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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction jointly with the Ninth Symposium on Human Interface (Japan)
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:1993-Aug-08 to 1993-Aug-13
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-89540-X ISSN 0921-2647; hcibib: HCII93
  1. HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 2
    1. III. Media

HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 2

III. Media

An Eventful Approach to Multi-Media, Multi-User Applications BIBAK 428-433
  Matthias Ressel; Hubertus Hohl; Jurgen Herczeg
Existing software development tools and user interface toolkits assist application programmers in developing and implementing single-user applications with graphical user interface. However, multi-media and multi-user applications introduce new dimensions, like temporal aspects, concurrency, or sharing of objects, that are usually not supported by these tools. In this paper we describe the experience we made as we developed and implemented a distributed multi-user application in the domain of hyper-media document production. We describe the chosen event-based approach and how it makes it easier to augment existing software in order to support cooperative work as well as new kinds of temporal media.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces, Event-based architecture, Computer-supported cooperative work, Multi-media, Real-time communication
Designing Coherent Multimedia Presentations BIBA 434-439
  Thomas Rist; Elisabeth Andre
In this paper, we describe an approach for the automatic synthesis of multimedia documents in which different media, such as text and graphics, are smoothly integrated. The approach we have taken has its roots in text generation. We start from the assumption that textlinguistic concepts such as speech acts, coherence relations, and discourse structure can be generalized in a way that they also become useful for the generation of multimedia presentations. We briefly describe a prototype of a multimedia presentation system. By means of an application example we demonstrate the system's ability to adapt its presentations to particular presentation situations.
Aspects of Multimodal and Multimedia Human-Computer Interaction BIBAK 440-445
  K.-P. Fahnrich; K.-H. Hanne
Human computer interaction (HCI) can be based on interaction models. The IFIP-Model is best known for a layered structure of HCI (cmp. e.g. [1]). Interaction forms are under intensive research and can be distinguished according to DIN 66234 part 8 [2] and ISO 9241 part 10 [3]. In our research-oriented model we focus on three interaction modes: Natural language, direct manipulation and formal interaction languages.
Keywords: Multimodal human-computer interaction, Gestures recognition, Combined interaction, System-architecture
LAYLAB -- A Constraint-Based Layout Manager for Multimedia Presentations BIBA 446-451
  Winifried H. Graf
When developing advanced intelligent user interfaces composing text, graphics, animation, hypermedia etc., the question of automatically designing the graphical layout of such multimedia presentations in an appropriate format plays a crucial role. This paper introduces the task, the functionality and the architecture of the constraint-based multimedia layout manager LayLab.
Toward a Walkthrough Method for Multimedia Design BIBA 452-457
  Peter Faraday; Alistair Sutcliffe
A basic model of Multimedia comprehension is proposed. The model is used to demonstrate how a Walkthrough critiquing method may be developed for MM presentations. An expository presentation (changing a Laser Writer toner cartridge) is used to illustrate the methodology.
Multi-Media Support for Up-Stream User Interface Design Activities BIBA 458-463
  K. Mouzakis; S. Howard
This paper explores how multi-media technologies may be utilised to support the early phases of user interface design. It presents a conceptual model for the support of up-stream user interface design and highlights the problems current technology has in supporting the design process.
Navigational Issues in Multimedia Case Studies of Engineering Design BIBA 464-469
  S. Hsi; A. M. Agogino
We prescribe a user interface that supports the case-base method of teaching engineering design using hypermedia enhanced with multimedia to maximize concept relationships, knowledge integration, knowledge organization, and guided-discovery learning. Hypotheses pertaining to navigational issues to support education goals are presented along with their experimental validation on two implementations that were tested on a variety of users.
   Lessons learned from our experiments on the case studies are formulated as general rules for use of hypermedia for instructional software that use historical cases for teaching good design practice. Results indicate that (1) The navigational backbone should serve as a concept map to reinforce important principles to help novices to organize their own knowledge. (2) The hyperlinks should make important connections explicit, but not haphazard; they should be used as a pedagogical tool. (3) Navigation should accommodate the experience level of the user, both in computer use and in domain knowledge. It should be both flexible and structured. (4) Integrated use of multimedia should accommodate differences in learning styles.
Contingency Models for Architectural Design BIBA 470-475
  Dave Bell
This paper will show how modelling of the cognitive and communicative skills of individuals in the group context combined with analysis of media-usage within an architectural design group can lead to design guide-lines for a specific multimedia application and the basis for a framework to produce many such applications in the spatial planning domain.
