921-2647; hcibib: HCII95
  1. HCII 1995-07-09 Volume IV. Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers
    1. IV.1 Health Aspects
    2. IV.2 Workstation and Work Environments
    3. IV.3 Human Factors in Display Technology
    4. VI.4 Psychosocial Stress among VDU Workers
    5. VI.5 Input Devices
    6. IV.6 Musculoskeletal, Postural, Visual, and Psychosocial Outcomes Resulting from Ergonomics and Optometrical Intervention
    7. IV.7 Physiological Measurements 1
    8. IV.8 Physiological Measurements 2
    9. IV.9 Physiological Measurements 3
    10. IV.10 Organizational and Psychological Aspects
    11. IV.11 HCI Standard
  2. HCII 1995-07-09 Volume V. Interface for Physically Challenged
    1. V.1 Interface for Physically Challenged
  3. HCII 1995-07-09 Volume VI. Social Aspects, Management and Work
    1. VI.1 Information Technology
    2. VI.2 Job Design
    3. VI.3 The Esprit Project 8162 QUALIT, Quality Assessment of Living with Information Technology
    4. VI.4 The I CHING and Modern Science

HCII 1995-07-09 Volume IV. Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers

IV.1 Health Aspects

Symptom Clusters among VDU -- Workers BIB 575-580
  K. I. Fostervold; I. Lie; S. Larsen; G. Horgen; A. Aaras; A. Vagland
Construct Validity of Computer Anxiety as Measured by the Computer Attitudes Scale BIB 581-586
  F. P. Deane; R. D. Henderson; K. Barrelle; A. Saliba; D. Mahar
Sick Building Syndrome: Are UK Libraries Affected? BIBA 587-591
  A. Morris; P. Dennison
Sick building syndrome is characterised by occupants of a particular building suffering from a range of symptoms which may include eye, nose and throat irritations, dry skin, headaches, coughs, wheezing, nausea, dizziness, lethargy, hypersensitivity and erythema. This paper discusses the results of a survey which examined the evidence and possible causes of sick building syndrome in libraries. The findings suggests that sick building syndrome exists in libraries and that air-conditioned libraries are more likely to be affected than those that are naturally ventilated.
Head-Coupled Display System -- Research Issues on Health Aspects BIBAK 593-598
  Wolfgang Felger
Head-coupled display systems are in widespread use for virtual reality applications. This contribution introduces some technical aspects of head-coupled display systems, as well as discussing pertinent health concerns. The latter are discussed in an effort to motivate researchers conducting corresponding health studies. Finally, ten research issues on health aspects are identified. A comprehensive reference list is provided.
Keywords: Head-coupled system, Health aspects, HMD, 3D presentation device, Virtual reality
Establishment of an Expert System for Visual Display Terminals (VDT) Workers' Periodic Eye Checkups BIBA 599-604
  Hitoshi Nakaishi; Masaru Miyao
With the increased use of visual display terminals (VDT) in almost every type of workplace in Japan, there have been increased instances of workers' eyestrain symptoms through viewing objects at relatively near distances. To tackle this problem, we established an "expert system" for analyzing the optimal visual conditions for VDT workers. Utilizing our system, eyestrain symptoms in workers during VDT operation can be greatly reduced, allowing for an improvement in the quality of working life.

IV.2 Workstation and Work Environments

Ocular Motility of 72.000 VDU Operators BIBA 607-609
  Bruno Bagolini; Fernando Molle; Marco Turbati; Domenico Lepore; Luigi Scullica
Although visual disturbances related to the use of VDUs are far from being resolved, the present study will allow to evaluate more precisely the relationship between VDU work, some of the symptoms most frequently reported during VDU use and the eye condition. The epidemiological value of the data obtained in a study of this size (73.000) in evaluating the prevalence of some ocular pathology, is obviously enormous.
The Vertical Horopter and Viewing Distance at Computer Workstations BIBA 611-616
  D. R. Ankrum; E. E. Hansen; K. J. Nemeth
The results of this study suggest that monitor tilt may play a role in user-selected viewing distances at computer workstations. A vertical horopter which tilts away the from the observer at the top has developed to adapt to a commonly experienced feature of the visual environment. In that environment, objects below a point of visual fixation are usually closer to the observer, while higher objects are usually farther away.
   In this study, viewing distances were significantly shorter when viewing a monitor at an angle of view opposite to the horopter. There also appears to be a relationship between viewing distance and neck and lower back discomfort. Shorter viewing distances led to greater increases in discomfort in both of those body regions.
   Because the results of this study appear to concur with the physiological mechanism of the vertical horopter, they suggests that monitor tilts opposite to the horopter may result in shorter viewing distances and greater increases in discomfort.
   It is inappropriate to consider the angle of view adjustments commonly observed in office environments as reflecting preferred settings due to the constraints of the lighting systems and equipment. In many offices, tilting the monitor back would result in glare from ceiling luminaires. If glare and reflections are not satisfactorily addressed, the potential benefits of a positive-tilted monitor will be lost.
Recommendation for VDT Workstation Design Based on Analysis of Ocular Surface Area BIBA 617-621
  Midori Sotoyama; Shin Saito; Sasitorn Taptagaporn; Susumu Saito
Ocular surface area (OSA) is thought to be an informative index of visual ergonomics because OSA size is closely related to visual comfort. This paper presents a comfortable visual display terminal (VDT) workstation design based on an analysis of OSA. By measuring OSA while performing visual tasks with and without a VDT, it was clarified that the OSA was strongly affected by the composition of the VDT workstation, including placement of the display, keyboard, book and so on. It is recommended that the display be set at a lower position to realize a more comfortable workstation with a smaller OSA for the VDT operator.
Lighting and Visual Ergonomics for the Display Screen Environment BIBA 623-628
  M. J. Perry; P. J. Littlefair
The use of low brightness luminaires in DSE spaces can lead to an unacceptable luminous environment with dark walls and harsh modelling. Supplementary lighting on room surfaces can help overcome this. Daylighting can bring important benefits to DSE users, but measures must be taken to avoid screen reflections and glare. These include appropriate shading devices and workstation orientation. Innovative daylighting systems can help but need careful design to ensure they can control sunlight at all times of year.
   The next stage of the project is currently underway and is investigating good practice DSE lighting installations. The study includes a review of the prospects for developing integrated lighting design procedures, and to investigate the effect of DSE lighting on lighting energy consumption.
Computerised Analysis of Prolonged Seated Posture BIBA 629-634
  B. Kayis; K. Hoang
Prolonged seating can cause musculo-skeletal problems in the long term if poor postures are adopted. Three dimensional static model of the body to calculate the intervertebral disc compression at the fifth lumbar disc was built. SAMMIE, a computer aided ergonomics package was used for modelling of two workplace situations and determination of joint centre locations and joint angles. Experimentation was also performed to determine the body-mass distribution on the seats used.
Indoor Air Quality Evaluation by Continuous Measurement in Computerized Offices BIBA 635-640
  A. Ito; M. Takahashi; K. Sakai; K. Kogi
The assessment of indoor air quality in computerized offices requires continuous measurement as there is a need to assess it for the total period of computer work [1-2]. The cross-sectional space monitoring method commonly used to evaluate indoor air quality does not seem to provide information about the local distribution of air-quality characteristics at the different times [3-4]. Cross-sectional measurements often fail to reveal contain discrepancies arising from varied subjective responses of the occupants in the room and from changing working environments during extended business hours.
   With a view to examining problems in real work environments interacting with computers, a newly developed method for 24-hour continuous measurement of indoor air quality characteristics was applied to computerized offices. The purpose was to yield information about detailed fluctuations, including those in extended business hours. The method allowed to monitor air velocity, air temperature, relative humidity, airborne dust concentration, carbon dioxide concentration and noise level. We have applied this procedure to several automated-office buildings in Tokyo, Japan. The results demonstrated the need to look at critically changing office environments in particular during extended business hours.

