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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction jointly with the Ninth Symposium on Human Interface (Japan)
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:1993-Aug-08 to 1993-Aug-13
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-89540-X ISSN 0921-2647; hcibib: HCII93
Papers:362
Pages:1042+1125
Links:www.elsevier.com
  1. HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 1
    1. I. Manufacturing
    2. II. Special Applications

HCII 1993-08-08 Volume 1

I. Manufacturing

Humanufacturing -- Operator Decision Support in a CIM Environment BIBAK 2-7
  Johan Stahre
This paper presents a research project named Humanufacturing, addressing the issue of operator decision support. In the project, a supervisory control model is being adapted for use in discrete parts manufacturing systems. The resulting research model is being validated through field studies in Swedish industry, and used as a base for development of prototype decision support systems.
Keywords: Operator decision support, Supervisory control model, CIM, Cross-disciplinary research
Social and Managerial Aspects of Group Work in Concurrent Engineering BIBA 8-13
  T. Adachi; L. C. Shih; T. Enkawa
A methodology for organizing product development teams under concurrent engineering environment is presented. The methodology defines a more appropriate team organization and structuring, based on an emphasis that should be placed on development dimensions. The effectiveness is discussed by real product development cases.
Cooperation of Distributed Human Scheduler in Cellular Manufacturing Systems BIBA 14-19
  Nobuto Nakamura
This paper describes the cooperative mechanism which human cell schedulers in the cellular manufacturing system would use in making a schedule for their own cells. Several cooperative properties are extracted from the distributed scheduling experiment. From experimental results, it is shown that the flexible subordination between cell schedulers has strong possibility of producing a good schedule.
A Prototyping and Development Environment for Graphical Interactive Telematic Applications BIBA 20-25
  Franco Arcieri; Michelangelo Fossa; Enrico Nardelli
In this paper an hypertextual environment for developing graphical interactive telematic applications is described. The development of these applications is based on a visual programming language which allows the parametric instantiation of generic objects and the customization of generic functions explicitly designed for the interaction with on-line services. The environment also provides the possibility of cross-compiling the prototyped application, thus it allows the automatic generation of C++ code implementing the application and its interface. Moreover the environment permits the delivery of stand-alone applications to many different application platforms.
   The environment was partially developed within the context of the ESPRIT project 'TOOTSI', because of its focus on the HCI that is a quite innovative aspect in the European context of telematic services.
Psychological Criteria for the Evaluation of Different Forms of Group Work in Advanced Manufacturing Systems BIBA 26-31
  Wolfgang G. Weber; Eberhard Ulich
The two case studies clearly demonstrate that work and organizational psychology offers useful concepts and instruments to help characterize, evaluate and theoretically order group work in advanced manufacturing systems. These methods and concepts of work psychology can be readily used to base the current discussion about "group work" or "teamwork" in "lean production" on more solid social scientific foundations. The authors would like to see the work and organizational psychology methods of analysis and results developed and improved over the course of the last several decades brought more to the forefront in popular science debate. This, for the simple reason that not everything called "group work" or "teamwork" deserves the name according to work psychology criteria. Should criteria fail to meet collective and individual autonomy to the slightest degree, then "group work" has hardly been realized; missing are the "creative contents" of mutual planning and decision-making (in the sense of Lewin), as is task-related communication. Perhaps similar work psychology case studies will serve as type models for work design in companies, providing they can be didactically prepared (see e.g. Weber & Oesterreich, 1992).
Implementing Group Work in the Car Manufacturing Industry: The Foreman as a Focal Factor BIBA 32-37
  F. C. Brodbeck; S. Remdisch
It has been stated that a major problem in implementation of autonomous work groups is related to a change of the foremen's jobs. The foremen's work situation before and after implementing lean production is compared on the basis of interview and questionnaire data from a car manufacturing company in Germany. Results show that the foremen play an important role to implement lean production on the shop floor, that their job changes considerably when lean production is introduced and that their work behavior -- as perceived by their subordinates -- is of more relevance to the innovation process than their attitudes.
Development and Evaluation of a Productivity Management System for Autonomous Work Groups in Advanced Manufacturing Systems BIBA 38-43
  M. Przygodda; K.-H. Schmidt
The increased complexity and interdependence in the work with advanced manufacturing technologies strengthen the need for employee co-operation and employee self-control. In order to support work groups in mastering these functions, a new method for measuring and managing group productivity is presented. A case study is reported in which productivity measures using this method were developed and evaluated in groups operating highly automized manufacturing centres. After a baseline period of 6 months, the measures were then used to give group-level feedback for a period of also 6 months. The results indicated a significant increase in group productivity after the feedback was introduced.