On the Relationships between Hypermedia and the Psychotherapeutic Process BIBA 476-481
  Pablo Boczkowski; Fernando Das Neves; Gustavo Rossi
We present in this paper some results of a research project that explores: a) the advantages of hypertext as a metaphor by means of which psychotherapists represent and access information and knowledge acquired during the psychotherapeutic process and b) the potential of hypermedia as a tool for building learning environments for future psychotherapists.
   We discuss the outstanding features of a hypermedia-based environment that provide support for learning the complex relationships presented in a psychotherapeutic process. We analyze some implementation issues and discuss some future work in this area.
An Analysis of Hypermedia Program Architecture with Individual Differences of Learners BIBA 482-487
  Susan Gautsch
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of software architecture and individual differences of learners with respect to knowledge transfer. We conducted an experiment using hypermedia courseware based on an existing and widely used multimedia program that teaches French language and culture. Empirical data representing subjects' individual learning styles and learning performance with the courseware was collected and analyzed. In this paper, quantitative methods and results are presented, followed by a qualitative discussion. Here, three different perspectives on this experiment are applied: 1) The Message -- what is being conveyed; 2) The Medium -- how the message is being conveyed; and 3) The Mind -- how the message is accepted. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further research are made.
Snapshots from the Eye: Toward Strategies for Viewing Bibliographic Citations BIBA 488-493
  D. L. Howard; M. E. Crosby
The objective of this project was to discover and describe how people view computer displayed textual information. In particular, individual viewing strategies for bibliographic citations were studied. Analysis of eye movements and fixations illuminated actual behavior. Two conditions were studied: viewing of relevant and not relevant material. Behavior in viewing differed between conditions. Viewing time for the relevant condition was longer. Movement between content areas displayed different patterns for the two conditions as did percentages of direction of movement between individual fixations. It appeared that subjects treated relevant material sequentially but that not relevant was treated non-linearly.
A Model of Learning with Hypermedia Systems BIBA 494-499
  G. A. Hutchings; W. Hall; C. J. Colbourn
It is frequently suggested that hypertext and hypermedia may have a significant effect on the learning process [1-5]. However, before we can build the most effective hypermedia systems to support learning at different levels, we must first understand in detail how hypermedia systems may be used. Various studies have shown that simply letting learners wander freely within a complex, highly interwoven network of information nodes is not sufficient for quality learning to occur [6,7]. Instead, learners need to be guided, given prompts, clues and suggestions as to which parts of the information network are appropriate to their needs. At the same time however, learners must be able to branch out from these guidelines and to determine their own needs.
   A variety of tools and devices have been developed which are intended to help users to accomplish this sort of discovery learning without becoming lost or disoriented in the forest of information [8-12]. It is not clear however, how these facilities will be used by learners in their quest for knowledge, or even whether they will be used at all. If they are used, do they serve the designers intended purpose of reducing the 'lost in hyperspace' effect?
   We present here three studies looking in turn at the effects of task, interface design, and individual learning style on the behaviour of users interacting with an educational hypermedia application on cell biology. These findings are used to converge on a possible model of hypermedia interaction which can provide a significant analytical base for looking at other hypermedia systems.
Changing Persona: University Student to Museum Visitor BIBA 500-506
  Trevor H. Jones; Margaret Christensen
Based on a partial model of the user, the persona construct dynamically alters the appearance of a multimedia information base. Personae were implemented in the Drexel Multimedia Demo. This project, the concept of persona, development of the specific museum persona, and discussion of the implications of using any project in multiple environments are presented.
Individual Differences in the Use of Hyper/Multimedia by Undergraduate Students at the University of Hawaii at Manoa BIBA 507-512
  T. N. Kamala; Jan Stelovsky; Martha E. Crosby
To test which individual difference characteristics influence performance in a hyper/multimedia system, we studied student performances on a specially designed multimedia system, which presented information in various interaction modes using a direct manipulation interface. While the influence of visual ability could not be tested because almost all students were high visuals, 'computer affinity' influenced performance; the 'dynamic' learning style showed significance on tasks based on the text+sound+icon mode. Sex also showed a significant effect in this mode. Personality traits, language and ethnicity did not show any effect. We suggest improvements to such empirical studies that can help determine which media and interface benefit which type of user.
