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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Hans-Jorg Bullinger
Location:Stuttgart, Germany
Dates:1991-Sep-01 to 1991-Sep-06
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-88775-X; hcibib: HCII91
Papers:250
Pages:1367
  1. HCII 1991-09-01 Volume 1
    1. Plenary Sessions
    2. Congress I: Work with Terminals: INPUT AND DISPLAY DEVICES; Human-Computer Ergonomics
    3. Congress I: Work with Terminals: INPUT AND DISPLAY DEVICES; Display Ergonomics
    4. Congress I: Work with Terminals: INPUT AND DISPLAY DEVICES; Input Ergonomics
    5. Congress I: Work with Terminals: WORK PLACE AND WORK ENVIRONMENT; Design of Office Rooms and Buildings
    6. Congress I: Work with Terminals: WORK PLACE AND WORK ENVIRONMENT; Design of Environmental Sectors
    7. Congress I: Work with Terminals: HEALTH ASPECTS: WORKLOAD, STRESS AND STRAIN AND IRREGULAR WORKING HOURS; Causes and Measures of Stress
    8. Congress I: Work with Terminals: HEALTH ASPECTS: WORKLOAD, STRESS AND STRAIN AND IRREGULAR WORKING HOURS; Ergonomics, Users and Pitfalls
    9. Congress I: Work with Terminals: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT; Methods for Aiding Human-Computer Interaction
    10. Congress I: Work with Terminals: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT; Assessment of Mental Workload, Fatigue and Performance
    11. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; User Interface Management at the Market Place
    12. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; Progress in User Interface Management
    13. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; Application Experiences with UIMS
    14. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA; Hypertext
    15. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA; Hypermedia
    16. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Design and Management of Distributed Systems
    17. Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Present and Future Capabilities of Distributed Systems

HCII 1991-09-01 Volume 1

Plenary Sessions

Whence and Where -- A Short History of Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 3-18
  B. Shackel
In this paper a broad perspective is presented of the history of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) over the last 30 years. Inevitably such must be omitted, but the referenced papers may fill many of the gaps. Various formative influences and contributing disciplines are noted. Although aspects of research and human factors knowledge are prominent, equivalent attention is given to technology, applied problems and design for usability.
The Responsible Workplace -- European Office of the Year 2000 BIBA 19-25
  Francis Duffy; Andrew Laing
This paper is a description of work in progress on a major multi client study the objective of which are to chart trends which will influence the office of the future, to find examples throughout Europe of how such tends are currently influencing the design of the working environment, and finally to recommend the kinds of features that architects should design to meet the challenge of new kinds of organisation, new technologies and new patterns of living, working and leisure.
User Interface Management -- The Strategic View BIBAK 27-38
  H.-J. Bullinger; K.-P. Fahnrich
The paper introduces software application architectures and open software environments as a framework for user interface management systems. It defines functional requirements for a dialog management system and gives an overview over available UIMS and related technologies. Experiences of Dialog management system users are reported and an outlook on the further development in this area is given.
Keywords: User interface management, Dialog management, Software application architectures, Marketing considerations, Field studies
Multimedia: Trends and Issues BIBAK 39-54
  S. Joy Mountford
Multimedia and it's benefits are surfacing in a variety of application arenas. This paper describes some successful implementations using this new media and documents some evaluations of their potential strengths and weaknesses. It seems as of the main stumbling block to the successful integration of multimedia technologies is the creation and design of an integrated media capable interface. Long term success factors lie with the design of a usable, flexible interface which matches the technology capabilities with the needs of the user.
Keywords: Multimedia, Interface design, Human interface, Usability, Users
Design of Adaptive Interfaces and Flexible Mass Production of Knowledge-Based Systems BIBAK 55-68
  Gavriel Salvendy
Impact of the economy, standard of living and developments in computer technology on advances in and usage of human aspects of computerized technology is discussed. The development and use of adaptive interfaces is proposed in order to increase the effectiveness of communications between the users and the computer. A methodology is outlined to achieve this objective. Since knowledge-based systems are an integral part of communications between users and computers, hence a method is proposed for the development of flexible mass production factories for modular production and assembly of knowledge-based systems. This would result in decreased cost and lead time to produce knowledge-based systems.
Keywords: Adaptive interface, Knowledge-based systems, Flexible mass production
Higher Order Learning Mechanisms in Knowledge Domains BIBA 69
  F. M. Klix
The human brain has to interact instantaneously with a hypercomplex environment. This prevents prediction of forthcoming events, but stimulates the inferential power concerning local regularities, usable for local valid predictions. Human knowledge is due to four sources: (1) Innate of "prewired" structures concerning some invariants in the environment; (2) learning by doing or systematizing similar personal experiences; (3) learning by tutoring or instruction (with language as the most prominent vehicle), and (4) learning by inference. Whereas (2) and (3) have been widely investigated, the basic mechanisms of the fourth source are fairly unknown.
   The frame of the speech is a model of how conceptual knowledge is organized in the human memory. The key points are levels with sets of invariant properties and well defined labels for the relations between them. Properties are the invariants in sets of objects, and conceptual relations are invariants concerning roles which objects play in events. A special point is how the relations are implemented with the conceptual knowledge.