Autonomous Group Working within Integrated Manufacturing: A Longitudinal Investigation of Employee Role Orientations BIBA 44-49
  Sharon K. Parker; Paul R. Jackson; Toby D. Wall
This paper describes a longitudinal study of the relationship between autonomous group working and employee orientations within an integrated manufacturing environment. The findings show that the introduction of autonomous work groups led employees to report increased ownership of production problems, to ascribe greater importance to the knowledge-based and planning aspects of their work, and to show stronger agreement with core principles of integrated manufacturing. Moreover, there was evidence that these changes in role orientations affected performance.
A Blackboard Architecture for Human-Machine Interface in a Mining Teleoperation BIBA 50-55
  C. A. Ntuen; E. H. Park; S. M. Kim
This paper describes a blackboard (BB) system developed for human interaction with a remotely operated mining machine. The BB architecture was chosen because of its ability to alter and/share information stored on any blackboard cell with other cells in a dynamic and cooperative mode. The BB discussed here is based on hierarchical organization of basic patterns of information sharing by multiagents that cooperate to solve a given problem.
Experiences in the Use and Implementation of Information Technology in the Printing Industry BIBA 56-61
  P. Seppala; E. Tuominen
The printing industry is one of the most rapidly computerized branches of industry in Finland. This paper presents some of the results of a study conducted in the Finnish printing industry in 1991. The aim of the study was to chart the current situation and trends in technology, the organization of work, job contents, perceived work load, and experiences in the use and implementation of computerized technology.
Implementing Smart Manufacturing: Some Techniques for Designer/User Cooperation BIBA 62-67
  R. J. Badham
Improvements in process performance require the creation of innovative and appropriate production systems. Smart manufacturing systems that optimise and integrate human and machine intelligence are an important tool of general applicability. A new approach is needed that overcomes the limitations of traditional intelligent manufacturing system (IMS) and 'human centred' system approaches and builds upon their insights. The design and implementation of such systems raises a number of key areas for further investigation. This paper explores some issues and techniques for designer/user cooperation in knowledge acquisition for new system design.
Managing the Human Factors that Affect Change in Manufacturing BIBA 68-73
  Jeanenne La Marsh
An old cliche has been altered. In the past, we were assured of two things we could count on: death and taxes. After watching the world over the past few years, most people would agree that there is a third thing we can count on: things will change.
   In manufacturing, the status quo is guaranteed to be death. So change becomes a constant for success. Unfortunately most companies do not understand change. Without that understanding and the application of sound change management principles the changes they introduce will not succeed. The changes either slowly fade away and the status quo becomes the norm again (Quality Circles in American manufacturing), or they are implemented but never achieve the maximum benefits they were designed to provide (the majority of MRPII installations).
   What is needed is a commitment to learn and apply an integrated change process. This means the organized, systematic application of the knowledge, tools and resources of the change process to achieve the company's basic business strategy. To do this, the company needs to identify the patterns and structures of change and to control them. Time becomes critical because competitors are also seeking changes and effective change strategies. Therefore, the company needs to predict and understand the stages of change in order to accelerate them.
Anthropocentric Production Systems -- A European Response to the Challenges of Global Markets BIBA 74-79
  Peter Brodner
Traditional production models following the rationalization principles of Babbage, Taylor and Ford are becoming obsolete. As the successes of Japanese manufacturing systems and some European experiments demonstrate, the quantum leaps in economic performance are based on a new role of humans and accordingly reshaped organizational schemes, technical functions and managerial styles. These differences are analyzed in the case of mechanical engineering in order to explain how European producers can regain the competitive edge.
Workstation Designs for Reliability Centered Maintenance Decision Support BIBA 80-85
  Donald G. MacGregor
Maintenance decisions for complex systems are often made on a scheduled or periodic basis. However, maintenance scheduling can be improved from an efficiency standpoint if early detection of operational problems can be achieved. This paper discusses the general approach taken to developing a workstation environment for use by maintenance and operations personnel in developing equipment-specific decision rules for improving maintenance scheduling of high-voltage power transmission equipment.
