HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | HCII Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1989-Sep-18 to 1989-Sep-22
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-88079-8 (Set); ISBN 0-444-88077-1 (V.1); ISBN 0-444-88078-X (V.2);; hcibib: HCII89
  1. HCII 1989-09-18 Volume 2
    1. Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Future Directions
    2. Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Software Psychology
    3. Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Learning
    4. Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Data Bases
    5. Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Graphics

HCII 1989-09-18 Volume 2

Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Future Directions

Future Directions for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 2-17
  Ben Shneiderman
This paper offers scenarios of future developments in applications such as home control, hypermedia, office automation, digital photography, collaborative meeting/classrooms, public access, professional workstations, and medical record-keeping. Also, predictions are made for some of the underlying technologies such as User Interface Management Systems, remote control, flexible search, display devices, and touchscreens.

Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Software Psychology

The Human Factors Design Process in Software Development BIBA 19-27
  Andrew M. Cohill
Method and process are often confused in software development. This paper discusses the differences between the two, and why an emphasis on process is more likely to lead to systems that meet user needs and expectations. The root of the confusion lies in a mis-understanding of method and process. A model is presented that views system development as a design process that may include the use of several different methods, each chosen for the appropriateness of the task requirements. The ecology of the workplace is discussed as an appropriate way for human factors engineers to the environmental and behavioral effects of new systems on users. Finally, the concept of information architecture is presented as a new way of thinking about high-level system design.
Program Understanding as an Expectation-Driven Activity BIBA 28-34
  F. Detienne; E. Soloway
The contribution of this study is the identification of different mechanisms involved in program understanding by experts, specifically the mechanisms which cope with novelty. An experiment was conducted to identify and describe the expert's strategies involved in understanding usual (plan-like) and unusual (unplan-like) programs. Under "normal" conditions the strategy which is observed is symbolic simulation. Information extracted from the program allows the activation of schemas and evoked knowledge creates expectations on what information should be in the program. But when failures occur additional strategies are required. The authors identified three types of understanding failures the subject may experience and the additional strategies invoked in those cases.
A Qualitative Approach to Assessing Complexity BIBA 35-42
  C. Knowles
SUMMARY This paper reports the findings of part of a study carried out by the author into the qualitative assessment of cognitive complexity. The relationship between task complexity and interface complexity is discussed with particular reference to sequencing information and the transfer of common structures or goal plans.
Computer Based Collaboration for Software Development BIBA 43-50
  Mie Kishimoto; Shogo Nishida
This paper deals with a supporting tool for communication in software development process, called COMICS (COMputer-based Intention Communication System). It is difficult to express intention of software and a software project has some communication problems. We propose a method to represent the ambiguous image of software and intention of software designer based on the theater model. Theater shows sequences of the integrated scene composed of actors, settings, etc. on the stage and the audience can understand its scenario and intention. We believe this property of human cognition can be used for intention communication in software development. COMICS is designed on the basis of the theater model. COMICS may be used as a conceptual design tool for system designer or as an explanation tool from development team to maintenance team.
Evaluating and Debugging Analogically Acquired Models BIBA 51-58
  Beth Adelson
We describe elements of a cognitive theory of analogical reasoning. The theory was developed using protocol data and has been implemented as a computer model. In order to constrain the theory, it has been developed within a problem-solving context, reflecting the purpose of analogical reasoning. This has allowed us to develop: A purpose-constrained mapping process which makes learning and debugging more tractable; An evaluation process that actively searches for bugs; And a debugging process that maintains functional aspects of base models, while adding target-appropriate causal explanations. The active, knowledge-based elements of our theory are characteristic of mechanisms needed to model complex problem-solving.
Graphic Language Representation and Programming Behavior BIBA 59-65
  Albert N. Badre; Jeanette Allen
Textual representations and procedural models have dominated programming efforts. As the cost of programming increases in proportion to machine cost, higher level languages become more attractive. Traditionally, computer languages have been represented as alphanumeric text. Current developments in display technology and graphics software make graphic representations much more feasible. In this study, we examined relative programming performance with textual and diagrammatic representations of a very simple procedural language. The results show that novice programmers' performance on error inspection time is superior for textual over diagrammatic representations. Problem solving time yielded no significant differences suggesting that representation is not a factor for problem solving in unstructured procedural languages.
