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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction jointly with the Ninth Symposium on Human Interface (Japan)
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:1993-Aug-08 to 1993-Aug-13
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-89540-X ISSN 0921-2647; hcibib: HCII93
Papers:362
Pages:1042+1125
Links:www.elsevier.com
  1. HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 2
    1. IV. Help and Learning
    2. V. Hardware Interfaces

HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 2

IV. Help and Learning

Animated Help as a Sensible Extension of a Plan-Based Help System BIBA 712-717
  Markus A. Thies
Object-oriented graphical interfaces entail new demands for providing the user with adequate help. Static and knowledge-based help systems with a pure textual help reach their limits as soon as the user needs assistance in performing interactions within a graphical interface.
   In this paper the animated help system AniS+ is presented that dynamically generates sequences of animated interaction steps by considering not only the current interface and application context but also the task currently being pursued by the user.
An Adaptive Intelligent Help System BIBA 718-723
  Chi-Tien Chiu; Chaochang Chiu; A. F. Norcio
This paper introduces the architecture of an adaptive intelligent help system. The paper also discusses how this system can operate with different users and applications adaptively and intelligently. Novice users certainly need help to learn and to use the target application. Even experienced users need help to make the most effective use of the application. This system also emphasizes the motivation of learnability through help strategies.
A Usability Evaluation of Text and Speech Redundant Help Messages on a Reader Interface BIBA 724-729
  E. M.-Y. Wang; H. Shahnavaz; L. Hedman; K. Papadopoulos; N. Watkinson
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether text and speech redundant help messages are more usable than non-redundant messages on a reader interface. This paper looks at the principles underlying multi-media. The hypothesis is that if a speech and text redundant message is presented on a reader interface, then the users should have less difficulties or errors and shorter performance time in such tasks, by using such a (redundant) interface than using the text interface or speech interface. Four evaluation tools, i.e., observations, subjective ratings, interviews, and objective performance measures, were used to evaluate the effects of the messages. Twenty subjects (9 males and 11 females) from the general public participated in the study. The results partly support our hypothesis by showing that the redundant interface is the easiest and quickest among the three in terms of learning and using. Appropriate use of text and speech redundant help messages does contribute to the usability of the reader interface for the tested condition. However, the adverse effects of the speech, e.g., repeat messages are annoying, must be dealt with care.
Development of a Processflow Manager for an IC-Diagnosis System BIBA 730-735
  Holger Retz; Axel Hunger
The analysis of faulty digital circuits is a very complex task which can only be performed in a semi-automatic system environment. This paper presents a processflow management system which provides the operator with a high process transparency. The system mainly consists of a graphical representation of the data flow and a graphical course of the process, which is supported by predefined rules. Herewith the operator is prevented from making any wrong decisions. A further component is a communication manager which allows the information exchange among specific tools.
   The implementation of a dedicated process description language allows the easy and consistent modification of existing processes as well as the definition of new processes. This language has been integrated in an existing framework.
Intelligent Task Based Model for the Design of Screen Review Systems for People with Blindness BIBA 736-741
  J. Gunderson
This paper describes an intelligent task based approach to designing user interfaces for people with blindness to access computer systems. The intelligent task approach uses information on the tasks associate with a particular application program (or operating system) to create a optimized non-visual user interface. A task model, rather than the current direct screen model, provides more support to the blind computer user to independently learn functions within application programs, and independently discover and recover from command errors.
The Use of Computer Simulated Cases to Study Factors that Influence Clinical Practice Styles BIBA 742-747
  James G. Anderson; Stephen J. Jay; Christine Beville; Marilyn M. Anderson
This study was undertaken to determine if computer simulated cases could be used to determine factors that influence clinical practice patterns. Three computer simulated cases were presented to 46 residents in emergency medicine, internal medicine, family practice, and transitional medicine at Methodist Hospital of Indiana, a 1120 bed, private, teaching hospital. A questionnaire was used to collect additional data on how physicians deal with clinical uncertainty. There was no significant difference by year of residency in physicians' reactions to uncertainty in patient care. The results indicate that physicians in internal medicine were the most reluctant to disclose the uncertainty that they experienced in diagnosing and treating patients. Also, reluctance to disclose uncertainty significantly affected physician performance on the three test cases. The study provided evidence that computer simulated cases can be used to evaluate physicians' clinical performance and to identify factors that cause practice variation.
A Computer-Based Integrated Instruction and Design for Teaching Aesthetic Design BIBA 748-753
  Rungtai Lin
As a professional engineering designer, one must know not only the state-of-the-art technology, but also the product aesthetics to enhance their appeal and desire in the eyes of the purchaser. Despite its importance, the aesthetic training has not been taken as a part of engineering design education because of its time-consuming, and art-based rather than science-based. However, availability of relatively low cost personal computer (PC) and PC-based CAD systems has offered the feasibility of integrating aesthetic instruction into engineering graphics and design courses. This paper is intended to develop an integrated CAI/CAD system for teaching aesthetic principles to engineering students. The knowledge associated with aesthetic design has been organized in a hierarchic structure for easy learning. A knowledge base containing 153 slides and 90 text pages has been developed as course materials for teaching the aesthetic principles to the students. Ten exercises have been selected properly for practicing aesthetic design. The system was implemented by using AutoLISP programming language operating in AutoCAD environment on the personal computer.
Student Modelling in Hybrid Training Systems BIBA 754-759
  D. Milech; B. Waters; S. Noel; G. Roy; K. Kirsner
We are constructing a student model for a hybrid training system, a mixture of formal instruction and simulation-based training. This model measures a student's fluency; knowledge; the robustness and articulability of the knowledge; and the flexibility and generalisability of the knowledge.