Congress I: Work with Terminals: INPUT AND DISPLAY DEVICES; Human-Computer Ergonomics

A Survey of Postural Ergonomics BIB 75-77
  K. H. E. Kroemer
A Response-Surface Approach to Input Error Evaluation for Resistive and Infrared Touch Panels BIBAK 78-82
  Dennis B. Beringer
Accuracy of input using touch panel devices is affected by a number of variables, particularly those relating to the target of the touch. Because of the number of variables potentially affecting performance, a screening experiment was conducted using a central-composite design (CCD; a special case of response surface methodology) to examine further the effects of target position and size upon accuracy of the touch input for both infrared and resistive panels. Examination of first point of contact, last point of contact, and averaged intermediate points indicated that averaging did not substantially reduce error for the resistive panel. Although multiple regression analyses for x and y error indicated that gender, feedback condition, and use of gloves were significant predictors, the overall variance accounted for was low (R² of .13 and .20). Prediction of contact duration and reaction time was better (R² of .54 and .68) with group and gender accounting for much of the variability. Results suggest that error for right-handed users is least near the resting position of the hand (lower right corner of display) and that response times were similarly affected. Variable error was less for targets demanding higher precision. Simple variation in instructions across blocks of trials reduced variable error. Instructions suggesting more precise input behavior ("touch the center of the target") produced less variable error than those that were less specific ("touch the target"). In general, although the methodology has limitations, the CCD was useful in economically identifying error trends.
Keywords: Touch input, Instructional set, Methodology
Evaluation of Computer Graphics Techniques for the Design of Images for Human-Computer Interaction BIBAK 83-87
  Woodrow Barfield; Rafael Lim
A psychophysics study was performed to investigate the relationship between computer graphics rendering techniques and subjective ratings of realism for computer-synthesized images. By manipulating the lighting and shading characteristics of computer-synthesized images, 31 different variations of a standard image were created. The experiment task was to rate the realism of each computer-synthesized image in comparison to two standards; a wireframe image representing the low end of realism, and a picture of the real image, representing the high end of realism. The results indicated that smooth shaded images were perceived as significantly more realistic than a flat shaded image, while color-mapped images were perceived as significantly more realistic than images rendered without a color map. However, there were no significant differences in perceived realism as a function of one versus two point light sources or between one versus two specular highlights. These and other findings are used to evaluate the psychological validity of several mathematical analysis of shading information that are used to render realistic three-dimensional images.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Image realism, Interface design

Congress I: Work with Terminals: INPUT AND DISPLAY DEVICES; Display Ergonomics

Analysis of VDT Text Reading Styles BIBAK 88-92
  Yoko Asano; Katsuhiko Ogawa
This paper proposes a method for identifying reading styles based on the relationship between reading time and a Japanese text readability measure. The readability measure for Japanese text (RGV) proposed by us in 1989 can be used to measure the difficulty of passages based on school grade levels. The results of a VDT text reading experiment indicate that a few reading styles can be identified based on differences in reading time variance patterns.
Keywords: Reading style, VDT text reading, Japanese text, Readability measure, Reading time
Computer Graphics Programming Principals as Factors in the Design of Perspective Displays BIBAK 93-97
  Woodrow Barfield; Young Kim
An important issue in the design of perspective displays concerns the relationship between the perspective geometry parameters used to design such displays and the accuracy with which observers can reconstruct the spatial information contained within the perspective projection. These are important issues for the design of visual displays because viewing a three-dimensional (3D) image projected onto a two-dimensional (2D) surface requires that the observer mentally reconstruct the original 3D information based on the perspective projection. There are several geometric parameters of perspective which influence the accuracy with which observers can reconstruct the original 3D information (McGreevy and Ellis, 1986). These include the geometric field of view (GFOV) and station point distance. This study investigated the effect of these variables on the accuracy of an exocentric direction task using a computer-generated perspective display.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Perspective display, Interface design
Fundamentals for the Use of Colors in User Interfaces BIBAK 98-102
  H.-Chr. Kraupner-Stadler
In order to set up monitor and application independent standards for the use of colors in user interfaces is it necessary to be able to name colors in a standardized manner and have knowledge about which colors to use. Therefore a test-system based on different hardware was developed and implemented to find out user preferences for colors and their combinations. In addition to that colorimetry data for three different monitors were evaluated. Those data and the data from the test-system were taken not only to compare the monitors but also to compare the test-system results to look into what exactly has to be done to establish standards.
Keywords: Colors, Video display units, Standards, User interface, Colorimetry
Using a Computer Game to Analyze Color Recognition Abilities BIBAK 103-107
  Shun-ichi Yonemura; Katsuhiko Ogawa
Experiments using a computer game were conducted to analyze association operators made between colors and concepts. The experiments were designed to evaluate the associations commonly made between the four colors, green, yellow, orange, and red, and the three alarm levels, Normal, Caution, and Danger. Experimental results indicate that colors representing a set of concepts should be chosen as follows.
  • 1. The order of the color associate with a word (concept) should match the
        users' study strategy. Our limited tests indicate that the sequence
        Danger, Normal, Caution requires the shortest time to remember.
  • 2. Only colors that are "unambiguous" and can be easily named should be
        selected to represent concepts.
    Keywords: Human performance, Color coding, Color recognition, Visual display, Computer game
  • Congress I: Work with Terminals: INPUT AND DISPLAY DEVICES; Input Ergonomics

