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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction jointly with the Ninth Symposium on Human Interface (Japan)
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:1993-Aug-08 to 1993-Aug-13
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-89540-X ISSN 0921-2647; hcibib: HCII93
  1. HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 1
    1. VI. Longitudinal Studies
    2. VII. Health Issues
    3. VIII. Psychosocial and Stress Issues

HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 1

VI. Longitudinal Studies

Longitudinal Observations of Stress Index among Software Engineers BIBA 691-696
  Yuko Fujigaki; Kazuko Mori
To investigate the relationship between bio-chemical stress measure and psychological measure and to find the most suitable stress-index, a longitudinal observation of the job content and stress-index in each individuals is conducted for six months. As stress measures, biochemical stress index (adrenaline/noradrenaline from urine sample and cortisol from saliva sample) and psychological index (subjective rating method) were used. The work-content of each day and each week were also surveyed using a diary-style. The results showed that cortisol increases when the overwork/subjective business increases (p<0.01) and that adrenaline decreases when subjective rating (drowsiness, pain, anxiety, depression) increases (p<0.01). These results are conducted by the inter-individual analysis. When we use the intra-individual analysis, the best stress-index for each individual is suggested from the results.
Finnish Longitudinal Studies of Job Design and VDT Work BIBA 697-702
  K. Lindstrom
The Finnish longitudinal studies on the relationship between the use of VDT application and psychological and social demands of work and individual characteristics are reviewed. The main focus is on various types of longitudinal study designs applied, and on the evaluation of their relevance. Although a rather long follow-up time is preferable, its optimum length is hard to decide because of the varying life span of a single VDT application. Also the novelty connected to the use of VDT applications is no longer actual for employees. Therefore the personal meaning of some specific change in the VDT to an individual, and the cultural context where it is applied, are important. In most cases, longitudinal designs with both quantitative and qualitative methods offer the only way to grasp the critical points.
Mastering the Changes in Information Technology: A Follow-Up Study of Insurance Tasks BIBA 703-708
  P. Huuhtanen; T. Leino; T. Niemela; K. Ahola
Continuous development of data systems, simultaneously with increased competition and product diversification in the insurance business, is a highly demanding challenge to both software experts and to human resource developers in the field. A follow-up study in 1985 and 1987 revealed that new computer applications were experienced to have increased more often than decreased the positive characteristics at work. A third follow-up survey (n=260) was conducted in 1993 in one insurance company. This paper focuses on the changes in the use of computers and in the mastery of applications. The results are analyzed according to occupation and age groups. Recommendations for the development of training and user support are discussed. Both the research instruments and the support given to the users should be planned more specifically as regards the respondents' individual work situation. A specific intervention program was carried out for elderly sales managers in the company. Successful change to the new organization of tasks is a long-lasting process, and demands a several years' longitudinal study and user support at the work-site level.
Methodological Aspects of Longitudinal Studies -- Experiences from a HCI-Study BIBA 709-714
  Ch. Korunka; K. H. Huemer; B. Karetta
Physiological results from a comprehensive longitudinal study on VDU work are presented. Data show an increase in catecholamines and no changes in cortisol with VDU work compared to work without VDU.
   Theoretical aspects of longitudinal studies of VDU work are discussed. This includes problems with adequate control groups and possible internal validity threats.
A Diary Study of Computer Use and Worker Stress: Preliminary Results BIBA 715-720
  Pascale Carayon; Catherine Hajnal
A four-week diary study of computer-related problems (slowdown, breakdown and other problems) was conducted to examine the cumulative effects of computer use on worker stress. Computer-related problems were conceptualized as "daily hassles" that can affect worker stress when the exposure time is high. Weekly analyses showed that negative effects of computer slowdown and breakdown, and frequency of other problems were correlated with mood disturbances. Monthly analyses showed that the cumulative number of other computer problems, but not the cumulative measures of slowdown and breakdown, were correlated to worker stress.

VII. Health Issues

Eye Discomfort and "VDT" Work BIBA 722-727
  Piccoli Bruno
The main factors (personal, work-related and environmental) related to visual disturbances in VDT operators are discussed. The possible pathogenesis of these disturbances is also considered. Criteria for the identification and classification of asthenopia are proposed.
The Occupational Overuse Syndrome at VDT Work -- Medical Management BIBA 728-733
  F. W. Darby
This paper describes the contents of a guide for the management of Occupational Overuse Syndromes (OOS). The authors divide OOS into localised and diffuse variants. The latter syndrome affects muscles and is, in their experience, more common. There are important differences in the treatment of the localised and diffuse syndromes, but muscle tension is taken as the main cause of both. Relaxation, the antidote to muscle tension, is a unifying idea behind both prevention and management strategies. The guide is directed at general practitioners, physiotherapists and others who might have occasion to treat OOS.
