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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Hans-Jorg Bullinger
Location:Stuttgart, Germany
Dates:1991-Sep-01 to 1991-Sep-06
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-88775-X; hcibib: HCII91
Papers:250
Pages:1367
  1. HCII 1991-09-01 Volume 2
    1. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: STRATEGIC PLANNING OF IT SYSTEMS; Planning Approaches
    2. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: STRATEGIC PLANNING OF IT SYSTEMS; Application and Cases
    3. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: UPTAKE STRATEGIES AND USER INVOLVEMENT I
    4. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: UPTAKE STRATEGIES AND USER INVOLVEMENT II
    5. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: COOPERATIVE WORK AND DESKTOP INTEGRATION; Design and Modelling of CSCW-Systems
    6. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: COOPERATIVE WORK AND DESKTOP INTEGRATION; Practical Experiences with CSCW-Systems
    7. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: METHODS AND TOOLS FOR IMPROVING INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Overview and Trends
    8. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: METHODS AND TOOLS FOR IMPROVING INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Dedicated Methods and Tools
    9. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: APPLICATION OF IT SYSTEMS IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS; Architectures and Concepts
    10. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: APPLICATION OF IT SYSTEMS IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS; IT Systems in Business Environments
    11. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION; Qualification Concepts
    12. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION; Training Concepts
    13. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: IMPLICATIONS OF IT FOR THE QUALITY OF LIFE; Four Perspectives on Understanding, Modelling and Improving Quality of Life in Relation to IT
    14. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: IMPLICATIONS OF IT FOR THE QUALITY OF LIFE; Workshop: Future Implications of IT for the Quality of Life
    15. Workshops: Customer-Computer Interaction -- A Challenge for HCI
    16. Workshops: VDT -- A Tool for a More Healthy Daily Life
    17. Poster Sessions
    18. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA; Hypermedia
    19. Congress III: Management of Information Systems: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION; Qualification Concepts
    20. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; User Interface Management at the Market Place

HCII 1991-09-01 Volume 2

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: STRATEGIC PLANNING OF IT SYSTEMS; Planning Approaches

Information Technology Planning System: Forms and Contexts BIBAK 1021-1025
  Robert W. Zmud; V. Sambamurthy; Terry A. Byrd
The processes used by organizations to conduct their information technology (IT) planning activities are widely recognized as an issue of critical importance (Brancheau and Wetherbe, 1987; Dickson, Leitheiser, Wetherbe, and Nechis, 1984). However, despite an accumulating IT planning literature (Synnott and Gruber, 1982; Earl, 1989; Cash, McFarlan, McKenney, and Vitale, 1988), empirical knowledge about the conduct of IT planning remains quite limited (Boynton and Zmud, 1987). This paper empirically examines a number of key issues associated with managing the conduct of IT planning within a single large enterprise.
Keywords: IT planning, IT management, Technology management
Information Management: Combining Computer-Controlled with Human-Controlled Functions in CIM BIBA 1026-1030
  Detlef M. Weber
Models and architectures have been developed for Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM). They focus on organizing the decision making of the automated equipment. The information management and its role for integrating the human decision maker is not considered in these CIM models.
Autonomous Manufacturing Islands in Chinese Industry BIBAK 1031-1035
  S. Zhang
This paper presents a new concept of organization in manufacturing called "Autonomous Manufacturing Island (AMI)". New technology needs new work organization and personal qualification to match. The philosophy, software structure and CIM configuration are described. The benefits of AMI are remarkable. Three pilot installation in Chinese enterprises are introduced.
Keywords: Manufacturing cell, Production organization, CIM, Human factor

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: STRATEGIC PLANNING OF IT SYSTEMS; Application and Cases