    Screen Keyboards: An Empirical Study of the Effects of Shape and Character Layout BIBAK 108-112
      Laura M. Leventhal; Jon W. McKeeby; Barbee T. Mynatt
    A possible input device for individuals with limited hand mobility is a screen keyboard. On a screen keyboard a cursor sequentially scans portions of a graphical keyboard until the user selects first a row and then a specific character in that row. The present study investigated the effects of keyboard shape (triangle, rectangle or square) and the layout of the characters (frequency, alphabetic or random) on accuracy and speed in entering English sentences. User satisfaction was also assessed. Accuracy was uniformly high across conditions. As expected, the layout based on frequency produced the fastest keying rates. Unexpectedly, the fastest rates were associated with the triangle shape. The fastest configuration was triangle shape combined with a frequency layout. Satisfaction was highest for a frequency layout combined with either triangle or rectangle shape. The study indicates the importance of empirical testing of users.
    Keywords: Screen keyboard, Handicapped computing, Input device
    Is Feedback Necessary when Using a Keyboard? BIBAK 113-117
      U. Guggenbuehl; H. Krueger
    Results show that typing movements on a keyboard follow a set motor program. During a typing action, feedback is continuously monitored and compared to an expected result. If the physical variables (pressure point, precise contact point) suit this motor program, then the execution of typing movements does not rely on peripheral feedback and a smooth continuous keying sequence results. Thus a flat keyboard is not necessarily worse than a keyboard with key travel!
    Keywords: Keyboard, Feedback, Motor behaviour, Movement analysis
    Location of Isometric Joystick for Optimal Performance in Typical Computer Task Mix BIBAK 118-122
      David H. Straayer
    The confluence of high performance notebook computers and widespread acceptance of graphical user interfaces is renewing interest in keyboard-embedded pointing devices. In this paper we consider whether an isometric joystick can fulfill this need, and, if so, where the joystick should be placed. By examining typical task mix in computer use with today's software, a case will be made that inclusion of the joystick within the "home row" of the keyboard provides significant benefits. The cost of the necessary mode switching between typing and pointing will be examined, and this cost will be compared to the resultant benefits. A working model will be available for demonstration.
    Keywords: Pointing device, Graphical user interface, Task mix, Keyboard, Mouse
    An Experimental Evaluation of Mouse, Joystick, Joycard, Lightpen, Trackball and Touchscreen for Pointing -- Basic Study on Human Interface Design -- BIBAK 123-127
      Atsuo Murata
    In this study, the evaluation of six input devices for the pointing speed, accuracy and usability was tried in the sorting task of five 3-digit numbers. The joystick was found to be the fastest of all devices. With respect to the accuracy, the lightpen was the most accurate. Judging from the pointing speed, accuracy and subjective feeling on usability, the joystick was found to be the most effective.
    Keywords: Input device, Pointing speed, Accuracy, Usability, Human interface

    Congress I: Work with Terminals: WORK PLACE AND WORK ENVIRONMENT; Design of Office Rooms and Buildings

    From Inside to Outside: Worker-Orientated Planning of Economically Efficient and Future-Orientated Office Buildings BIBAK 131-135
      P. Kern; D. Lorenz
    Nowadays, nobody seriously contests the necessity to make allowance for the needs of workers in the planning and design of office buildings more than in the past. Equally undisputed, the office has in the meantime been moved from the corner of unproductivity into the area of productivity and net product. Compared with the production area, however, the productivity progress in the office, in the opinion of many experts, has been considerably lesser. The productivity reserves existing in the office have either been underestimated or not utilized consistently so far. When planning and implementing an office building, there is the chance of realizing an all-embracing approach. In so doing, the requirements of man, organization and technology can be translated profitably under a multi-dimensional objective.
    Keywords: Office-planning, Participation of employees, Integration management, Goals of office systems, Motivation of employees
    Office Layout: New Aspects of Concentration and Communication at Work BIBAK 136-140
      B. Schlintner
    Nowadays, nobody seriously contests the necessity of an ergonomically designed office chair or workplace. Functionality, ergonomics and efficiency are an integral part of the planning variables for office workplaces. However, office workers do not only use a specific workplace in an isolated form, but an entire room which has a wide variety of points of contact -- between men, office technology systems and environment, with psychological processes in conjunction with the location and arrangement of workplaces playing an important role. Office layouts must satisfy different job-specific requirements with regard to concentration and communication. The classical "vis-a-vis" block arrangement at the twin workplace (T-layout) and the "back-to-back" arrangement of seats (U-layout) have different qualities. The presentation and assessment of these different qualities are subjects of this contribution.
    Keywords: Office layout, Privacy, Teamwork, Ergonomics
    The Combi Office Concept BIBAK 141-147
      Wolfram Fuchs
    Conventional office space concepts can hardly keep up with the demands of office automation. Organizations crumble away in cellular offices with their endless corridors and isolation of the office workers from one another. Highly qualified staff are no longer willing to accept the atmospheric disturbances of open-plan or group offices imposed on them. A new kind of office is spreading across Europe. The Combi Office reconciles the demands of concentration and communication both for new buildings and for the remodeling of existing office premises.
    Keywords: Architecture, Combi office, Office space planning, Privacy, Working environment
    Planning the Future Office -- Focus on Work Environment BIBAK 148-153
      Lise Busk Kofoed; Kurt Vogt
    From a wish to weight work environment in connection with the construction of a new office building, the employees' opportunities for influence on the final building are assessed. At the same time a work environment data base is established. The data base became a sectional element of the total process. With a view to the employees' experiences a conceivable method is summed up.
    Keywords: Office work environment, Industrial building, Employees' Influence, Work environment data base, Learning process

    Congress I: Work with Terminals: WORK PLACE AND WORK ENVIRONMENT; Design of Environmental Sectors