Implementation and Design Issues in Interactive Multi-Media Knowledge Based Systems for Criminal Intelligence Analysis: The Mycroft Perspective BIBA 513-518
  K. Morgan; P. Hardy; J. Casey; L. Holland; T. Quinn; R. Mead; R. Oldfield
The authors describe the current status and results from a two year collaborative research project which investigated the requirements for a future generation of knowledge-based criminal intelligence analysis computer systems. Based upon an international review of current practice in criminal intelligence analysis a series of system design recommendations were produced. These recommendations have led the authors to review the design issues and requirements for such a multi-user, multi-media knowledge based criminal intelligence analysis system. The paper concentrates on the issues of matching shared multi-media knowledge representations to individual user's optimum cognitive representations; shared computer based problem solving and knowledge representation in CSCW; the suitability of object oriented design to multi-media interface design; the representations available for knowledge modeling in intelligent systems; and interface considerations when supporting multi-media data manipulations. The paper concludes by summarizing the problems and opportunities which remain for the project.
The Development of a Plan Based Tutor to Aid in Transfer between Programming Languages BIBA 519-524
  Jean Scholtz; Adrienne Cleveland
This paper discusses a hypertext-based system which can be used to support transfer from one procedural language to another. This tool uses plan knowledge as the transfer vehicle and is based on empirical studies of transfer between programming languages. The design and use of the system are discussed and results from empirical studies of its use are described.
Use of Parameters to Facilitate the Implementation of Reusable Hypermedia Modules BIBA 525-530
  Jan Stelovsky
This paper describes the user interface and functionality of a system that supports definition and generalization of reusable modules implemented within existing hypermedia projects. It focuses of the component that allows the module's author to parametrize the module's functionality without increasing the complexity of the resulting code. While the proposed system can find immediate practical application since it extends the functionality of a popular authoring environment, the described framework can be applied to object-oriented programming in general.
Using Multimedia to Teach Visual Literacy: A Systematic Approach BIBA 531-536
  Raymond P. Kirsch; Robert M. Aiken
The central focus of this research is the production of rudimentary multimedia tutorials that teach the fundamental skill of reading the graphical notations associated with diagrams. The target audience for these tutorials is beginning users of computer interfaces which incorporate diagrams to communicate about an advanced topic.
Multimedia Development Platforms and Authoring Tools: Practical and Theoretical Frontiers BIBA 537-542
  Wita Wojtkowski; W. Gregory Wojtkowski
This paper deals with multimedia development platforms and authoring tools. We examine available options and provide examples.
Using Animated Demonstrations in Multimedia Applications: Some Suggestions Based upon Experimental Evidence BIBA 543-548
  P. E. Waterson; C. E. O'Malley
This paper presents results from an experiment which compared animated demonstrations with textual instructions and a combination of the two. The results show that combining spoken text with animation provides the most optimal instructional content for the tasks which were used in the experiment. In addition, the different instructions seem to lead to different processing, depending upon type of task. Preliminary suggestions are made for the use of animated demonstrations within multimedia applications.
A Design Model for Multimedia Computer-Based Training BIBAK 549-554
  Garry Patterson; Terry J. Anderson; Fabian C. Monds
The design of a user interface for multimedia computer-based training (CBT) courseware is arguably one of the most important areas within the overall design process for todays changing learning environments. A methodology for the design, implementation and evaluation of multimedia CBT courseware, called MIDAS (Multimedia Interactive Design Aided System) is proposed. The model is centered upon the use of high quality and creative instructional design embracing the changing technologies, coupled with clear principles of learning and cognitive psychology which enables usability evaluation. A set of design usability principles, rules for the production of multimedia courseware and an evaluation document for use in individual and institutional learning environments are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Multimedia, Design methodology, Usability, Computer-based training, User interface Design, Evaluation
Visualizing Multidimensional Process Control Relationships BIBA 555-560
  S. K. Habibi; D. S. Ranson
A case study has been performed to develop function-based displays to support power plant operators controlling component stress in a set of steam generators during heat-up and cool-down manoeuvres. Based on a function and task analysis, a set of displays has been developed to show the multidimensional relationship between the process parameters and to support the operators in detection, diagnosis, prediction, and incident recovery. Display options include 2D and 3D graphic representations. It has been concluded that 2D graphic displays are more effective than 3D displays for representing the multidimensional relationships. Further, displays have been developed to allow operators to predict the effects of changes in controllable variables on the key parameters that impact component stress.