Towards the Design of a Translator's Workstation -- Organisational Background and User Implications BIBAK 1036-1040
  Monika Hoge; Edith Kroupa
In this paper two aspects of multilingual information management are presented: i) the influence of new technologies on the translation process as an integral part of the overall documentation process and ii) the translators' impact on the development of a MAT (Machine Aided Translation) system, i.e. requirements specification and software evaluation.
Keywords: Documentation process, Translation process, Requirements specification, Acceptance testing, Software evaluation
Development of an Incident and Accident Management Support System for BWR Nuclear Power Plants BIBAK 1041-1045
  Y. Hattori; Y. Takizawa; T. Hayashi; J. Ikeda
The Incident and Accident Management Support System was developed to support the knowledge-based decision making processes for operators under abnormal plant conditions. This support system deduces guidance according to two kinds of deep knowledge representing plant functions and structures; i.e., a multilevel flow model and a physical plant structure model. The Incident and Accident Management Support System comprises five modules based on the operators' knowledge-based decision making model. Since the basis of this support system is the operators' decision making process, it provides useful information for operators in any abnormal plant status.
Keywords: Operator support system, Nuclear power plant, Multilevel flow model, Physical plant structure model
A Human-Supervised Control Architecture for a Flexible Manufacturing System BIBAK 1046-1050
  N. Nakamura
The real-time control problem of an FMS is not the simple task because of machine failures and other unanticipated events. This paper presents an architecture for a human-supervised control system in which the human is considered to be the major component and is integrated with a knowledge-based system and an intelligent interface that support the human's decision-making. Through an illustrative example, the feasibility and effectiveness of the system are evaluated.
Keywords: Flexible manufacturing system, Human-supervised control system, Knowledge-based system, Gantt chart, Human-computer interface
Diagnosis Strategies of Maintenance Personnel in Flexible Advanced Manufacturing Structures BIBAK 1051-1055
  B. Zimolong; U. Konradt
A work analysis was carried out to analyze typical functions of operators and qualification requirements in small and medium sized metal-manufacturing companies. Heuristics and strategies of skilled maintenance and repair personnel were recorded with a verbal knowledge acquisition technique. Examples of how to design a decision support which corresponded with personal expert troubleshooting strategies were provided.
Keywords: Troubleshooting, Decision support system, Computer controlled work system, Maintenance, Time analysis, Task analysis

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: UPTAKE STRATEGIES AND USER INVOLVEMENT I

Human and Organizational Factors in IT Uptake Processes: ESPRIT Project 1030: IT-UPTAKE BIBAK 1059-1063
  Gerry Ryan
This paper reports on the results of ESPRIT Project No 1030: IT-UPTAKE directly concerned with Human and Organizational factors in the uptake and use of IT application systems. The IT-UPTAKE project provided a conceptual framework for the integration of current knowledge concerning Human, Organizational and Economic factors in IT uptake processes in organizations. The primary focus was on human and organizational factors. The project involved the development, and validation through field studies, of a paper-based methodology addressing Human and Organizational factors in IT uptake processes.
Keywords: Human factors, Organizational factors, IT uptake, ESPRIT, Methodology
Linked Planning Groups for Implementing CIM BIBK 1064-1069
  R. Bartels; H. Eisel; A.-W. Scheer
Keywords: CIM, Integration, Linked panning groups, Participation, Reorganization
User Acceptance of Computer Aided Design (CAD) BIBAK 1070-1074
  P. Knauth; J. Joseph; H. G. Gemunden
In a questionnaire study 362 users of CAD in 71 different companies were surveyed with respect to the factors which influence the individual acceptance of CAD.
Keywords: User acceptance, New technologies, CAD

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: UPTAKE STRATEGIES AND USER INVOLVEMENT II

Changes in Mastery of Computer Applications and Endusers' Evaluations of the Implementation Process and Psychological Well-Being: A Follow-Up Study in Financial Firms BIBA 1075-1079
  P. Huuhtanen; J. Seitsamo
The implementation of new data systems was analyzed as a continuous change process in six financial firms in Finland. The employees (n=690) were classified into four groups according to the changes in their mastery of computer applications in a two-year follow-up. The mastering style was connected with occupation. The four types of mastering styles represented persons who differed in their evaluations of the change process. Also the association between the mastering style and stress at work was analyzed.
An Empirical Study of Assessing Human Performance in a Computer-Aided Managerial Planning Task BIBAK 1080-1084
  M. Giannacourou; L. Laios
This paper examines the effectiveness of computer support in unstructured tasks such as managerial decision making. The effectiveness of a particular decision support computer system especially developed for managerial planning tasks is examined comparing aided vs unaided managers' performance in an executive game. Since results from research so far that have been focus on improving of final decision have been inconclusive the emphasis in this study is placed on the evaluation not only of the decision outcome but also on the comparison of the process that led to the particular decision. The results of the present study showed that although there were not observed significant differences in the final outcome a significant improvement in managers' decision strategy when using the computer system was evident.
Keywords: Managerial decision making process, Decision support systems, Evaluation of DSS effectiveness
Organisational Design for Secretaries BIBAK 1085-1089
  Barbara Klein
This contribution presents first results of the research project "Future of Secretaries, qualification and development of recommendations for work and organisational design for secretaries". The expected impact of new information technologies on characteristic profiles of secretaries as well as changes in secretarial tasks are described.
Keywords: Impact of information and communication technologies, Organisational design, Qualification, Secretary, Task

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: COOPERATIVE WORK AND DESKTOP INTEGRATION; Design and Modelling of CSCW-Systems