Skin Symptoms and VDT Work BIBA 734-739
  B. Stenberg
This review summarizes preliminary reports, abstracts and scientific publications. Although reported from three continents, skin symptoms in VDT users are most commonly reported from Sweden. Methodological problems such as low return rates and insufficient control of confounding are common in surveys. Studies of possible causes for the symptoms have given conflicting results but personal, psychological and psychosocial factors, as well as physical explanations have been supported.
Is the Outcome of a Woman's Pregnancy Influenced by Her Work at a VDU? BIBA 740-745
  Ulf Bergqvist; Bengt Knave
For the following, we have formulated two hypotheses to be evaluated:
  • There is a general increase in the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcome
       associated with VDU work.
  • There is an increase in the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcome -- but
       only in some subgroups of VDU users. Such subgroups are in principle identified by a specific factor or factors. In this review, we discuss pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriages in recognised pregnancies, serious malformations at birth and indications of reduced growth. For other reproductive or pregnancy outcomes such as early birth, placental weights and fecundity, available data are limited which reduces the possibility of meaningful evaluation. Likewise, the review focuses only on the womans' exposure -- data on reproductive outcomes associated with male VDU work is virtually non-existent.
  • Stress Related Health Effects and VDT Work BIBA 746-749
      Bengt B. Arnetz
    Stress related health effects from working with video display terminals (VDT) are commonly reported in the literature. Stressors may be both physical and psychosocial in origin. Initially, the health complaints concerned the musculoskeletal system. Subsequently, possible threat to the fetus, the eye and the neurological and dermatological systems were mentioned. Most recently, reports have focused on techno-stress. This is a psychophysiological response caused by poor man-machine interface. With the introduction of information technologies, job content and skills requirements have changed substantially. Furthermore, the demand for increased productivity and efficiency in the white collar sector has resulted in a continuous strain on the human body. Unless there is an appropriate adaptation of work organization and hardware and software equipment, techno-stress and health related consequences will be an ever increasing problem in the age of information technology.
    Gaze Direction and Ocular Surface Area in VDT Work BIBAK 750-755
      Midori Sotoyama; Shin Saito; Sasitorn Taptagaporn; Toru Suzuki; Susumu Saito
    The aim of this paper was to propose a comfortable design for a visual display terminal (VDT) workstation based on the size of the ocular surface area (OSA) which is thought to be closely correlated eye dryness and eye fatigue. To attain our goal, an accurate method of measuring OSA was developed. Using this method, a high correlations both between vertical gaze direction and OSA, and between width of the palpebral fissure and OSA were found. In this study, OSA was compared in people doing different types of work. One type was traditional office work without a VDT, the other was work with a VDT. Quantitative analysis showed that the OSA of VDT work was larger and that gaze direction was higher than in work without a VDT. In the word processing work, in particular, a large amount of change in OSA frequently occurred. That means vigorous eye movements. These phenomena must cause eye fatigue in VDT operators. Our recommendation for a comfortable VDT workstation design is that the display be set lower and closer to the keyboard be positioned where workers can maintain a smaller OSA.
    Keywords: Ocular surface area (OSA), VDT, Vertical gaze direction, Palpebral fissure, Eye
    Characteristics of Vertical Eye Movements in the Workstation Used Flat Panel Display BIBA 756-761
      Shin Saito; Midori Sotoyama; Sasitorn Taptagaporn; Toru Suzuki; Susumu Saito
    The aim of this study was to evaluate working conditions during VDT operation by analyzing of vertical eye movements at VDT workstations using a flat panel display (FPD) and cathode ray tube (CRT). A fundamental experiment on eye movements during VDT operations was carried out to compare visual comfort during work in FPD and CRT users.
       The average value for vertical fixation points at workstations using FPDs was found to be lower than in those used CRTs. The frequency distribution of fixation points, however, had two phases with wide ranges due to data entry work during both FPD and CRT operation. In order to relieve visual fatigue or eye strain caused by VDT operation, it is obvious that the VDT workstations using FPDs provide more advantages than those using CRTs.
    An Evaluation of Information Highlighting Methods on Computer Screens Using an Eye Movement Monitor BIBA 762-767
      Reza Pouraghabagher; Douglas Bish
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tendency or preference of the eyes to move to a computer-generated highlighted information in the presence of another one. Pairwise comparisons of blinking, reverse video, color (red), and bold characters were made in four menus appearing at the top, bottom, left, or right side of the computer display. Each menu consisted of five 3-letter alphabetic options; two highlighted and three non-highlighted. Subjects responded to four separate blocks of trial (one for each menu) and were asked to locate a 3-letter alphabetic code in one of the two highlighted options in the given menu. An eye movement monitoring system recorded the first movement of the eyes to one of the two highlighted codes. The analysis indicated that blinking attracted the most attention of the eyes in the presence of one of the other three highlighted information, but color (red) highlighting received the least preference of the eyes. Furthermore, a center-positioned highlighted option in a menu attracted the most attention of the eyes. These results were significant for all four menus.