IV.3 Human Factors in Display Technology

Effects of Ambient Lighting Conditions on Luminance Contrast and Color Gamut of Displays with Different Technologies BIBA 643-648
  Satoru Kubota
The effects of the ambient illuminance and the reflections of environmental luminance on contrast ratio and maximum-chromaticity gamut of displays with different technologies are investigated. The results indicate that the LCDs typically maintain much higher luminance contrast and chromatic contrast under condition of high ambient illumination than CRTs or PDPs do. This attribute make LCDs desirable in a variety of conditions including the uses in vehicular applications and use in outside applications.
Display User Response by Task Lighting/Office Configuration: Implications for Flat Panel Display Users BIBA 649-654
  G. Sweitzer
Display user response to two task lighting/office configurations is surveyed in situ. Observations, results of a self-reporting questionnaire, and workplane illuminance measurements form the basis for comparisons. Although neither task lighting system is installed according to recommended practice, the fixed system is more widely used while the potentials of the adjustable system remain unexplored. Workplace layout -- affecting display location -- and individual user differences determine task lighting needs. Hands-on education is suggested as means to help exploit the tacit knowledge of display users.
Computer Workstations and Ergonomic Standards: Issues in Science and Engineering BIBA 655-660
  R. E. Granda; J., Jr. Greeson
The disciplines of Ergonomics and Human Factors -- especially as they relate to issues of Health and Safety in human working environments have been receiving unprecedented emphasis in the last several years.
   Part of this emphasis is traceable to the established programs and planned objectives of the European Union (EU) in the area of social improvement of individuals in the member states.
   As part of this effort, the European Union promulgated an EC Directive having the force of law in member states with the expressed purpose of 'protecting' the health and safety of workers in office work environments using computer systems with visual display units (VDUs).
   The EU Council Directive (29/270/EEC) on the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment was issued formally on 29 May 1990 by the European Community Council for implementation by member countries by 31 December 1992.
   It is a significant document which is having repercussions on the conditions of work and workers and the design of computer workstations (Bevan, 1991) not only in the member nations of the European Union (EU) and its associated members but in other industrialized nations throughout the world -- foremost being Japan and the United States.
   The ramifications of this document and associated ergonomic standards which either have been or are being developed are explored in this paper. Major critical standards are reviewed -- with an emphasis on front-of-screen characteristics and the unique interaction requirements posed by CRT and flat panel technologies. Difficulties in value specification and measurement protocols will be highlighted.
Measurement of TFT/LCD Flicker for ISO Compliance BIBA 661-666
  Ryohji Yoshitake; Rieko Kataoka
Flicker is one of the major concerns in the design of computer display, and there have been many research reports on measuring and predicting flicker in order to provide users with flicker-free displays. Most of the previous studies, however, have been based on CRT displays. In this study, flicker on a thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT/LCD) was measured by using a subjective evaluation method. The purpose of the study was to ascertain whether the TFT/LCD conform to ISO standards on flicker, and to determine the main factors affecting flicker on the TFT/LCD. The results indicate that the TFT/LCD used in the study met the ISO standards at frame frequency as low as 35 Hz when all-pixels-on patterns were displayed. It was found that the common voltage (Vcom) is one of the most important factors affecting flicker on the TFT/LCD, and that the Vcom should be well-balanced to make the TFT/LCD flicker-free. It was also found that the analytic method proposed in ISO/CD 13406-2 was not always appropriate for predicting flicker on the TFT/LCD.
A Psychometric Scale of TFT/LCDs with a Few Defecting Sub-Pixels BIBA 667-672
  Tohru Tamura; Yuhji Gohda
This paper shows that a scaling algorithm of defecting sub-pixels in thin-film transistor / liquid-crystal displays, TFT/LCDs. Some of TFT/LCDs have a small number of defecting sub-pixels, point defect, which do not work. A psychometric scale of the quality of TFT/LCDs which contain a few defecting sub-pixels is derived from the luminance, the color, the location and the number of defecting sub-pixels. The effect of clustering defects is also considered. The score is named Total Score.
   An experiment was performed to assess the correlation between the Total Score and users' judgment of quality of TFT/LCDs with a few defecting sub-pixels. The results indicated that fairly good correlation between the Total Score and users' judgment would be expected.