Program Editing Base on Variable Plans: A Cognitive Approach to Program Manipulation BIBA 66-73
  Jorma Sajaniemi; Asko Niemelainen
A program editor is the most used means to mentally manipulate computer programs. The editor can be a simple text editor or a more advanced one. This paper describes VOPE (Variable-Oriented Pascal Editor) which is connected to a standard editor with a simple interface. It allows a programmer to view and edit Pascal programs both in the usual fashion and in a way that makes variable plans more visible. As variable plans correspond to programmers' mental plans the VOPE system provides a cognitively sound approach to program editing.
Some Issues in Developing NUUIMS BIBA 74-81
  Shijie Cai
A user interface management system, NUUIMS, has been developed to enhance the interactive graphics application systems especially the CAD systems. It fully uses the modular technique to isolate the user interface and the application, so that the user interface can be designed concurrently with the application. NUUIMS uses a normalized user interface model to separate as much as possible the system-independent contents from the user interface program, then reduces the effort of specifying a user interface and makes the user interface more consistent, maintainable, extensive, and friendly.
Beacons: A Knowledge Structure in Program Comprehension BIBA 82-87
  Susan Wiedenbeck; Jean Scholtz
Beacons are surface features of program code which serve as keys to program comprehension. They are significant because they allow the programmer to determine program function quickly without line-by-line study of the code. The two experiments reported here were designed to establish a causal connection between presence of beacons and superior program comprehension. One experiment showed that when a beacon in a familiar program is disguised in some way, program comprehension of experienced programmers declines. Another experiment showed that this result holds true even for programs unfamiliar to the programmer.
Reasoning and Explanation in an Intelligent Tutor for Programming BIBA 88-95
  Michael Ranney; Brian J. Reiser
This paper describes GIL, the graphical tutor for LISP programming, according to criteria that are emerging from the field of intelligent tutoring. We begin with a brief overview of GIL's explanatory and visual characteristics, then discuss ways in which the system reduces and obviates many difficulties in learning to program. Finally, GIL's present and future performance is considered with respect to several problematic issues in the design of intelligent tutors.

Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Learning

Online Assistance: The Development of a Help-System and an Online Tutorial BIBA 97-104
  Thomas Moll; Urs Fischbacher
Support is one of the seven criteria of user-oriented dialog-design (Ulich 1987) which our research group is empirically investigating. In our first study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a context-specific help system. Then we developed and evaluated an online tutorial. Data regarding the real user behavior of tool and die makers using an interactive NC-programming system were collected by means of a combination of methods (Moll 1987), as logfile-recordings, thinking aloud and video self-confrontation. Our initial results indicate that support of novices could be improved if the online assistance were of a task-oriented design and based on data regarding real user problems.
Level of Abstraction Structured Text in Varied Tutorial Settings BIBA 105-112
  James H. Watt; Sjef van den Berg
A structured hypertext system, constructed of frames of information arranged according to the level of abstraction of the text material, is described and tested in three instructional settings: in competition with in-person lectures; as a supplement to them; and as a replacement for them. Objectively measured performance does not vary according to the setting, but subjective reactions of the students to the technology do differ. Structured hypertext is seen as most suitable as a replacement for classroom instruction for situations in which in-person instruction is not possible.
The Effect of Program Authorship on Novice Debugging Performance BIBA 113-120
  Ray Waddington; Roger Henry
The design of software development environments is often based on intuition. These environments are sometimes successful. User-centred design hopes to lead to software which is usable and successful because it will support users in the performance of their tasks. One important task within programming is program debugging. Expert programmers are known to be better at debugging programs that they did not write than are novice programmers. We argue that this task is not representative of the tasks novice programmers are required to do. We hypothese, and attempt to show empirically, that novice programmers possess, and are able to use, skills when debugging their own programs which they are not able to use when debugging programs which they did not write. We were unable to demonstrate this empirically. We consider this result in relation to the experimental design, the design of the debugging aids available to our subjects and the debugging strategy which these aids attempt to support.
Variations in Expertise: Implications for the Design of Assistance Systems BIBA 121-128
  Pierre Falzon; Willemien Visser
The paper presents an investigation of the differences between two experts in the same domain. The observed differences concern comparisons between domain objects, rule justifications (technical vs. pragmatic justifications, naive physics reasoning), and categorical knowledge (logic, level, and extension of the categorization). Differences are attributed to the prior experience of the two experts (workshop vs. laboratory). Implications for knowledge elicitation and for the design of assistance tools are presented.
