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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Hans-Jorg Bullinger
Location:Stuttgart, Germany
Dates:1991-Sep-01 to 1991-Sep-06
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-88775-X; hcibib: HCII91
  1. HCII 1991-09-01 Volume 2
    1. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT FRONT-ENDS; Knowledge-Based Front-Ends: Concepts and Requirements
    2. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT FRONT-ENDS; Knowledge-Based Front-Ends in Practice
    3. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT FRONT-ENDS; Intelligent Interaction
    4. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS; Methodological Aspects of Knowledge Elicitation
    5. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS; Application of Knowledge Engineering Techniques
    6. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT SUPPORT AND HELP SYSTEMS; Intelligent Support Systems
    7. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT SUPPORT AND HELP SYSTEMS; Advanced Help Systems
    8. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT SUPPORT AND HELP SYSTEMS; Methods and Tools
    9. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT TRAINING I
    10. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT TRAINING II
    11. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HCI -- THE FUTURE; Knowledge-Based Systems
    12. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HCI -- THE FUTURE; Advances in Human-Computer Interaction

HCII 1991-09-01 Volume 2

Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT FRONT-ENDS; Knowledge-Based Front-Ends: Concepts and Requirements

The Changing Face of Scientific Computation BIBA 791-795
  S. J. Hague; I. Reid
This paper discusses the changing needs of the scientific computing community and the associated challenges facing developers in this field. An architecture for developing the required systems is being investigated as part of the work in the ESPRIT 2 Project (no. 2620) -- FOCUS. A very brief description of the work of the project is given, with particular reference to the FOCUS architecture for constructing the required scientific computing environments.
Knowledge-Based System Requirements BIBA 796-800
  Rachel Jones; Linda Candy; Ernest Edmonds
This paper describes an approach to the identification of user requirements for Knowledge Based Front Ends (KBFEs) to existing software systems. The work took place as part of the FOCUS Project, the main goal of which is to provide KBFE support to users in scientific and industrial environments. Investigations into end-user requirements that assume the use of existing software are described and a framework for the structuring of user requirements obtained from field investigations is presented.
How Can Knowledge Based Systems Solve Large Scale Problems -- Decomposition and Distribution of Problem Solving BIBA 801-806
  Setsuo Ohsuga
The first and direct objective of this paper is to discuss a method of building large models to solve large scale problems in computer systems. In order for a computer to be generic enough and able to support total problem solving by human users, it must be provided with the very general problem solving methods so that human users can use it for his/her problem solving without special knowledge of the computer system. Model based methods of problem solving are very generic and suited to the purpose. But there arises the problem of representing the large scale model building process in the computer. In this paper the author discusses this problem and presents a method. The second and implicit objective is to make the concept of future computers clear through this discussion. In order to realize the generic method of large scale model building, new software technologies becomes necessary. In this paper, an approach to future knowledge processing technology is implied.
Changing the User Interface is Changing the World BIBAK 807-812
  Henk J. van Zuylen
Providing a new user interface to an existing program means more than just bolting some new features on an old system. It will change the way people work with the program. This change is unpredictable in advance. Various factors influence this change, for instance the structure of the organization, the company culture and the people involved. The requirements of the user interface are difficult to capture, because they do not exist until the user interface has been specified or even created. The whole process of requirements capturing has to be considered as an organic process, in which the attitude of the people changes while they create or discover the requirements. Often also the organizational circumstances are influenced. Development methods and tools should be suited for incremental development.
Keywords: User interface, Development, Maintenance, Environment, Introduction

Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT FRONT-ENDS; Knowledge-Based Front-Ends in Practice