3-D Diagrams for Knowledge Engineering: An Early Estimation of Utility BIBA 561-566
  S. Jones
The utility of 3-d diagrams for knowledge engineering was evaluated in six case studies. Knowledge engineers were asked to collaborate in the design of 3-d diagrammatic representations of knowledge structures. The knowledge engineers then carried out a series of simple tasks using these representations. Performance in these tasks was observed and think aloud protocols were recorded. Structured interviews were also used to elicit the opinions of the knowledge engineers regarding the utility of 3-d diagrammatic representations in their normal working practices. It was judged that 3-d diagrams are likely to be more useful than 2-d in the development of object or frame-based (rather than rule-based) systems. Engineers predicted that 3-d would be more useful than 2-d in design and debugging tasks, but that the advantage in knowledge acquisition, validation, verification and maintenance would not be as great. It was noted that the utility of 3-d diagrams need not be severely limited either by the need for specialised hardware, or by variations in user experience. It is concluded that future tools for knowledge engineering could benefit from the inclusion of a 3-d interface component. Tools supporting the development of conventional systems, in which various kinds of relationship between system objects are used in design and development, might also benefit in the same way.
Romeo: Robot-Mediated Cooperative Work for Handling 3-Dimensional Physical Objects BIBA 567-572
  Kenji Kawasugi; Takashi Yoshino; Yasushi Nakauchi; Yuichiro Anzai
This paper describes four important points in collaboration with 3-dimensional (3-D) objects and introduces Romeo system to handle the objects. Romeo system enables a physically dispersed worker to work with partners through a mobile robot. The robot as a medium leads to a new stage that the remote operator 1) can touch the 3-D object, 2) can see a sight from anywhere, and 3) can show the partner his behavior; a behavior of the robot shows what the operator is willing to do. We made a prototype of Romeo and made an experiment with miniature models. The end of this paper summarized to a feature of our system and the results of the experiment.
Eye-Gaze and Intent: Application in 3D Interface Control BIBA 573-578
  J. C. Schryver; J. H. Goldberg
Computer interface control is typically accomplished with an input "device" such as keyboard, mouse, trackball, etc. An input device translates a user's input actions, such as mouse clicks and key presses, into appropriate computer commands. To control the interface, the user must first convert intent into the syntax of the input device. A more natural means of computer control is possible when the computer can directly infer user intent, without need of intervening input devices. We describe an application of eye-gaze-contingent control of an interactive three-dimensional (3D) user interface. A salient feature of the user interface is natural input, with a heightened impression of controlling the computer directly by the mind. With this interface, input of rotation and translation are intuitive, whereas other abstract features, such as zoom, are more problematic to match with user intent. This paper describes successes with implementation to date, and ongoing efforts to develop a more sophisticated intent inferencing methodology.
A User Interface to a True 3-D Display Device BIBA 579-584
  Bruce A. Hobbs; Martin R. Stytz
This paper describes the development of an interactive interface to a true three dimensional, real-time dynamic graphic display, the Texas Instruments Omniview. Our interface provides the user with a quick and flexible means of manipulating the image generated, the sub-volume displayed, and the resulting true 3-D image. It allows selection of objects and manipulation of scenes. It does not support manipulation, such as rotation or placement, of individual objects.
An Interactive Design Environment for Graphical Browsers BIBAK 585-590
  Hubertus Hohl; Jurgen Herczeg; Matthias Ressel
Browsing, viewed as an integral approach to exploring and directly manipulating large and complex information spaces, crucially depends on adequate graphical presentation and interaction techniques to support navigation. Going beyond available user interface development environments, which are poor in representing and graphically presenting application-specific information structures, we describe an integrated approach to developing domain-specific browsing tools. A set of extensible and reusable construction kits for browsing form an application-independent framework that provides powerful mechanisms for representing, presenting, and accessing complex information structures. This framework is integrated within a browser design environment which offers higher-level tools for building or modifying domain-specific browsers interactively. These tools are designed to be used by both application developers and end users, i.e. domain experts, to adapt and tailor browsers according to a particular application domain or to specific user needs.