An Analytical Review of Novice Typing Behavior and Evaluation of Educational Courseware Usefulness BIBA 129-136
  Yoshio T. Ikeda; Takashi Kondoh
This study reviewed the beginners' typing behavior and assessed usefulness of two coursewares and one typing textbook. The fifteen subjects participated in the experiments of typing lessons. As the result, all the participants mastered the "home positioning" method of typing, and improved their typing speed. One third of the subjects sacrificed their accuracy to gain their speed, however. For courseware improvement, review on its development is important and necessary. Discussed are the way and materials to be instructed, and interactive feedbacks to users about their typing speed and accuracy during a course of practicing.
Subject Differences in the Reading of Computer Algorithms BIBA 137-144
  M. Crosby; J. Stelovsky
Fundamental research investigating the influence of subject characteristics on the reading of algorithms can benefit several ares of software engineering, in particular design of programming environments and adaptive human-computer interfaces. In this study, we employed an eye tracking monitor to examine subject differences in the reading of a short, complex computer algorithm. The experiment revealed that experience, comprehension and cognitive style played significant roles in the degree of attention that subjects devoted to complex areas of the algorithm. The scanning strategies, however, could not be attributed to either experience or comprehension.
The Implications of the New Skill Requirements for Training Programs BIBA 145-151
  Jasminka Novak
Job content is a conceptual framework and has two aspects. The first aspect usually makes the basis for job description. The second aspect is the ability to perform and points out technical, interpersonal, cognitive and experiential skills. Technical skills are critical for entry into automated office but interactive and abstract skills are key to maintaining jobs. We recommend the type of training that includes a technical component which emphasizes computer use and the component which focuses on developing and encouraging interactive and abstract skills.
Learning a New Programming Language BIBA 152-159
  Jeanne Scholtz; Susan Wiedenbeck
Experienced programmers transferring to a new programming language have a far easier time than the novice learning a first language. However, they still experience considerable difficulties. Our objective in this study was to characterize the kinds of learning and transfer that take place in the early stages of using a new programming language and where difficulties develop. Transfer of skill has been studied in text editing, but not in programming, so this work is an initial contribution. It has theoretical significance for the understanding of transfer processes in a complex domain and practical significance for the training or retraining of programmers. We are interested in using what we discover to design automated systems to facilitate transfer among programming languages.
Design for Trainability: Assessment of Operational Complexity in Man-Machine Systems BIBA 160-167
  Yan M. Yufik; E. James Hartzell
This paper reports progress in the development of a computer-aided engineering system for the design of helicopter crewstations. The system will apply computational human factors methods to predict pilot training requirements early in the conceptual phase of design. We focus on operational complexity as one of the training predictors, and introduce methods for deriving complexity measures from design characteristics and pilot mental models. We argue that dependency graphs can be used to represent evolution of pilot models in the course of training, and propose complexity measures reflecting uncertainty resolved in graphs manipulation. We Indicate motivations of this work, then describe pilot models, followed by key concepts of complexity assessment.
Components of Computer Skill Acquisition: Some Reservations about Mental Models and Discovery Learning BIBA 168-173
  Marc M. Sebrechts; Richard L. Marsh
Current instructional strategies often place emphasis on the way in which a learner formulates a model of the task. In this context both "discovery learning" and "model-based instruction" have been emphasized. An empirical study is reported that suggests some limitations on these approaches in computer-based learning. Pure "discovery" in which the learner explores the computer system may not provide an adequate means for a person to evaluate his or her knowledge. Likewise, although it may be useful to provide models of the system in some cases, unless the user has some tools to help revise that model over time, the model instruction may actually interfere with performance. These results lend support to a somewhat more constrained "guided" form of discovery learning.
Preference and Performance Differences for Three Syntax Diagrams BIBA 174-178
  David F. Loricchio
Syntax diagrams used in existing microcomputer software manuals are compared to a simpler diagram developed for this study. Computer users examined the diagrams and ranked them according to how easy they were to read and understand. Then they used only one diagram to select correct commands from a list. Computer users without programming experience preferred the simpler diagram to the existing diagrams. Computer users with programming experience preferred all diagrams about the same. The number of errors made in selecting commands from a list was somewhat lower for groups using the simpler diagram although this difference was not statistically significant.

Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Data Bases

Towards Full Information Database Display BIBA 180-186
  T. Noreault; G. K. K. Tobin; R. M. Tobin
Full Text display of database information will cease to be acceptable to users who have grown used to the myriad of graphical and typographic options available on personal workstations. What will be required is Full Information display, which includes textual, tabular, typographic and graphical information. OCLC is exploring the use of SGML (Standardized General Markup Language) in the capture, storage and retrieval of Full Information. This paper outlines work to date on a project that will handle Full Text display, suggests how the basic framework of this effort can be expanded to encompass Full Information display, and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of SGML as a tool in this work.
The Use of a Generalized Hierarchy Exploration Tool in Search and Retrieval Systems BIBA 187-194
  Frank C., II Carman; Philip J. Smith; Steven S. Shute
Interface design for systems that search large bibliographic databases is considered in light of users' needs to create meaningful queries. The General Hierarchy Exploration Tool (GHET) prototype is described as a first step toward an intelligent search system. This prototype uses pre-compiled knowledge of class relationships, structured as taxonomic hierarchies. The hierarchies can be explored directly or entered through a concept index or a relations index. Semantic relations between concepts are explored as a way of providing a "meaning-based" search rather than a "keyword" search. These notions are formalized, illustrating how they can be applied in the context of an intelligent search interface.
Graphical User Interface for Database Access and Expert Systems Applications in Construction BIBA 195-202
  Kenneth F. Reinschmidt
Three-dimensional computer models provide the benefits of physical models and are a much better medium of communication between the designers and construction personnel than conventional drawings. Stone & Webster has developed an interface between a three-dimensional computer graphics system, a relational database management system, and an expert systems shell to create an integrated system for engineering, design, and construction of facilities. This system provides a graphical window into the database that makes the data-base easier to use. Interactive expert systems combine geometric information from the three-dimensional model, data from the database, and other information to arrive at immediate conclusions to assist the user at the workstation.
Query Processing Toward Complex View Support for a Library Database System BIBA 203-210
  Hideki Nishimoto; Shoji Ura
Until recently a relational database system (RDBS) has not been viable for such routine library management work as cataloging and retrieving because of the restriction that the data should be in flat table format. The RDBS potential, provides higher flexibility in sharing, recovery and security, as well as storing and managing large volume data banks efficiently. It has therefore become highly attractive to the modern library system operation.
   This paper describes an interface mechanism referred to as "complex view support" and discuses performance problems involved in query processing. This interface mechanism is used with an RDBS for supporting the increasingly complex distribution environment of current automated library systems.
A Friendly Graphical Environment for Interacting with Data and Knowledge Bases BIBA 211-218
  A. D'Atri; L. Tarantino
A graphical environment interfacing with knowledge and/or data base (K&DB) systems is discussed. This environment provides simple graphical formalisms to present information and friendly yet powerful interaction techniques. A network is introduced to specify links between K&DB objects; these objects are presented to the user as a collection of trees. The system provides multi/mono level and 2-dimensional/linear display of these trees, and a set of navigation techniques that do not require preconceived retrieval targets or familiarity with the K&DB contents and organization.
A Spanish Natural Language Interface to Databases: A Context Free Language Approach BIBA 219-225
  Roberto N. Abuter
This paper presents a natural language interface to databases, for the Spanish language. The objectives that this model have achieved are: low implementation cost, performance, interapplication transportability and the possibility of massive use in Latin America in part because it works with entity-relationship databases [CHEN, 1979] and it can be implemented on conventional hardware. The simplicity of the system is an effect of the context free language approach to the problem. At the end of the paper we show the performance of a prototype of the system developed for QRY (1), a non-procedural language used for information retrieval from databases constructed with a 4GL tool called DUNGA (2), and a test database.
Use of a Controlled Vocabulary Index in Information Retrieval Tasks BIBA 226-231
  Sally E. Doyen; Daniel D. Wheeler
The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' use of a controlled vocabulary index as a searchable file on an online library catalog. Students were given four tasks designed to be approached as subject searches but which also provided some author and title information. Only 56% of the questions were answered correctly and only 21% of subject terms entered by students matched controlled vocabulary terms. Students' attempts to use the online list of controlled vocabulary terms dropped from 100% on task 1 to 0% on task 4. Although some design changes are recommended, the major source of difficulty for the students seemed to be their inadequate conceptual model of the system.