    Longitudinal Survey of Ocular Disorders and General Complaints in VDU Operators BIBA 768-773
      G. F. Rubino; G. Maina; G. Piolatto; A. Sonnino; M. Turbati
    This study was designed to include two successive surveys on more than 30,000 employees of the Italian Telecommunication Company. 17,821 subjects have undergone two complete ophthalmological examinations including ophthalmometry, biomicroscopy, autorefractometry, ophthalmoscopy, orthoptic examination and tonometry. Differences found over 3.6 years elapsed between the two visits with regard to refractive status, ocular motility, ocular pressure and ocular pathology were evaluated. Data were collected from May 1986 to December 1991. During the visit a questionnaire was administered in order to evaluate the subjective level of discomfort, somatic complaints and workplace conditions. In 415 offices environmental measurements of microclimate, noise, and lighting were carried out, also rating the workplace layout and VDU Station characteristics.
    Acupressure for Eyestrain Relief in VDT Operators BIBA 774-779
      Yoshinori Horie; Takao Ohkubo; Olov Ostberg
    Thirty subjects individually performed a visually and mentally demanding VDT task for 2 x 60 minutes. Before the first 60 minute session, the subjects were required to relax for 10 minutes with closed eyes. After the first and the second session, the subjects had a 5 minute pause during which they either relaxed with closed eyes (experiment 1) or performed a standardized acupressure program (experiment 2).
       The pre-experimental relaxation periods served as baselines for evaluation of the two pause alternatives in terms of critical flicker fusion frequency, near and far point accommodation time, and subjective rating of eyestrain symptoms. In comparison to relaxation with closed eyes, all evaluation measures showed that acupressure was a superior method for relieving eyestrain.
    VDT Repetitive Motion Health Concerns in the U.S. Telecommunications Industry BIBA 780-785
      D. E. LeGrande
    Collected data as well as various scientific studies suggests that attention to both physical and psychological or psychosocial ergonomic factors are necessary to prevent VDT workplace repetitive motion health symptoms and illnesses. Future research efforts should emphasize both physical and psychosocial ergonomic factors and their interrelationships. Failure to adhere to the "balance theory" will result in the occurrence of repetitive motion health problems.
    VDTs in Offices: A Field Study BIBA 786-790
      H. Lu; J. Caylor; F. Aghazadeh
    The objectives of this study were to assess the health states of VDT users in offices and to determine possible factors that may contribute to the health complaints at VDT workstations. The results indicate that musculoskeletal and visual symptoms are prevalent in office workers. The analysis shows that some possible contributing factors are: type of eye wear; the perceived comfort of the keyboard, table and chair; frequent feeling of time pressure; and environment conditions. It is concluded that an ergonomically designed workstation and work environment are important to relieve health problems in offices.
    Of Mice and Pens: Low Risk Healthy Postures for Modern Computing BIBA 791-796
      Michael G. Martin
    The current epidemic of musculoskeletal complaints, particularly cumulative trauma disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and lower back disorders, among computer users has focused attention on the inadequacy of traditional ergonomic guidelines for a healthy keyboarding posture.
    Image Processing of Office Documents -- Ergonomic Evaluation of the User Interface of a New System BIBA 797-802
      G. Cakir; A. Cakir
    Electronic document imaging is a "new" method for optical storage of documents that is believed to be one of the most promising computer applications of the next decades. In a large scale industrial application planned to process more than 30.000 documents per day, all relevant parts of the work system were studied with the goal of finding the best working conditions for the intended users who should work without any paper-based documents.
       Due to technological restrictions, the documents can only be scanned with rather low resolution leading to a substantial degradation of the typographic quality. Even when displayed on high resolution screens, the images of the documents suffered substantial quality losses. Unexpectedly, well-designed forms and high quality print suffered more than hand-writing. Another major problem was the inconsistency of the user interface of the mainframe applications and the imaging system.
       However, no fundamental problems could be detected that may prevent a widespread use of imaging systems. In view of the detected problems, slow progress in the introduction of imaging systems is prognosticated.

    VIII. Psychosocial and Stress Issues

    Coping with Malfunctions of Computer Aided Equipment from a Stress Perspective BIBA 804-808
      G. Aronsson; A. Stromberg
    Public employees who worked frequently with VDTs were investigated in a questionnaire study (n=1981). The aim of the study was to examine styles of coping with computer breakdowns, the relationship between coping styles and physical and psychic symptoms, and whether work organisational aspects had a modifying effect on the relationships identified. Five coping pattern were identified. The "tense/active/helpless/bad conscience" group reports the highest, and the "relaxed/efficient" group the lowest level of symptoms. The modifying effects of work organisational aspects (job demands, control and social support) differed between the coping groups.