Keywords: Domain-specific design, Construction kits, End-user programming, Browsing, Information exploration and visualization, Graphic presentation techniques, Direct manipulation
HelpDraw Graphical Environment: A Step Beyond Data Parallel Programming Languages BIBA 591-596
  Akram-Djellal Benalia; Jean-Luc Dekeyser; Philippe Marquet
In this paper we describe the data parallel programming environment "HelpDraw" which, through some interactive and graphical manipulations, allows to express (or translate) the user data parallel thought in a data parallel code without compelling him to learn a particular language. HelpDraw also provides the dual part of the code generation: the code visualization, by visualizing the graphical effect of each action of a given data parallel code.
Improving the Quality of Computer-Generated Charts BIBA 597-602
  Ralph Marshall
Properly designed data graphics can be a valuable aid to understanding quantitative information and as a consequence are used by people in a wide range of work. However, designing these graphics requires time and expertise which is often not available to the people most familiar with the underlying data. While automated graphic design has been an area of research for some time, most of this work has focused on expanding the range of data sets which can be handled, while neglecting the need for esthetically pleasing results and user control. This paper describes a library-based approach to generating business graphics which addresses these open areas.
OOQBE*: An Intuitive Graphical Query Language with Recursion BIBA 603-608
  F. Staes; L. Tarantino
In this paper we present OOQBE*, a graphical query language for object oriented databases, that allows users to formulate queries by providing examples of the desired answer. The language is designed so that it regains in an object oriented environment the advantages of relational query languages: declarativeness, associative access and closure under query. Furthermore, a new operator is introduced (filter), which significate extends the query language. OOQBE* also provides for a transitive closure operator, giving the language an expressive power equivalent to the power of Linear Datalog.
Sketching Editor for Engineering Design BIBAK 609-614
  M. Stolpmann; D. Roller
In this paper an editor for engineering sketches is presented that includes an innovative, easy-to-use user interface which is capable of automatic online beautification of hand drawn sketches. This editor is part of GRIPSS (GRaphical Idea-Processing & Sketching System), a research project at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. Primary application areas for this novel approach to computer assistance are the early design stages in engineering. The user interface is based on a LCD tablet, representing an integrated input/output device. In combination with a software system the problems with menu hierarchies and a lot of different operating states have been overcome. An extremely natural handling of the editor and immediate optical feedback directly on the input device has been achieved.
Keywords: Graphical user interlace, Sketching editor, Conceptional design, Idea documentation, CAD, CIM chain, Computer-aided creativity
Contextual Help for Free with Formal Dialogue Design BIBA 615-620
  Ph. A. Palanque; R. Bastide; L. Dourte
This paper presents how the contextual help system for a user-driven application may be generated automatically from the formal specifications of the application. In our case the formal specifications are based on Petri nets and the help system is built by transforming the Petri nets in an augmented transition network. This network is then used by the contextual help system in order to answer users' questions.
A Method for Generating Messages of the On-Line Help System Based on a User Model and a Situational Model BIBA 621-626
  Y. Kobayashi; M. Nagata
Messages sent from the existing on-line help systems are either extremely simple or too difficult for the novice user to comprehend. On the other hand, these messages are often too narrow in context for the expert user. One of the reasons for this is that the messages are designed on the assumption that only one "typical" human model represents all users. In this paper a method is proposed for generating suitable on-line help system messages for each user level. In order to implement this a user model is introduced reflecting the skills of each user and a situational model for each type of usage. The idea being to create a user model and situational model where suitable messages are generated. In this paper these models and our prototype on-line help system for the Emacs editor are discussed. Results of experimental use are also presented.
User Responses to an Editor Supporting Syntactic Selection Method BIBA 627-632
  Alice Dijkstra; Carla Huls; Han Damen
Present-day text editors only allow users to apply delete, copy, move, etc., operations to arbitrary text fragments, and to typographically defined text fragments such as characters, word-like fragments, lines, and paragraphs. This paper investigates the usefulness of a text editor equipped with a facility that enables users to select and manipulate linguistically defined text fragments, e.g. sentences, constituents (containing one or more words) and words, by simple keystrokes. We present the results of an empirical evaluation study where users are offered this facility in addition to traditional methods of operating on text fragments. We tested whether or not users would actually decide to apply the functions to linguistic arguments and how we could positively influence that decision by means of our user interface design.
Cognitive Processing and Hypermedia Comprehension: A Preliminary Synthesis BIBA 633-638
  David G. Payne; Michael J. Wenger; Maxine S. Cohen
Three experiments investigating the nature of the psychological processes that may be critical to successful comprehension and retention of hypertext are described. Together, these experiments illustrate the utility of theoretical tools and empirical preparations borrowed from studies of reading linear text. In addition, the results call into question previous claims about the processing demands imposed by hypertext and other forms of nonlinear text.