Usability, Change, Adaptable Systems and Community Computing BIBA 1093-1097
  John Brooke
Usability and utility of systems can only be defined and discussed in operational terms, and that in turn means that they cannot be discussed without reference to the context in which the system is used. Systems need to be appropriate to the conjunction of user, task and environment. However this context is not stable, and thus what is appropriate changes all the time. This paper discusses the implications of this for the types of information systems we need to build. The advantages and disadvantages of adaptive and adaptable systems are discussed; it is argued that adaptive systems cannot realistically be built, but that there are inherent difficulties with adaptable systems as well. The DB_Builder project is described, which addresses some of the problems of adaptable systems by placing users in a context of "community computing".
Advanced Task Allocation in ProMInanD BIBAK 1098-1102
  B. Karbe; N. Ramsperger
ProMInanD's migration system deals with cooperative office work on different types of office tasks which consist of steps the performance of which is allocated to persons playing office roles. This typical kind of cooperation is supported by Electronic Circulation Folders (ECF). Instantiations of task related types of ECF's migrate automatically through an office organization following a migration specification which describes the steps to be performed, their possible sequences and the roles which have to be played for their performance. However, in real life offices task allocation has to be more advanced and to take into account non-deterministic human behavior, exception handling and changes of the organization.
Keywords: Cooperative office tasks, Electronic circulation folder, Exception handling, Organizational handbook, Work flow specification
IPSE Technology as a Basis for Implementing CSCW Systems BIBAK 1103-1107
  P. R. White; D. G. Wastell
The Process Support System (PSS), which was developed under the Alvey IPSE 2.5 project, provides a framework for building cooperative work systems. This paper discusses the theoretical underpinnings of PSS, in particular the concept of Process and the nature of Processes as subject to dialectical change. PSS as it stands provides a basic platform for system building. The challenges facing PSS designers, and their requirements for tools and design methodologies, are discussed.
Keywords: CSCW, Process, IPSE technology, System design, Office automation
Corporate Information Management with aDIS -- An Engineering Approach -- BIBAK 1108-1112
  L. Kayalar; K. I. Wilkinson
An innovative approach based on a new software technology can help companies to realise evolutionary information management systems with non-programming staff. The main idea behind it is the control of processes and user interactions by means of software units (software chips) and graphs. The experience gained at various customer sites confirms that by use of the presented approach, reductions of up to 80% in project costs and realization times can easily be achieved.
Keywords: Cost-reduction, Evolution, Productivity, Software-chips, Standard-graph

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: COOPERATIVE WORK AND DESKTOP INTEGRATION; Practical Experiences with CSCW-Systems

Computer Supported Cooperative Work -- State of the Art BIBAK 1113-1117
  Helmut A. O. Krcmar
The rapid development of the area of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) necessitates an overview to categorize recent research developments. The article lists a number of terms that are used to depict CSCW research. It then describes a framework for research in the field which is used to present past achievements, the state of the art and some assumptions about future directions.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Group decision support systems
Broadband Based Cooperative Work BIBA 1118-1122
  Andreas Kindt; Volker Reible; Karl H. Voge
The integration of broadband and multimedia communication leads to new applications in the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Application projects in the BERKOM project support the investigation and evaluation of technical solutions, feasibility and user acceptance.
The Effect of Computer Conferences on Joint Decision Making BIBAK 1123-1127
  B. Freisleben; G. Aschemann; S. Schramme
In this paper we investigate the effects of two forms of communication, face-to-face and via computer networks, on the process of solving a problem or reaching a common decision among a group of people. The work is based on an experimental study which was jointly conducted by computer scientists and psychologists and therefore involves both psychological aspects of cooperative decision making and proposals for the design of software suitable for group communication.
Keywords: Joint decision making, Communication, Computer conferences, Groupware
Development and Runtime Support for Collaborative Applications BIBAK 1128-1132
  Tom D. Rudebusch
This paper discusses generic computer support for cooperative work. The relevance of CSCW for future information systems is motivated and a taxonomic approach is introduced. Requirements for a generic support system are presented and the architecture of our Group Interaction Environment GROUPIE is described, that comprises development and runtime support for collaborative applications as well as a number of basic collaborative tools. GROUPIE's relevance to the field of computer aided learning and project NESTOR is indicated.
Keywords: Group work, Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), Human-human interaction, Distributed applications, Computer aided learning

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: METHODS AND TOOLS FOR IMPROVING INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Overview and Trends