    Disturbances in Production -- A Safety Risk or a Chance for Development in the Human-Computer Interaction Context BIBA 809-814
      M. Doos; T. Backstrom
    Disturbances in automated production have close links with accidents and should be eliminated. However disturbance handling is also an enrichment of the work process and an opportunity for development. Describing these two perspectives we raise the question of how to handle this conflict.
    Production Deviations: Opportunities for User-Based Technological Development BIBA 815-820
      Peter Friedrich
    The central issue addressed by this investigation -- based on data from case studies conducted in production units with flexible manufacturing systems in the engineering industry -- concerns a shift in perspective on the way in which operators work with deviations and technical change. A conceptual framework (technical change activities) for active operator involvement in the context of technical development is presented. Malfunctions are interpreted as symptoms of inadequate understanding of the development and use of technology from an organizational perspective.
    Near-Accidents in the Use of Advanced Medical Equipment BIBA 821-826
      Carin Sundstrom-Frisk
    Technological development in health care creates new risks for treatment errors. The risk of making a mistake and injuring a patient is perceived as a psychic strain by hospital staff. For this reason, the prevention of human errors is an important issue in the field of occupational health. Employing the critical incident technique, data on 155 near-accidents involving human errors in the use of technically-advanced medical equipment were gathered and analyzed. In a follow-up study the link between patient safety and perceived psychic strain was examined.
    Designing the Human-Computer Interface for a Medical Informatics Workstation BIBA 827-832
      Neville Stanton
    For the purpose of this interface re-design project we decided to use five principle methods: workplace analysis, semi-structured interviews, link analysis, hierarchical task analysis and layout analysis. From these methods we obtained data concerning the use of MagiCal, and the general principals concerning research using calcium analysis. This data permitted us to develop recommendations for redesign of the MagiCal system. We have raised a number of points which we feel should be taken into account in future development projects. Our main recommendation is that the MagiCal system should be considered in terms of user activity. This means that the interface should be designed to provide an effective match between user tasks and system states.
    The Simultaneous Attack on Several Work Environment Factors -- An Organizational Change Project Inspired by Occupational Health Research Findings BIBA 833-838
      Gunnela Westlander
    A multidisciplinary research team followed a reorganization project at Telecom Services in the north of Sweden. In three one-year phases the project was evaluated to find out how problems were eliminated such as strong physical tie to the work station, intrinsic work repetitiveness, inadequate premises, isolation and rigid working hours.
    How the Design of the Premises Supports a New Organizational Structure as Viewed by Full-Time Operators in Large-Scale Teleservices BIBA 839-844
      Inger Soderberg
    In connection with the program of organizational change implemented at Telecom Services in Sweden, the work premises were extensively re-built to be compatible with and reinforce the ideas underlying the change. An evaluation was conducted over a three-year period to establish how well the immediate and ultimate goals of the project had been achieved.
    Models of Job Enlargement Tested and Evaluated from the Point of View of Physical Health and Job Satisfaction BIBA 845-850
      B. Cocke; G. Westlander; E. Aberg
    An extension of the occupational tasks of telephonists should cover tasks that were already intrinsic to existing operations at a Telecom Service. Three questionnaire studies were conducted at intervals of one year to examine the spread of service tasks and attitudes towards job enlargement. An evaluation showed that psychosocial conditions were improved for especially those with continuous service tasks.
    The Outcome of Experimentation with Flexible Working Hours BIBA 851-856
      E. Aberg; B. Cocke; I. Soderberg; G. Westlander
    Working hours is an important factor in large-scale telephone services. The paper describes successive development of work scheduling originally based on flexitime in order to satisfy telephone-operators as well as the needs of management. A psychosocial evaluation over a three year period was carried out.
    The Success of an Ambitious Broad QWL Strategy -- Our Methods of Evaluation and Interpretation of the Findings BIBA 857-862
      G. Westlander; I. Soderberg; B. Cocke; E. Aberg
    The authors describe a stepwise evaluation of the measures taken by Telecom Selvices to improve for the telephonists by moving from old organizational arrangements to new forms. A resume is given of what the evaluation provided concerning work premises, group organization, traffic work, service tasks, modified schedules of working hours.
    Effect of Job Control on the Design of Jobs and Stress among Computer Users BIBA 863-868
      Pascale Carayon; Eila Jarvenpaa; Catherine Hajnal
    This study tested a model of the effect of job control on work stressors and worker stress in a group of 171 computer users. Results show that task control was effective in reducing work stressors, such as workload, workload dissatisfaction and underutilization of skills which, in turn, were related to several measures of worker stress. On the other hand, decision control was related to increased workload and task uncertainty, and resource control to increased workload. There is support for the proposed model, but only regarding the effect of task control. This study shows the importance of levels and facets of job control.