    Office Lighting of the 90's BIBK 154-156
      Torsten Braun
    Keywords: Office, Lighting, Perception, Comfort, Acceptance
    Acoustic in Modern Office Buildings BIB 157-161
      F. Hofmann
    Climate Problems in Areas with High VDU Density: Results of Traders Desks BIBAK 162-166
      W. Bauer
    The heat load in rooms will rise drastically with increasing mechanization of office workplaces. In highly sophisticated traders desks, normally dimensioned air-conditioners are not sufficient to dissipate the heat load. An example will be demonstrated of how work-related cooling loads are dissipated by means of special recirculated air-coolers integrated in the desk.
    Keywords: Climate, Trader desk, VDU, Banking, Workplace design
    The Impact of the Office Environment on Workers Health BIBA 167-171
      Ahmet E. Cakir
    The impact of the office environment (noise, air quality, lighting) on workers health was assessed in a four part study in German offices. Self-reported health symptoms are significantly correlated with the type of work (VDT-, typewriter-, conventional office work) and environmental factors such as noise, lighting or air quality. In general, VDT-users reported more health disorders than workers performing conventional office work. Artificial lighting has proven to be one major source of health disorders, as all complaints increased with growing distance of the workplace from the window.
       However, the impact depends on the type of artificial lighting, with overhead lighting with narrow radiating angle (so called VDT-Lighting) being the worst and twin-component-lighting with two sources (an indirect part as general lighting and a direct part as task lighting) the best.

    Congress I: Work with Terminals: HEALTH ASPECTS: WORKLOAD, STRESS AND STRAIN AND IRREGULAR WORKING HOURS; Causes and Measures of Stress

    Frictions and Frustrations in Creative-Informatory Work with Computer Aided Design -- CAD-Systems -- BIBAK 175-179
      H. Luczak; W. Beitz; J. Springer; T. Langner
    The effects of computer aided design work on the design process are analysed by field experiments. The study focuses on the influence of 3 different design tasks (standard tasks) and 11 CAD-systems (2D and 3D), taking into account the performance and strain measurements of 43 subjects (15 design engineers, 8 technicians, 17 draughtsmen, 3 trainees). The 3 standard tasks differ in performance measurements, especially in time spent on task, quantity of generated elements, not in the quality of the solution. The kind of CAD-system influences the time spent on task as well as the design performance, with significant differences of up to 100%. The same tendency can be diagnosed in a comparison of 2D and 3D systems. During the use of different functions of the CAD-system, strain effects are identified by cross-correlation with continuously measured physiological parameters, even with CAD-functions which should reduce stresses of routine work. Deficits and complications in the handling of CAD-systems increase with the complexity of the system and thus cause an antinome effect on performance and strain of its operators: creativity is reduced by frictions and frustrations in system handling even if operators are highly trained.
    Keywords: Computer aided design, Stressor analysis, Performance measurement, Field-experiment, Design process
    Engineers' Workload Due to High Speed and High Function Machine: Is the Work-Density Increasing? BIBA 180-184
      Yuko Fujigaki
    To examine the expectation that high speed/function reduce the overload of engineers, a questionnaire survey was conducted. The results of 1203 engineers showed that the equipment of high speed/function machine invites a new king of work-situation which caused the engineers' workload. An increase in work-density was considered to be brought by the high speed/function machine.
    Breakdowns and Other Interruptions in VDT Work as a Source of Stress in Customer Service and Banking BIBA 185-189
      K. Lindstrom
    Job stress and strain symptoms associated with problems in VDT application were studied among customer service (n=319) and office employees (n=219) in the banking and insurance sector. The first questionnaire survey was done in 1985 before the transition to more advanced data systems, and the second one two years later. The office employees suffered as often as the customer service employees from the breakdown and slow response times in VDT application, and their work was equally dependent on access to VDT applications. For the office workers, however, these problems were associated with job stressors, like haste at work, and strain symptoms, like excessive fatigue and nervousness. These relations decreased during the follow-up. One explanation might be that the work of office employees was more dependent on the functioning of VDT application than that of customer service employees.
    Evaluation of Mental Workload in Location Task by HRV Measures -- Relation between Work Level and Mental Workload -- BIBAK 190-194
      Atsuo Murata
    In this paper, an attempt was tried to evaluate the effects of layout complexity in the location task on mental workload by means of HRV (Heart Rate Variability) measures. The mental workload value obtained by the method of paired comparison increased in proportion to the entropy of layout complexity. Moreover, the HRV measures TP, DSDb and DSDc were found to be effective measures of mental workload.
    Keywords: Layout complexity, VDT, Heart rate variability, ECG, Mental workload

    Congress I: Work with Terminals: HEALTH ASPECTS: WORKLOAD, STRESS AND STRAIN AND IRREGULAR WORKING HOURS; Ergonomics, Users and Pitfalls