Comparison Analysis of Design Methodologies and Reference Frameworks for Information System Design BIBAK 1135-1139
  Vesa Savolainen
Practitioners encounter many gaps in traditional information system design (ISD) methodologies, especially in respect with the needs for the design of user interfaces and other user aspects. When the ISD project leader selects and tailors a suitable ISD methodology and methods and tools for the project, it is of great importance to have a comparison framework for the evaluation of the ISD methodologies. For that purpose, there exist two reference frameworks for information systems development, viz. HECTOR Framework of Reference and IFIP 8.1 WG's Framework for Understanding. In this paper we present an analysis and comparison scheme which has been derived from a profound definition of the concepts ISD methodology and metamethodology. This scheme is here applied to the purpose of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the two reference frameworks, but the project leader can also use it in the same way as the frameworks themselves, i.e. as a basis for comparing the ISD methodologies.
Keywords: Design, Methodology, Reference framework, Comparison, Evaluation
Designing Information Systems for Cooperating Agents BIBAK 1140-1144
  V. De Antonellis; B. Pernici; P. Samarati
The paper presents the object-oriented design framework F-ORM (Functionality in Object with Roles Model) for building the specification requirements of office systems in terms of objects and their behavioral rules for communication and cooperation according to global processes.
Keywords: Object-oriented analysis, Office information systems, Requirements specification
Development Opportunities for Methods and Tools BIBA 1145-1150
  Edda Pulst; John Hawgood; Joachim Niemeier
This paper outlines some of the main results of Project 2082 HECTOR (Harmonized European Concepts and Tools for ORganizational information systems), a one-year study, within the Business and Office Systems area of ESPRIT, which ended in May 1990. One of the main aims of this project was to identify market needs for methods and tools to help people wishing to improve Organizational Information Systems (OIS).
   The basis for the investigation of development opportunities was a "Framework of Reference" on the one hand and market data on the other. The Framework of Reference includes hierarchies of static entities for describing OIS, their environments and methods and tools for improving them, and a process model for all activities involved in improving OIS, from business strategy to the post-evaluation of OIS improvements which have been made.
   The market data was obtained from the HECTOR market surveys (case studies and postal survey in 7 European countries), from the existing knowledge of the team and other experts consulted, also from published sources and from vendors' literature.

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: METHODS AND TOOLS FOR IMPROVING INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Dedicated Methods and Tools

Selecting Methods and Tools for Information System Improvement Projects BIBA 1151-1159
  J. Niemeier; A. Kieback
Over the last two decades, formal methods and tools have been introduced into the process of planning, developing, implementing, and managing applications of information technology (IT). For the practical usage existing methods and tools often are seen as incomplete, poorly integrated, often ineffective, and typically insensitive to the application environment. How to make the most of what is available today? Methods and tools to support the newer and more integrated forms of IT applications are still at an early stage of development and are not in common use. A guidance on the selection of methods and tools is needed which shows both what can be achieved now and where developments will come in the future. To a considerable extent the solution of behavioural and organizational design problems are seen as critical. But are methods and tools available for this objective? How to bring together approaches which have so far been pursued along separate paths? What is the most suitable product supporting different environments? The selection and evaluation of appropriate methods and tools for a specific project in a company requires a considerable effort and is itself a difficult and complex task. The purposes of HECTOR project (Harmonized European Concepts and Tools for Organizational Information Systems, ESPRIT project no. 2082) have been to determine what is needed in the marketplace, where opportunities lie to better meet these needs, and to present a framework within which these issues could be studied. The term Organizational Information System (OIS) is used to describe any socio-technical system which supports the work of an organization by facilitating the collection, flow, and analysis of information within or between organizations. One result, described in this paper, is a mean to improve the selection of methods and tools.
Computer Aided Strategy Audit (CASA) -- Knowledge Based Strategy Consulting BIBAK 1160-1166
  H. Krallmann; M. Muller-Wunsch; A. Woltering
The goal of strategic management consultants work is a comprehensive evaluation of the ethical values of the management, the capabilities of the employees as well as the performance of the administrative system to develop a well-suited corporate strategy. In order to fulfill all these requirements a management consultants has to take into consideration several hundred data. The human information processing capacity allows in such situations only an intuitive and condensed assessment of the strategic corporate status quo.
   The knowledge-based system CASA (Computer Aided Strategy Audit) [1] assists the management consultant during the process of enterprise segmentation to create strategic business units, the analysis of the corporate culture, the assessment of market and competition, and an evaluation of the strategic cost situation.
   The system CASA is now used since the CeBIT fair 1989, and includes: 5 MB code and help texts, 2000 rules in 44 knowledge bases and 200 pages of automatically generated reports and up to 100 business charts. The use of CASA reduces the costs for the management consultancy to 30% of the original costs, i.e. from $75,000 to $25,000 for a strategy development project.
Keywords: Expert system, Knowledge-based system, Consulting, Computer aided consulting, Strategic management
Intelligent Support Tools for 'Organisational Learning' about IT Uptake: ESPRIT Project 2144: IT-USE BIBAK 1167-1171
  Gerry Ryan; Annette Aboulafia
This paper reports on how an intelligent support tool ('IT-USE the Product') will facilitate 'organisational learning' in the sense that users will be better able to understand and manage human and organisational factors associated with the uptake of IT systems in organizations. The notion of 'organizational learning' is briefly outlined and some critical issues and unresolved problems concerning this concept are discussed. The challenges posed by continuing failures in IT uptake processes are briefly discussed. An overview of the ongoing ESPRIT II Project 2144: IT-USE is presented together with a discussion of the opportunities and constraints presented through the usage of 'Electronic Books' such as those being developed through this project.
Keywords: IT uptake, Human and organizational factors, Interactive videodisc courseware, Supportware, ESPRIT