    Towards a Knowledge Sharing Organization BIBA 869-873
      Gunilla Bradley
    A new infrastructure concerning communication is emerging on the society level and on the company level at the same time as computers and telecommunication and the convergence of these technologies become more widespread in the private lives of families. The research problems concern analyzes of the structure of communication its quality, causal relations and long term effects. A crossdisciplinary approach is used and the research is performed through four types of studies.
    A Cross-Cultural Framework for the Study of Stress among Computer Users: Comparison of the USA and Finland BIBA 874-879
      Eila Jarvenpaa; Pascale Carayon; Catherine Hajnal; Soo-Yee Lim; Chien-Lin Yang
    In this paper, we compare job design and stress among computer users in two different cultures: the USA and Finland. First, we compare the levels of job design factors and stress of computer users in similar organizations in the USA and Finland. Second, we examine similarities and differences in the relationships between job design factors and worker stress.
    An Integrated Approach to Cumulative Trauma Disorders in Computerized Offices: The Role of Psychosocial Work Factors, Psychological Stress and Ergonomic Risk Factors BIBA 880-885
      Soo-Yee Lim; Pascale Carayon
    This paper examines upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (UECTD) in the office environment. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of psychosocial factors in the development of UECTD. A total of 171 office workers who perform a wide range of office tasks were used in this study. Results show that psychosocial work factors seem to be indirectly related to UECTD through psychological stress and ergonomic factors.
    Data-Preparation Clerks in Brazilian Data Processing Centres: The Unskilled and Unhealthy New Jobs BIBA 886-890
      A. Soares
    Data-Preparation Clerks have often been ignored as information workers, although their tasks are important to the production flow of Data Processing Centres. The aim of this paper is to investigate work organization, the sexual division of labour, the working and living conditions of data-preparation clerks in Brazil.
    Techno-Stress: Psycho-Physiological Consequences of Poor Man-Machine Interface BIBA 891-896
      Bengt B. Arnetz; Mats Berg
    During recent years, the number of health-related complaints among employees engaged in Video Display Terminal (VDT)-work have increased, as have reports of the sick-building syndrome. In order to better understand precipitating factors, we have carried out detailed psycho-physiological and occupational health studies of employees with and without VDT-related health complaints. Subjects were followed throughout a regular work-day as well as a day of leisure. Subjects with symptoms had higher serum levels of the stress-related hormone prolactin and thyroxine during work and lower levels of anabolically active sex hormones. They also reported higher mental stress levels. The air humidity tended to be lower in offices with health complaints and sufferers complained more frequently of eye symptoms. There were no differences in electromagnetic characteristics between employees with and without health complaints. Subjects highly dependent on their computer in their daily work were more likely to report symptoms. The study supports the notion of technostress resulting in both physiological and cognitive consequences. The physical work environment, however, is an important co-factor.
    Topographic EEG Study of VDT Performance with Special Reference to Frontal Midline Theta Waves (Fm Θ) and Mental Work BIBA 897-902
      Sakae Yamamoto
    The role of physiological indices in human factors research is discussed. Of the physiological indices, background EEG is studied from a human factors point of view. The author's study results about the relationship of mental variations with theta waves and frontal midline theta waves in particular are introduced. It is shown that the appearance of theta waves increases from the center of the frontal region to the parietal region as mental concentration heightens. This finding is considered effective in human interface research.
    Analysis of Uric Properties for Stress Caused by VDT Work and Relationship among CFF, HRV and VEP BIBA 903-908
      Masaharu Takeda; Yoshio Hayashi; Kaoru Suzuki
    VDT work requires little energy consumption, but causes great vision and psychological stresses to operators. It is not possible to use metabolic energy rate or other factor to calculate operator fatigue. The effectiveness of CFF was verified using VDT work as a stresser, employing catecholamine and 17-KS-S as reactions to stresses inside the body, catching signals outside the body such as CFF, VEP, HRV and choice reaction time (CRT) and studying their relationship. The VDT operators were selected by grouping them into two groups; one group with strong stresses applied and the other group which was not. The difference between the two groups was detected clearly. The availability of the results of this experiment was reconfirmed as a CFF fatigue index.
    Physiological Indices of Visual Fatigue and Visual Comfort Related to VDT Work BIBA 909-913
      S. Saito; S. Taptagaporn; Sh. Saito; M. Sotoyama; T. Suzuki
    This paper reviews the application of some physiological indices to the evaluation of visual fatigue caused by VDT work, in an aspect of visual ergonomics. These indices are CFF, accommodation, pupil size, and eye movements. Besides eye movement characteristics, each value of these indices was found to decrease after prolonged visual task in both experimental and field survey studies. Visual comfort in VDT work is also considered in this paper by analyzing the physiological resting states of these indices.
