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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1989-Sep-18 to 1989-Sep-22
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-88079-8 (Set); ISBN 0-444-88077-1 (V.1); ISBN 0-444-88078-X (V.2);; hcibib: HCII89
Papers:201
Pages:698+900
  1. HCII 1989-09-18 Volume 1
    1. Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Interface -- Speech
    2. Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Interface -- Displays and Controls
    3. Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Interface -- Human Factors

HCII 1989-09-18 Volume 1

Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Interface -- Speech

The Sonic Interface BIBA 382-388
  Dylan Jones
Interfaces which use sound, employing speech input, speech output or non-speech sounds, are the subject of much advocacy. This paper undertakes a critical evaluation of such interfaces, using a functional analysis of the human uses of speech as a starting point. Sound, it is argued, is attention grabbing, public, transient, related to attributes not objects, and induces anthropomorphism. The effect of each of these qualities is to suggest only a limited range of settings in which sonic interfaces are useful.
Speech Recognition and Temporal Designation BIBA 389-395
  James M. Stokes
Temporal designation is a key issue in speech interface technology for hands-busy and handicapped applications. The delay resulting from utterance duration prevents a voice-button from functioning as effectively as a push-button when marking a point in time. Experiments were conducted to determine the scope of this problem and to evaluate a general approach to its solution. Results showed that performance under delays comparable to speech detection or truncated-word recognition can approach performance with manual push buttons. Results also indicated that words truncated to fixed-length initial segments can be recognized using existing speech technology.
A Voice Reaction System with a Visualized Response Equivalent to Nodding BIBA 396-403
  Tomio Watanabe; Naohiko Yuuki
This paper describes a new voice reaction system equivalent to nodding, to aid smooth vocal input in human-computer communication. The synchrony between a speaker's voice and a listener's intentional nodding is first analyzed. Secondly, on the basis of these findings, a hierarchical voice-nodding reaction model is proposed, and the efficiency of the model is demonstrated. Finally, the system is developed using a Digital Signal Processor.
Understanding and Remembering Machine Speech BIBA 404-411
  J. MacDonald; A. Dower
Despite the improving quality of synthetically produced speech, listeners continue to find speech-by-rule less intelligible and more difficult to comprehend and remember than natural speech. This study tests whether these differences can be reduced by exposure to synthetic speech. This was tested by examining memory and comprehension on three successive days. The results showed that although memory performance was poorer in the synthetic speech condition on day one, by day three, these condition differences had disappeared.
Concurrent Manual Tracking and Speaking: Implications for Automatic Speech Recognition BIBA 412-418
  K. Hapeshi; D. M. Jones
The study examined interference between manual tracking and a concurrent speech input task. Tracking did not significantly increase recognition error rates, but did reduced the quality of the speech utterance when measured by recognition distance scores. Also, there is some evidence that tracking error increases at the moment of speech data entry. This appeared to be due to sensory registration rather than to programming of the utterance. The results also have implications for methodology, in particular the measurement of speech recognition accuracy and for models of dual task performance.
The Architecture Design of Hanyu (Chinese Language) Speech Information Processing System BIBA 419-427
  Zhao Pozhang
A five-layer structure model of the HANYU (Chinese Language) Speech Information Processing System (HYSIPS) is proposed for the first time and a concept of the speech code for information interchange is described. Also, the architecture model of the HYSIPS is discussed. It is pointed out that the design of the HYSIPS must be based on the Hanzi (Chinese Ideographic Character) Information Processing System (HZIPS) and the Speech Information Processing System (SIPS).
Issues in Auditory Interfaces Management: An Extra Channel for Computer Applications BIBA 428-435
  H. Matoba; F. Hirabayashi; Y. Kasahara
This paper proposes an auditory interfaces management scheme for multiprocessing systems in order to broaden the communication channels between users and applications. Auditory interfaces offer the advantage of reducing the pressure on visual display screens and manual input devices, and of permitting auditory and visual work to be accomplished simultaneously. The requirements for auditory interfaces include a number of those which are shared with window systems as well as some which arise from the auditory nature of the interface. The paper describes hardware devices and the auditory interfaces management system needed for satisfying the requirements. Some of the functional capabilities of the auditory interfaces management system are discussed, with emphasis on issues peculiar to the auditory interfaces.
Building a Communications Strategy for Human/Computer Interface Effectiveness, Decision-Making and Implementation BIBA 436-441
  Jay W. Spechler; Marilyn Spechler
This paper introduces Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), a recently developed communications technology, to individuals having responsibility for the human interfaces connected with introducing new technologies and for improving the effectiveness of knowledge workers who access computer data bases. The authors have developed an NLP business applications modeling process that has been successfully applied in: improving knowledge worker performance, introducing new technologies, managing complex projects and in developing expert systems. This process is called "3-SIGMA Communications Strategies".

Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Interface -- Displays and Controls

Addressing User Display Requirements from a Large and Diverse User Community BIBA 443-450
  C. L. Hunter; E. E., Jr. Schultz
This paper describes a systematic, widely applicable methodology for defining user requirements for system functionality and user interface capabilities. This methodology is a variation of the user centered system design approach, which focuses on the user of a system. Our methodology involves obtaining user input from questionnaires and interviews, utilizing a range of statistical techniques to analyze user data, then developing mathematical models to determine user needs. This methodology was used successfully to define user requirements in a replacement for an obsolete system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Advantages and disadvantages of this methodology are discussed.
Visualization Tools for the Applied Sciences BIBA 451-459
  Alessandro Giacalone; Arie Kaufman; Scott A. Smolka; David S. Warren
This paper describes a coordinated research effort at SUNY Stonybrook concerning the development of visualization tools for the applied sciences. The primary goal of this project is to build tools that allow scientists, without programming expertise, to construct visualization environments customized for specific application areas.
Visualizing Multi-Variate Relations with Parallel Coordinates BIBA 460-467
  Alfred Inselberg; Bernard Dimsdale
By means of parallel coordinates a non-projective mapping between N-Dimension (for any N) and 2-Dimensional sets is obtained. Relations among N variables are then represented by their planar images, which have certain geometrical properties corresponding to properties of the relation (hypersurface) that they represent. Starting from a point ← → line duality when N=2, the representation of lines in N-dimensions is given and illustrated by an application to Air Traffic Control (i.e. for N=4). It is followed by the representation of hyperplanes and more general convex and some nonconvex in N-dimensional hypersurfaces. Some of these results can be applied in Exploratory Data Analysis in Statistics. An algorithm for constructing and exhibiting any interior point of such a hypersurface is discussed. Such a display shows some local (i.e. near the point) properties of the hypersurface and information on the point's proximity to the boundary and is useful in Instrumentation and Process Control.
Tools for Interaction in Three Dimensions BIBA 468-475
  Arie Kaufman; Roni Yagel
Tools for three-dimensional (3D) user interaction that form the basis for a flexible and natural dialogue in an inherent 3D environment are described. The user interface handles events from a 3D positioning and orientation Polhemus input device (the kite), with feedback as a jack (a 3D cursor) moving inside a small-scale virtual 3D reality. A 3D drafting environment is supported to aid in the composition and transformation of geometric objects and in the interactive manipulation of volumetric data. These tools have been implemented as part of the Cube workstation, which is a 3D versatile volume-visualization system employing voxel representation.
Tablet-Based Valuators: A Comparison of Virtual Buttons and Hand Gestures for Interactive Computer Graphics BIBA 476-483
  S. B. Grissom; W. E. Carlson; G. Perlman
An experiment is conducted to compare two tablet-based virtual input devices for interactive computer graphics. The Gesture method uses hand gestures (kinesthetic correspondence) and the Button method uses a collection of virtual buttons to manipulate graphic objects. Although the Button method is shown to be a simpler design, it performs as well as the Gesture method when a low degree of accuracy is allowed. However, the Gesture method is found to increase user productivity when high accuracy is required. Suggestions are made to improve the performance of the Button method.
Interactive Performance in Space -- The Role of Perturbed Sensory Feedback BIBA 484-495
  Thomas J. Smith; Randy L. Smith; Mark A. Stuart; Steven T. Smith; Karl U. Smith
This report addresses the phenomenon of perturbed sensory feedback as a potentially serious obstacle to optimal performance and safety of interactive human-computer and telerobotic tasks in extraterrestrial environments. Human-factors considerations suggest that spatiotemporal perturbations plus other types of distortions in sensory feedback will arise during use of interactive telerobots for space station assembly, maintenance, and servicing. Potential consequences for the performance of the extraterrestrial operator include reduced fidelity of visual-manual tracking, impaired visual perception, problems with speech production and recognition, memory and learning decrements, impaired decision-making, and elevated behavioral-physiological stress, with a concomitant increase in the risk of performance errors and accidents. Findings from laboratory research documenting these effects are summarized, followed by a discussion of how such effects may contribute in a major way to variability of interactive performance in space.
A Study of Human-Computer Interaction Via Stereoscopic Display BIBA 496-503
  H. Takemura; A. Tomono; Y. Kobayashi
By combining a stereoscopic display and appropriate input devices, a new man-machine interface can be designed. Discussed in this paper are problems to be solved in order to realize this environment, including a high fidelity display method for stereoscopic displays and man-machine interface technique for 3-D image manipulation. We have constructed a display system which determines the position of the viewer's eye and generates an image based on his/her actual viewpoint. We have also evaluated the fidelity of the image displayed. As a test of a 3-D image manipulating interface, we evaluated the task of locating a 3-D cursor at the target position of the stereoscopic display using three types of input devices: dial-box, mouse and 3-D digitizer, with from one to three degrees of freedom.