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: APPLICATION OF IT SYSTEMS IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS; Architectures and Concepts

Information Systems Architectures in Business Environments BIB 1175-1190
  Dietrich Seibt
Barriers to Office Automation and Their Countermeasures: A Case History of Small Car-Dealer Company BIBA 1191-1195
  Lucia Diawati; Yoshio Hayashi
Office automation, which has been recognized as a promising approach to improve office productivity, is yet attributed to large firms in Indonesia due to the requirement for large investment and skilled labor formation. The market imperfection, which makes resource distribution skewed on large firms' side, limits even further the abilities of small firms to pursue it. This study is a record and an analysis of the computerization process in a small car-dealer firm in Indonesia. Despite the difficult conditions, this case is regarded as an example of successful computerization. The barriers faced during the process and their countermeasures will be disclosed.
CIM in Switzerland: The Use of Computer Integrated Production Systems BIBAK 1196-1200
  J. K. Kuark; T. Moll; A. Schilling; H. Schupbach; O. Strohm; E. Ulich
Although the euphoria generated by the prospect of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) that prevailed in the early 1980s has considerably abated, CIM still carries many high expectations for survival in the competitive markets of the future and continues to be a very current issue. In the Swiss "CIM Action Program", launched by the federal government, CIM is understood to be a concept that spans and integrates humans, technology and organizations. Only through the utilization of human resources and integration in this broader sense can the advantages of CIM be realized to their fullest extent. Our research project on the design and use of Computer Aided Integrated Production Systems provides a valuable database in this context. Selected results from the mechanical and electrical industrial sector are presented. Although Switzerland does not appear to be behind in the quantitative realization of CIM, new organizational options that accompany the introduction of computer aided technologies are not necessarily being utilized.
Keywords: CIM, Work-oriented system design, Advanced manufacturing systems, Sociotechnical system design, Organizational characteristics
Information Systems Formation of Island Structures in Manufacturing BIB 1201
  V. Hornung

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: APPLICATION OF IT SYSTEMS IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS; IT Systems in Business Environments

Application Model for Designing Human-Computer Interface BIBA 1202-1207
  Tosaku Hattori
This paper discusses an industrial design procedure of a Human-Computer Interface (HCIF) for the implementation of an ergonomics solution in a banking terminal system. The procedure is intended to provide, in the design stage, a methodology for solving practical ergonomic problems to optimize various configurations of the operator's human factors. The following two factors are taken into consideration in this paper: First, the operator's working posture with the system, and second, biomechanical factors in the operator's working area and field of vision. The final conclusions discuss those procedures, and the factors of the HCIF are evaluated by using a mock-up called Electronic-Mock Up (EMU) to perform graphic modeling by personal computer aided design.
AI as a Computer Support for the Manager -- An Integrated Concept BIBAK 1208-1211
  R. Marzi
On the market are a multitude of systems for supporting a manager. These systems mainly deal with decision-support, (MSS, EIS or generally DSS) and focus on the integration in the existing business computer systems and on modelling the impact of certain decisions on the company (investment, gain a.s.f.).
   Here, a concept for the support of managerial work is proposed which integrates different methods from fields of artificial intelligence. The applicability of these methods is investigated.
Keywords: AI, Management support, NL processing, Blackboard
Towards Designing Knowledge Acquisition Tools for Business Planning BIBAK 1212-1216
  G. Valiris; L. Laios
This paper presents an approach for the design and the validation of a knowledge acquisition tool in the domain of business planning. KART is a knowledge acquisition and representation tool which has been developed to address specific issues of this task. Because of the complexity of business planning tasks, it is difficult for experts to describe their knowledge in an appropriate form. The decomposition and simplification techniques employed by KART, effectively model the decision making behaviour of the experts. The use of such techniques provides a powerful tool for the construction of a knowledge base.
Keywords: Knowledge acquisition, Knowledge acquisition tools, Planning task, ESs, Validation of ESs