    On a Simple and Effective Method to Analyze Heart Rate Variability BIBA 914-919
      Kaoru Suzuki; Yoshio Hayashi
    A simple method to analyze heart rate variability (HRV) is introduced in this study. The frequency spectrum of R-R intervals is analyzed with a set of four digital filters implemented on a personal computer. The method is believed to be useful for on-line transient analysis of HRV. An experimental study using simple location tasks has shown that the workload evaluated with this method is positively correlated with subjectively rated task difficulty.
    New Analysis of HRV Through Wavelet Transform BIBA 920-924
      H. Tsuji; H. Mori; T. Numao; T. Daimon
    This paper introduces the Wavelet Transform (WT) for analyzing heart rate variability (HRV), which maps the HRV signal into the two-dimensional function in the time-scale plane. This WT precisely gives the location and power of the HRV spectrum. We applied this method to empirical data containing several stressers. WT definitely detected the decrease in power at high frequencies when subjects hyperventilated. WT also detected peaks of power at lower frequencies. We analyzed the WT results statistically. The correlation coefficients of the WT results between scales changed when the stressers were given. This method reveals the behavior of the power spectrum at lower frequencies, which are known to play an important role in the modulation of sympathetic activity.
    A Study of Additive and Interactive Effects of Work and Extra-Organizational Factors on Female VDT Workers BIBA 925-930
      Catherine Hajnal; Pascale Carayon
    In a sample of 203 female clerical workers, the addition of extra-organizational measures is shown to contribute significantly to the explanation of worker health once effects of demographics and job stressors have been removed. Conclusions suggest that a more diverse perspective of worker health is desirable and that job and organization design strategies for reducing stress among female VDT workers can attend to these extra-organizational factors as well.
    Effects of Computer System Performance and Job Support on Stress among Office Workers BIBA 931-936
      Chien-Lin Yang; Pascale Carayon
    The impact of computer system performance and job support on worker stress was examined in a sample of 171 VDT users from a public service organization. Results showed that computer slowdown, breakdown, and unavailability of correct information in computer were related to worker stress. Supervisor social support and technical support provided by the organization were critical job design factors to alleviate the levels of worker stress.
    Mental Workload Measurement and its Application for Prospective System Design BIBA 937-942
      Rainer Wieland-Eckelmann; Ronald Schwarz
    A systematic attempt to evaluate mental workload (MWL) requires that the designers have access to both a theoretical model and techniques and criteria for measuring workload of the system and MWL imposed on the operator. A composite model of MWL and a measurement tool to evaluate user interfaces is proposed that has been developed in our research project during the last years. Empirical data were reported from an evaluation study of two prototypes of user interfaces.
    Job Stress, Fatigue, Job Involvement and Satisfaction of Manual and Computerized Bank Employees BIBA 943-948
      A. Khaleque
    The objectives of the present study were to assess and compare the job stress, fatigue, job involvement and job satisfaction of the manual and computerized bank employees. The study was conducted on a total of 60 employees, randomly selected from six commercial banks in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Out of the 60 employees, 30 were doing their works manually and 30 were using computers for performing the same work. The results show that the bank employees working in the manual section experience significantly greater degree of job stress and perceived fatigue than the employees working in the computerized section. However, there are no significant differences between the two groups of the bank employees in terms of their degree of job satisfaction and job involvement. Thus the results indicate that computerization of the work might have reduced the work load and fatigue of the bank employees, to some extent, but it has not necessarily enhanced their job satisfaction and job involvement.
    Women, Gender and Computers BIBA 949-954
      E. Gunnarsson
    Gender differences among system developers are discussed in relation to orientation of interest, division of labour within the organizational structure and technology assessment.
    Communication Between People Using a Computer-Mediated Communication System BIBA 955-960
      Erland Hjelmquist
    In a number of studies we have investigated communication processes and communicative outcome in small groups. One major interest has been differences and similarities between communication face-to-face and computer-mediated communication. One general hypothesis is that the written mode invites to focus on the messages communicated, whereas the spoken mode invites to attention not only to what is "said", but also to the social climate and relationships, including bodily communication. Stated in a very simplified way, computer-mediated communication could thus be expected to imply more "rational" communication and better problem-solving capacities, than face-to-face communication, since the focus is on the facts and arguments presented in the written mode. We have not found any major differences between the two media with respect to quality of decisions, in accordance with previous research, but a clear subjective preference for face-to-face communication. Altogether, our studies show that the communicative medium should be analyzed as an integral part of a communication situation, together with other parts, viz. context, communicative purposes, task requirements and subject characteristics.
    Management Professionalization: Do Computers Matter? BIBA 961-965
      Bengt Abrahamsson
    Computers are widely used as administrative tools. Technological development, including computerization, generally tends to make occupations more professionalized. What about technology and managerial professionalization? At first sight, it seems a reasonable hypothesis that the increased sophistication of administrative software (e.g. decision support systems) will contribute to the professionalization of managers. However, when the concept of managerial professionalization is studied more closely such a development becomes doubtful. I shall suggest that managerial theory has developed into a set of strategies and methods for legitimizing organizational action and that its earlier technical-administrative elements gradually have been abandoned. As a consequence the automatization of administrative functions has only limited relevance for the professionalization of managers.