VI.4 Psychosocial Stress among VDU Workers

Research Frameworks of Stress among VDU Workers -- Impacts of Computerization and Task Characteristics of Computer Workers -- BIBA 675-680
  Yuko Fujigaki
This paper described the research frameworks of the studies on psychosocial stress and work characteristics among VDU workers. Two research questions were examined; a question on impacts of computerization on stress problem and a question on effects of task characteristics of computer work on stress problems. Conceptual frameworks and synthesis in the study of these two research questions were shown with reviews of findings of previous studies.
The Impact of Computerization on Job Content and Stress: A Seven Year Follow-Up in the Insurance Sector BIBA 681-686
  Tuula Leino; Kirsi Ahola; Pekka Huuhtanen; Irja Kandolin
Development of the insurance sector is marked by expanding use of data terminals and microcomputers. Studies mainly in office work have shown that health complaints and stress problems are associated with the intensity of video display terminal (VDT) use. (Smith, 1987; Kalimo & Leppanen, 1987; Williams, 1988). At the same time the mastery of computer applications in insurance sector have decreased more often than increased. But the impact of information system on the work content has been different among various occupational groups. (Huuhtanen & Leino, 1992.)
   The continuous development of data systems is a challenge to the employees. Follow-up studies have been few, however. One follow-up study in the insurance sector revealed that between the late 1970s and the mid-1980s, VDT usage became more demanding and psychologically positive e.g., causing less mental load and strain. (Aronsson 1986).
   The present follow-up describes changes perceived by employees in insurance when moving over to more advanced data systems. The study was part of an extensive research program, New Information Technology and Work Environment, carried out in 1985-1988 by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, The Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the Finnish Work Environment Fund. In the insurance sector the study was continued in 1993 by a questionnaire survey. In this seven-year follow-up, the employees of one insurance company were investigated before the implementation of a new data system, two years after the implementation (transition state), and again after five years of usage (stable stage). This study examines the possible changes in the transition and stable stages.
   The studied aspects were:
  • 1. The amount of time daily spent in VDT work
  • 2. The mastery of applications
  • 3. The assessment of the psychological demands of work and
  • 4. The psychological symptoms
  • The Impact of Office Computerization on Job Characteristics, Physical and Mental Health of Japanese Office Workers: Gender Difference BIBA 687-692
      T. Asakura
    The hypothesized psychosocial mechanism of the impact of office computerization on workers' health was reexamined. Conclusively, the influences of objective VDT work variables on health indicators were mediated by job characteristics, except a few objective VDT work variables. Further, gender differences in objective VDT work environment are clarified.
    Effect of Computer System Performance and Other Work Stressors on Strain of Office Workers BIBA 693-698
      Pascale Carayon
    This study examines the effect of computer system performance and job stressors (demands, support, content, and organizational and task control) on worker strain in a population of 171 office workers in a public service organization. Results show that computer system performance had mainly an indirect effect on worker strain. Computer problems had an indirect effect on strain via job demands and support. Duration of computer problems had an indirect effect on strain via job demands. Computer resources had an indirect effect on both indicators of strain via task control, and a direct effect only on mood disturbances. Results of this study partially confirm previous studies (Carayon-Sainfort, 1992; Asakura and Fujigaki, 1993) that show an indirect effect of computer system performance on strain via job stressors.
    Job Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Japanese Computer Software Engineers and Managers BIBA 699-704
      Takashi Haratani; Yuko Fujigaki; Takashi Asakura
    To examine the relationships between job stressors and depressive symptoms in Japanese computer software engineers and managers, a cross-sectional mailed survey was conducted in 1991. Eight subjective job stressor scales were constructed based on a factor analysis and content of items. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scales (CES-D) as stress response. In this study, 1,694 software engineers and 296 managers were analyzed. Engineers reported significantly higher lack of job control, lack of intrinsic rewards, and ambiguity of career development, lower job overload and change of computer technology than managers. Managers worked longer hours, but used VDUs shorter hours than engineers. Engineers had significantly higher CES-D scores than managers. Multiple regression analysis of each group revealed that lack of intrinsic rewards showed the most significant predictor of CES-D scores. Interpersonal conflict in the project team and lack of control were common significant stressors for each group after controlling for confounding variables. In managers, job overload and changes of computer technology showed significantly associated with depressive symptoms. These results suggested that reduction of such job stressors might improve mental health of software engineers and managers.
    Job Stress Characteristics of Computer Work in Japan BIBA 705-710
      N. Kawakami; C. R. Roberts; T. Haratani
    Job stress has been recognized as a major cause of health problems at work [1]. Also recent technological development might change job descriptions and occupational class structures in the industry. From both medical and sociological viewpoints, it is important to assess the job stress characteristics of computer-related occupations (e.g., computer engineers, computer technicians, programmers) and other workers who engaged in work with computer equipments. Karasek [2] reported from the 1972-77 surveys in the U.S. that computer engineers had higher job demands as well as higher decision-latitude (control) over job, suggesting that they are "active" job. On the other hand, recent studies [3, 4] have pointed out that computer engineers, as well as operators of computer equipments, perceived higher job overload, lower control over job and higher psychological distress, although some studies did not [5]. Since these studies used empirically developed scales of job stress, it is needed to compare the job stress characteristics of these occupations/jobs using well-standardized and theoretically-based measures of job stress.
       We conducted a survey of employees in a computer company in Japan using a standardized classification system of occupation and established job-stress scales. The purpose of the study are 1) to know the job stress characteristics of computer-related occupations in Japan, such as computer engineers, computer technicians and programmers, 2) to classify these computer-related occupations further based on the patterns of job stress, and 3) to compare the job stress characteristics among clerical workers and machine operators using computer equipments with different frequencies.

    VI.5 Input Devices

    An Integrated Haptographical User Interface Using a Force-Feedback Mouse BIBA 713-718
      A. J. Kelley; T. Higuchi; S. E. Salcudean
    A novel input-output device utilizing force feedback has been developed for use in everyday point-and-pick functions. Compared with a previous prototype, the significant improvements in motion range were made. The integration of a dedicated microcontroller subsystem with a Macintosh host is presented. An outline of a new haptographical user interface is given. Initial selection time comparisons between the force feedback device and a regular mouse are provided.
    Discussion on Method for Predicting Targets in Pointing by Mouse BIBA 719-724
      Atsuo Murata
    In this paper, the method to predict a target which a user is about to point with a mouse on the basis of the trajectory of the mouse cursor was proposed. The effects of the interval between targets, the sampling interval and the number of selection of targets on the point time and the prediction accuracy were investigated. The pointing with no prediction mode was also conducted. As a result, the prediction method 1 that regarded the target which was selected continuously 5 times as the candidate target was found to be proper from the viewpoint of the prediction accuracy. On the other hand, the prediction method 2 that calculated the angle between the cursor movement vector and the vector which connected the current cursor position and the center of each target, and determined the minimum cumulation value as the candidate was proper in that the point time was shorter than the method 1. The optimal condition of the prediction method 1 was st=4ticks and d >= 30dots. The optimal condition of the prediction method 2 from the viewpoint of the prediction accuracy was n=6, 8, 10.
    The Difference of Information Input Method on Psycho-Physiological Reaction of VDT Work BIBA 725-730
      Takao Ohkubo; Michiyoshi Aoki; Mitsugu Sawa; Moritoshi Ikeda; Keun Sang Park
    One of most important factors that we should take into consideration when we estimate. The output of the system is that man has a learning ability in relation to the difference of Information Input method. In the wider field of Ergonomics a tremendous number of studies have been done to investigate the relationship between VDT input methods (i.e., the efficiency of work output) and physiological response of people who are engaged in many varieties of work due to degree of operating difficulty. The result of the authors' study are related to the relationship between the change of operating skills of a compensatory visual-manual tracking task and the change in their psycho-physiological reactions under operating conditions.
       Experiments were carried out using five male students, to determine the learning patterns and responses of them. The response of these experiments show that the gradual acquiring of operating skills gained through an increasing number of practices are revealed in psycho-physiological reactions. The heart rate, respiration rate, galvanic skin reflex, and other all parameters show the significant difference due to the degree of difficulty in operation and some of them indicate their highest level in their highest level in their first practice and a gradual decrease to their final levels as practice proceed.
    Rotating Objects Using Dials BIBA 731-736
      A. Imamiya; T. Sakamoto
    This paper describes two experiments to study perceptual judgements of alignment and rotational motor operations in the context of interactive computer graphics.
       Although there have been several human factor studies of pointing devices such as a mouse, or trackball [1], we can not find a human factor study of valuator logical input device, such as a dial.
       The user of an interactive graphics often uses dial devices to rotate three dimensional object in order to obtain an understanding of the shape of the object. This research represents the second in a series of experiments designed to investigate the human factors of rotation tasks in the interactive computer graphics [2]. The primary object of study is to construct an empirically-based cognitive theory of human-computer interaction in this domain.
       In our previous study [2], we presented the effect of graphical representations on the process and performance in mental rotation task. In this paper we describe two experiments designed to develop a predictive model of time to rotate an object on the screen using dials, and find types of rotational operation and errors. First, we measure mean operation times v.s. the difference angle between two images. Secondly, we consider errors for perceptual judgements, and the predictive equations of the time to perform the rotation action in the four performance types.
    A New Integrated System to Assess the Amount of Information of Pointing Devices for Motor-Disabled Person BIBA 737-742
      Toshiyasu Yamamoto; Tetsuya Yamashina; Jyunichi Ohshima; Masafumi Ide
    This paper describes a new system to quantitatively assess the interface control of the input/output devices for the motor-disabled person. A integrated system has been developed, simultaneously to measure for the interface devices and the kinematics of upper extremity. Kinematic analysis is preliminarily introduced to explain a relation between the motor task and its compensatory movement. From a viewpoint of information theory, the amount of information is discussed to describe an quantitative transmitted measure in a specified task.