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION; Qualification Concepts

The Hard Life of the Unskilled Workers in New Technologies: Data-Entry Clerks in Brazil -- A Case Study BIBAK 1219-1223
  A. Soares
Behind the image of the "Future Profession" we may find the high tech unskilled workers: data-entry clerks. This paper investigate the working life, the sexual division of labour and the occupational health of a data-entry sector in a public Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Brazil.
Keywords: Data-entry clerks, Stress, Repetition strain injuries, Women's work, New technologies
Application of Multimedia Systems for Qualification in Business Environments BIBA 1224-1228
  Martina Schafer; Josephine Hofmann
Multimedia systems offer an adequate technological basis for innovative concepts of recurrent education. Applications like Computer-Based-Training or Business-Television are characterized by specific strengths and costs. This paper discusses their typical system functionalities, costs of use and their usability for different requirement profiles in business environments.

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION; Training Concepts

Causal Reasoning in Learning to Use a Command Device: Discovery Procedural Schemas BIBAK 1229-1235
  Frederic P. Aschehoug
In order to understand the processes that underlie learning by discovery, verbalizations and actions were collected from a learning by discovery situation. The task was to edit a graphical program with a direct manipulation device. This text presents a detailed analysis of reasoning about the effects of actions. We introduce the notion of discovery procedural schema. Two types of schemas are conceptually defined: simple schema and complex schema. The first concerns reasoning about actions in order to reach a subgoal. The second concerns reasoning about the goal structure. Instances of each type of schema are described in the text. The data support the view that two levels of learning should be differentiated: the subgoal level and the actions level.
Keywords: Discovery, Reasoning, Procedural learning, Goal structure, Mental model
Learning and Authoring on the Basis of an Adaptive System BIBAK 1236-1241
  Anette Knierriem; Jairo A. Cote Munoz
This paper describes ways of improving methods and techniques used in the area of computer-based learning. In particular, an adaptive system is described, and ideas about how to apply it to the field of computer-assisted instruction. The system provides a model which contains information about the user's knowledge. On the one hand, the intention is to make the information about the student's abilities obvious to an instructor who will be able to support the student by individual instructions and learning facilities according to the student's knowledge. On the other hand, the system's adaptability will be used to support the instructor himself in designing learning sequences with respect to his/her pedagogic and didactic aims.
Keywords: Computer-based learning, Intelligent tutoring systems, Adaptive dialogue, Individual user assistance, Computer graphics
Integrated Software Solutions for Production Control in Job Shops: A Teaching Project BIBAK 1242-1246
  G. Schmidt; P. Sokolowsky; W. Dilger
The paper describes the realization of a production control system as far as it was achieved in the first stage of a teaching project. The aim of the project was to integrate a database, an electronical control device and an expert system into a CIM environment for the control of job shop manufacturing processes.
Keywords: Production control, Job shop scheduling, Data- and knowledge-based system integration, Education

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: IMPLICATIONS OF IT FOR THE QUALITY OF LIFE; Four Perspectives on Understanding, Modelling and Improving Quality of Life in Relation to IT

Information Systems in Cultural Institutions: Lessons for Tomorrow's Business Organizations BIBAK 1249-1254
  D. Te'eni; K. Sengupta
In comparison with business organizations, the use information systems by cultural institutions appears to be less sophisticated and regarded by top management as strategically less critical. Yet, paradoxically, if we examine why this is the case and what should be done about it, we may learn some lessons for tomorrow's business organizations which will resemble today's non-profits in aspects such as coordinating loosely coupled decision-making units. This paper reports on some first steps in 1) discussing the problems of using information systems in cultural institutions and 2) defining the necessary tools for modeling the information requirements to tackle these problems. Work underway has begun to apply the tools in the development of such information systems.
Keywords: MIS, Information modeling, Cultural organizations, Nonprofit
Troubleshooting Strategies -- The Constraints Imposed by the Telephone BIBAK 1255-1259
  Egberto Arouca Modesto de Medeiros
Certain human activities face experts with the task of aiding non-experts in solving their problems by phone. This collective troubleshooting activity is constrained by the media -- the telephone. The constraints are mainly related to the impoverishment of the perceptual environment of the expert. The study of troubleshooting strategies employed by experts on the phone in helping non-experts out of their problems can be useful in designing Intelligent Decision Aid Systems (IDAS). Furthermore these IDAS should be extended so as to include more features than a traditional Expert System (ES). A special feature designed to enhance expert's assessment and representation of the problem can be used once the expert takes over a partially treated problem after a traditional ES has tried and failed to solve it.
Keywords: Intelligent decision systems, Communication, Cognitive engineering, Simulation, Troubleshooting
Managing Complex Connectivity Outlines of General Network Management BIB 1260-1264
  Johannes Ehrhardt