    The Ergonomic Design Process -- The User Involved in Problem Solving and the Design Evolution BIBA 966-969
      Hans I. J. Hayanhjelm
    The social work context of Sweden leads to a good environment for research and for the development of production systems, products, technical aids in co-operation with management and shop floor workers. There is a number of changes going in this direction in Sweden. More involvement of the workforce in product-/production development process. However, the models used by the Swedish ergonomists and designers emphasise on the application of experience gained lead to better work condition and better products. This paper presents two models used in ergonomic product development in Sweden:
  • 1 A Systems approach to Product Design and Development
  • 2 The Ergonomic Design process The first model is developed by Roland Andersson, it describes the group development technique through the product development process with emphasis on ergonomics and participate design. The second model describe the Ergonomic Design process used by the constancy firm Ergonomi Design Gruppen (EDG).
  • Human Competence, Work Organisation, and Knowledge Based System BIBA 970-975
      P. Holm; G. Bradley
    In this presentation we describe a case study of a knowledge based system in a Swedish bank company, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (SE Banken). The study focused on organisational and psychosocial changes during the introduction phase, e.g. effects on personal communication, work roles, influence' responsibility, need for education and competence. With this case study as a basis we make some remarks on the interrelationship between cognitive and psychosocial aspects of work task analysis in the development of knowledge based systems.
    Communication -- A Key Factor in Implementation of Library Automation BIBA 976-981
      P. Huuhtanen; M. Vattulainen; I. Laamanen
    Virginia Tech Library System (VTLS) is an international integrated online library system, including all aspects of library work from cataloging to loans. A follow-up study of the implementation of VTLS was carried out in a Finnish University Library in 1990-93. The impacts of the data system on tasks and work organization were analyzed by a longitudinal questionnaire survey. Further development of the system is described, and needs for improvement of the implementation, information, communication and support of the staff in the libraries are discussed.
    The Impact of Computer Technology on Job Characteristics and Workers' Health BIBA 982-987
      T. Asakura; Y. Fujigaki
    Both the impact of computer use and the effects of computerization on the office environment on perceived job characteristics and workers' health were examined in a sample of 4,400 office workers of the publishing industry in Japan. According to Sainfort P. C. (1992), computer system performance had an indirect effect on workers' stress through its effects on task characteristics. We conducted a questionnaire survey to test the hypotheses, however, adopted variables were different from those used by Sainfort: our variables included environment factors related to office computerization, different aspects of job characteristics and different health indicators.
       Results showed that the relationships among exposure factors related to office computerization, perceived job characteristics and effects on workers' health were stronger in males than in females. In males, the extent to which job changes occurred by office computerization, average hours of daily VDT use had significant effects on perceived job pressure, ability fulfillment and development, lack of job discretion, job ambiguity and lack of power to accomplish work, but those effects were relatively weak. In addition, results showed that these factors had a direct, though slight, effect on work morale and overall job satisfaction. Conclusively, the impact of computerization within offices on workers' health was mainly mediated by effects on perceived job characteristics. Considering effect on worker's well-being and health, it was found that ability fulfillment and development was the most influential among the 5 job characteristics in our study.
       That is to say, the hypothesized psycho-social mechanism of the impact of office computerization on worker's health was supported in general. Also, we found a gender difference among the relationships that were examined.
    Experiences on Computerization in Different Occupational Groups: A Study in Municipal Workplaces BIBA 988-993
      P. Seppala
    Experiences on computerization in different occupational groups, such as department heads, lawyers, architects, clerical workers and draftsmen were studied by a questionnaire in a large municipal organization. The results presented in this paper are based on the responses of 566 employees. The attitude toward computerization was positive, and the majority expected further development of information technology to affect their future positively. It was felt, however, that the capability to use various application softwares was deficient, and further training was required in all groups. Design assistants/draftsmen, architects, and the administrative management required most training.
    The Relationship of Working Posture to Performance in a Data Entry Task BIBA 994-998
      Naomi G. Swanson; Steven L. Sauter
    The present study examined the relationship between work posture and performance in a video display terminal (VDT) task. It is generally recognized that poor working posture is a potential risk factor for musculoskeletal problems in VDT work (Grandjean, 1987; WHO, 1987). However, little attention has been given to the relationship between work posture and performance in VDT or office tasks. A laboratory study by Horie et al. (1987) examined posture and performance at a VDT-based visual search task over a limited period of time (three hours), and found both a progressive decrement in performance and an increasing frequency of postural adjustments. In a study of data entry work, Delvolve and Queinnec (1983) also observed postural adjustments and fidgets over time. Although performance was stable, the increasing adjustments in posture were accompanied by adjustments in psychomotor aspects of the way the task was performed.