Interactive Support System for Maintenance and Repair: Diagnosis Strategies BIBA 86-89
  B. Zimolong; U. Konradt
In a field study diagnostic rules and strategies of maintenance and repair personnel have been investigated. Strategies, rules, technical components and failures are considered as objects in an object-oriented software design of an interactive decision support system.
Strategies and Training for Maintenance Personnel: Optimizing Fault Diagnosis Activities BIBA 90-95
  Karlheinz Sonntag; Niclas Schaper
A set of procedural rules and prototypic diagnostic tasks were developed to promote strategic behaviour for failure-diagnosis activities at flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). The effects of the strategy-training were compared with traditional training methods regarding different diagnostic performance measures.
Production Management Software Suitable for Group Work BIBA 96-101
  K. Mertins; B. Schallock; M. Carbon
Group work on shop floor level gains an increasing importance, because it enables better usage of capacities, mutual help in difficult situations and mutual learning support. Higher customer orientation causes more unpredicted situations that increasingly demand decentralized short term decision making. Principles of wholistic tasks, of flat hierarchies with distributed responsibilities and latest research about gaining and use of experience at shop floor level form an approach of cooperative an coordinated decision making. The task of scheduling is seen as a task that requires much joint decision making within a group, as well as a high degree of coordination with remote departments.
   The proposed approach postulates enhanced functionality of shop floor control software (SFC), hardware that enables joint decision making (whiteboard architecture) for groups and interacting networking software that allows to use company wide data and software applications of other departments.
Ergonomics in CAD Systems: A Brazilian Study of Case BIBA 102-107
  Luiza Helena; Boueri Rebello; Eduardo Romeiro Filho
Various problems related to computer assisted project systems (CAD -- Computer Aided Design) have occurred, particularly regarding the user-system interface, due to the introduction of new computerized ways in project sectors. Through thorough ergonomic analysis, working conditions can be improved providing a more human, safe and productive environment for the worker.
   This paper proposes a new look at the analysis of work in graphic stations under the point of view of contemporary Ergonomics, aiming to spot the characteristics of this new process of work and its requirements, in order to identify the CAD system interface relevant points, its aspects related to training as well as evaluating the user's working conditions.

II. Special Applications

Operator Behavior and Supervisory Control Systems in the Chemical Process Industry BIBA 109-114
  H. C. M. Hoonhout; H. J. G. Zwaga
The effects of modern process control systems on the operator's supervisory control task are described. Considering the approach that operators adopt to perform their task, the relative advantages and disadvantages of various means of disturbance support facilities are discussed. This development is set against the current practice of operators (if involved in display design) to aim for a small set of general purpose displays.
Analysis and Support of Fault Diagnosis Strategies BIBA 115-120
  J. A. Brinkman; T. W. van der Schaaf
It was examined whether an operator, when confronted with a variety of strategy-specific information aids during fault diagnosis, would have the ability to select the aid that matches his/her current strategy best. To answer this question, 18 process operators performed a simulated topographic search task to which several strategy-specific help functions had been added. The results indicated that the operators selected the help functions in accordance with the strategy they actually adopted. It is argued that for the task of fault diagnosis different types of information aids should be designed for different strategies and that the operator should be free to select the aid that suits his/her needs best.
How to Survive Process Control Automation: A Case Study of Integral User Participation BIBA 121-126
  Loek A. A. Bollen; Tjerk W. van der Schaaf
This paper describes the background, execution and results of two large ergonomics projects in a Centralized Control Room (CCR) of a highly automated chemical process plant in Rotterdam. Special emphasis will be put on the extensive use of user participation techniques throughout all phases of these projects.
Developing Process Control Systems: Procedural Requirements in Design BIBA 127-132
  H. J. G. Zwaga
The systematic involvement of human factors in the design of human-machine systems is only slowly gaining a foothold in the engineering world. Promoting this involvement is not a skill common among human factors specialists. Management has to be provided with convincing information detailing the knowledge and expertise available in order to justify the resource allocation required. In projects where, for various reasons, human factors specialists cannot be involved, the option should be explored to compile application specific design rules to guide the designers in their decisions. An example is described, demonstrating how general guidelines and standards can be converted into sets of application-specific rules intended for use in the design of the operator interface of production platform control rooms.