    Impact of Computer System Performance on Task Characteristics and Worker Stress BIBAK 195-199
      Pascale Carayon-Sainfort; Michael J. Smith
    The effects of frequency of computer problems and computer use intensity on task characteristics and worker stress were examined in a sample of two-hundred-sixty-two office workers from three organizations. Results showed that computer system performance (defined as frequency of computer problems and computer use intensity) had indirect effects on worker stress through its influence on task characteristics. High frequency of computer problems and computer use intensity were related to high workload and work pressure, and low job control which, in turn, were associated with high worker stress.
    Keywords: Psychosocial stress, Job design, Computer use, Computer system performance, Office work
    An Experimental Study of CRT Graphical Display in Process Control Systems BIBAK 200-204
      Sheue-Ling Hwang; Yung-Sen Wang
    An experiment was conducted and focused on the effects of the factors, e.g. format types (graphical vs. digital), volumes of data, and layout methods of data (process, function, and importance) on the man-machine interface design.
       From the results of the experiments, one could see that the main effects of format types, volumes, and layout methods of data and the two-way interaction effects, between format types and volumes of data and between volumes of data and layout methods of data were significant for the searching tasks. In addition, the main effects of volumes of data and format types and the interaction effect between layout method of data and volumes of data were also significant for the finding problem and the prediction tasks.
    Keywords: Graphical display, CRT, Process control system
    Extending Computers to the Frail Elderly BIBAK 205-209
      M. Christensen; R. House; J. Hurwitz; R. Lawrence; S. Strum
    EASE-3 is a user-interface designed to extend computer use to the frail elderly, including those in nursing homes. User-centered design, iterative development, iterative evaluation, object-oriented software, and use of metaphor have produced a system that can be used by a class of elderly users.
    Keywords: User-interface, E-mail, Elderly, Multi-modal, Object-oriented

    Congress I: Work with Terminals: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT; Methods for Aiding Human-Computer Interaction

    Method of the Ergonomicity Level Evaluation of the Multiaccess Computer System BIBA 210-214
      Leszek Pacholski; Malgorzata Gorska
    The method being presented enables to ergonomic evaluate the computer systems in the complex way taking into account so-called softness of formal modelling. The linguistic alphabet used in practice was determined in the artificial space of representation definited of the natural numbers interval from 1 to 9.
    Experimental Study of Some Visual and Sound-Effect Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Reliability of Manipulating VDU-Displayed Geometric and/or Textual Patterns in HCI-Based Engineering Activities BIBAK 217-222
      L. Balint; G. Csibra; I. Czigler; A. Radvanyi
    The contribution makes an attempt to analyze the process of HCI-based engineering activities (focusing first of all at layout-design oriented CAD applications) with special emphasis on how some crucial properties of the involved human-computer interaction tools are to be determined, namely on how to display the layout geometry during the layout design process and how to provide special visual and sound-effect aids to user-made selection among the layout elements (geometric or textual type layout patterns). An experimental programme is briefly described and some significant consequences of the experimental results are derived. Finally, several important practical aspects of how to utilize these consequences in the development of computer aided engineering design systems are suggested.
    Keywords: CAD, HCI, Layout, Sound-effect, VDU, Visual effect
    Information Aids in Fault Diagnosis Tasks BIBAK 223-227
      Sheue-Ling Hwang; Hung-Wen Cheng
    The purpose of this study was to develop an aiding approach to help human operators to reach accurate diagnosis rapidly. In order to verify the effects of the two types of aiding information, Backward information (B) and Forward information (F), a simulated experiment of diagnosing the heat exchanger system was performed in this study. As shown in the experimental results, F and B have improved the diagnosis performance of the subjects successfully.
    Keywords: Fault diagnosis, Information aids

    Congress I: Work with Terminals: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT; Assessment of Mental Workload, Fatigue and Performance

    Physiological Measurement of Cognitive Load During Interaction with Process Control Displays BIBAK 228-232
      David Wastell
    Cognitive load is an important issue in user interface design, yet it has been largely finessed in HCI, despite the availability of a range of methods for measuring mental workload developed in cognate domains. This paper illustrates the use of a popular physiological metric (heart rate variance, HV) to index workload in a process control task. Highly suggestive intra-task correlations between HV and behaviour are found which confirm the promise of HV as an index cognitive load and argue for its application in user interface design, especially where man-machine performance is critical.
    Keywords: Cognitive load, Psychophysiology, Process control, HCI
    Pupillary Reflexes and Accommodation as Physiological Indices of Visual Fatigue Due to VDT Operation BIBAK 233-237
      Susumu Saito; Sasitorn Taptagaporn
    The study ascertained the decrease in the pupil size and the decrease in the amplitude and velocity of accommodation following 4-hr VDT operation while the amplitude of pupillary reflexes was found to increase. A weak correlation between pupil size and accommodation was also found (r=0.72). However, the present study failed to corroborate the relationship between pupillary reflexes and accommodation. The subjects involved were five students with age range of 22 to 23 years.
    Keywords: Pupil, Pupillary reflex, Accommodation, Video display terminals (VDT), Eye strain/asthenopia
    Evaluation of the Relationship between Pupil Movements and Visual Tasks BIBAK 238-242
      Shin Saito; Sasitorn Taptagaporn; Naofumi Hirose; Susumu Saito
    The aim of this study was to investigate how to evaluate pupil movement while undertaking VDT operations. A few fundamental experiments which were counting and searching tasks on both paper and CRT screen under different illumination levels, were carried out.
       The amplitude histogram of the pupil diameter was influenced by the viewing objects and the difference of illumination. A certain difference of power spectrum density of the fluctuation of pupil diameter was dependent upon the amount of visual tasks.
    Keywords: VDT, Eye, Pupil, Lighting, CRT
    An Empirical Study on Identification of Coloured Lines on the CRT BIBA 243-247
      U. Pawlak
    Using colour crts it is oftenly difficult to distinguish colour of thin lines. We investigate possibilities to improve the distinction of lines with various width in front of white, grey and black background. 20 colours were selected out of the colour gamut of a crt. We found through our experiment, that lines should have a minimum width of 4 pixels and should be shown be shown on gray background, to get the best results.