    IV.6 Musculoskeletal, Postural, Visual, and Psychosocial Outcomes Resulting from Ergonomics and Optometrical Intervention

    Musculoskeletal, Postural, Visual, and Psychosocial Outcomes Resulting from Ergonomic and Optometric Intervention BIBA 745-747
      A. Aaras; G. Horgen; M. Thoresen; A. Bugajska; A. Wolska; R. Danuta; M. Widerszal-Bazyl; M. Konarska; M. J. Dainoff; B. G. F. Cohen; M. H. Daonoff
    The MEPS project "Musculoskeletal, Eyestrain, Psychosocial Stress" represents an unprecedented example of international multidisciplinary cooperation and coordination, the objective of which is to examine the effects of various kinds of ergonomic interventions, including corrective lenses, on a combination of musculoskeletal, postural, and psychosocial outcomes. These studies have been conducted in several different countries. Each country has utilized the same standardized research protocol, but ergonomic interventions are individually designed.
       Preliminary results of this research were presented at WWDU '94 in Milan. At that meeting, the focus was univariate statistical analysis of data from individual countries. The present paper will focus on cross-country comparisons of relationships between predictor and health outcome variables.
    A Method to Consider Ergonomic Conditions at VDT Workplaces BIBA 749-755
      Annika Johansson; Houshang Shahnavaz
    In 1989, an international project was initiated known as MEPS (Musculoskeletal, Visual, and Psychosocial Stress in VDT Operators in Optimised Environment). The aim of the MEPS project was to minimise stress amongst VDT operators by creating optimum working conditions through intervention measures at individual workstations. Professionals representing different disciplines were involved in this study to investigate possible factors causing musculoskeletal complaints, visual discomfort and psychosocial stress among VDT users. This paper describes the ergonomic part of the study including the methods that were developed and used to examine prevailing working conditions and how the data was analysed.

    IV.7 Physiological Measurements 1

    Task-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Computerized Office Work BIBA 759-764
      P. Seppala
    Usage of computers in various tasks related to real estate and construction affairs was examined in a municipal organizational unit. 104 employees, representing different occupational groups, answered a questionnaire on musculoskeletal disorders. The frequency of reported symptoms was associated with gender, occupational category and age.
    Analysis of Mental Workload during the Work with Computers Using R-R Intervals Time Series BIBA 765-770
      Kiyoko Yokoyama; Masanori Moyoshi; Yosaku Watanabe; Takayoshi Yoshioka; Isao Kawamura; Kazuyuki Takata
    This paper describes the analysis methods and results of mental workload during computer work. R-R intervals time series were used for the analysis. The heart rate, coefficient of variation of R-R intervals, power spectral density function and impulse response function deriving from autoregressive model were used as parameters of heart rate variability. Computer workload was characterized by comparing other mental and physical workloads to computer ones. Results are also described with regard to changes of the computer workloads during 75 minutes work.
    Assessment of Mental Workload Based on a Model of Autonomic Regulations on the Cardiovascular System BIBA 771-776
      Mieko Ohsuga; Hiromi Terashita; Futomi Shimono; Mamiko Toda
    Quantitative assessment of mental workload (MWL) is helpful in improving the usability of computer systems, the working environment, and work schedule management. We have been investigating the changes in autonomic indices such as heart rate, blood pressure and their variabilities induced by MWL. We found that the multidimensional use of these indices is useful to assess MWL. However, most of the indices are multiply regulated by the autonomic nervous system and influenced by other indices through feedback loops. So if careful considerations are not made, their changes which are not induced directly by MWL would be misunderstood. For that reason, we introduced a physiological model of autonomic regulations on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to obtain new measures more directly related to MWL, such as sympathetic tone, vagal tone and baroreflex gains.
    Experimental Study on R-R Intervals of Heart Rate by Wavelet Analysis BIBA 777-782
      S. Kishino; M. Katoh; Y. Hayashi
    The analysis on heart rate variability has been widely studied as representative indexes for stress visualization [1], [2], [3], [4]. R-R interval (RRI) time series of heart rate are one of these indexes and expected for the measure of the short term mental workload. Fourier analysis and auto regressive model have been applied to the spectral analysis on RRIs [5], [6]
       Compared with Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis recently developed has the advantage of higher resolution in low band frequency and resolution in time domain. So it was applied for various fields such as signal understanding, acoustic phonetic recognition, and obtained some excellent results [7].
       In this paper, the actual RRIs data analyzed by using wavelet-packet method.