Front-Ends for Scientific Programs BIBAK 813-819
  Henk J. van Zuylen
The users of scientific programs constitute a very diverse group, ranging from domain specialists with little knowledge about the program to users/developers, who know all details of the code, the input, the meaning and reliability of the output and the applicability of the program. Support for the use of scientific programs could be given by a knowledge based user interface. The scope of such a user interface has to be restricted. Some requirements are given for the structure of the user interface and for the tools to build them.
Keywords: User interface, Computational physics, Requirements, User profile
How to Revitalize Complex Conventional Programs BIBAK 820-824
  J. Hensgens; Ph. Letanoux
In this paper we describe a knowledge-based front end for a mathematical simulation program. This program shows that the lifetime of a computer program can be very long; it has been developed in the seventies and is still used today. Looking at this program from a contemporary viewpoint as a cognitive ergonomist is shocking. Nevertheless a re-implementation, with a good integrated interface, was out of the question because of the program's complexity. The best solution was to develop a knowledge-based front end, that interfaces to the original program to help the user with the data entry.
Keywords: Intelligent interfaces, Knowledge based systems, Interface techniques, Object oriented programming, OSF/Motif
Using the Focus Architecture for Developing Knowledge-Based Front-Ends: KAFTS -- A KBFE for Forecasting BIBA 825-829
  E. A. Edmonds; R. Southwick; A. Prat; J. M. Catot; J. Lores; P. Fletcher
Industrial and scientific development environments often involve the use of software such as statistical packages, optimisation packages, numerical algorithm libraries, etc. which represent an enormous body of very complex and valuable knowledge that is becoming increasingly difficult to assess. End users have to cope simultaneously both with the intricacies of the software and with the increasing complexity of the application domain problems. For these systems, knowledge-based front-ends (KBFEs) can provide co-operative assistance to end users, enabling them to use the systems successfully, whilst preserving know-how contained in the libraries and packages and extending their working life.
   FOCUS (Front Ends for Open and Closed User Systems) is an ESPRIT-2 project No. 2620 (#) currently in its third of four budgeted years whose goal is to develop generic tools and techniques for constructing and maintaining KBFEs for open user systems (e.g. libraries, reusable software components) and closed user systems (e.g. free standing software, packages) for industrial and scientific applications. The participating partners are drawn from both industrial and academic Institutions providing a wide cross-section of software researchers, producers and users, and the project has taken a pragmatic approach with the industrialisation of products developed playing a prominent role.
   This paper will describe part of the work undertaken during the first two years of the FOCUS project. It will state the aims of the project, describe a core element of the emerging FOCUS design strategy, namely a separable architecture for knowledge-based front-ends, and describe work done on KAFTS (Knowledge Assisted Forecasting of the Time Series) -- a prototype KBFE built with this architecture.
MOCAD -- An Intelligent Front End for Design for Assembly BIB 830-833
  J. Warschat

Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT FRONT-ENDS; Intelligent Interaction

Multi-Viewpoint Perspective Display Methods: Formulation and Application to Compound Graphs BIBAK 834-838
  Kazuo Misue; Kozo Sugiyama
This paper focuses on techniques to display effectively the whole and details of diagrams on screens. First, user requirements for display methods are analyzed from a cognitive viewpoint. Then, a multi-viewpoint perspective display method (MVP) is proposed, and three variations are formulated. Finally, it is shown that one variation of MVP is adaptable for compound graphs, which are abstractions of diagrams used in idea-organizing methods.
Keywords: Whole and details view problem, Multi-viewpoint perspective display method, Supporting idea-organizing method, Compound graph, Fisheye view
The Design of an Intelligent Interface to Standard PC Applications which Maximises the Ability of the Disabled User BIBAK 839-843
  J. A. Hewitt; P. G. R. Halford
This paper reports on work carried out by the Speech and Language Technology Group at Hatfield Polytechnic into the design of speech interfaces. It presents a design for a generic user interface management system (UIMS) which allows the user access to any PC application via both speech and switched input. This generic UIMS allows an instantiation of an interface which is tailored to the requirements of a particular individual and which can, if necessary, be changed over time as his/her condition changes.
Keywords: UIMS, Speech, Switch, Object-oriented, Tailorable
Konex+: An Interactive Design Expert BIBAK 844-848
  Alexander Negele; Christian Rathke
To investigate the interactive nature of design processes, we have developed an intelligent design support environment for the design of CNC-machines. KONEX+ combines a traditional expert system with the interactive interface of a construction kit. "Design experts" give advice, evaluate and criticize designs, and take part in the overall design process. They may be communicated with through forms which allow to inspect and to enter parameters according to the expert's knowledge.
Keywords: Cooperative problem solving, Design environments, Knowledge-based systems, Mechanical design

Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS; Methodological Aspects of Knowledge Elicitation

Direct and Indirect Elicitation of Knowledge Engineering Expertise BIBAK 851-855
  Andrew J. Slade
This paper examines the direct and indirect acquisition of knowledge for systems designed to aid the diagnosis of faults in complex electro-mechanical equipment.
   We report on current work that is utilising model based reasoning in conjunction with simulation to provide both assistance with fault finding and better understanding of diagnostic strategy.
   A parallel simulator, running on a number of INMOS transputers, will provide data streams simulating both correct and faulted mode operation of components in complex machines. The latter is characterised by a flow of discrete material through the machine, which processes the material and controls the flow. Distributed, process based, discrete simulation is being used as the development technology.
   A host machine runs two sub-systems. A hypertext based CBT component provides the user with a demand driven interface to structured information about the simulated machine. The information includes diagnostic strategies, failure modes and correct operation components. A knowledge based system implements a high level model of the machine and provides an active example of the application of the diagnostic strategy.
   Knowledge elicitation is important at several different levels of abstraction within this approach. There is a level of classical expert knowledge about the behaviour of the machine and at a deeper level we require detailed information about the design of the machine to build accurate models that can be used to simulate real behaviour. Yet another level is that of interpreting the information from all sources.
   We first discuss the general issues concerning knowledge elicitation then we briefly present some details of the prototype system we are using to explore the ideas. Finally we present our perception of the opportunities for direct and indirect knowledge elicitation for systems of the type discussed here.
Keywords: Model, Reasoning, Knowledge education
Managing the Bottleneck: Knowledge Acquisition under Organizational Aspects BIBAK 856-860
  R. Sandner
Expert systems have been developed in a quite unstructured way up to now without regarding aspects of well-known software project management principles and needs for organizational integration. Thus, most of the systems implemented as a prototype, have never reached the status of a fully functional piece of software. This paper describes an integrated methodology for expert system development under organizational aspects, taking into account different concepts of classical software engineering as well as experiences in our projects.
Keywords: Methodology for expert system development, Project management, System design, Organizational integration
Knowledge Elicitation: A Comparison of Models and of Methods BIBA 861-865
  W. Hacker; Nina Grossmann; Simone Teske
The paper presents (1.) quasi-experimental comparisons of the GOMS-, the W-question- and a decision- decomposition model of knowledge description and (2.) comparisons of a concept-structuring versus a group discussion procedure.
   There is a model x domain interaction. Interview structuring aids are highly effective and differ in their qualitative results.
Using KADS for Generating Explanations in Environmental Impact Assessment BIBAK 866-870
  A. Baumewerd-Ahlmann; P. Jaschek; J. Kalinski; H. Lehmkuhl
Complex planning tasks like environmental impact assessment require knowledge-based systems to justify their results by comprehensive explanations. Model-based knowledge engineering methodologies like KADS developed within the last few years recommend a knowledge level approach to explanations. Our model-based approach allows to anticipate a user's questions and to design answering mechanisms already during the knowledge engineering stage. Several question types are identified and their semantics is related to the structuring components of KADS.
Keywords: Environmental impact assessment, Explanation, KADS, Knowledge modelling, Model-based knowledge engineering

Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING FOR EXPERT SYSTEMS; Application of Knowledge Engineering Techniques