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; User Interface Management at the Market Place

    PROMETHEUS -- A System for Programming Graphical User Interfaces BIBAK 253-258
      Dierk Ehmke; Marion Kreiter; Christian Sanger; Dietmar Siepmann
    This paper describes PROMETHEUS, a system for programming graphical user interfaces. PROMETHEUS is based on its predecessors PRODIA and THESEUS. It integrates techniques for graphics, window and dialogue programming. The systems flexibility for the integration of new output (e.g. 3-d line graphics and video) and input features is achieved by PROMETHEUS' concepts for windows, so called frames, which can contain text, graphics, raster or graphical masks, control and dialogue management.
    Keywords: User interface, Window systems, Dialogue programming, Graphic systems
    The ISA DIALOG MANAGER: Requirements for User Interface Management Systems BIBA 259-264
      K.-P. Fahnrich; M. Karcher
    The paper discusses customers' views on professional tools for building user interfaces. It then positions user interface management systems according to other established technologies from the customers' point of view. The paper gives general concepts and a general architecture for a UIMS. In addition, it discusses the functional decomposition of such a system and gives some details on implementation strategies. The paper concludes with some highlights and benefits from using a state-of-the-art UIMS technology for the user.
    The Serpent UIMS BIBA 265-269
      Erik J. Hardy; Daniel V. Klein
    Serpent represents a new generation of User Interface Management Systems which manage the total dynamic behavior of an interface and which allow applications to remain uninvolved with the details of the user interface. Serpent is designed to manage the specification and dynamic behavior of (relatively) arbitrary toolkits. It provides a fixed application programmer interface across changes in toolkits. This allows an application to evolve from one toolkit to another, or even to use multiple toolkits simultaneously.

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; Progress in User Interface Management

    A Critical Look at Toolkit-Based Window Management Systems BIBAK 270-274
      Matthias Grochtmann
    It will be shown that the use of toolkit-based window management systems like e.g. OSF/Motif or OpenLook can lead to applications which are not well adapted to the needs of their users. As an alternative the TUWin and WindowNet methodology will be presented which supports a holistic design of the application.
    Keywords: Window systems, User interface design, User interface management systems, State-transition diagrams, Prototyping
    Task-Oriented Dialogue Management Based on Different Knowledge Sources BIBAK 275-280
      Christian Stary
    This paper reports on an ongoing research project concerning task-oriented user interface management systems which are handling several knowledge bases. These knowledge bases operate on problem domain data as well as on interaction media and modes. For task-oriented user support the addressed knowledge categories have to be correlated according to end user tasks. We introduce a novel architecture for task-oriented dialogue management which is base on object-oriented programming and the blackboard concept.
    Keywords: Dialogue management, End-user task modeling, Knowledge-based user interface development, Object-oriented design, Blackboard systems
    New Algorithms for Interactive Object Oriented Graphics BIBAK 281-286
      B. Arndt; K. H. Hanne
    The framework of a hierarchical architecture and its inheritance rules described here is formed to fulfill the special inheritance demands of an interactive object oriented graphical system. It specifies another style of inheritance as used in Smalltalk or C++.
    Keywords: Graphical presentation, Graphical representation, Interactions, Prototyping, Instances, Dynamic inheritance
    A Logic Based Programming Environment for Interactive Applications BIBAK 287-291
      H. Jasper
    Visualization and manipulation of knowledge is of great importance for any knowledge based system. Window based user interface management systems (UIMS) allow for building flexible and easy to use interactive graphical user interfaces. There is a need to integrate such UIMS into knowledge base programming environments. This paper addresses the integration of UIMS into the logic programming environment PROTOS-L. Our approach provides a small set of built-in predicates which defines an object oriented interface to UIMS within the logic programming language. The interface is realized by the PROTOS-L window manager. It uses a multiple process concept with asynchronous communication in order to cope with long lasting inference processes. The prototype of the PROTOS-L window manager is based on the standard user interface toolkit OSF/Motif.
    Keywords: Logic programming, Object oriented programming, User interface management systems, PROTOS-L, OSF/Motif

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DIALOGUE MANAGEMENT/UIMS; Application Experiences with UIMS

    User Interface Management Systems UIMS for Interactive Applications -- Experiences Using ISA Dialog Manager -- BIB 292-297
      Gottfried B. Bertram
    Approach to a Dialogue Manager for Medical Information Systems BIBAK 298-302
      B. Thull; M. Langen; Th. Schecke; G. Rau
    The design of a user interface for a medical information system requires in particular a careful design of the interaction sequences. An approach to a dialogue manager is described which supports the definition of complex interaction, offers mechanisms for a user guidance based on colour coding and enables the analysis of interaction sequences with a dialogue graph. At the example of an infusion pump control panel the dialogue manager will be illustrated. Our experiences showed that the easy definition of complex interaction and the automated user guidance proved to be useful in practise; the graph-theoretical analysis of interaction sequences has to be developed further.
    Keywords: Graphical user interface, User interface management system, Dialogue manager, Medical information system
    Revolutionary vs. Evolutionary Rapid Prototyping: Balancing Software Productivity and HCI Design Concerns BIBAK 303-307
      S. P. Overmyer
    This paper compares the evolutionary to the revolutionary (throw-away) approach to rapid prototyping. Several published case histories are reviewed and an assessment is made of which approach appears to have the most impact on both HCI design and software productivity. A hybrid approach is suggested which balances the two competing concerns.
    Keywords: Rapid prototyping, Software productivity, HCI design
    Graphical User Interfaces: Metaphors We Compute By BIBA 308-313
      Jean-Marie Chauvet
    The past few years have been an increase in the variety of software tools to support the development of interactive computer systems. One common theme that has emerged is the production of graphical interactive user interfaces. This paper suggests a taxonomical approach towards a better understanding of the former growing set of software tools. The first section describes the current state-of-the-art metaphors underlying most of the emerging user interface software, and dwells on various dimensions along which tools can be compared. The second section is a rather more subjective description of the current R & D trends within the field and illustrates extensions of the latter metaphors that will inhabit our future user interfaces.