A Tool Set for the Verification and Early Validation of a Control Room Computer-Based Display System for Sizewell 'B' Nuclear Power Station BIBA 133-138
  P. D. Hollywell; E. M. Hickling
This paper describes a new set of tools for the evaluation of prospective HCI-based control room operator interfaces. Each tool is summarised and its application to an extensive control room interface is reported. It is concluded from this study that the new tool set is powerful in application and reduces much of the complexity associated with such evaluations hitherto, and has the potential in other HCI systems to minimise abortive systems design in advance of prototypes or simulation becoming available. The structured and systematic approach to HCI system evaluation, together with the scrutability and auditability of subjective judgements made and the human factors guidance given the analyst in making those judgements, ensures a very thorough and unbiased analysis.
Managing Complexity: Display Design in Process Control BIBA 139-144
  Gina L. Lawton; David L. Morrison; Peter L. Lee
In this paper, an overview of the factors that influence human performance in complex systems is given. The aim is to highlight and understand how some system design and task characteristics impact on human efficiency with complex technology. The details of a project aimed at improving operator performance through interface design are described. The project seeks to better enable operators in the task of process control under novel conditions.
Human Factors Implications of Air Traffic Control Automation BIBA 145-150
  V. David Hopkin
The known human factors implications of air traffic control automation are surveyed broadly, with particular emphasis on some of the least familiar ones.
HCI in Multi-Crew Aircraft BIBA 151-156
  Jennifer L. Dyck; David W. Abbott; John A. Wise
The HCI issues in automation of corporate jets were examined. Pilots completed a questionnaire on programming procedures, crew coordination, understanding, cockpit design and general attitudes about automation. Results indicated that pilots had difficulties making programming changes, and understanding the outcome of their programming. Pilots also disliked the lack of consistency in keyboard design, and indicated a high degree of verbal communication was necessary in an automated cockpit. System design issues are considered and some recommendations are made.
HCI in Space Systems BIBA 157-160
  F. E. Mount
A computer is no longer just an extension of a programmer. Today the computer is used as a tool by various people doing diverse tasks. Those tasks must be taken into account in the design of the human interface. Four applied projects with different human computer interface needs taking place at NASA/JSC HCIL will be discussed.
Developing an Electronic International Network for Space Communication BIBA 161-166
  E. M. Hinman-Sweeney
This presentation will discuss some of the issues faced by an international group of people from many professional disciplines in laying the groundwork for a world-wide communications network. For a network to truly connect the world, it has to reach remote regions which may not have the same type or level of communication access as the Western world. Expanding the network into space poses even further issues. Communication and technology issues, such as limited bandwidth and time-delay, impacted project definition. However, the need to provide an effective electronic environment for long-duration mission participants with different languages and cultural backgrounds also produced strong project drivers.
Situational and Informational Constraints Affecting Communications with 1-1000 Second Transmission Delays BIBA 167-172
  Barrett S. Caldwell
Electronic communications play an indispensable role in space flight. As human presence in space extends to longer stays and more distant goals, the dynamics of group interactions through electronic media (especially with accompanying transmission delays) play a critical performance role. Expected one-way transmission delays in near-planetary space missions (Moon or Mars) range from 1 second to over 20 minutes. This paper presents research examining situational and technology implementation factors which can affect acceptability of communications with transmission delays in this range. Results of the research provide insights and recommendations for appropriate design of communication and on-board information systems, as well as group performance and training issues, for space flight with significant communication delay constraints.
Telemanipulation: Master-Controller Design Issues BIBA 173-178
  S. F. Wiker
This paper focuses upon the capacity to tolerate, recognize, and to control grasp forces experienced when operating a master-controller of a telemanipulator.
Human-Computer Interaction Issues Involved with Geographic Information Systems BIBA 179-184
  S. E. Chrisman; K. O'Brien; B. Beberness; F. Mount
Geographic information systems (GISs) are spatial database systems that provide users with a variety of sources of spatial information and a means to manipulate that information (e.g., merge, overlay, filter) within a single system. The underlying cause for the differences in human-computer interactions between traditional information systems and geographic information systems is the spatial nature of the latter. The Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) and the Space Shuttle Earth Observation Project (SSEOP), both at NASA Johnson Space Center, are currently developing a geographic information system to support SSEOP tasks.