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: IMPLICATIONS OF IT FOR THE QUALITY OF LIFE; Workshop: Future Implications of IT for the Quality of Life

Software Scenario Models for 'Quality of Life' in the 'Information Society': ESPRIT Project 5374: QLIS BIBAK 1265-1269
  Gerry Ryan; Annette Aboulafia
This paper presents an overview of the key objectives of the ongoing ESPRIT II Project 5374: Quality of Life in the Information Society, outlines the approach being adopted for the development of a Generic Reference Framework (GRF) re Quality of Life in the Information Society with particular reference to the 'Work' and 'Home' areas of life; and briefly discusses the scientific and industrial impacts of the Project results. The primary focus of this paper is upon the GRF.
Keywords: Quality of life, Information society, Quality of working life, Home ESPRIT
Quality of Life Criteria for Assessing Information Technology in the Home Environment BIBAK 1270-1275
  Wolfgang Hesse; Sigrun Goll; Thomas Biedassek; Julie Remmington
Information technology products and systems are presently penetrating broad areas of our daily life: we meet them at work, in the public domain, in our home. Questions on the impact of information technology on our quality of life become more and more important. The ESPRIT project QLIS aims at developing models, scenarios and support tools which help to assess new IT applications under quality of life criteria. This paper presents a first step towards a typology for classifying and assessing IT products in the home environment.
Keywords: Information technology assessment, Quality of life, Scenario support tools, Home systems, Classification
Modelling Scenarios for the Impact on Quality of Life BIBAK 1276-1282
  D. Bronisz; D. Cordelle; T. Grossi
This paper describes an expert system for assessment of Quality of Life in the working environment. This prototype is based on a Quality of Life Model, and a Socio-Technical Model of organizations.
Keywords: Quality of life, Expert systems, Socio-technical model, Prototype, Information technology

Workshops: Customer-Computer Interaction -- A Challenge for HCI

M4EVAL: Evaluation of Multi-Medial Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 1285-1294
  Rolf Haberbeck
A method and tool for testing, evaluating and improving multi-medial and multi-modal user interfaces is described. Such a method is needed for designing a flexible interface for retail applications to be used by the customer. It is shown that designing this user interface requires an approach based on interaction theory instead on simple task analysis.
Requirements from the Retail Area for Ergonomic Customer-Computer Interaction BIBA 1295-1303
  Rolf Haberbeck
The requirements from the retail area for customer-computer interaction are described. A method and tool for evaluating and testing customer-computer interaction, M4-EVAL (EVALuation of Multi-Medial Multi-Modal human computer interaction), and an architecture that allows for flexible design and adaptation of user interfaces, CIF (Communication InterFace), are a prerequisite in order to meet these requirements.

Workshops: VDT -- A Tool for a More Healthy Daily Life

Ergonomics Evaluation of Multiaccess Computer Systems BIBA 1307-1309
  Leszek Pacholski
Planing and implementation any technological and managerial solutions in the VDT-centres cannot occur without taking into account the evaluation of the man-computer terminal compatibility degree with the ergonomic requirements.
   The purpose of this paper is to present a heuristic method of the ergonomicity evaluation of the present-day multiaccess computer systems. Practical application of the above method allows to control the level of working conditions in a complex way during modernization of the VDT-centres.