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA; Hypertext

    New Potentiality of Hypertext Systems in Information Retrieval Operations BIBAK 317-321
      Maristella Agosti
    The scope of this paper is twofold: to present the basic issues necessary to be considered while working in hypertext and hypermedia for information retrieval and to briefly present efforts currently under way in the lights of those basic issues.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Hypertext and information retrieval, Conceptual modelling of auxiliary data, Usability of hypertext systems, User interface
    Mental Spaces of Hypertext Links: An Empirical Investigation BIBAK 322-326
      Helmut Pfeiffer; Edmund Eberleh
    Hypertext systems provide flexible information management by means of various links between chunks of information. However, the user had to know the functionality of those links in order to anticipate what will happen after traversing a link. The present study gives a classification of hypertext links and investigates the mental representation of those links after learning and working with an experimental hypertext system. The results indicate an organization of the mental link space by the dimensions Direction, Hierarchy and Structure, but indicate a further dimension as well. Conclusions concerning the user interface design of links are discussed.
    Keywords: Hypertext systems, Classes of hypertext links, Mental representation of hypertext links, HyperCard, User interface of hypertext systems
    Attempts to Draw Nice Graphs by an Interactive Hypertext Browser BIBA 327-331
      M. Hofmann; H. Langendorfer; K. Laue; E. Lubben
    This paper deals with the interactive user interface of the CONCORDE hypertext system. A first prototype of CONCORDE was shown at the German workshop on hypertext in April 1990. Main objective of the realization of the system is the support of active hypertext applications. In opposite to browsing applications, active hypertext applications change the data inside the system. In the next sections of this paper, a brief survey of CONCORDE and its user interface is given (section 2). We had to implement some graph-layout algorithm since CONCORDE uses a machine-driven graph-layout. The selection of a fitting algorithm surprisingly proved to be difficult, since often the computation of "nice graphs" consumes more time than bearable in an interactive system. We compare some algorithms we tried to apply in our system (section 3). Finally, we describe the solution implemented (section 4).
    Hypertext Interface to Technical Terminology BIBAK 332-336
      Antonius van Hoof; Renate Mayer
    The translation of technical terminology causes nonexperts like translators or technical writers many problems. They are expected to write or translate texts even though they may not exactly know all the technical details about the object or method they are to describe. Machine translation does not and probably never will provide a solution to these problems. There is thus a need for CAT (Computer Aided Translation) systems in the form of termbanks which support translators in their daily work by providing them with technical terminology. In general, existing termbanks lack user-friendly interfaces. This paper describes a terminological database featuring a navigation tool which will improve the termbank by making it similar to a hypertext system on the interface level.
    Keywords: CAT, Translation, Hypertext, Termbank

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: HYPERTEXT AND HYPERMEDIA; Hypermedia

    Media Composition and Synchronization Aspects in an Interactive Multimedia Authoring Environment BIBAK 337-343
      Gianluca Pancaccini; Francesco Stajano
    The multimedia model adopted by current commercial authoring systems is a score that mimics a multitrack magnetic tape; it is not well suited to support time scaling and provides a very low level description for a multimedia author.
       To address these problems this paper introduces SMES, a hierarchically structured multimedia model containing explicit synchronization constraints. (The name stands for "Structured Model with Explicit Synchronization".)
    Keywords: Multimedia, Synchronization, Authoring environment, Time scaling, SMES
    The Motion Picture in Interactive Information Systems: A Necessary or Facilitating Component? BIBAK 344-349
      J. Faber; T. Meiers; D. Ruschin; A. Seyferth
    At present there is a continuously growing interest in using motion pictures in interactive video systems, hypermedia, or computer animation, and also as an additional component of future interactive videotex. Though it is evident that due to motion picture presentations knowledge relevant in various application domains can be acquired successfully, it is still an unsettled question under which conditions media combinations including motion pictures have substantial advantages in comparison to media combinations without motion pictures. Therefore in an ongoing project of the Heinrich-Hertz-Institute a series of by now nine learning experiments has been concerned with the question whether motion picture presentations are superior if spatial or temporal properties of motions are to be learned. Here with regard to criteria of efficiency (success and time required for successful learning) a substantial superiority of motion picture presentations was found only with regard to a rather complex motion pattern. However, concerning criteria relevant for user satisfaction (namely ease versus strain and enjoyability versus boredom of learning) present results support the expectation that in fact advantages result from the use of motion pictures in a comparatively broad domain of learning goals.
    Keywords: Multimedia information systems, Advantages of motion picture presentations, Criteria of superiority of motion picture presentations, Learning with motion pictures
    A Hypermedia Information System to Manage the Activities in a Research Institute BIBAK 350-356
      M. Allegra; O. Di Giuseppe; S. Mangiaracina
    Up to today dynamic hypermedia have been used in cooperative writing, collaboration work, on line publishing and authoring courseware. In this paper we present an example of information system for managing and supporting activities in a research institute.
       The kind of information used in an institute is of different types; furthermore some data have to be frequently updated. The system helps the workers to fill, to update and to have access to information. We believe hypermedia is suitable in effectively managing these data and in this paper we'll examine how it can be used to create information systems based on an artificial reality reflecting this kind of organization. We'll then describe the structure of HyperITDF system and its use in the institute.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, Office automation, Documentation, Artificial reality