    IV.8 Physiological Measurements 2

    CFF Values for Stress Caused by VDT Work and Relationship among Analysis of Uric Properties BIBA 785-790
      Masaharu Takeda; Yoshio Hayashi; Kaoru Suzuki
    The VDT occupation has been infiltrated into all kinds of human activities. Especially in industry, the WHO and ILO prescribe various criteria in view of labor hygiene problems in order to avoid occupational diseases, which belong to the ophthalmology. The Ministry of Labor in Japan supervises administratively in order to make enterprises set up an inside organization managing the labor hygiene, establish the criteria for the management of the labor hygiene concerning the VDT occupation, and enforce the health management mainly by the measure of the occupational environment and industrial doctors. These labor hygiene activities consist of prevention, diagnosis and necessary measures. However, they have not been proposed yet, because it is difficult for workers to measure and judge objectively their daily fatigue changes. This study reveals the fact that the CFF (Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency) makes the judgement quicker and easier. Recently, however, Iwasaki) have suggested that changes of the CFF values can judge the effectiveness in measuring only asthenopia. It seems to be difficult to separate asthenopia and fatigue centralis. If the CFF values can judge only asthenopia, we cannot but change the evaluation of the CFF values. Therefore, we conducted both occupational experiments on the CRT and on paper with the occupation of continuous one-digit additions (Kreapelin's test) as the work load. Then we analyzed catechoramine as the measurement of the CFF value and as the evaluation of physiological stress.
    Development of a New Hand-Grasp Measurement System BIBA 791-796
      Yoshikazu Seki; Sigeru Sato; Makoto Shimojo; Akihiko Takahashi
    We have developed a system which can synchronously record and reproduce data of four different types: hand position and angle, individual finger joint angles, image data on hand operation, and the distribution of grasping pressure, combining position and angle sensors, finger joint angle sensors, video, and the Sensor Glove.
       Since this system can synchronously record multiple physical variables involved in the hand and finger operation (recording mode), synchronous reproduction (playing mode) and/or the multiphase evaluation of data (data processing software), previously not possible, have been made possible.
       We expect this system to contribute to the establishment of a method for designing comfortable man-machine interfaces.
    On a Simple Method to Measure the Intensity of Keystrokes BIBA 797-801
      Kaoru Suzuki
    In recent years, musculoskeletal discomfort related to VDT work has been frequently reported. Because keyboards are commonly used as input devices, discomfort has been reported in the hands and wrists [1]. In studies and applications to reduce this discomfort, it would be effective to measure the intensity of each keystroke. Moreover, a feedback system based on that intensity measurement might increase the performance of VDT operators.
    A Support System for Handwriting for the Blind Using a Virtual Auditory Screen BIBA 803-808
      Kazunori Itoh; Yoshihiro Inagaki; Yoshimichi Yonezawa; Masami Hashimoto
    In order to help the acquired blind with handwriting, we already proposed the sound support system which converted a pen position into that of a point sound image by using the control of sound lateralization. Handwriting patterns can be expressed in a virtual auditory screen reproduced on headphones. This paper deals with the construction of a new virtual auditory screen based on the experimental factors of sound location. The possibility of handwriting and drawing is examined by using a new support system.
    A System for 3D Motion and Position Estimation of Hand from Monocular Image Sequence BIBA 809-814
      Yoshio Iwai; Yasushi Yagi; Masahiko Yachida
    Human interface has recently gained increasing importance for human-machine communication such as virtual reality. It is useful for us to employ gestures or communication as a human-computer interface. This paper describes a model based system that estimates the motion and the position of the hand from the monocular image sequence.

    IV.9 Physiological Measurements 3

    A Case Study on Evaluation Method for VDT Work Load Using with Face Skin Temperatures BIBA 817-821
      Yoshinori Horie
    Many methods such as Oxygen Consumption, Heart Rate, Electro-myogram, CFF value and etc., are now thought to be effective to evaluate physiological load of VDT workers. Measuring surface temperature of body with Thermal Video System has already been established as a useful index for evaluating physiological load of the workers.
       This study deals with measuring various parts of face skin temperatures represented by nose and cheek, CFF value and Heart Rate of VDT workers, to skin for their validity. Through comparing each of them. The correlation coefficient between each items were also obtained. The results proved the index of face skin temperature to be the most effective index for evaluating VDT work load.
       In conclusion, the correlation between nose skin surface temperatures and CFF values was significantly highly while the correlation between cheek skin surface temperatures and CFF values was not so clear as the relation between nose CFF. This was also confirmed through statistical analysis.
       From these results, it can be concluded that TVS could be one of the useful, reliable and easy to measure method to evaluate VDT work load.
    Measurement of Work Load Using Brain Potentials During VDT Tasks BIB 823-826
      Akihiro Yagi; Mika Ogata
    The Relationship between Human Mental Variation and Stereoscopic Images -- EEG Approach -- BIBA 827-832
      Sakae Yamamoto; Shigeaki Matsuoka; Sumio Yano
    Stereoscopic imaging TV is expected to be the next generation TV. This kind of TV is based on the artificial stereoscopic images in which there are great differences in perception in comparison between 2D and 3D TV. The relationship between spatio-temporal analysis of EEG activity and the differences between 2D and 3D TV watching were studied. The results obtained indicate that in 3D TV, more characteristics EEG changes were revealed, such as the frontal midline theta activity, caused by heighten concentration in comparison with 2D TV.
    64-Channel EEG Measurement System -- Applying to Stress Measurement -- BIBA 833-838
      Shin'ichi Fukuzumi
    The objectives of this study are to develop a 64-channel EEG data measurement and analysis system and to investigate the possibility of applying this system to stress measurement.
       The present system includes stressor generator, a 64-channel topography mapping method, an equivalent current dipole localization method and an electrode position measurement for the dipole localization.
       By this system, an equivalent current dipole for visually evoked potentials was localized within the visual cortex. It was found that this system allows us to measure the stress evoked by a mixture of auditory and visual stimuli.
    Analysis of Brain Activity for HCI BIBA 839-844
      Mariko Fujikake Funada; Satoki P. Ninomija
    HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) is a field which treats a kind of communication methods between computer systems and human systems controlled by brain. If we wish to have easier, more comfortable and collecter interaction with computer systems and make clear that we feel what is easy and what is comfortable. There are, at least, three approaches to make the characteristics clear: one is to consider human systems as a black box and to be only connected with the characteristics about inputs (like indications on a CRT display) and outputs (behavior) of human systems. The second approach is an analysis of brain activity under tasks of HCI because a brain is a CPU of human system and controls the total behavior of the human system. The third approach is an analysis both of them; response characteristics of human systems and activity of brain.
       Since true nature of a human system determines what is suitable to HCI method, the second approach should be tried at first. From this point of view, we made our purpose to take out brain-level characteristics of human systems under a simple HCI task. In order to attain the purpose, we use electroencephalograms (EEGs), especially event-related potentials (ERPs). Because EEGs show us an functional aspect of brain activity, furthermore ERPY are direct responses of brain to the given task. Through discussions about the results of analysis, we consider a course of future HCI and propose a method to realize more suitable and comfortable HCI.
    Detection of the Event Related Brain Potential and its Application to Communication Aids BIBA 845-850
      Takashi Kawakami; Michio Inoue; Yasuhiro Kobayashi; Kenji Nakashima
    This paper first introduces handicaps of ALS patients and appeals the necessity of CA equipment for them. Then, its description is assigned to explain the property of ERP deflection and a method of detecting it. Further, this paper refers to use the ERP deflection for CA equipment.