Using Argumentation to Overcome Hypertext's HCI Failings BIBA 639-644
  J. A. A. Sillince; R. H. Minors
Hypertext enables the user to move between distant pages according to her choice of an indexed item. Each page contains a set of keywords which lead to other pages. Thus each page contains information about the next layer of pages. This is very different from a book, which contains parts, and within them chapters, and within them pages, all in page number order. A book has a structure, which may be restrictive, whereas hypertext has little structure, which creates its own problems of high cognitive overhead (the user must memorize her own specially created structure for the document) and getting lost (caused by the lack of an ordering mechanism analogous to page numbering in a book).
Surface Display and Synthetic Force Sensation BIBA 645-650
  Michitaka Hirose; Koichi Hirota
In the real world, the sensation of force is felt when a real object comes into contact with a part of our body. This fact motivated us to the idea of creating artificial touch sensation by using some type of force feedback device. A prototype display device for simulating force sensation based on this idea was developed and called Surface Display.
   In previous research, the touch sensation was often discussed and many prototypes for force feedback were developed. However, most of these devices were designed from a conventional force feedback perspective, which has been developed mainly in the robotics field. In this paper, another approach for designing a force feedback device, a "mock-surface" method, is presented. Several prototype devices were implemented based on the approach and assessments were made from various point of view.
   This paper describes the conceptual design and implementation process as well as some experimental results.
A Six Degree-of-Freedom Pen-Based Force Display BIBA 651-656
  Hiroo Iwata
This paper describes about design of a pen-based force display and its application to direct manipulation of 3D shapes. We have developed a 6 degree-of-freedom force reflective master manipulator which has pen-shaped grip. The system employs two 3 degree-of-freedom manipulators. Both end of the pen are connected to these manipulators. By this mechanism, the hardware of the force display is small and light weighted. The performance of the force display is exemplified in interactive deformation of free-form surface.
Virtual Kitchen System using Kansei Engineering BIBA 657-662
  N. Enomoto; M. Nagamachi; J. Nomura; K. Sawada
A new paradigm for relationship between human and computer has been called artificial reality, virtual reality or cyberspace. Using three-dimensional computer graphics, interactive devices, and high-resolution display, a virtual world can be realized in which one can pick up imaginary objects as if they were physical world. Using this technology and Kansei Engineering, Virtual Kitchen System has been developed in Matsushita Electric Works. Kansei Engineering is defined as a "translation system of a customer's favorite or image into real design components" (Nagamachi, 1986). Virtual Kitchen System can be used for the customers to design virtual kitchens which just they image and experience them in virtual space. And in future, it will be able to deal with whole of house, then customers can design their house and check the housing performances such a light, sound, vibration, temperature, air and living-space amenity.
   This paper details Kansei Engineering and the Virtual Kitchen System.
Simulated World of Hypothetical Life Forms -- Virtual Creatures BIBA 663-668
  Takushi Fujita; Kayuru Itoh; Hitomi Taguchi; Toshiyuki Fukuoka; Souichi Nishiyama; Kazuyuki Watanabe
We developed a system with which we can interact with autonomous creatures in a virtual world. The creatures, generated in real-time by computer simulation, respond to our hand gestures and voices. They also sing a song under the baton of a man. We will apply outcomes of this experiment to general purpose human interfaces.
Virtual Space Teleconferencing System -- Real Time Detection and Reproduction of 3-D Human Images BIBA 669-674
  Fumio Kishino; Jun Ohya; Haruo Takemura; Nobuyoshi Terashima
Real-time reproduction of a 3D human image is realized by the experimental system the authors recently built for the realization of a virtual space teleconferencing, in which participants at different sites can feel as if they are at one site and can cooperatively work. In the teleconferencing system, the 3D model of a participant is constructed by a wire frame model mapped by color texture and is displayed on the 3D screen at the receiving site. Using the experimental system, the optimum number of nodes for real-time reproduction is obtained. Promising results for real-time cooperative work using the experimental system are demonstrated.