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Design and Management of Distributed Systems

    Application Design Using the Comandos Distributed Object Oriented System BIBAK 359-363
      D. Decouchant; V. Normand; G. Vandome
    The Comandos system is an object-oriented platform for the development of integrated distributed applications. After a short presentation of the Comandos Platform, the main characteristics of the Comandos model are presented. Then the design of a cooperative distributed application developed using the Comandos platform is discussed.
    Keywords: Distribution, Object, Persistency, Type class, Concurrency, Synchronization
    How Intelligent, Integrated System Access Enhances Use Task Performance, Productivity, and Satisfaction BIBA 364-368
      Paul Reed
    User who must interact with many computer systems that have incompatible commands, displays, and dialog structures often encounter usability problems, especially when these systems must be accessed to perform their primary job function. Telephone company personnel who provide service to customers must deal with severe multi-system usability problems as a result of 1) a large and increasing number of computerized Operations Support Systems, and 2) increases in the number of systems that must be used to perform a single task.
       The User Access Management (UAM) software architecture provides a layer of software between the user and the multiple systems that must be used in their job function. Information from multiple systems can be acquired and intelligently integrated in a task-oriented display format through a single user action (e.g. menu selection).
       The StarRep and Craft Access applications provide integrated access to multiple Operations Support Systems to field technicians and customer contact personnel. The success of these applications proves that the UAM approach is an effective technique for improving user effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction when performing tasks using multiple systems. This approach may be employed in other multi-system domains including office automation, consumer information services (e.g. videotext), and factory automation.
    Issues in the Management of Heterogeneous Networks BIBAK 369-373
      Gautam Kar; Peter Peinl
    The management of large heterogeneous networks is a very complex issue. In this short paper we have tried to give a feel for this complexity using a fault determination example derived from a real networking environment. We have presented an OSI based approach that can be used to address such class of problems.
    Keywords: OSI, CMIS/CMIP, Manager, Agent, Fault management
    A Toolset for Administration and Management of Distributed Information Systems BIBAK 374-378
      Friedemann Reim; Helmut Meitner
    Design and operation of a distributed information system have to consider a dynamic environment of requirements and opportunities. ESPRIT project COMANDOS takes an adaptive approach for the administration and management of distributed information systems that allows the original design of the infrastructure to be modified as experience is gained and as user requirements towards the operating environment change. The approach is based on an object oriented model of the information system. Three distinct tools and their integration into the running system are described in detail: DISDES -- a tool for organizational design, UsrAdm -- a tool for system administration and RiskMa -- a security management tool.
    Keywords: System management, Distributed information systems, Organizational engineering, Security management

    Congress II: Design and Implementation of Interactive Systems: DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION SYSTEMS; Present and Future Capabilities of Distributed Systems

    A Multipoint Teleconferencing Service for the ISDN BIBAK 379-383
      S. M. Furner; N. Watkinson; W. Clark; H. Frowein
    Public network technology is rapidly developing. Increased bandwidth coupled with the processing power of the desktop micro-computer will bring multimedia communications services onto the office desktop. This mixture of communications and computing technology will need to take account of the way in which it will be used. These systems must be simple to learn, easy to use and appealing for their intended customers. This paper reports the work carried out in the ESPRIT MIAS project to address usability engineering issues for multipoint teleconferencing over the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
    Keywords: Teleconferencing, CSCW, Multimedia, ISDN, Multiservice
    Multimedia Aspects in a Documentation System for Endoscopy Diagnosis of Throat Cancer BIBAK 384-388
      U. Arnold; J. Meyer; G. Peter
    This paper describes the development of a prototype for the documentation of the diagnosis of throat cancer. If further discusses the integration of this documentation system into a distributed environment. Finally it is outlined how to expand the system to a multimedia workstation supporting the complete documentation of a patient.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Distributed systems, Diagnosis documentation system, NFS, 3-D-model
    Office Procedure Support Systems on the Basis of Open Distributed Systems BIBAK 389-394
      Michael Rathgeb; Alexander Roos
    Office procedure support addresses the integration of static information objects such as documents with the definition and support for dynamic office work sequences involving several work places within an office domain. The concept of procedure support offers new qualities in contrast to bare computer support for information manipulation tasks (mechanization of office tasks). It comprises features for the synchronization and coordination of work sequences in the sense of the management of office work constraints.
       This paper defines the central aspects and concepts of office procedure support. It also shows how far open distributed information systems set the basis for such support. The second part of the article illustrates how office procedure support fits into the concept of Computer Integrated Business (CIB). Four central stages are discussed, illustrating how procedure support fits into the path to enterprise wide computer based integration.
    Keywords: Office procedure support, Cooperative work, Office automation, Distributed information systems
    A Successful Strategy for the Process of Implementing a Decentralized Information System BIBAK 395-399
      Ari Heiskanen
    The paper describes the implementation strategy applied when the student information system of the University of Helsinki was decentralized. The strategy was based on the perceived organizational context, taking into account the special kind of the organizations of higher education. The strategy appeared to be quite successful in an area that had otherwise been problematic.
    Keywords: Information systems, Implementation, Strategy, Higher education, Decentralization