Database Integration with the Knowledge-Based System KUSBER BIBAK 871-875
  Marlies Leppert; Andrea Wolf; Josef Hofer-Alfeis
The abbreviation KUSBER stands for the German term for "consulting system for lubricants": Kuhlschmierstoff-Beratungssystem.
   The integration of a knowledge-based system with an existent database is demonstrated by means of an application for the selection of cooling lubricants. The chemical ingredients and the environmental characteristics of the lubricants used within the authors' company are stored in a relational database (Oracle). The knowledge-based component was implemented by using the expert system shell Nexpert Object and the corresponding database bridge.
   This paper states some facts about
  • - the modelling of expert knowledge with Nexpert Object
  • - the functions realized in the system
  • - the database integration facilities using relational databases
  • - the applied user interface.
    Keywords: Knowledge-based system, Database integration, Information system
  • The Graphical Querying Environment of the KIWIS System BIBAK 876-880
      F. Staes; L. Tarantino; A. Tiems
    In this paper we discuss some aspects of a graphical language for querying object oriented databases. The main features of such a querying tool are its integration in a browsing environment, facilitating both the query formulation and the exploration of the answers, and the by-example approach on which the formulation is based.
    Keywords: Object-oriented, Knowledge bases, User interfaces, Graphical queries
    Towards Automatic Production of Interview Plans BIBAK 881-885
      A. Bonarini; M. C. Gallo; M. Guida
    Knowledge Acquisition is still an art, only partially supported by methodologies and computer-based tools. In particular, one of the main activities not yet fully supported is the design and performance of interviews to elicit knowledge from experts. We present a model for a knowledge-based system supporting both the choice of the interview technique and the performance of the interview in a given phase of the design process. Our model is based on a set of conceptual primitives to organize the knowledge elicited at a given time, and on a corpus of problem-independent knowledge. A computer-based tool implementing the ideas presented here is under development.
    Keywords: Intelligent systems, Knowledge elicitation, Knowledge acquisition, Knowledge based systems design

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT SUPPORT AND HELP SYSTEMS; Intelligent Support Systems

    Can Hypermedia Improve the Acceptance of Knowledge-Based Systems? BIBAK 889-893
      Fahri Yetim; Peter Dambon
    This paper is concerned with improving of the acceptance of AI applications. A discussion is provided how some of the essential risks and problems of AI applications can partially be avoided through the application of new opportunities offered by the hypermedia methodology and technology.
    Keywords: Knowledge-based systems, Hypermedia, Risks, Acceptance, Decision support
    Automatic Reasoning for Creativeness Decision Support: The CIM Case BIBAK 894-898
      Salomon Klaczko-Ryndziun; Martin Goller
    Automatic reasoning is shown as the matching of two or more different classifications of a problem state through cartesian products in order to discover hidden inconsistencies or gaps and as the navigation through hierarchies of inheritances in order to detour forbidden nodes of the system relationships.
    Keywords: Automatic reasoning, Inheritance hierarchies, Creativity support, Knowledge representation, CIM computer integrated manufacturing
    Dialogue Support at the Customer Interface BIBAK 899-904
      T. Houghton; M. Gardner; N. Millard
    This paper describes the human factors approach taken in the development of integrated expert system dialogues designed to support BT personnel in dealing with customers. It describes the requirements capture techniques, the resultant dialogue styles and their evaluation in terms of efficiency gains, customer satisfaction and user evaluation. Multi-media future requirements are also outlined.
    Keywords: Customer facing systems integration interface
    InCome: A System to Navigate through Interactions and Plans BIBAK 905-909
      Th. Fehrle; M. A. Thies
    This paper presents a frontend to an intelligent help system based on plans called InCome (Interaction Control Manager). It visualizes user actions previously executed in a specific application as a graph structure and enables the user to navigate through this structure. A higher level of abstraction on performed user actions shows the dialog history, the interaction context and reachable goals. Finally, the user is able to act on the application via InCome by performing undo mechanisms as well as specifying user goals inferred already by the help system.
    Keywords: Intelligent user support, Direct manipulation, Visualization, Supervision of application, Tutoring