Poster Sessions

Man-Machine Interface and Human-Computer Interaction Trend in Nigeria BIBK 1315
  N. K. Akinmayowa
Keywords: Man-machine, Interface, Compatibility, Ergonomics, Occupational health
Assessing the Usability of the Active Library on Corrosion CD-ROM Hypermedia System BIBK 1316
  Hans C. Arents; Walter F. L. Bogaerts
Keywords: Hypertext, Hypermedia, Usability, Evaluation, User interface
Contextual Links: A Formal Approach to the Interaction with Network-Based Databases BIB 1317
  Alessandro D'Atri; Fabrizio Prosperi Porta; Laura Tarantino
Some Programme Potentialities for a Non-Professional User BIB 1318
  F. I. Balandin
The Design of Skill-Enhancing Expert Systems: An Oxymoron? BIB 1319
  W. Beuschel
AMCIRS: An Intelligent Interface to Multimedia Information BIB 1320
  D. Davcev; D. Cakmakov; V. Cabukovski
A New Mathematical Editor, Using an On-Line Symbol Recognition BIBK 1321
  Yannis A. Dimitriadis; Juan Lopez Coronado
Keywords: Handwritten symbol recognition, On-line mathematical editor, Attribute grammar
The Application of Illusory Conjunction and the "Popout Effect" BIBK 1322
  C. K. Hodge; V. A. Lang; B. S. Utesch
Keywords: Visual displays, Display design, Cognitive workload
An Interactive Computer System Analyzing and Evaluating Incomplete Information BIB 1323
  Haruhiko Horie; Morio Nagata
Formal Models of Data Representation and Transfer in Intelligent Systems BIB 1324
  A. O. Karpov
Performance Differences using Analog vs. Digital Formats in RAP COM (Rapid Communication) and Spatial Displays for Visual Monitoring BIBK 1325
  V. A. Lang; D. G. Payne; J. J. Vardaman
Keywords: Display formats, RAPCOM, Cognitive workload, Dynamic displays
Work Structuring in Production Lines -- The Requirements for Information Technologies BIB 1326
  Cristoph Lenssen
Open Model for Intelligent Human-Computer Interaction BIB 1327
  Xie Li; Du Xing
Experimental Evaluation -- Should We Believe the Results? BIBK 1328
  Stuart MacFarlane
Keywords: Evaluation, Controlled experiments
Full-Content Image-Based Interfaces -- An Integrative Approach for Man-Machine Visual Communication Processes, Part I BIB 1329
  J. C. Mangione
Full-Content Image-Based Interfaces -- An Integrative Approach for Man-Machine Visual Communication Processes, Part II BIB 1330
  J. C. Mangione
Optimization of a Human-Computer Interaction on the Base of Quantization Models for Activity and Homeostasis Theory BIBK 1331
  G. G. Manshin; S. V. Kirpich; A. Y. Sharajeva
Keywords: Conflict, Interaction, Quality, System, Quantization
Long-Term Study of Eye Complaints BIBK 1332
  H. Nibel; H. Krueger
Keywords: Eye complaints, Eye strain, CAD-work
The KJ Method on a Personal Computer BIB 1333
  Hajime Ohiwa; Kazuhisa Kawai; Masanobu Koyama; Naohiko Takeda
Expert Systems in Personel Performance Evaluation: An Application in Educational Area BIB 1334
  A. Ozcan; I. Akman
AURA: Adaptable User Interfaces for Reusable Applications BIB 1335
  Cristine Parker-Jones; Mark Howes; Bodo Arndt
Screen Design and Evaluation for Computer Based Training BIBK 1336
  G. Patterson; T. J. Anderson; F. C. Monds
Keywords: Graphics, Text, User interface, Computer based training, Interactive systems
Display Format Factors Affecting Human Problem Solving Performance and Information Processing on CRTs BIB 1337
  Caixia Qian; Kenji Itoh; Takao Enkawa
Task Analysis in the Evaluation of Human-Computer Interfaces: A Case from an Insurance Company BIBK 1338
  P. Seppala; J. Vitikkala
Keywords: Task analysis, Human-computer interface, User-centered design, Information systems
A Speech Activity Adaption System for Improved Human-Machine Dialogues BIBK 1339
  Tomio Watanabe
Keywords: Human interface, Human-computer interaction, Speech output, Speech activity, Dialogue
Paper-Like Interface for Graphical Workstations BIB 1340
  Rui Zhao

Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA; Hypermedia

Virtual Structures in Hypermedia Resources BIBAK 1343-1351
  P. A. M. Kommers
An essential assumption by the proponents of hypermedia is that the links between hotspots and the final pop-up information are defacto based on semantic relations like equivalence, taxonomy, causality, description etc. The first order browsing transitions in the presentation sequence can be evaluated by asking if the resulting passage is a zooming effect of the requested term or picture part indeed. Longer browsing sequences however may occur as obscure trails in the perception of a user, though each transition in itself is a logical one.
   The article below proposes a concept mapping technique based on graph theoretical concepts, in order to overcome the lack of macro structuring in hypermedia design and development.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Concept network, Concept mapping, Graph computation, Centrality indices

Congress III: Management of Information Systems: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION; Qualification Concepts

Qualification Requirements for the Organized Use of CIM in the Operational Sphere of Personnel Systems BIB 1353-1362
  K. Betzl; K. Kornwachs

Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; User Interface Management at the Market Place

Design and Implementation for Integrated Framework and Human-Computer Interface of Interactive System BIBA 1363-1367
  Jingyun Cheng; Yiquan Ni; Xuexian Gong; Meifang Cao
This paper presents the feature, structure, implementation technique and application for integrated framework and human-computer interface of the interactive system developed by the authors of this paper. This is based on the user interface generation and management system UIGMS which is also developed by the authors of this paper in recent years [1].