Digital Terrain Databases and Intervisibility: Human-Computer Requirements for Deployment Site Selection in C{cubed}I Systems BIBA 232-239
  S. Green; J. Ford
Future C{cubed}I systems will have to make rapid and accurate deployment decisions based upon an analysis of terrain elevations to ensure microwave intervisibility between various system components. An experiment was run, using RPV systems as an example application, to assess the requirements for computer support in this task. The results showed that human cognitive processes are inadequate in visualizing and assessing large areas of terrain represented on topographic contour maps and that computer support is required at every stage of the process from selecting candidate sites to computing intervisibility profiles. A system designed by the authors which solves these terrain analysis problems is briefly described.

Designing and Using Human-Computer Interfaces and Knowledge Based Systems; Graphics

Human Performance in Computer-Aided Architectural Design BIBA 241-249
  D. L. Cuomo; J. Sharit
The tremendous growth in the area of human-computer interaction has, in some cases, resulted in the implementation of technologies at a pace well ahead of the development for assessing human performance on tasks employing these technologies. An example of such a technology is computer-aided design. The cognitive processes underlying human design behavior require that performance measures be developed that adequately reflect these processes. Ultimately, the development and implementation of such a performance methodology could help us establish the degree to which the computer technology supports or constrains human design activities. In this paper we discuss an approach that was taken toward meeting these objectives. In particular, the application area of architectural design will be examined.
Applications of CAD Modeling for Constructibility Analysis of a Semi-Automated Piping Construction System BIBA 250-257
  Deborah J. Fisher; James T. O'Connor
Innovations in automated construction operations can be made if their designs and behaviors are first simulated and optimized before committing actual resources to the operations. This paper focuses on the application of a 3-D CAD system for constructibility analysis of a piping construction system for process plants. Conventional designs of system components are altered and tested, within the CAD model, for system enhancements. CAD simulation permits quantitative analyses of constructibility issues objectives. Productivity savings in piping erection of 22% have been realized through system enhancements via CAD modeling.
CRT Information Design in a Power Plant Control Room BIBA 258-262
  S.-L. Hwang; C.-Y. Chen
The purpose of this study was to find a better information design of the SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) in a nuclear power plant control room so that the efficiency and safety of the system can be improved. An experiment was conducted by manipulating the independent variables, depth, task load, and the arrangement of parameters. The dependent variables included the response time of the subjects and the number of errors. The results showed that both depth and task load had significant effects on the response time.
Redesigning and Evaluating VDU Graphics for Process Control: Cognitive Ergonomics Applied to the Operator Interface BIBA 263-270
  Tjerk W. van der Schaaf
In the control rooms of the chemical process industry panel instrumentation is gradually being replaced by visual display units (VDU's) as the interface between process and operators. After discussing the consequences of this trend for the operator task it is concluded that a serious "interface mismatch" often exists: the way of presenting information on the VDU'S does not fit the mental model of the operators. Therefor a procedure was developed to enable plant employees themselves to redesign the existing VDU graphics. So far favorable results have been obtained in several case studies indicating an efficient and effective way of user participation.
Effects of Display Mode on the Development of Mental Models Through Rule-Based Expert System Interaction BIBA 271-277
  Jack W. Posey; Ray E. Eberts
The knowledge for a natural domain as contained in the rules of a rule based expert system in text mode are copied pictorially and textually to a neutral domain. The pictorial rules match one to one with the corresponding text mode rules. The neutral domain can be used to test groups of subjects for differences between mental models of the rules that are learned by interacting with text and with pictorial rule bases. An interface for displaying rule components and execution via animation of symbols is described.