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT SUPPORT AND HELP SYSTEMS; Advanced Help Systems

    A Highly Efficient Situation Dependent Natural Language Help System for the Domain of Text Processing BIBAK 910-914
      Gerhard Heyer; Ralf Kese
    The following research note presents the idea of a natural language help system for text processing systems, and sketches its basic assumptions and principles. The prototypical implementation of such a system for TA's and OLIVETTI's text processing system DOCUMENT 1.1 on a 386 DOS-PC under Windows 2.11 is briefly described.
    Keywords: Natural language processing, Natural language interfaces, Help systems, Text processing
    Empirical Investigation of Different Explanatory Dialogue Styles BIBA 915-919
      Hilary Johnson; Peter Johnson
    The knowledge that people recruit and acquire during the course of an explanatory dialogue is of significant importance to understanding how these dialogues are successfully carried out and ultimately how explanation and learning occur. In this paper a small-scale study is described which investigated the effects of different explanatory dialogue styles on knowledge acquisition by novices. The two dialogue styles manipulated were "active" giving strong spontaneous guidance and "passive", giving reactive guidance. A trend was found for the students in the active dialogue style to acquire more knowledge than the students in the passive condition. However, the difference between the two groups was small, and providing students with strong guidance was costly in terms of expert resources.
    A Customizable Direct Manipulation User Interface with Automatic Generation of Help Information BIBAK 920-924
      C. Bach
    When developing expert systems the user interface plays a major role for the acceptance of the whole system. The user's need for flexibility in his working style and the differences between users make it impossible to provide a rigid user interface only. We present an adaptable user interface which provides on-line help taking the actual customized user interface into account.
    Keywords: Direct manipulation user interfaces, Customization, On-line help
    Explanations in an Intelligent Help System BIBAK 925-929
      Amedeo Cesta; Giovanni Romano
    In this paper we describe the advice-giving and explanation processes of an intelligent help system for a text processing program. The system is knowledge-based and uses an extension of traditional planning techniques in order to build complex explanations. We show the different strategies the system adopts to present information.
    Keywords: Help systems, Advice-giving, Explanation, Planning

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT SUPPORT AND HELP SYSTEMS; Methods and Tools

    Interacting with Hybrid Knowledge Representation Systems BIBAK 930-934
      M. Migliorati; C. Bognasco
    This paper describes BIT, a graphical environment specifically designed to interact with the BACK hybrid knowledge representation system. Taking into account difficulties arisen using this language we developed BIT as a set of integrated graphical tools supporting the Knowledge Engineer during the development and maintenance of large scale knowledge bases.
    Keywords: Graphical interfaces, Knowledge engineering, Knowledge representation, Hybrid systems
    An Automatic Debugging Method of Logic Programs by Using Static and Dynamic Analyses BIBAK 935-939
      Morio Nagata; Tetsuya Mishuku
    Observing human debugging process, we propose an automatic method combining both static and dynamic analyses of programs. In our method, static analysis automatically detects suspicious points. Moreover, dynamic analysis compares the results of their execution with the correct input/output behaviors supplied by the human programmer to confirm these points. Our prototype system written in the Prolog language can not only locate errors of programs but also suggest how to correct these errors.
    Keywords: Automatic debugging, Logic programming, Static analysis of programs, Dynamic analysis of programs, Prolog
    A Framework for Modelling Dialogues in Interactive Systems BIBAK 940-945
      Thomas Schwab
    This paper describes the domain independent mechanism MODIA for modelling dialogues in interactive systems. MODIA provides a language for the system designer to formulate typical tasks of an application system. Based on these descriptions a task recognizer infers the tasks the user wants to perform during the dialogue with the application system. In addition a task completer provides the possibility to complete partially performed tasks automatically.
    Keywords: Adaptive systems, Dialogue modelling, Task descriptions, Task recognition, Task completion
    Knowledge Acquisition in Inductive Learning BIBAK 946-950
      P. Gerensky; V. Lefterov; V. Popov; G. Proykov; E. Tzolov
    Adaptiveness of knowledge acquisition process according to the peculiarities of the data is presented in the first version of the Knowledge Engineering Rule-based System KERS. The main task of the system is to achieve highest classification accuracy in interpreting examples, which can either enter or not into the set of learning examples. The application of KERS v.1.0. in a practical domain (a fodder base) is considered and the influence of the system's adjustable parameters on classification accuracy and volume of the extracted knowledge is traced.
    Keywords: Learning, Knowledge acquisition, Knowledge models, Expert systems, Intelligent control