The Effect of Automated Intelligent Advisors on Human Decision Making in Monitoring Complex Mechanical Systems BIBA 185-190
  K. O'Brien; E. M. Feldman; F. Mount
Automated intelligent advisors will be important to many aspects of successful space missions. Ideally, these advisors free astronauts from constant monitoring tasks. As long as the advisors remain subordinate to human control, they remain one of many sources of information on which humans base decisions. Understanding what information is conveyed by the advisor and how multiple sources of information are used by the human is critical to predicting overall system performance. Various models of decision making attempt to account for the role of advice. Factors such as the independence of the information sources, the sequence of the information processed, response bias, and attentional filtering have been given consideration. Research conducted at the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center has examined the use of advisor's input to system diagnosis, verified the use of multiple sources of information, and summarized the implications of this research for the design of complex system monitoring environments which are an integral part of space exploration.
Remote Coaching Multimedia Research Laboratory Development and Evaluation BIBA 191-195
  Richard F. Haines; Sherry L. Chuang
This paper reviews the design philosophy, basic components, and preliminary evaluation data for the Remote Coaching Multimedia Research Laboratory (RCMRL) within the Spacecraft Data Systems Research Branch at Ames Research Center which is being used to evaluate a new multimedia hardware, software, and human-system interface designs to support future NASA science operations on Space Station Freedom (SSF).
Ergonomics and VDT Design for Space Environments BIBA 196-200
  Joseph P., II Hale
In space, there are a variety of unique considerations that must be addressed in the design of workstations, or video display terminals (VDTs). In a micro-gravity environment, the human body assumes a neutral body posture that has direct implications for the relative positioning of the keyboard and display(s). Instead of chairs to sit upon, foot and/or body restraints are used. For Space Station Freedom, the design must accommodate body sizes ranging from a fifth percentile Japanese female to a ninety-fifth percentile American male. In addition to the "fixed" or rack-mounted workstations, there are also "portable workstations" used in space. Their use in a micro-gravity environment bring additional considerations that need to be addressed. These include workstation portage and restraint and location of the monitor relative to the crewmember's task-centered field-of-view. This paper expands on these issues and describes design approaches and options to accommodate them.
Cognitive Model of Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Onboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) BIBA 201-206
  J. M. Loman; D. J. Bennett; C. Rogers
The design of the Human-Computer Interface (HCI) onboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) is based on specific assumptions regarding how astronauts process information and the interaction between this information processing and the SSF vehicle's data architecture. The basic display building blocks of the SSF Common User Interface (CUI) as well as specific display designs have been developed based on analysis of crew tasks and the theoretical framework of the rational information processing model. This model as well as the resulting SSF HCI is detailed using example operations onboard SSF.
Virtual Reality for Improved Human-Computer Interaction in Robotics and Medicine BIBA 207-212
  H.-J. Warnecke; T. Flaig; M. Wapler
This paper describes a new technology for human-computer interaction, known as Virtual Reality. The paper illustrates the potential of this new technology with the summary of recent development work at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation, which has made possible the use of Virtual Reality for the off-line programming and remote operation of industrial robots. The paper goes on to indicate how experience gained in engineering applications can provide significant benefits in medicine.
Testing the Human Computer Interface for the Telerobotic Assembly of the Space Station BIBA 213-218
  Daniel T. Wick; Nagy M. Shehad; Ankur R. Hajare
NASA plans to construct the Space Station Freedom (SSF) in one of the most hazardous environments known to humankind -- space. It is of utmost importance that the human-computer interface (HCI) required for telerobotic assembly and the procedures to assemble the SSF are both safe and effective. This paper describes a software system that facilitates the rapid development and testing of Space Station HCIs.
Operational Complexity of Controlling Space Vehicles BIBA 219-224
  Alex Vankov; Yuri Glazkov; Alex Rudchenko; Alex Vislotsky
A feedback model is presented showing the influence of psychological factors on the activity of cosmonauts in the process of space vehicle control. It is assumed in the model that the level of operational complexity subjectively evaluated by the operator regulates his control strategy and the workload. A number of examples are presented illustrating the influence of the operational complexity on the space vehicles control and cosmonauts training for fulfillment of tasks related thereto.
A Model of Expressive Machines and its Application to Human-Robot Interaction BIBA 225-230
  Chihiro Ono; Yoshinobu Yamamoto; Yuichiro Anzai
Human-robot-computer interaction has been studied in our laboratory to verify our idea by using autonomous mobile robots. We call the robot which express its internal states by sending out colors Expressive Machine (EM). This paper describes Robots' Internal States (RIS), some ways of expressing RIS, proposes that using colors is the better way to express robots' internal states and discusses one of merits of using colors through experiments.