   This approach to student modelling is more complex than that found in the typical ITS system, in which student models only measure the mastery of knowledge. In a hybrid system such as ours the student model must do more than determine whether or not each item of knowledge is known, because: (i) the knowledge to be imparted is procedural (eg, industrial process control) and in such domains competency includes more than knowing facts and (ii) the interaction between student and training system is quite complex, and so more information is needed in order to guide training properly.
   Our approach to modelling allows us to estimate each student's knowledge, how the knowledge can be used, and whether knowledge is at an operational or abstract level. In addition, our approach yields comparable measures of competency for both formal instructional methods and simulation-based methods, and allows us to design more complex interactions between student and training system which are necessary in a hybrid training system.
Role of Analogical Reasoning as a Tool for Training BIBA 760-765
  D. M. Boase-Jelinek; D. Milech
Computer managed training systems may use analogies to build on a student's existing knowledge and experience. Careful design of such training systems involves consideration of how much a student must know about a referent before it can be used as an analogy. Our research shows that two thirds of subjects solved a novel problem when trained with familiar analogies whereas one quarter solved the problem when trained with an unfamiliar analogy. Furthermore, training systems should present feedback to students regarding the adequacy of their use of an analogy. Our research suggests that feedback encouraged one quarter of subjects to use the analogy correctly.
Computer Technology in the Educational Curriculum Development in Nigeria in the 21st Century BIBA 766-771
  Noah K. Akinmayowa
Computer technology is a problem-solving methodology which allows the best utilization of resources. This is achieved by the establishment of effective decision-making, communications processes which enhances full creativity, efficiency, goal setting, accelerated learning, reduction of errors from personnel assigned.
   The acceleration of decision-making process in the provision of technical information as an input which aid high-level implementation of decision in the management of systems is enhanced. The tools of computer technology assist the user interface (HCI) in the proper initiation and evaluation of action process that will ensure that all necessary factors in system development are considered in a logical and methodical manner prior to the establishment of a firm approach.
   The utilization of computer technology enhances an engineering analysis approach for the definition of problems, identification of feasible alternatives, selection of Evaluation criteria, application of Analytical techniques, Sensitivity Analysis and the assessment of risk and uncertainty in the evaluation process.
   These objectives can be achieved within an educational curriculum where computer hardware is in place coupled with the application of the systems approach in the educational environment.
   This paper subscribed to the need for computer design to aid the objectives above and the adoption of the technology approach to curriculum development and implementation strategies.
Control of Cosmonauts Training to Overcome Operational Complexity BIBA 772-777
  Yuri Glazkov; Alex Rudchenko; Alex Vislotsky; Alex Vankov
Controlling the process of preparation of the crew of manned spacecraft (MSC) for flight is at the present time one of the most timely problems in respect of both the contents and complexity thereof. The introduction of a large number of contingent modes of MSC functioning into the preparation program substantially increases its complexity, makes it difficult to evaluate the degree of preparation of the crew, increases the time necessary for the training process. The large number of parameters for controlling the process of crew training in mission simulators (MS) makes it necessary to develop mathematical models of training (MMT), on the basis of which both the planning of the preparation and the evaluation of the results are accomplished.
   The main requirements which such a MMT should satisfy are:
  • (i) the MMT should comprise as few parameters as possible;
  • (ii) the MMT should be complex, i.e. take account simultaneously of the process
       
       of acquisition and the process of losing skills.
  • Use of Multimedia Technology in Teaching Engineering Design BIBA 778-783
      S. Hsi; A. M. Agogino
    Computer-based case studies are being developed to enhance the current case study method of teaching engineering design by using multimedia technology to illustrate concepts, and hypermedia to support cognitive flexibility. An architecture for the life cycle design concept is presented. As components of the Kolb experiential learning cycle, these case studies are designed to provide experiences in active experimentation and reflective observation, as well as complement hands-on activities. The results from evaluation of several cases used to support instruction are included. The research from this study suggests several improvements necessary in the interactive case studies presented, but overall the cases were found to be successful in delivering key concepts of best practices in engineering design and in accommodating different learning styles.
    An Adaptive User-Oriented Message Prioritization Scheme BIBA 784-789
      Wei-Ping Wang
    Message prioritization and filtration is important to reduce the detrimental effects of information overload in human-computer interactions. This paper develops an adaptive computer support scheme which learns about the end-user's message accessing patterns, and adaptively arranges messages in a priority set. The scheme is based on learning automaton, and requires little a priori knowledge about the end-user. This scheme can be integrated with existing information systems to develop "smart" user interface, which is adaptive to end-user's information needs. A simulation example is provided to show the effectiveness of the scheme.
    Medical Diagnostic Expert System BIBA 790-795
      Renu Vig; Deepak Bagai; Y. C. Chopra
    The expert system presented in this paper consists of a fuzzy rule base. Assuming a matrix representation of rules, a rule based system has been developed in Turbo-Prolog for finding anemia in a person. The final diagnosis is given by the rule with highest confidence factor. Since most cases are not classic ones and exceptions, seem to recur in medicine, a system that can make use of previous experience is suggested. Such a system can cut down on its work by using previous cases to suggest a solution to a new but similar case, rather than starting from scratch each time.
    Supporting Instead of Replacing the Planner -- An Intelligent Assistant System for Factory Layout Planning BIBA 796-801
      Jurgen Herrmann; Matthias Kloth
    A new, interactive approach for software tools supporting real-world design tasks is presented. The intelligent design assistant provides analysis information about the current and previous design states and can perform single design steps automatically. Explanations about design decisions make these steps transparent to the user. An adaptable user interface supports the planner's design style. The system has been applied successfully to factory layout planning.