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT TRAINING I

    Computer-Based Learning with Distributed Multimedia Systems BIBA 953-958
      Max Muhlhauser
    This contribution will discuss possible influences of advances in information technology on computer based learning and instruction. A joint project of Universities and Digital Equipment, called Nestor, will be described which takes advantage of such advanced information systems. Emphasis is put on the use of a combined object-oriented / hypermedia approach, on multimedia and cooperative-work extensions, and on process modeling based on hypermedia navigation.
    Multimedia Intelligent Tutoring of Human-Computer Interaction Procedures: An Experimental Evaluation BIBAK 959-963
      P. Brooks; A. Schmeling; P. F. Byerley
    An experimental study examined whether additional media added to a tutoring system will enhance effectiveness as measured by speed and accuracy of student performance and opinions on the suitability of the system and its media types. The examination also considered differences in student population. Students received a tutorial incorporating either (a) text and graphics, (b) text, graphics and sound or (c) text, photographs and sound. They were taught and assessed for a computer-based task, a non-computer based procedure and a non-procedural task. It was concluded that for training conventional human-computer interaction skills full multimedia is not warranted for the student types examined. However, important future technological developments will be multimedia services and applications which should be accessible to as wide a range of users as possible. Consequently, the full power of multimedia tutorials will be necessary.
    Keywords: Intelligent tutoring system, Computer-based training, Multimedia, Evaluation
    The Effect of Alternative Interface Techniques on the Automated Teaching of Pseudocode BIBK 964-968
      R. C. MacGregor; H. Hasan
    Keywords: Pseudocode, Interface, Icon, Menu, Hot-key

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: INTELLIGENT TRAINING II

    An Explorative Tutoring System Based on a Dynamic Critic-Expert Model BIBAK 969-973
      Alfred Zimmermann
    An explorative tutoring system based on a DCE model is our way to integrate problem solving activities and different types of tutoring information into a consistent user interface. The paper describes the basic models and some design decisions of a prototype.
    Keywords: Risk adapted problem solving, Guided discovery, Hyper tutoring, DCE (dynamic critic-expert), Deep tutor informations
    A Tutoring System Architecture to Support the Design Process BIBAK 974-978
      U. Dumslaff; D. Meyerhoff
    The task of designing and implementing teaching software depends strongly on the type of tutoring system intended and its architecture. The typical architectures, namely conventional computer aided instruction systems, hypertext systems, and intelligent tutoring systems, each have characteristic features from the designers point of view. An alternative tutoring system architecture will be introduced with the goal being to outline positive effects on the designers task in comparison to the main approaches.
    Keywords: Authoring systems, Computer aided instruction, Hypertext, Intelligent tutoring systems
    Towards a Didactical Computer-Aided Design BIBAK 979-983
      R. Ahmed-Ouamer; P. Prevot
    The courseware design and realization method developed for the elaboration of an intelligent computer-assisted instruction (I.C.A.I.) system is briefly described. The development of this system, for the cement factory's process control training of Lafarge firm, has led us to propose a new courseware methodology, which provides an integrated rapid prototyping environment, proposing a set of methods, tools and techniques.
       This environment of development called AGEDI (Atelier de GEnie DIdacticiel), is a computer-assisted courseware engineering applied to courseware specifications.
    Keywords: Knowledge base, Logic programming, Object oriented approach, Rapid prototyping, Industrial I.C.A.I.
    Computer Based Learning of Working Demands BIB 984-988
      B. Bergmann; B. Werner; J. Wiedemann