Interactive Graphics Display Design Based on the Mental Models of Experts and Novices: Evaluating Users' Knowledge Acquisition BIBA 278-285
  Charles D. Caldwell; Ray E. Eberts
The goal of this project is to extract information about computer programmer's mental models of programming languages and use this knowledge to design an interactive graphics display so that novice programmers can acquire accurate mental models quickly. Novice programmers in C language compared pairs of eleven commands and provided similarity ratings. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis procedures were performed on the pairwise similarity ratings, replicating previous findings by Caldwell and Eberts (1985) and Caldwell (1987); features identified were the degree to which a command affects the flow of control, the type of operations performed on data, and the manner in which commands could be combined to obtain more complex statements. These features were then mapped to elements and widgets of a graphics display in design specifications. Such a display can be used to encourage novices to organize programming knowledge during acquisition in a way that should lead to mental models similar to those possessed by experts.
The Design and Analysis of a Medical Imaging Workstation BIBA 286-293
  Jim Gee; Woodrow Barfield; David Haynor; Yongmin Kim
Conventional diagnostic protocols in radiological viewing dictate the availability of a large display space, as exemplified by the film alternator (or lightbox). Currently, electronic emulation of the display capacity of an alternator is prohibitively expensive, thus a hybrid alternator-filmstrip metaphor is introduced to aid the radiologist in scrolling through X-ray Computed Tomography studies. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of the alternator-filmstrip metaphor and the subjective preferences for its associated image display formats. In addition, the effectiveness of two image processing functions provided by the workstation, contrast manipulation and zoom, were tested. Implications of the results for medical imaging workstation design are discussed.
Stereoscopic Computer Graphics for Neurosurgery BIBA 294-301
  Randy L. Sollenberger; Paul Milgram
An experiment is described, in which the practicality of using rotational displays and stereoscopic viewing for providing computer graphic depth cues, as a potential aid in stereotactic neurosurgery, was investigated. Subjects were required to detect connectivity of line segments within a complex three dimensional tree structure, possessing characteristics analogous to a cerebral angiogram. Results indicated apparent superiority of monoscopic viewing with interactively controlled image rotation over static stereoscopic viewing. Practical aspects of employing these technologies, both separately and in combination, are reviewed.
An Integrated Window Based User Interface for Engineering Design Using 3-D Graphics BIBA 302-312
  Klaus Lay; Andreas Brunn
In this paper we present a tool for the efficient and rapid creation of user interfaces for CAE applications, e.g. interactive modeling or robotics programming. The tool combines 3D-graphics and window based dialog elements such as menus, icons or input fields. This enables the user to get a uniform and flexible control of his application. The tool consists of five components which are described as well as their interaction: a dialog manager, a 3D-graphic kernel system, a construction language for user interfaces, an application interface and a graphic editor for user interfaces.
Presenting a Graphical Network: A Comparison of Performance Using Fisheye and Scrolling Views BIBA 313-320
  J. G. Hollands; T. T. Carey; M. L. Matthews; C. A. McCann
We have experimented with the impact of a fisheye view on graphical presentations for topographic networks. Subjects selected optimal routes between stations on a fictional subway network, using either a scrolling view or a fisheye view. Performance using a fisheye view was superior when the destination station was not visible in the initial display; performance with scrolling was superior when both stations were visible and when more complex itineraries were required. Scrolling performance improved over time with two-station routes; the fisheye performance improved in the (later) itinerary task.
The Interface Adaptability of Graphics Displays BIBA 321-328
  R. W. Garneau; M. Holynski
As computer images become more sophisticated and easier to generate, we must find ways to remove the initial influence of the programmer and incorporate the individuality, creative experience, and preferences of specific users into image generation algorithms. This paper describes a system which generates images based on a specific set of visual variables with user derived values. By employing machine learning techniques, the system is shown to interactively adapt and change graphics displays to meet the needs, taste and preferences of specific users.
VIDEO: An Expert Consultant for Visual Design BIBA 329-337
  J. W. Roach
Many behavioral experimenters have created a corpus of advice about how the visual design of a human-computer interface should proceed. Construction of an expert system that embodied this advice would be a boon to interface designers. This problem, however, required a new kind of expert system, a "true consultant." We report the construction of the first such true consultant for a well-understood visual design domain: the simple visual design task of chart construction. An analysis of several other more interesting visual design problems has using the techniques described has also been completed.