The Active Interface for Human-Robot Interaction BIBA 231-236
  Takanori Okada; Yoshinobu Yamamoto; Yuichiro Anzai
We believe that in the near future personal robots will be used at home and in the work place, just as computers are used today. One of the most important factors in realizing such personal robots is building user-friendly interfaces for end users.
   In this paper, we discuss a user interface design for personal robots considering the environment where personal robots will be used, and also discuss required features for personal robots. We then propose a new user interface concept called Active Interface, and introduce SONIC, a speech dialogue system for human-robot interaction based on the Active Interface concept. Finally, we discuss the efficiency of Active Interface through the experimental use of SONIC.
FRECS: Interface System for Human-Robot Cooperation BIBA 237-242
  Y. Nakauchi; M. Sato; Y. Yamamoto; Y. Anzai
We believe that in very near future personal robots will be used in our office and home like personal computers in current society. In order to develop such personal robots, the cooperation of human and robot will be crucial issues. In this paper we propose human-robot interface system named FRECS that recognizes fail states and requests human assistance. In the paper we describe how to classify fail states, how to recover by human assistance and proceed the task, and how to implement FRECS.
Constraint Processing in Human-Computer Interaction with an Emphasis on Intelligent CAD BIBA 243-248
  W. Hower; M. Rosendahl; R. Berling
Research in the area of human-computer interaction comprises more and more novel techniques of the artificial intelligence (AI) discipline.
   One specific AI knowledge representation paradigm is the topic of the present paper: constraint processing.
   A thorough elaboration of the constraint-oriented view enables both the designer and the user of a system to naturally express the meaning of the intended message in mind such that the computer may support the human in maintaining even the semantics of the implementation -- a welcome feature of sensible human-computer interaction.
Parallel Modeling: Addressing the Issues of Creative Designing in CAD Environments BIBAK 249-254
  A. R. Lehane; D. K. Wright; E. B. Lambourne
We postulate that Industrial Designers, in general, solve a given problem by generating a series of proposed solutions to that problem, each proposal, in theory, helps the designer to converge on the ideal solution. Any number of solutions may be under continuous development at any one time and any previous solutions should always be available for appraisal and viewing. The single modeling environment provided in traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems does not support this practice. Thus, CAD systems are primarily used to address the final phases of the design process, such as analysis, visualisation and detailing. This is surely not utilising the full potential of such a powerful design tool. In an attempt to develop a less restrictive working practice for CAD users, we consider a parallel modeling approach. This solution allows the simultaneous development, design and review of a number of computer based solutions.
Keywords: Paper based design process, Parallel modeling, Computer based design process, Computer aided design (CAD), Sets, Industrial design, Set theory, Directed acyclic graph, Seed
A Method of Communication Between CAD and VR Interfaces BIBA 255-260
  Michio Miwa; Miwa Fukino; Masao Kato; Takamasa Oyama
This paper describes a method of communication between CAD and VR (Virtual Reality) interfaces. By allowing communication between these interfaces we can create precise 3D shapes and we can also recognize how large the 3D shapes are. To forge a communication link between these different types of interfaces, metaphors of tools and materials are introduced. Our experimental system called PLOTS was built upon these metaphors and uses the object oriented programming style. PLOTS manipulates polyhedrons.
Elecpapen: An Integrated and Intelligent User Interface System for CAD BIBA 261-266
  Zhou Zhong Yu; Eng Wah Lee; Robert Gay; Jia Ye Wang; Din Yuan Liu
This paper describes the development of Electronic paper-and-pen (Elecpapen) which is a prototype of integrated and intelligent user interface system for computer aided design (CAD). Elecpapen is an integrated system referring to the integration of input devices (keyboard, mouse, digitizing tablet, etc.); the integration of input with display; the integration of CAD features with new input and display devices; etc. The prototype has some intelligence such as converting a sketch to a drawing; automatic dimensioning and positioning of the drawing; interactive pattern searching and matching; distinguishing between computer commands and drawing data; and so on. Comparing with the traditional user interface which consists of keyboard, mouse, monitor, menu, windows, icon, computer commands, etc., Elecpapen is much preferred by users, especially by novices and casual users, because they can learn the system quickly, operate it naturally, and do their design work much more efficiently.