A Virtual Reality System Using Physiological Data -- Application to Virtual Sports CAI BIBA 675-680
  Ken'ichi Kamijo; Akihisa Kenmochi
The authors propose a new Virtual Reality (VR) system which uses physiological data indicating user tension and weight balance. The system consists of a physiological data measurement system, a model for processing that data into an estimated "user condition," and a feedback system for adjusting the virtual environment to suit that condition, so as to provide users with a more comfortable environment in virtual space.
   The system has been applied to a Virtual Sports CAI system. The resulting prototype provides a simulated skiing environment through the use of a head-mounted display, a slope simulator, and sound effects. It uses physiological data (finger plethysmogram and weight balance measurements) to model a trainee's tension level and skiing ability.
   The system has been tested in two experiments. The first experiment showed that feeding back tension level data is effective in helping adjust the environment so as to maintain trainee motivation. The second experiment confirmed that somatosensory information given to the trainee was effective in evoking the sensation of acceleration.
The Basic Study of Natural Operation in Virtual Space BIBA 681-686
  Nobuko Kato; Miwako Doi; Akio Okazaki
New input devices such as the DataGlove have recently been developed for application in virtual reality field, but the naturalness of their operation has yet to be perfected. This paper proposes a new method for obtaining naturalness in operation of objects in a virtual world. The method adopts a non-linear correspondence of hand position from a real world to a virtual world. In addition it also adopts sound feedback. Experimental results show that operation based on this method is more effective than operation employing linear correspondence.
New Techniques for Interaction in Virtual Worlds -- Contents of Development and Examples BIBA 687-692
  Wilhelm Bauer; Oliver Riedel
A number of industrial applications of Virtual Reality have recently appeared on the market which are no longer toys but real tools. Multidimensional input devices like the Spacebar, the Spacemouse, or the DataGlove are available and provide the users with intuitive three-dimensional interaction capabilities. But what about the ergonomic software interface for the user of VR? The most common interface to virtual worlds -- a glove -- is not sufficiently accurate to ensure that all gestures necessary for the handling of a complex program can be measured. As a result, the user must spend a great deal of time becoming familiar with the complex worlds and learning to use the interface effectively and efficiently. This paper will discuss a 3-D user interface to virtual worlds which is similar to the well-known 2-D GUI's, but which is driven not only by gestures, but by a combination of gestures and icons.
Awareness, Focus, and Aura: A Spatial Model of Interaction in Virtual Worlds BIBA 693-698
  Steve Benford; Lennart E. Fahlen
We present a spatial model of group interaction in virtual environments. The model aims to provide flexible and natural support for managing conversations among large groups of people in virtual space. It can also be used to control more general interactions among other kinds of objects inhabiting such spaces. The model defines the key abstractions of aura, focus, nimbus and adapters to control levels of awareness between objects. These key concepts are defined in a sufficiently general way so as to apply to any CSCW system where a spatial metric can be identified -- i.e. a way of measuring position and direction. Also, some possible domains of usage are discussed, such as virtual reality, database and text conferencing applications. The model described in this paper is being developed as part of the COMIC project, a European ESPRIT Basic Research Action on computer-based mechanisms of interaction in cooperative work.
The Sense of Presence within Virtual Environments: A Conceptual Framework BIBA 699-704
  Woodrow Barfield; Suzanne Weghorst
Recent developments in display technology, e.g., the use of a head-mounted display slaved to the user's head position, techniques to spatialize sound, and computer-generated tactile and kinesthetic interfaces allow humans to experience impressive visual, auditory, and tactile simulations of virtual worlds. However, while the technological developments in virtual environments have been quite impressive, what is currently lacking is a conceptual and analytical framework in which to guide research in this developing area. What is also lacking is a set of metrics which can be used to measure performance within virtual environments and to quantify the level of presence experienced by participants of virtual worlds. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of presence in the context of virtual environments focusing on conditions which may produce a sense of presence within virtual worlds and to suggest techniques to measure presence. In addition, we present the results of two exploratory studies which investigated several important factors related to the sense presence within virtual environments.
The Art of the Belly BIBA 705-710
  Wolfgang Slany; Christian Stary
If we want to link brains and computers as closely as possible, we have to search for new styles of interaction. In particular, novel interaction concepts leave to be based on the integrated management of sensorial inputs, and the direct manipulation and distribution of information among several agents. These requirements have lead to the definition of a complex interface between innovative input/output devices, computers and human agents. The integration of previously separated technologies as well as the development of complex control knowledge for direct human-to-human interfaces using information processing technology are discussed in this paper.