    Preventing Human Errors in Skilled Activities Through a Computerized Support System BIBA 802-807
      M. Masson; V. De Keyser
    For a human operator, gaining expertise not only involves the acquisition of knowledge regarding his technical and social environments, but also the progressive development of large repertoires of process experiences acquired through practice.
       Expertise increases operator overall efficiency by providing highly adapted behaviour schemata issued from past experiences. But expertise is unfortunately not free from negative effects, as it introduces a risk of capture error or capture by routine (Norman, 1981), even in presence of contradictory evidence in the environment (De Keyser & Woods, 1989; Masson & De Keyser, 1992).
       Supporting human operators -- and particularly expert operators -- should not only consider problem solving activities but should thus also include the prevention of routine errors, which go along with skill acquisition.
       This is precisely the function of CESS (Cognitive Execution Support System), the error prevention prototype presented in this paper.
    Audicon: Easy Access to Graphical User Interfaces for Blind Persons -- Designing for and with People BIBA 808-813
      O. Martial; A. Dufresne
    There is a real need to render Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) accessible to blind people and the aim of the Audicon project is to develop hardware and software to adapt a graphical user interface to their specific needs. In order to define the main design principles and to choose the input/output device of the interface we used a three-step methodology: analysing offices of visually impaired persons, creating a prototype, evaluating the prototype. The results of the tests prove that an interface which allows direct manipulation of objects on an electronic desktop, using "earcons" (1) instead of graphical icons and allowing multimodal access to both audio and tactile information, is a good one for blind users. This test also gives us many practical ideas to improve the device and shows the importance of the participation of users in the design process.
    Development of a Simulation-Based Intelligent Tutoring System for Assisting PID Control Learning BIBA 814-818
      Takeki Nogami; Yoshihide Yokoi; Ichiro Yanagisawa; Shizuka Mitui
    A simulation-based ITS (Intelligent tutoring system), SRIM, has been developed in order to realize an individualized learning environment for PID control. For mitigating the burden of students in learning with a simulator, SRIM navigates the learning by providing local goals for PID controller tuning and advisory messages. The architecture of ITS is employed to perform the local goal selection and the tutoring strategy switching, naturally and timely.
    The Use of Expert Systems for Training Humans in Rule-Based Reasoning BIBA 819-824
      J. Sharit; S. Chen
    This paper summarizes a study concerning the prospect of employing expert systems (ESs) for training individuals in the emergency management of risk. This idea is based on the assumption that for many emergency situations it would be unrealistic for humans to access or otherwise engage in a dialogue with an ES. At the same time, in the process of reasoning with rules, ESs possess certain qualities that could prove worthwhile for humans to adopt. Accompanying this overview is a somewhat circuitous discussion of various perspectives to rule-based performance that are believed capable of benefiting from this paradigm as well as from each other's views.
    A Situated Cognition Approach to Problem Solving with Implications for Computer-Based Learning and Assessment BIBA 825-830
      Michael F. Young; Michael McNeese
    In this paper we discuss the nature of an ecological approach to problem solving and describe some new alternatives to assessing problem solving as a perception-action process. We suggest that a situated cognitive view of problem solving requires new assessment techniques that are non-invasive and allow expert problem solvers to externalize more of the perceptual processes they use.
    A Computer-Assisted Instruction System for Beginner's Crude Charge Schedulers BIBA 831-836
      Kotaro Saito; Tsutomu Tabe; Katsuo Furihata
    This paper offers preliminary information on the methodology needed for the development of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system for the purpose of training beginner crude charge schedulers. It is assumed that a skilled scheduler makes schedules using elementary knowledge of such schedule coupled with his or her scheduling abilities. In order to train beginners, as opposed to skilled schedulers, it is necessary to develop a system consisting of two subsystems; one is to impart elementary knowledge; the other is to improve the scheduler's abilities. In this connection, prototype based on this method was constructed and the validity of the method was confirmed through experimentation this prototype.
    Human-Computer Interaction and the Automation of Work BIBA 837-842
      Karl U. Smith; Thomas J. Smith
    Computers have greatly expanded the scope and complexity of work automation. This report presents a behavioral cybernetic analysis of human-computer interaction (HCI) and work automation, dealing with how the computer serves to augment human self-control of work behavior. Major conclusions are that computer automation of work: (1) feedback influences human behavior and performance; (2) is key to human efforts to effectively manage high population density and worldwide socioeconomic integration; and (3) from a human factors perspective represents one of the most significant scientific and socioeconomic issues confronting humankind.
    Social Implications of Feedback and Delay Characteristics in Electronic Communications Usage BIBA 843-848
      Barrett S. Caldwell
    This paper discusses and presents research concerning issues of communication feedback and transmission delay affecting use and acceptability of communications media. Previous research in organizations has indicated significant stress effects from electronic communications and office automation computer systems due to system delays and lack of information or social feedback. The current paper discusses the impact of feedback and time delay in electronic communications, and the development of a mathematical model of medium acceptability under conditions of transmission delay. This paper also presents research indicating situational differences in medium acceptability based on information and feedback demands of the situation and the user. The findings presented in this paper elaborate aspects of use and acceptability of communications media. These findings emphasize integration of social and organizational demands in information technology design and implementation.
    A Human Memory Model Based on Search Patterns BIBA 849-854
      Tomoko Saka; Hideaki Ozawa; Naoki Kobayashi
    We investigated subjects' behavior when they searched for articles that they had previously read in a newspaper. We found that they used memories about target articles. The memories involved semantic information, pattern information, and spatial information. Traditional memory models, however, have examined the roles of only semantic information and pattern information. An experimental method is created to find the relationships and the characteristics of these three types of information and their role in memory.
       The experiment investigates the changes in subjects' behavior that accompany changes in the structure and content of an article.