       The relationship between work posture and performance could be purely correlational; i.e., the performance decrements might simply be a covariate of poor posture, with both possibly resulting from fatigue. Alternatively, it is possible that poor posture may directly induce fatigue, and thus serve as a risk factor for performance problems.
       To test these two possibilities in the present study, VDT operators were videotaped while performing a data entry task. The tapes were then analyzed to tag postural indicators of fatigue (i.e., increasing fidgets, cumulative time in slumped postures, etc.), which were then correlated with performance to test the covariate hypothesis. To test the hypothesis that performance may be causally associated with performance, "fatigue inducing" postures (i.e., postures involving static muscle loads) were tagged, accumulated and correlated with performance.
    Follow-Up After Implementation of a New Data System and Health Aspects in an Insurance Company BIBA 999-1004
      M. Puhakainen; I. Torstila; K. Lindstrom
    The aim of this study was to follow up musculoskeletal and eye symptoms among employees in an insurance company after implementation of a new data system. The main interest was on studying how these somatic symptoms were related to the characteristics of data terminal work, working movements and postures and the demand of sharp vision in the follow-up period from 1985 to 1993.
    Follow-Up of Job Demands and Strain Symptoms After Implementation of New VDT Applications in an Insurance Company BIBA 1005-1010
      K. Lindstrom; T. Leino; M. Puhakainen
    The implementation of new VDT applications was followed up for seven years in a group of insurance employees. The first survey (n=101) was conducted before the implementation of the new integrated data system, the second survey (n=73) one year after it, and the third survey (n=43) five years later. The results showed a general trend to increased daily amount of VDT work and its better mastery. Most of the problems were encountered during the second survey, one year after the implementation. The results from the three study phases seemed to be qualitatively different in the analysis of the relations of VDT use to job demands and stressors, and well-being. The selection that occurred during the follow-up in the study groups also affected the results, and needs further analysis.
    Electronic Performance Monitoring and Stress: The Role of Feedback and Goal Setting BIBA 1011-1016
      John R. Aiello; Yang Shao
    Computer monitoring has been a controversial issue because of the distinct advantages and disadvantages associated with it. On the positive side, it can provide immediate and objective performance feedback, facilitate goal setting and lead to productivity gains. On the negative side, computer monitoring is often perceived as an invasion of privacy and as an excessive management control tool. It can lead to increased stress and lower job satisfaction among monitored workers.
       Findings of the six studies reported here demonstrated that computer monitoring is clearly associated with higher stress levels. Its effects on productivity however, are strongly affected by the complexity of the monitored task; monitoring facilitates simple task performance and impairs complex task performance. Computer monitoring with feedback does not appear to be sufficient for performance gains; goal setting must also be introduced to produce significant performance improvements.
    Recent Research Findings on Stress and Electronic Performance Monitoring BIBA 1017-1022
      Pascale Carayon; Soo-Yee Lim; Chien-Lin Yang; Michael J. Smith; Katherine J. Sanders; David LeGrande
    This paper discusses empirical evidence regarding the effect of electronic performance monitoring on job design and stress. Data from two studies show that electronic performance monitoring seems to have an indirect effect on worker stress via job design. Monitored employees report more negative perceptions of their working conditions and, in one of the two studies, more stress than non-monitored employees. Specific characteristics of electronic performance monitoring, such as completeness and comparison of ratings among co-workers, are related to job design and worker stress.
    The Influence of Electronic Performance Monitoring on Speed and Accuracy in a VDT-Based Data-Entry Task BIBA 1023-1028
      T. L. Galinsky; L. M. Schleifer; C. S. Pan
    This study examined performance effects of using electronic performance monitoring (EPM) and feedback to induce compliance with performance standards in a data-entry task. The study focused on subjects who had difficulty meeting or maintaining performance standards. In an experimental group, EPM and feedback were used to induce compliance with pre-established speed and accuracy standards. In a control group, subjects were unaware of EPM and received no feedback. The introduction of EPM work management in the experimental group led to significant increases in data-entry speed which were accompanied by significant increases in data-entry errors. This "speed-accuracy tradeoff" effect is discussed in terms of relevant research on goal-setting and feedback utilization. The results suggest that when performance goals/standards which emphasize speed more than accuracy are applied in EPM-managed work settings, speed increments may be offset by decrements in work quality.
    Formal Modelling of the Ergonomicity Level Evaluation of Man-Microcomputer Systems BIBA 1029-1032
      Leszek Pacholski; Malgorzata Wejman
    The article presents the method of ergonomic diagnosing of man-microcomputer systems. Explorated instrument used for elaborate a formal model is theory of fuzzy sets. The linguistic alphabet used in practice was determined in the artificial space of representation definited of the natural numbers interval from 1 to 9.