    IV.10 Organizational and Psychological Aspects

    A Basic Experimental Study on Mental Workload for Human Cognitive Work at Man-Machine Interface BIBA 853-858
      H. Yoshikawa; H. Shimoda; O. Wakamori; Y. Nagai
    A model VDT experiment simplifying actual HCI situation at MMI, was conducted, where two subjects participated in experiment to solve the same cognitive task in competition. The experimental parameters were (i) different kinds of cognitive task, and (ii) cycle time of information display, to see the MWL influence on various biocybernetic signals. A special processing unit for eye camera was developed and used for measuring subjects' eye movement characteristics.
       Regarding analysis, total information needed for problem solving was taken as anchoring measure for MWL, and the applicability of biocybernetic method for MWL estimation was evaluated from two aspects: (i) efficiency of visual information acquisition, and (ii) difficulty of inner cognitive process to solve problem, both in time pressure situation. It resulted in that eye movement were correlated to (i), while heart rate, (ii).
    Workflow Technology Based Project Management BIB 859-864
      Carlos K. H. Leung; Heloisa Martins Shih; Mitchell M. Tseng
    Involving Workers in the Transformation of Work Organizations: Problems and Tools BIB 865-870
      Irene Odgaard
    Emotional Workload: Its Operationalization, Measurement, and Consideration in the Design of Human-Computer Interfaces BIBA 871-875
      Irwin C. Marin
    Mental Work Load and its physiological effects have been studied in a variety of environments using measures such as changes in heart rate, in pupil dilation, in galvanic skin response and so on. Physical Work Load which exceeds a person's capacity has been of continuing interest since the earliest days of medical/human factors research (such as the pioneering stress effect studies of Hans Selye). However the interactions between the physical and mental stressors manifested in the form of Emotional Work Load have neither been studied nor measured with the same precision for a number of reasons:
  • the difficulty of operationalizing the concept of emotional behavior
  • until recently, the lack of understanding of non-linear behavioral dynamics
       and emergent phenomena
  • the lack of precise tools to study the phenomena in its full multivariate
       form. This has left an important gap in the theory, understanding, and management of Work Load required to improve the performance of the current generation of intelligent computer interfaces and the design of their successors.
       It is the purpose of this paper to briefly define the concept of emotional workload, delineate and operationalize some of the key concepts and examine their measurement, and from this perspective, suggest approaches for tackling the problem of designing "tunable" Human Computer Interfaces including those used by health care provider teams delivering health care services remotely via utilization of Telemedical Technology.
  • The Psychological Impact of Computerised Production Feedback Systems: A Comparative Study of the U.K. Subsidaries of U.S. and Japanese Multinational Companies BIBA 877-882
      C. Oswick; D. Grant
    This study examines the extent to which the use of computerised systems of feedback in manufacturing environments affects employee attitudes and behaviour. Using samples taken from four diverse organisations, data were gathered via; documentary sources, interviews, observational techniques, and group sessions. The most significant finding of the study is that the immediacy and comprehensiveness of employee feedback provided by sophisticated computer-based systems was found to have a detrimental impact upon attitudes and work performance. In contrast, feedback systems using less sophisticated technology and placing a greater emphasis on interpersonal communication had a more positive psychological impact.

    IV.11 HCI Standard

    Human-Computer Interaction Standards BIB 885-890
      Nigel Bevan
    The Applicability of the ISO User Interface Standards BIBA 891-893
      Frederik Dehlholm
    The Parts 10 to 17 of ISO 9241 are user interface standards. Part 10 was agreed upon in 1994 and will be issued in the first half of 1995. Three of the other parts are out for final voting in the beginning of 1995, and the last four parts will follow in 1996 and 1997. Part 10 contains seven general dialogue principles and examples of their application. The Parts 12 to 17 contain specific rules for the dialogue and for the design and layout of the screen.
       As a member of the ISO group that makes these standards, Datacentralen has been already been able to incorporate these standards in our usability work. (Datacentralen is a Danish large software house that develops business information systems for many different platforms).
    Application of Ergonomic Standards to the EC Directive on Requirements for Display Screen Equipment BIBA 895-897
      Henrik Hopff
    The European Union is eager to promote the use of standards in the legal requirements for work with display screen equipment.
       This paper describes the difficulties in applying standardisation to the law-making process. It is shown to what extent standards are applicable and in which cases other methods are necessary. The paper demonstrates a case story of how a large Danish company has managed to apply successfully the parts 3 and 10 of the ISO 9241 standard in their implementation of the requirements of the EC Directive 90/270/EEC.
    Structured Human Interface Validation Technique -- SHIVA BIBA 899-906
      Jurgen Ziegler; Michael Bummester
    The paper describes a new evaluation approach based on a walkthrough method combined with the task and navigation model of the user interface software to be evaluated. The user interface is evaluated according to the requirements of ISO 9241.