       The result is that semantic memory is always necessary to recall the appearance, contents, and location of an article. If there is no semantic memory, the pattern memory and spatial memory fail to hold any useful information. Furthermore, we propose a human memory model based on these results.
    Control of Complex System by Situated Knowledge: The Role of Implicit Learning BIBA 855-860
      A. Rizzo; O. Parlangeli; C. Cambiganu; S. Bagnara
    An experiment is reported which tests the hypothesis that content and context play a crucial role in learning to control a complex system. The same formal rule, originally devised by Berry and Broadbent [1], has been used to govern the behavior of four different scenarios. A pre-test analysis showed different degrees of cognitive match between each scenario and the rule used. Four different groups of subjects were respectively requested to interact with the four scenarios. Subjects were subsequently tested for their verbalized knowledge. Results show that subjects' performance and verbalized knowledge are unequally affected by the different scenarios. Subjects' verbalization seems related to situated principles of the system behavior but not to the underlying rule.
    A Model of Behavioral Techniques for Representing User Interface Designs BIBA 861-866
      J. D. Chase; H. Rex Hartson; Deborah Hix; Robert S. Schulman; Jeffrey L. Brandenburg
    A user-centered approach to interactive system development requires a way to represent the behavior of a user interacting with an interface. While a number of behavioral representation techniques exist, not all provide the capabilities necessary to support the development process. Based on observations of existing representations and comments from users of the User Action Notation (UAN), a user- and task-centered behavioral representation, we have developed a model that classifies behavioral representations according to scope, in terms of activities they support within the development process; content, in terms of components of interaction designs they can represent; and requirements for documentation and communication within and among various development activities. We present results demonstrating the model's reliability in the context of two problems, critical incident classification and evaluation of existing techniques.
    A New Paradigm for Diagnostic Expert System Based on Designer's Knowledge BIBA 867-872
      Yasufumi Kume; Hyun Seok Jung; Gavriel Salvendy
    Conventionally, the diagnostic expert system have been developed using maintenance engineers' knowledge. But these expert systems have many problems. First, these systems need failure data, but there is no data for advanced production equipment. Second, the generic system is needed for the advanced production equipment.
       This paper reveals the necessity of the diagnostic system built by the designer of production equipment. In order to justify the necessity of this system, the problems of conventional diagnostic expert system based on trouble-shooters' diagnostic knowledge and the use of causality, especially the necessity relation between the elements of machine parts, which belongs to designers' knowledge is emphasized. As a knowledge representation, it is proposed that a diagnostic matrix with dual relation includes the knowledge of designer and that of maintenance engineers.
       Finally, the extension of the constructed diagnostic system to another version can be easily performed by the concept of standardization which has been successfully applied to the design stage.
    Introducing Problem Solving Strategies of Users into the Interface Design BIBA 873-878
      Nong Ye; Gavriel Salvendy
    Human problem solving strategies must be taken into consideration of human-computer interface design to avoid unnecessary training time, job disorientation, and job dissatisfaction of users in computerized job environments. An experiment was conducted to investigate differences of expert and novice computer programmers in program comprehension strategies. Both expert and novice programmers used a knowledge retrieval strategy first to recognize familiar program segments and a problem reasoning strategy then to comprehend unfamiliar program segments. Experts controlled their program comprehension process in a more systematic manner than novices. Human-computer interface designs for compatibility with user problem solving strategies, such as a hierarchical grouping of familiar interaction elements and a non-hierarchical grouping of unfamiliar interaction elements, are discussed.
    Development of a Methodology for Optimizing the Elicited Knowledge BIBA 879-884
      C.-J. Chao; G. Salvendy
    Knowledge elicitation is the first step in building expert systems, and it is a major bottleneck in the construction of expert systems. In this research, a conceptual framework and methodology is presented for selecting knowledge elicitation methods. A statistical nested factorial design is utilized with three tasks, four knowledge elicitation methods and ten cognitive factors. Twenty-four subjects were used in the experiment, and five hypotheses were tested.
       Based on these findings in the experiment, a matching index for combining tasks, knowledge elicitation methods and cognitive abilities is derived. This matching index maximizes the elicited knowledge by selecting the most appropriate method of knowledge elicitation for specific tasks and also selecting the best individuals for this knowledge elicitation.
    A Taxonomy for Human Behaviour and Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 885-890
      William H. Edmondson
    Conventional theoretical and taxonomical approaches to HCI are contrasted with a taxonomy based on underlying interaction behaviour. It is shown that clarifying insights can be obtained by consideration of underlying interaction behaviour and that these can be formalized for use in interface design.
    Task Analysis Method using the GOMS Model with Grouping BIBA 891-896
      Kanji Kato; Katushiko Ogawa
    This paper proposes a task analysis method that extends the GOMS model through the grouping of repetitive sub-procedures. Its aim is to increase the ability to discriminate among differently sequenced procedures performing the same task. The task analysis method consists of three steps: procedure decomposition in a single task, grouping of sub-procedures into multi-tasks, and constructing a GOMS model. The application of this method to an actual multi-request registration task indicates the validity of the method.
    Task-Dependent Descriptions: A Preliminary Study BIBA 897-902
      Laurent Karsenty
    Although the designers of aiding systems are able today to store many kinds of knowledge required for explanation purposes (e.g. [Scott & al., 1984], [Swartout & al., 1992]), a problem remains as one looks for an intelligent dialogue: how to select the "good" explanation, i.e., the one that satisfies the user's needs and makes human-computer interaction more efficient.
       The work presented here is especially concerned with explanations needed to describe a complex device in the domain of space industry. In cooperative design activities, descriptions of devices, which convey both structural and functional information, allow one participant to communicate knowledge on a state of solution. Our project is aimed at specifying an aiding system which will store information on previous "cases" (i.e. the problem and its solution(s)). This goal raises two issues: what is the information necessary to produce adequate descriptions of a device? how must the system use this information when interacting with an end-user?