AUCA: A Tool for Presentation and Analysis of Simulation Results BIBA 267-272
  Erdmuthe Meyer zu Bexten; Dietmar Heinen; Claudio Moraga
The Computer Aided symbolic Simulation SYstem CASSY [1,2] is a new CAD tool that efficiently supports the early design stages of mixed analog and digital signal processing systems in an interactive way by fast simulation. This tool has been developed at the Fraunhofer Institute of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems in cooperation with the University of Dortmund, Chair I of the Department of Computer Science. CASSY operates at a high level of abstraction using a symbolic description of signals, components and architectures. As phases of simulation are supported by different tools embedded in an ergonomic graphic user interface based on the X-Window system and OSF/Motif. One of these is the graphical tool named AUCA [1,3] for presentation and analysis of CAD-simulation results. In what follows, the new tool AUCA will be presented.
Automation of Work in Dangerous Environments -- Symposium Summary BIBA 273-277
  Thomas J. Smith
Since the dawn of the species, humans have employed technology such as fabricated weapons or dwellings to provide protection from dangerous environmental conditions. Use of technology to increase safety in the workplace also has a long history. For example, in his seminal De Re Metallica published in 1556, the first scientific treatise on human work, Agricola discusses use of technology for accident prevention in underground mining operations.
   Generally speaking, application of technology to provide safety at work is based on one of two strategies. The first is protection, such as use of protective clothing or equipment. The second is replacement, in which a technological surrogate is used to augment or replace the worker in performance of a dangerous, unhealthy, or arduous task or operation. An early example of the latter strategy is the plow. This example illustrates the point that mechanization of work usually has increased productivity as its primary aim, but improved safety and health typically is a welcome concomitant.
Teleoperation of Heavy Equipment: Individual and Environmental Correlates of Operator Performance BIBA 278-282
  T. M. Cook
Martin Marietta Aero & Naval Systems has completed an Independent Research and Development pilot study to isolate factors associated with operator performance while operating the large (25 Ton) Field Material Handling Robot (FMR) in a remote, teleoperated mode. Subjects for this pilot experiment were two trained FMR operators who received similar instruction in the teleoperation features of the equipment, and who were trained to reach a baseline level of performance across a series of representative tasks. Once baseline levels were demonstrated, operators were asked to perform a structured task from a remote operator console where tasks conditions were varied according to Visual Presentation Mode (Mono vs Stereo) and Ambient Light Levels (High, Medium, Low). Dependent measures included elapsed time, task performance (distance to a target in three dimensions) and subjective measures of operator workload. Substantial main effects are suggested for stereo viewing and lighting, and subjective workload appears to be a strong moderating variable. Results of this pilot study suggest that continued experimental work with a larger sample of subjects is needed to further understand the magnitude of such effects and associated confidence levels.
Automation in Military Aircraft BIBA 283-288
  John M. Reising; Terry J. Emerson; Robert C. Munns
The military flight environment faces some unique circumstances not encountered in the civilian flight arena. The fighter/attack aircraft, with one pilot, flying very low, and attempting to locate a target at night, in adverse weather conditions is one of the most difficult cases. Under these circumstances, automation becomes a key enabling technology, but questions such as, "What functions should be automated?" and once decided, "Can they be automated?" must be answered before automation can be successfully employed. This paper will discuss the role of automation in the military flight environment and the key aspects that determine its successful implementation, such as pilot and machine teaming.
Operator Interaction with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV) (With Limited Data Transmission) BIBA 289-294
  Thomas W. Haduch
Tele robotic or unmanned vehicles offer a great potential for tactical operations on the battlefield. Unmanned vehicle systems can protect soldiers from dangers inherent to many military tasks. As tele operated vehicle mission and operational requirements are developed by the military, many operator-robot interface questions have surfaced, dealing with how to maximize the effectiveness and use of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV). Remote military mission capabilities for surveillance, target acquisition, mine operations, NBC detection, and direct fire have been demonstrated. This paper will focus the results of a NATO workshop that was held in 1992 which involved discussions on operator robot interaction issues for military UGVs. Military operations using UGVs will have special data transmission requirements, due to military requirements for low bandwidth secure radio channels for battlefield operation. Transmission rates are projected at 16 Kb/second. Conventional video links are unsatisfactory for military operations, because of possible detection and jamming. Through the use of automation and algorithmic data compression techniques, reduced data transmission rates are possible. Experiments must be conducted in which data parameters and levels of supervisory control are manipulated to assess operator performance differences. Operator and system performance will be based on the UGV's ability to complete a mission.