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HCI -- THE FUTURE; Knowledge-Based Systems

    Technology and the Construction of Authoritative Knowledge BIBAK 991-995
      Brigitte Jordan
    Within any particular social situation a multitude of ways of knowing exist, but some carry more weight than others. Some kinds of knowledge are discredited and devalued, while others become socially sanctioned, consequential, "official," and are accepted as grounds for legitimate inference and action. In this paper I explore the role of technology in the constitution of such authoritative knowledge by drawing on videotaped data from two complex, high-technology settings: an American obstetrics ward and an airlines operations room. These cases are used as a means to illustrate some of the linguistic, interactional, and artifactually-based mechanisms by which, in high-technology settings, authoritative knowledge comes to be distributed, displayed and used in particular ways. An understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for the design of collaborative working and learning environments that are conductive to getting necessary business done in an efficient way while, at the same time, empowering their users.
    Keywords: Authoritative knowledge, Technology, Collaborative work
    Task-Based Discretionary Security Considerations BIBAK 996-1001
      Gerhard Steinke
    A secure system should provide a user with permission to access only that information in the system which the user "needs to know". This paper suggests that tasks should be the focus of this need to know principle. At any point in time a user should be able to access only that information which is required for the completion of an assigned task. We provide an example of how task-based access permission is implemented in the Group Security model for a knowledge base system.
    Keywords: Security, Discretionary access control, Knowledge base, Tasks
    GAIN: An Integrated Expert System for Investment Consulting BIBA 1002-1005
      Cinzia Donalisio; Flora Resta; Maria Rita Spada
    An Integrated Expert System for Investment Consulting, developed by Olivetti Systems & Networks, is described. The definition of the best portfolio for a possible client of the bank is investigated like a configuration problem. The main goal obtained by using this system, to support, not to substitute, the bank operators during a session of investment consulting, is analyzed. A brief description of the system architecture, through its four main modules, is given.

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HCI -- THE FUTURE; Advances in Human-Computer Interaction

    Remote Direct Manipulation: A Case Study of a Telemedicine Workstation BIBAK 1006-1011
      R. Keil-Slawik; C. Plaisant; B. Shneiderman
    This paper describes our experience with the design of a remote pathologist's workstation. We illustrate how our effort to apply direct manipulation principles led us to explore remote direct manipulation designs. The use of computer and communication systems to operate devices remotely introduces new challenges for users and designers. In addition to the usual concerns, the activation delays, reduced feedback, and increased potential for breakdowns mean that designers must be especially careful and creative. The user interface design is closely linked to the total system design.
    Keywords: User interface, Direct manipulation, Telemedicine, Remote control
    Functional Allocation in Computerized Citrus Quality Inspection BIBAK 1012-1016
      A. Lidror; I. Prigojin; Z. Eilam
    Allocation of functions concerning humans and computers is a highly relevant and contradictory issue in human factors engineering. An effective computerized quality inspection system was developed in which the statistical inspection decisions were assigned to the computer. This strategy proved to be very productive, in comparison with the conventional practice of assigning the fraction of perceptual skill to advanced technologies, involving computers.
       An algorithm for the highly complicated statistical sequential sampling procedure was developed, using PC support and easy-to-use, portable, custom-designed terminals. Much effort was expended to encourage user acceptance. A work saving of 26% was achieved and reliability was improved significantly.
    Keywords: Computerized system, Quality inspection, Functional allocation