       In order to answer these questions, an analysis of cooperative human-human dialogues was conducted. These naturally occurring dialogues gathered two participants designing a complex physical device. Both participants were expert designers, but their competence was unequal: one was an engineer, and the other was a draughtsman.
    Dealing with the Dilemma of Disparate Mental Models BIBA 903-908
      Wm. J. Garland
    The integration of diverse and disparate operational support agents for real-time complex plant process management is investigated. This is motivated by the increased sensor density and complexity inherent in today's nuclear and chemical plants which lead to operator information overload. Such plants are best understood by a functional decomposition into sub-systems and components, typical of the engineering approach. Thus, computer-based aids must be based on such a functional decomposition. This, however, is not the mental model employed by the operator and leads to a dilemma: the system needs to be functionally decomposed along the lines of the physical or engineer's mental model, whereas, this is an inappropriate model for the operator. Some mechanism is needed to bridge the gap. Herein, a solution to this dilemma is proposed: concurrent scorecarding based on the blackboard paradigm.
    An Associative Approach in Dynamic User Modeling BIBA 909-914
      Qiyang Chen; A. F. Norcio
    A research framework for building a user model by utilizing artificial neural networks (ANN) is presented. The limitations of stereotype-based user modeling are discussed which underlie the motivations of introducing ANN approaches. An associative user modeling approach is proposed which is incorporated in a blackboard processing environment.
    Information Tools: A New Approach to Interface Design and Development BIBA 915-920
      Andrew Michael Cohill
    This paper presents a model for the design of information tools and describes a case study in which this model was used to develop an campus-wide information system intended for use by the 30,000 member user community of Virginia Tech. A set of design and development principles (an information architecture) provide a framework for understanding why the project has been successful in spite of some difficult organizational and sociological barriers to acceptance.
    Design Issues of Bilingual Editor BIBA 921-926
      Miwako Doi
    User friendly machine translation systems are obtained by two approaches: improving translation quality and providing more interactions. Regarding the second approach, to date little research has been carried on. This paper describes the design process of a suitable bilingual editor by evaluation of specific errors produced in the translation process, display of prototype operation sequences, function selections in accordance with the design concept and reviews based on specified user profiles. The developed bilingual editor is implemented on the SUN workstation with a practical Japanese-English bidirectional machine translation system called ASTRANSAC.
    Coordinating an Interface Agent with Direct Manipulation Environments BIBA 927-932
      Takashi Sonoda; Fumitaka Matsumoto; Kengo Omura; Mitsuhisa Kamei
    In this paper, we propose a collaborative manipulation interface which includes an interface agent as the "dialogue partner" and a direct manipulation interface as the "tools". These tools are shared and collaboratively manipulated by the user and the agent. It is thought that this interface system simulates human cooperative works. This interface has the same properties as the cooperative works. We describe the benefits of the collaborative manipulation interface. A prototype system for the group schedule management is also developed.
    The Fifth Generation Fallacy: Looking Back from 1993 BIBA 933-938
      J. Marshall Unger
    Now that Japan's Fifth Generation project has ended, there is general agreement that it failed to produce applications that revolutionize the way Japanese work. I predicted this outcome in 1987 after analyzing the problems of handling Japanese script on computers, particularly those associated with input. Did the project fail for the reasons I described or for different ones? A survey of empirical research published between 1987 and 1992 supports the original hypothesis that poor Japanese white-collar productivity and inefficient use of computer power are due to the use of Chinese characters in Japanese script, and that there are fairly severe limits on what any computer program, of whatever type, can do to remedy the situation.
    KJ-Editor: A Collaboration Environment for Brain Storming and Consensus Forming BIBA 939-942
      H. Ohiwa; K. Kawai; A. Shiomi; N. Takeda
    KJ method, which is very popular in Japan for group work, and the editor for supporting the method in network environment is presented. Relationship of the method to software requirement engineering and decision making process is also discussed.
    Use of Bi-Directional Image Exchange in Facilitating Precontact Communication BIBA 943-948
      Yu Shibuya; Hiroshi Tamura
    A bi-directional image communication network of a small size was introduced experimentally in a laboratory environment. In studies of bi-directional image exchanges, the major concerns were to enhance communication by use of facial expressions or body gestures during the conversation. What we propose in this paper is the use of bi-directional image exchange to facilitate contacts among parties such as finding the person and catching the chance to communicate. This paper is to report the use of bi-directional image exchanges in a laboratory environment in the past 3 years.
    Human Centred Collaborative Design in System Development -- Intelligent Back Scratcher to be Attentive to User's Needs BIBA 949-954
      Yoshihiro Sato
    The transfer of user's needs to the system designer is essential design system well suited for users. Unfortunately the requirement transfer is not easy. Users, who demand system, are not the expert in the area of system design. On the other hand, system designers, who are demanded system, are not the expert in the area of user's business. The gap of the domain knowledge exists between them. Communication is the crucial key factor for reducing this gap.
       This paper describes the Collaborative Design Method (CDM) that supports the knowledge transfer and the knowledge share with effective communication, and the expression of the structured group knowledge.
    Cooperative Work Analysis of Plant Operator Crew BIBA 955-960
      Hiroshi Ujita; Ryuji Kubota; Kouji Ikeda; Ryutaro Kawano
    Elucidation of crew communication and collaboration aspects is required to improve the man-man interface which supports plant operators' diagnoses and decisions. Experiments to clarify operator performance under emergency situations were performed using a training simulator. The operator performance was evaluated from the viewpoint of crew communications. Six approaches have been tried to evaluate operator performance: cognition-communication flow, movement flow, position covered, task gain evaluation, information effectively exchanged, and communication correlation aspect. Crew communications and collaborations in emergency situations were categorized into four types: Top Down, Bottom Up, Tight Coupling, and Loose Coupling.