Remote Operations in the Hazardous Environment of Space BIBA 295-300
  M. A. Stuart; C. E. Sampaio; R. C. Hendrich; T. F. Fleming; A. J. Legendre
This paper describes how the use of remotely operated systems has increased human's abilities to live and work in the hazardous environment of space. Brief descriptions of research projects at NASA's Johnson Space Center illustrate the importance of accommodating for human's capabilities and limitations during the design of space-based remotely operated systems. These research projects are examples of designing remotely operated systems well for the human at three major interface points: overall workstation, computer screen, and the remote worksite.
Current Status of Development and Use of Tethered and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and the Potential for Further Automation BIBA 301-306
  James R. McFarlane
This paper reviews the current state of development and use of tethered and autonomous underwater vehicles. Man machine interface considerations and the potential for task automation are also discussed.
Automation of Mobile Equipment in Mining: A Human Factors Perspective BIBA 307-312
  Christopher M. Keran; Robert F. Randolph; Thomas J. Smith
Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in automating equipment in both underground and surface mining operations. This report reviews current applications of mining automation, and discusses some key human factors implications based on Bureau of Mines research. It concludes that although the trend towards automation of mining operations may have developed a strong if not irreversible impetus, serious questions remain pertaining to safety, health, and operational implications.
Quantitative Usability Evaluation -- The ESPRIT MUSiC Project BIBAK 313-318
  M. Corbett; M. Macleod; M. Kelly
This paper presents an overview of the ESPRIT Project 5429 MUSiC -- Metrics for Usability Standards in Computing. The driving force for this project was the recognition of the industry need for effective tools and techniques to assess usability. The participants in this project have successfully developed a series of methods and tools in the four areas of: analytic measures, performance measures, cognitive workload measures and user attitude measures. In addition the importance of context in usability assessment, as recognised in ISO 9241 has formed a key component in the development of all MUSiC methods.
Keywords: Usability evaluation, Analytic measures, HCI performance methods, Cognitive workload measures, User attitude metrics
User-Driven Software Development: Translator's Workbench -- An Exemplar Case Study BIBA 319-324
  K. Ahmad; P. Holmes-Higgin; M. Rogers; M. Hoge; K. Le Hong; C. Huwig; R. Kese; R. Mayer
TWB aims to provide optimal machine support for the translator in the form of an integrated set of software tools which are designed to eliminate some of the tedium from the translation process, while leaving the translator to concentrate on the cognitively more complex tasks, such as the translation of idioms, neologisms, complex structures and decision-making at a textual or pragmatic level. The objective of the TWB consortium was to specify, design and build an integrated set of software tools tailored to the users' -- i.e. translators' -- requirements. The toolset comprises: a multilingual editor; document converters; spelling, grammar and style checkers; access to lexica and to terminological data banks (term banks for short); remote access to machine translation systems, such as METAL, and to the EC term bank EURODICAUTOM; term bank building tools -- System Quirk (previously 'MATE'); and a pre-translation tool for repetitive translation tasks with some facilities for learning.
The Hyperface/Interactors User Interface Development Environment BIBA 325-330
  P. Ferrara; C. Luparia; E. Penna; R. Polillo
This paper describes the peculiar features of Hyperface, a UIMS for process control, supervision or simulation applications, developed in Esprit II project 5391, (HYPERFACE) and Esprit III project 6061 (INTERACTORS). The following points are addressed: client-server architecture, separability, reuse of off-the-shelf widgets, user defined interaction objects, object scripts, hypertextual structure, hypershell, access control.
Modelling Users, Systems and Design Spaces (Esprit Basic Research Action 3066) BIBA 331-336
  Philip J. Barnard
This paper provides an overview of AMODEUS (Assimilating Models Of DEsigners Users and Systems), an Esprit Basic Research Action. The focus of the collaboration was the development of interdisciplinary methods and concepts for studying interactions between users and systems offering long-term implications for interface design and development.
JESSI -- Common-Framework JCF -- An Open Framework for Integrated CAx-Environments BIBA 337-342
  B. Steinmuller
JESSI-Common-Framework (JCF) is the name of an open framework that is developed in the JESSI-Common-Frame Project with ESPRIT-funding. It serves as a general, common infrastructure for efficiently building, maintaining and configuring open, integrated CAx-environments. In addition to domain-neutral services, domain-specific extensions are offered for optimizing the support of particular application domains "x". Within the JESSI-Common-Frame project itself, special services for x = "Microelectronic System Design" are supplied, while domain-specific services for other application domains are provided outside the scope of the JESSI-Common-Frame project.