The Design and Implementation of SunPict, A User-Extensible Visual Environment for Intermediate-Scale Procedural Programming BIBA 338-345
  David W. Mcintyre; Ephraim P. Glinert
The SUNPICT environment, which supports interactive graphical composition and execution of procedural programs, incorporates many novel features which have been unavailable in previous visual systems. Both textual names and simple icons are associated with all variables; the icon's task in this case is to rapidly convey type information to the observer. The run-time action associated with a program icon may be specified either by means of an iconic (SUNPICT) subprogram or, alternativity when a mathematical calculation is required, by writing textual code in a simple Lisp-like dialect; this code can be changed on the fly, as necessary. User program modules are not limited by screen size, but rather are potentially infinite in all four directions of the compass. The cumulative effect of these and other visual features (including color and animation), in conjunction with the efficient algorithms which underly the implementation, is that SUNPICT is able to effectively handle larger user programs than its predecessors.
Predictor Display for Woodshole Argo Submersible BIBA 346-353
  Chi-Cheng Cheng; Thomas B. Sheridan
The control strategy for the towed submersible, Argo, is currently limited to straight-line maneuvers, because of the complex dynamics of the long cable. A long-term predictor is developed to help human operators to control the Argo's position. Although it is not likely to have a complete model for the long cable, a hybrid prediction method that combines a discrete time-series model and a continuous extrapolation model is introduced under the condition of the limited knowledge about this complex system. The technique of least squares with exponential data-weighting is applied to calibrate the model parameters in real time. An experimental cable model is also developed for computer simulation. Two simulations, straight-line and curve maneuvers, are investigated. The satisfactory prediction performance of the hybrid algorithm is shown in simulation results.
An Information Throughput Model for Complex, Transparent, Telescience Systems BIBA 354-360
  Richard F. Haines
A four input parameter model is presented which can be used to evaluate the throughput of complex, manned, telescience based systems that may be incorporated in future remotely located laboratories. The first two parameters deal with nominal (A) and off-nominal (B) predicted events while the last two focus on measured events of two types, human performance (C) and system performance (D). Digital simulations showed that the expression A(1-B)/(C+D) yielded the smallest data distribution and greatest symmetry. Complex, interacting telescience systems may be systematically evaluated with this expression much like a benchmark is used.
Human-Computer Interface Techniques for Map Based Diagrams BIBA 361-368
  Y. K. Leung
This paper describes a number of human-computer interface techniques specifically designed to facilitate presentation and navigation of map based graphic systems. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. Two of these techniques, the bifocal display technique and the split screen technique have been implemented using the London Underground map on an Apollo graphics workstation. These human-computer interface techniques can well be applied to other map based diagrams such as engineering plans and electronic circuit diagrams.
Command and Graphic Interfaces: User Performance and Satisfaction BIBA 369-375
  J. W. Tombaugh; B. Paynter; R. F. Dillon
Experienced users of a command and graphic (iconic) interface performed a benchmark task on the operating system they know and on the other operating system with which they are not familiar. The results showed that the operating system tasks are completed in approximately the same amount of time on both systems by experienced users, and that transfer from the command to graphic system results in performance comparable to the experienced users after training. On the other hand, task time in transferring from the graphic to command system was much slower.
Analysis of the Effectiveness of Graphics in Computer Aided Instruction BIBA 376-383
  W. J. Joel; R. White; W. Tucker
Much has been written on the effectiveness of graphics in computer aided instruction from a subjective viewpoint, as well as from an objective viewpoint, though there is still disagreement between these two views. What this creates is a need for further statistical analysis. A study was designed to determine statistically the effectiveness of graphics in CAI. A group of 60 middle school science students participated in the study. The study consisted of a pre-test on student attitudes and existing knowledge of human body systems, four CAI lessons, and a post-test on subsequent attitudes and acquired knowledge of human body systems. An analysis of these results indicates that amount of information acquired by a student from CAI is related to the interaction between presence or absence of graphics, and pre-existing knowledge.
QBD*: A Graphical Query Language with Recursion BIBA 384-391
  M. Angelaccio; T. Catarci; G. Santucci
One of the main problems in the database area is to define query languages characterized by both high expressive power and ease of use. In this paper, we propose a system to query databases, using diagrams as standard user interface. The system, called Query by Diagram* (QBD*), makes use of a conceptual data model, a query language on this model and a graphical user interface. The conceptual model is the Entity-Relationship Model; the query language, whose expressive power allows recursive queries, supports visual interaction. The main characteristics of the interface are the ease of use, and the availability of a rich set of primitives for schema selection and query formulation.