    Group Communication Support System for Software Development Project Based on Trouble Communication Model BIBA 961-966
      Shoichi Takeda; Mie Nakatani; Shogo Nishida
    This paper deals with a group communication support system in a software development project when there happens some trouble on it. First, we analyze a communication process in the real projects, and then we propose a communication model based on the analysis. We focus on the communication in case of troubles, and the process is modeled using "charge", "competence" and "knowledge" of each member in the project. A group communication support system named CACTUS (Computer Assisted Communication Tool for Urgent Support) is developed based on the model, and also the use of the system is discussed.
    A Meeting Support System Based on Analyses of Human-Communication -- Using the Context and Contents of Meetings BIBA 967-972
      T. Uetake; M. Nagata; K. Takeuchi; H. Takagi
    All activities of humans are based on inter-personal communication. This paper presents a new support tool in human-communication. Most of the research completed in this area to date has been grouped into basically two varieties. First, the hardware viewpoint, the other from the social psychological perspective. This paper presents a new third perspective which is termed the software approach. The system illustrated provides useful information concerning participants in discussion meetings by the discrete analysis of verbal dialogue statements made in these meetings.
       The central idea of this research is to classify verbal statements between two levels; (1) statements on the "progress" of the meeting, and (2) verbal statements on the "objects" of the meeting. In this paper these are referred to as meta-utterances and content-level utterances respectively. It is shown that the context of a meeting can be traced by analyzing verbal statements by their context-level. Moreover, if the theme of the meeting is fixed, useful information can be determined by analyzing context-level verbal statements.
    Doing by Understanding: Embedded Systems for Understanding Coordinated Work BIBA 973-978
      Timo Kakola
    Organizations are adopting new structural forms and ways of working to cope with rapid changes in their environment. This creates increasing pressures on actors' competence. On the basis of a theoretical framework called Humanistic Perspective, we argue that the actors must understand work as a whole, including computerized tasks, if they are to manage complex work situations. Based on our experiences with a prototype system we claim that this is not possible until radical changes are made in the structure as well as the components of software systems. Specifically, we claim that applications should be embedded in extended support systems making organization of work, task coordination and the coordinating role of information systems explicit. As a step towards this goal we propose Role Interaction Nets as (1) the structural basis of embedded systems and (2) the new metaphor for human-computer interface design.
    Computer Simulation Model of Cognitive Process in Group Works BIBA 979-984
      K. Furuta; S. Kondo
    In this paper, a computer simulation model of cognitive process in group works is proposed, and the simulation system based on the model is presented. In order to simulate parallel and cooperative activities by many agents, the system has separate sets of knowledge base and blackboard for individual agents, and they can exchange messages through the communication channel. This system was tested using the result of communication network experiment by Leavitt, and then applied to operation of a nuclear power plant.
    Negotiability: A Metafunction to Support Personalizable Groupware BIBA 985-990
      V. Wulf
    Negotiability is a supplementary design requirement for groupware, which allows participative activation of functions. It should be applied to global functions, whose usage and modification affect several users. The concept of negotiability will be elaborated and applied to the design of computer integrated telephony.
    An Analysis Technique for User Centered Design BIBA 991-996
      John Kirby; Heather A. Heathfield
    It is argued that the general philosophy of user centred design should be focused on the design of systems and that such a focus requires the development of a User Centred Systems Design Methodology. One aspect of such a methodology is the analysis of current user practices and some traditional approaches to this activity are considered and found wanting. An alternative approach -- Task Oriented Flow Diagrams -- is described and an example is given of its use in the PEN&PAD (Elderly Care) clinical workstation project. Some results of using this approach are briefly present.
    Cooperating Partners: Investigating Natural Assistance BIBA 997-1002
      Francoise Darses; Pierre Falzon; J. M. Robert
    The design of better adapted intelligent systems can benefit from a better knowledge of the natural cooperative behavior between humans. Two studies of natural situations of cooperation are presented, focusing on the type of intervention of each partner in the dialogue. Specific attention is paid to the methodology of analysis. Implications for system design are stressed.

    V. Hardware Interfaces

    The Context-Based Graphic Input System: T-Board BIBA 1004-1009
      Yasuo Endo; Shinji Akimichi; Murray Milne
    This paper introduces a CAD interface which uses purely graphic input gestures, without the necessity of translating graphic ideas into verbal commands or of using a menu-driven interface. The system infers the user's drawing intentions from pen movements, using basic graphic patterns stored in the knowledge base. The pen tablet mounted on a liquid crystal display, is both the input device and display for this system. It provides designers the similar feeling of drawing with pencil on paper. Another advantage is that designers who speak different languages can effectively collaborate on the same drawing.
    Segmentation of Handwritten Text and Editing-Symbols from Ink-Data BIBA 1010-1015
      S. Navaneetha Krishnan; Shinji Moriya
    This paper proposes a real-time algorithm for segmenting handwritten text and editing-symbols from ink-data. This algorithm simplifies the development of "mode-less" editors for pen-based computers. Such editors enable users to create documents by writing characters and editing-symbols side-by-side (i.e. in "mode-less" fashion), and then executing the editing-operations corresponding to these editing-symbols. The proposed algorithm uses a segmentation decision-tree, and does not require a character-recognition dictionary. Using this algorithm, we segmented handwritten text and editing-symbols from ink-data (written by twelve writers) with an average segmentation accuracy of 97%.
    User Interface Development Tools for Pen Computer Applications BIBA 1016-1021
      Isamu Iwai; Yoshiyuki Miura
    A pen application interface (PAI) has been developed for efficient implementation of application systems for pen based computer. By providing many tools and commands, tool users can substantially shorten the development period.