    HCII 1995-07-09 Volume V. Interface for Physically Challenged

    V.1 Interface for Physically Challenged

    Composition of Messages on Winking by ALS Patients BIBA 911-916
      Naoyuki Kanou; Michio Inoue; Yasuhiro Kobayashi
    This paper is concerned with a development of a Communication Aid (CA) for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients who lose the physical ability of communication. A CA is just the equipment that provides the facilities for conversation with them.
       In our CA, inquiries are arranged in a matrix form, and thrown to patients by means of crosswise scanning. If the patients find out the desired one, among the exhibited ones, they are requested to send a sign YES, by winking before a CCD camera. It is because winking is a most simple motion which can be done by a little physical power. As a matter of fact, wink happens also due to physiological demands. Hereupon it becomes necessary to discriminate the intentional wink from the unintentional wink clearly.
       This paper proposes a method of remote sensing of intentional winking as the sign of affirmation by a Time-Delayed Neural Network (TDNN), and describes how to compose their messages on their winking.
    Development of Language Training System for Developmentally Handicapped Children BIBA 917-922
      K. Itoh; K. Iitaka
    A language training system with a personal computer is developed for developmentally handicapped children. They see action images presented on the display of the personal computer and learn action words with this system. They have a difficult problem to solve when they learn words. For consideration of the problem, the system has an improved method of presenting actions as follows. For each of the action words, the system presents action images from an actor's viewpoint and an observer's viewpoint in the form of a line-drawn animation and a movie by using multiple examples.
       The new language training system is applied to developmentally handicapped children. The effectiveness of the system in helping them to learn the action words is evaluated. The results obtained are that with each of the presentation methods, the correct answer rate in the post-learning test is higher than in the pre-learning test and that there are significant differences between the pre-learning and post-learning test results.
    INTERACT: An Interface Builder Facilitating Access to Users with Disabilities BIBA 923-928
      C. Stephanidis; Y. Mitsopoulos
    This paper describes INTERACT, a tool for the specification of interaction dialogues and the construction of user interfaces appropriate for various categories of users, including people with disabilities. INTERACT builds on the notion of separating an application in two functional components, namely the application functional core and the user interface component, thus allowing the provision of multiple user interfaces and supporting the "high-level" design of the interaction dialogue, i.e. independently from the presentation details and operational constraints of a particular technological platform.
    Supporting Blind and Sighted User Collaboration through Dual User Interfaces Using the HOMER System BIBA 929-934
      A. Savidis; C. Stephanidis
    The emergence of Graphical User Interfaces has introduced additional problems regarding the accessibility of computer systems by blind people. The implications include restricted opportunities for computer-based collaboration between blind and sighted users in a working environment. Currently, accessibility to graphical User Interfaces by blind users is enabled through systems which reproduce the lexical structure of User Interfaces (i.e. interaction objects and their relationships) in a non-visual form; such systems introduce visually oriented concepts in the context of non-visual interaction. The concept of Dual User Interfaces has been defined as a more efficient and effective approach to address the accessibility and collaboration problems. A User Interface Management System, called HOMER, has been developed for the construction of Dual User Interfaces.
    Development of Human-Oriented Information Systems -- Learning with Mentally Handicapped People BIBA 935-940
      Yasuko Kaminuma
    Recently, it became increasingly necessary to obtain information systems professionals who can take intoconsideration the harmony between technologies and human beings/ societies. How can these information systems professionals be obtained? Can they be educated in universities? To study these problems, we tried to utilize action research.
       In this paper, we present information systems education report in rehabilitative training schools for mentally handicapped people as one example of practices in university education.

    HCII 1995-07-09 Volume VI. Social Aspects, Management and Work

    VI.1 Information Technology

    Personal Information Appliances BIBA 945-950
      Peter J. Thomas; John F. Meech; Robert D. Macredie
    The range of information management activities which personal computing devices are intended to support include
  • (a) Storage of local information created or manipulated by users
  • (b) Retrieval of local and non-local information
  • (c) Integration of multiple sources of local and non-local information
  • (d) Decision-making by integrating stored, retrieved and integrated information
  • (e) Communication with other users and devices The activities which comprise what may be termed 'personal information management' [1, 2, 3, 4] require not only the use of various technologies, media and modalities but their integration. In this paper we look at the characteristics of personal information appliances, the range of activities which they support, and review families of appliances and their application domains with examples from a current project.
  • Efficient Development of Organisations and Information Technology -- A Design Approach BIBA 951-956
      Jan Gulliksen; Mats Lind; Magnus Lif; Bengt Sandblad
    In this paper a framework for the entire process of organisation and information system development is discussed, focusing especially on design issues. Our definition of the process of design in human-computer interaction is the process of creating a formal description by appearance and functionality of an information system. This design is based on both formal and informal descriptions of interaction requirements as a result of a work analysis process. The analysis phase is separate from the design phase. According to the definition of design, as a specification into a formal language, it can never completely describe all requirements. We distinguish four, different, consecutive gaps of communication in the design process. In each of these gaps some information about the actual work situation can be lost. These gaps constitute severe obstacles in the process of developing efficient and usable information systems for specific work situations. Development models covering the entire process of design might bridge, or at least narrow, these gaps. Some main characteristics of such models are presented.
    Integration of People, Technology and Organization: The European Approach BIBA 957-961
      Christina Kirsch; Peter Troxler; Eberhard Ulich
    This paper presents the general outline of new method, HITOP-D, considering the integration and joint optimization of people, technology, and organization. This method is based on the existing American methods HITOP and ACTION. It takes in account the specific European industrial context. In an iterating process the preliminary design of a project is assessed according a list of criteria of the four aspects people, technology, organization, and task design. Incongruencies are solved through a fit analysis and redesigning the original project. The performance of HITOP-D will be empirically evaluated.
    Dynamic Changes of Human Systems under a Simple Task of HCI BIB 963-968
      Mariko Fujikake Funada; Satoshi Suzuki; Takao Tanaka; Yusuke Yazu; Kyoko Idogawa; Chieko Hukuda; Satoki P. Ninomija
    Temporal Organisation of Human Centred Systems BIBA 969-972
      V. A. Chernomorets; S. V. Kirpich
    In solving problems on analysis and synthesis of complex systems, in particular decision making in these systems, it becomes often necessary to consider the integrity (systematization) criterion, thereby yielding the emergent effect. Here the integrity criterion is a defined ratio of components or processes in a system, the relationships between which are characterised as organisation, harmonium, subordination to some proportion [1-5].
       For example, it is known that at a visual perception of an object the perception strategies are oriented to the vision psycho physiology regularities that allow for the Fibonacci numbers.
       The present paper considers the strategy of the integral behaviour of man making discrete activity in time. Optimising the behaviour consists in subdividing a time interval of a discrete action (i.e., quantum) into sub intervals (operating period and activity slack). In this case, subdividing the time interval objectively obeys the Fibonacci series. Such a conclusion, grounded theoretically and proved experimentally, gives the possibility to model and optimise strategies of the man's activity in accordance with his psycho physiological characteristics by using the integrity criterion.