       The PAI includes developing and executing environments. The developing environment consists of a Screen Designing Tool (SDT) for user interface and a Screen Controlling Editor (SCE) for data control. The executing environment provides a process control engine which consists of libraries and program modules in order to execute application systems. The engine has ten kinds of standard input-objects for such business use as button switches, handwriting character input, and list display functions. It also has a hundred kinds of commands for detailed controls. The tool users (developers of systems) determine the location and size of the object on the screen using the SDT, define types and control flow of input date using the SCE.
       Without our PAI, the tool users had to use programming language and need skills for developing pen based applications. This means that it requires long developing period for programming, training and system test.
       The outstanding advantages of our PAI was proved when we applied it for creating a system of processing application forms, as the developing period was shortened to almost one third, compared with that of traditional programming.
    Cordless Pen and Electronic Stationery BIBA 1022-1027
      Azuma Murakami
    Recently, the pen as an input device has become the focus of attention. As a pioneer of the exploration for using the electronic pen, WACOM began its development by eliminating the need for a cord between a computer and a pen, which had limited free operation. In this development WACOM has been consistent in the pursuit of pen that is friendly to men, i.e. "easy-using" & "easy-writing" pen.
       On the basis of my experience, I will discuss in this paper the theme: what is an "easy-using" & "easy-writing" pen?
    The Minimal Sizes and the Quasi-Optimal Sizes for the Input Square During Pen-Input of Characters BIBA 1028-1033
      Xiangshi Ren; Shinji Moriya
    In this paper, the authors focus on the precise and minute operation of the tip of the pen of pen-based computers. As the first step, we focus our attention on minute operations that users make when writing characters. In doing so, we attempt to experimentally determine the followings: (i) what is the smallest possible size of the characters or symbols when they are written on the input screen of writing-tablet? (ii) the quasi-optimal sizes of the input square for characters. In this paper, we determine the above two by targeting three kinds of characters: (a) numbers, (b) small English letters, (c) capital English letters. From our experiments, we were able to determine the minimal sizes (i.e., the width and height) of the small English letters, capital English letters and numbers. We also obtained the preliminary approximation of the quasi-optimal sizes (i.e., the width and height) of the square enclosing the above three kinds of characters.
    Concept of Minute Operation and its Application to Pen-Based Computers BIBA 1034-1039
      Shinji Moriya; Hiroshi Taninaka
    As compared to conventional computers, pen computers are being steadily miniaturized and are also becoming more portable. As a result of this, the display area as well as the writing area in such computers is getting smaller. In this context, the tip of pen is capable of very fine (i.e. minute) movements. The authors believe that, the above two factors motivate the creation of a pen-input interface in which such minute pen-movements are used to accomplish tasks such as writing, pen-gestures or scrolling.
       Pen input can accomplish various operations such as pointing, writing, recognition, gestures, scroll, etc. In this paper, we put forward a method of achieving these operations using the minute movements of pen tip. We call this proposed method as "minute operations." In this paper, we describe the characteristics, associated problems and applications of these minute movements.
    Real-Time Multi-Hand Detection for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 1040-1045
      Koichi Ishibuchi; Haruo Takemura; Fumio Kishino
    This paper proposes a new multi-hand human-computer interface environment based on real-time hand gesture detection. Our real-time hand gesture detection method uses image processing to allow unspecified individuals to convey their intentions to the computer by using their two hands without experiencing the sensation of wearing gloves. The multi-hand detection method, its implementation, and an evaluation of this multi-hand user interface in a virtual reality application are discussed.
    Pen-Based Interfaces for Drawing Figures with 'Stationery Metaphors' BIBA 1046-1051
      Masaki Nakagawa; Shinya Kazama; Takashi Satou; Natsuko Fukuda
    This paper describes figure drawing interfaces on a display integrated tablet where one makes a rough sketch with a pen and then draws a neat copy with virtual drawing tools that are displayed on paper-like images and manipulated with a realistic feel. We call these the 'Stationery Metaphors'. In this paper, we present a hierarchical representation of document structure, how stationery metaphors work within this representation and their advantages.
    Gesture Specification and Structure Recognition in Handsketch-Based Diagram Editors BIBAK 1052-1057
      Rui Zhao
    Diagram editing is an attractive application of gestural interfaces and pen-based computers. Within a handsketch-based diagram editor, gesture commands must be specified and recognized. This paper presents a gesture specification mechanism which specifies a gesture command in gesture shape, gesture constraints, and gesture semantics. The structure recognition is based on the two-dimensional relationships between the handsketches and the graphical diagram representations. A Petri net editor is used as an example to illustrate details.
    Keywords: Gestural interface, Pen-based computer, Visual language, Gesture specification, Structure recognition, Diagram editor, Petri nets
    Musculoskeletal Discomfort and Job Performance of Keyboard Operators BIBA 1058-1063
      I. T. S. Yu; H. S. C. Ting
    A study was performed using a self-administered questionnaire to determine the relationships that might exist between musculoskeletal discomfort and sickness absenteeism and between musculoskeletal discomfort and job performance among keyboard operators in an academic institution.
       A high prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort among keyboard operators was documented. The severity of the discomfort was found to be positively associated with longer sickness absence and possibly also affecting job performance. Although most of the complaints were of a mild degree only, some were found to have adverse effects on the attendance and the job performance. Neck discomfort and shoulder discomfort were of particular concern in that they were both common and were also associated with longer sickness absence as well as worse job performance.
    Evaluating Performance, Discomfort, and Subjective Preference between Computer Keyboard Designs BIBA 1064-1069
      S. D. Douglas; A. J. Happ
    Participants performed a data-entry task on three commercially-available QWERTY-layout keyboards. Productivity, error-rate, reported discomfort, and subjective preference were compared.
    Intelligent Keyboard Layout Process BIBAK 1070-1074
      Chin-Chuang Lin; Tzai-Zang Lee; Fu-Shing Chou
    The main objects of this study were to set up an intelligent keyboard layout process, and use Da-Yi method as an example to evaluate the different layouts. The keyboard layout frown this intelligent keyboard layout process come out to be better than the current layout, the process can be applicable to the similar keyboard layout design occasions.
       An evaluative experiment was conducted by using 24 subjects to compare their performance (speed, error rate) on the three keyboard layouts. Significant faster key-in speed but no significant difference in error rate was found between redesigned and current layouts. The usefulness of the intelligent keyboard layout process was supported.
    Keywords: Intelligent keyboard layout process, Da-Yi method, Word roots
    A Comparison of Keyboard-Integrated Pointing Devices BIBA 1075-1078
      David F. Loricchio
    The IBM Design Center in Boca Raton studied two integrated pointing devices for a portable computer keyboard. The first device was a trackball located on the right side of the typing keys. The second device was a roll bar located below the spacebar on the keyboard. The roll bar rolled up and down and could slide to the left or right. Twenty-one participants used the roll bar, the keyboard-integrated trackball, and an off-keyboard trackball to edit text. Then they wrote their comments about the devices and ranked the devices in order of preference. Participants edited significantly more characters with the trackballs than with the roll bar. Participants significantly preferred the trackballs over the roll bar. While the integrated trackball was clearly better than the roll bar, participants identified a number of problems with both devices.
    Performance Measures in an 'Ergonomically' Designed Keyboard BIBA 1079-1084
      P. J. McAlindon
    The purpose of this paper is to identify and present numerous, and often overlooked, performance measures for the development of an ergonomically designed keyboard. The term ergonomically designed keyboard is commonly used to refer to a number of newly designed keyboards that incorporate human engineering and/or ergonomic principles into their designs. These keyboards attempt to optimize key layout in an effort to reduce finger travel and fatigue, promote a more natural hand, wrist, and arm typing posture through design and support structures, or employ various key activation schema in order to enhance typing performance. All of these keyboards were developed to attempt to remedy a variety of problems associated with the de-facto standard QWERTY keyboard. A more in-depth analysis and evaluation of factors that influence typing performance is presented to better understand the capabilities of the human, the keyboard, the typing task and the way in which they interact.
    Facial Animation Synthesis for Human-Machine Communication System BIBA 1085-1090
      Shigeo Morishima; Hiroshi Harashima
    We've been building a user-friendly human-machine interface with multi-media and it can realize virtual face-to-face communication environment between an user and a machine. In this system, human natural face appears on the display of machine and can talk to user with natural voice and natural expression. Especially in this paper, face expression and animation synthesis schemes utilized in this interface system is presented. We express a human head with 3D model. The surface model is generated by texture mapping with 2D real image. All the motions and expressions are synthesized and controlled automatically by the movement of some feature points on the model.
    Voice-Responsive Eye-Blinking Feedback for Improved Human-to-Machine Speech Input BIBA 1091-1096
      Tomio Watanabe
    The synchrony between a speaker's voice and eye-blink, and a listener's eye-blink and nodding plays an important role in regulating human dialogue. This paper reveals significant synchronous as well as lagged relationships between: (a) a speaker's voice and his own eye-blinking response; (b) a speaker's voice and a listener's eye-blinking and nodding responses. On the basis of these findings, an eye-blinking feedback model of a voice reaction system is proposed. The model estimates blinking and nodding responses on the basis of on-off speech characteristics of speech input, and the effectiveness of the model is demonstrated.
    Enhancing Speech Intelligibility Using Visual Images BIBA 1097-1102
      Christopher Greaves; Martin Warren; Olov Ostberg
    This paper describes some further experimental work aimed at assessing the contribution of images to speech intelligibility. The experiments were designed to test the theory that speech is made more intelligible by presenting visual images of speakers along with the speech. These visual images were presented on a video monitor, and the experiments tested subjects at three levels of perception:
  • 1. with no image, sound only (Audio);
  • 2. sound plus head and shoulders of the speaker shown (Audio/Vis);
  • 3. sound plus full situational context (Audio/Vis+). The preliminary conclusions drawn are that the accompaniment of a visual image (Audio/Vis) showing only head and lip movements of the speaker show no significant improved listening comprehension, and that images showing full situational contexts (Audio/Vis+) in this study do not appear to have any additional effect in enhancing intelligibility.
  • Evaluation of a Gaze Using Real-Time CG Eye-Animation Combined with Eye Movement Detector BIBA 1103-1108
      Kiyohiro Morii; Fumio Kishino; Nobuji Tetsutani
    In a teleconferencing system with realistic sensations, human images are generated by Computer Graphics (CG). This requires animating natural eye movement with CG. In this paper, we describe the results of an experiment on the perception of gaze direction by using CG eye-animation. We then describe a real-time CG eye-animation system combined with an eye movement detector. We also subjectively evaluate the allowable transmission delay time when using this system.
    Bidirectional Translation between Sign Language and Japanese for Communication with Deaf-Mute People BIBA 1109-1114
      Takao Kurokawa; Tooru Morichi; Shigeaki Watanabe
    Bidirectional machine translation between sign language and Japanese is proposed as an application of nonverbal interfaces. The translating system employs a sign dictionary for translating sign gesture to Japanese words and vice versa. While sign gesture is tracked by gesture sensors and Japanese sentences are displayed, the system receives Japanese sentences and displays sign gesture animation. It has been confirmed that sign processing works properly.