    VI.2 Job Design

    Job Satisfaction in the Computer-Assisted Work Environment BIBA 975-982
      Andrew A. Mogaji
    The rapid rate of industrialization has made the Nigerian economy to embrace the advent of computer technology. It is a common belief that computerization of activities will alleviate some of the human problems associated with the storing and retrieval of information in the work environment. Hence, this study tried to identify those factors within the work environment that tend to influence computer users' satisfaction. Responses were obtained from 550 employees including 440 men and 110 women randomly selected from different organizations in Lagos, Nigeria. The criteria for the choice of this sample, were based on the fact that the subjects must be using computer to accomplish task in their places of work. Based on their responses, subjects were classified into groups according to occupational status (e.g. managers, supervisors and junior workers) and sex. All other variables were regressed upon each of the last two variables. Utilizing the analysis of variance, the results showed that there were differences among the classified groups as to their satisfaction with the use of computer. However, significant differences were obtained for the sex and occupational groups. The findings of the study were interpreted and discussed as having socio-technical implications for technical change, management information system and organizational development.
    A Study on Shifting Time to Low Awakening Conditions on Monotonous VDT Works BIBA 983-988
      Chieko Fukuda; Satoshi Suzuki; Takao Tanaka; Keiko Kasamatsu; Yusuke Yazu; Mariko Fujikake Funada; Kyoko Idogawa; Satoki P. Ninomija
    We are now in a computer age when everyone has his own computer and operates without any training. Then a man-machine-interface which is adjusted to a human being is an essential requirement. Now the main interface method is using VDT. Input devices of VDT can be roughly classified into two groups. One is analogous such as a mouse and a track ball, the other is digital such as a keyboard. The influence of VDT works especially fatigue has been discussed from various angles. And many interfaces were improved for the purpose of decreasing this fatigue.
       We have been concerned about workers' reactions to extended periods of computer interaction. We have studied them especially from a viewpoint of EEG changes which directly bespeaks physical changes.
       This time, we research three kinds of monotonous VDT work which have different interface. During repeated monotonous work which needs less physical exercise, most of workers shift to low awakening condition. Then we research the characteristic of shifting time to this condition.
       In the previous studies, it's obvious that we can use appearance of grouped α waves as the indicator of low awakening level on which brain activity goes down. Of course, in these appearances there are many individual differences of time and quantity. But it's proved by the experiment most of subjects who were not trained to prevent drowsiness and had a fully sleep have shifted low awakening condition between 20 and 30 minutes later. When the subjects continued the same monotonous work, they were shifting to low awakening condition regardless of different interfaces.
    Complementary Allocation of Functions in Automated Work Systems BIB 989-994
      G. Grote; S. Weik; T. Wafler; M. Zolch
    From Taylorism to Tailorability: Supporting Organizations with Tailorable Software and Object Orientation BIBA 995-1000
      Helge Kahler
    With markets globalizing and customers' demands specializing organizations worldwide need to change. To reach the necessary flexibility of information technology one approach is tailorability, i.e. users are enabled to adjust software to their needs. Some examples for tailorability are given, and its potential benefits and shortcomings are discussed. Software development plays an important role for establishing tailorability, and object oriented methods can be helpful in this context.

    VI.3 The Esprit Project 8162 QUALIT, Quality Assessment of Living with Information Technology

    Human Oriented Management of Change. A Conceptual Model BIBA 1003-1010
      Federico Butera
    In the 70's and 80's the discussion on the social effects of automation brought to the conclusion that information technology has little deterministic effects on Quality of Working Life (QWL). Positive or negative effects on QWL mainly depend on the combination with the various dimensions of the socio-technical system (organization, people, processes, management rules, etc.). Improving QWL is still a great challenge in modern organizations based upon IT.
       Face to previous static and defensive models, Qualit give a new framework, based on the active participation of people in protecting one's own integrity, and on the dynamic contribution to the performances of the socio-technical systems, introducing the complementary key concept of empowerment of people. Thus, people should not be just protected, but should become enabled (i.e., get the power) to actively defend and develop one's own integrity and quality of life through various ways: getting more understanding and knowledge, emotional stability, clear roles, social integration, and personal identity, in order to choose how to cope with external threats. The person should keep the control on working processes, instead of being controlled by the organization and the technology. Modern socio-technical systems should be, and sometimes are, built on open professional roles of empowered people (i.e., small firms in the firm), which have in large part the workplace within. A process of individual growth and empowerment is the objective of the Change Management Process Framework of Qualit in a context of re-engineering or continuous improvement of the socio-technical system. In network organizations empowerment means to improve communication and co-operation with remote people.
    The Quality of Working Life Concept BIBA 1011-1016
      S. Downing; G. Ryan; A. McNeive; M. Mariani; O. Parlangeli
    Interest in the nature of work organisation and its possible effects on employee motivation has caused many organisations to take steps to ensure that job design incorporates the intrinsic needs of employees. This can be seen manifested in the emergence of the Quality of Working Life Movement which is aimed at eliminating many of the problems associated with traditional work systems, making work more meaningful for employees and ensuring positive benefits for employers.
    User Requirements for Tools to Support Human Oriented Management of Change BIB 1017-1019
      Irene Odgaard
    New Forms of Empowerment Using Simulation Games and Learning Form Cases BIBA 1021-1026
      K. Mertins; B. Schallock; P. Heisig
    The employees should actively participate in the process of planning and optimization of sociotechnical systems and bring in their tacit knowledge in order to increase the efficiency of the sociotechnical systems. They should be able to take into consideration the quality of their working and living conditions and to contribute in their improvement.
       These abilities to plan and the knowledge of quality of working life circumstances cannot be presupposed but have to be mediated to the employees. Therefore, there is a need of training methods which are adapted to adults and support an active learning process. On the other side, these methods have to focus on the process of organizational change, introduction of new technologies and quality of working life standards.
       The PadeS tutorial for production design simulation represents an appropriate procedure for that change process. This tutorial links elements of a role game, a planning game and a case study at the example of an organizational restructuring process in a medium-sized metal manufacturing company. The ESPRIT project 8162 QUALIT ("Quality Assessment of Living with Information Technology"), which is partly funded by the European Union, offers the opportunity to enlarge the concept through a case study library and special knowledge of the design of quality of working life.

    VI.4 The I CHING and Modern Science

    The I Ching Onto-/Axio-Genesis and the Analytic Hierarchy Process: Decisions, Negotiations and Conflict Resolutions BIB 1029-1032
      Chung-ying Cheng
    Philosophy of Unity in Diversity -- The Dance of Quantum and the I-Ching's Symbol -- BIB 1033-1035
      Thomas In-sing Leung
    The I Ching and Non-Linear Mapping: A Meta-Binary Approach to Reflective Choice, Decision-Making, and Hierarchical Information Systems BIB 1037-1040
      M. Secter
    Exploring Self-Developing Models in Computerized, Interactive Learning Environments BIB 1041-1042
      D. A. Smith
    Business Rules, Revolutionary Discourse, and Multilogical Information Systems BIB 1043-1045
      G. Tropea
    The I Ching as a Paradigm for Understanding Corresponding States in Fundamentally Different Systems BIB 1047-1052
      J. W. Walls
    Nonlinear Computation in the I Ching BIBA 1053-1057
      K. Walter
    This work presents an innovative model for computation. Current computers are mostly binary and do not take nonlinear aspects into account. They certainly cannot do both binary and analog computation in the same process. But such things are possible. Our model will be modern DNA and the ancient I Ching. Each system combines within itself both linear binary processing and analog ratio processing into a peculiar hybrid mathematics that has made DNA and the I Ching into the sturdy system-survival packages that they are.
       Each model manifests the principles of the new science of patterned chaos. The core of chaos theory is found in the Period 3 window of the periodic tree of bifurcating data. Yorke and Li showed mathematically that when the Period 3 window appears, abruptly you have not random chaos but patterned chaos, i.e., orderly but nonlinear structure, able to sustain and replicate itself with variation.
       This hypothesis says that mathematically the mRNA codon and the I Ching trigram each presents a Period 3 window of chaos patterning. More important, each system is nonlinear, combining analog and linear functions to synthesize a transcendent third operation whereby the system escapes to a higher order of organization.
    Biomathematics Derived from the I Ching BIB 1059
      J. F. Yan