The Effect of Force Feedback on Teleoperation BIBA 504-511
  K. P. Chin; T. B. Sheridan
In this paper, we argue that "telepresence", the sense of being present at a remote location, should be a means to achieve higher performance, but not a purpose in itself. Force feedback, considered as a subset of telepresence, is essential in constrained motion tasks. However, force feedback to the operator may reduce the performance because, firstly, it is fatiguing; secondly, it limits the dexterity and capacity of the system; and thirdly, it causes the teleoperator system to be unstable and hard to control especially in the presence of time delay. Therefore, we suggest that force information should be analyzed and interpreted at the remote site to avoid dynamic coupling between the task and operator. We also discuss the possibility and technology needed to replace force feedback with a supervisory control system in order to achieve a higher performance level in teleoperation.
A Tactile Input Device for Sheet Metal CAD BIBA 512-519
  Marc Filerman; Karl Ulrich; Todd Siler
While several Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering (MCAE) tools have successfully integrated expert systems with solid modelers and analysis packages, most systems still use the traditional keyboard and mouse or stylus input devices. These devices can be clumsy and difficult to use, and may actually hinder a designer's creativity. We have designed a new hand-held input device for use with a sheet metal Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system, which we believe exploits human tactile and spatial reasoning abilities. We hypothesize that this device will be easy to learn and use, will give a designer the power to rapidly conceptualize and modify a design, and will ultimately increase overall design quality and designer productivity. This paper describes our approach, an initial prototype, and a possible evaluation methodology.
Evaluation of a Robotic Tactile Sensor BIBA 520-527
  Filip Fuma; Ruzena Bajcsy
The purpose of this paper is to realistically assess the performance we can expect from a robot equipped with tactile sensors. It is our hypothesis that it is essential to understand the physical properties of the sensor which delivers the information about the world to the robotic system. We compare two methodologies -- one coming from psychophysics and the other from engineering -- and give, in one concrete example, some insights about the sensor and their implications.
Computer Aided Ship Operation BIBA 528-535
  A. M. Heinecke; H. Dahlmann-Heinecke
In recent years the use of computers in both nautical and technical ship operation has increased significantly. At the same time, crews of sea-going ships have been gradually reduced to such an extent that one single person operates the whole ship. Often there are different systems for special nautical or technical tasks, some of them being only modifications of control systems used ashore. Thus problems may arise from inconsistencies in the human-computer interface and from neglecting special on-board conditions. In order to ensure safety and economy of ship operation special information systems should be developed with user interfaces paying attention to the tasks and needs for information on board.
Physiological Evidences of Superiority of Positive Type CRT among Information Displays BIBA 536-541
  Susumu Saito; Kazuo Ishikawa; Toyohiko Hatada
This study was an investigation of human visual functions while viewing various kinds of information displays which have been widely used for most business nowadays. From the ergonomic aspects of pupil function of the eye, positive type CRT (dark character on the light background) was better than the negative one. It was also proved that the velocity of lens accommodation was higher while viewing the positive type display than that while viewing the negative type one. Types of display were arranged according to the velocity of lens accommodation in the following order (from high to low); positive type CRT, negative type CRT, PDP, LCD with back light and LCD without back light.
Readability of the Positive Type Liquid Crystal Display Devices with Multinumerals Influence by the Irradiation Illuminances BIBA 542-548
  Tetsuya Muraoka; Mikiya Kawamura; Hiroe Uesako
It is understood through the study of influence upon the readability by using P-LCD as a test piece that the segment overrupping which comes from the increasing of visual direction angle occupies the major cause of readability degradation.
Visibility of the Numerical Display Light Emitting Diode with 7 Segments Influenced by the Irradiation Illuminance BIBA 549-554
  Akira Tanaka; Hiroe Usesako; Mikiya Kawamura
Light emitting diode has come into wide use exceedingly because of its merits. However, as the operational environment, such as car-borne, etc., getting more severe, the more influence arises upon visual characteristics. So we investigated how the visibility is influenced by the irradiation illuminance.
VDT Display Color Readability in Terms of Stimulus Purity and Dominant Wavelength BIBA 555-562
  Shin'ichi Fukuzumi; Yoshio Hayashi
Subjective evaluations using thirty-one kinds of VDT display colors were carried out to clarify the relationships among dominant wavelength, stimulus purity and readability. The findings indicated that there was a most readable stimulus purity for each dominant wavelength, that women's evaluation tendency was different from men's, and that middle dominant wavelengths had similar evaluation values. By applying a factor analysis to the subjective feelings for the display colors used, these factors on "Conspicuous" and "Uncomfortable" were extracted.
The Effectiveness of Redundant Color-Coding on a CRT-Displayed Process-Control Task BIBA 563-570
  Rebecca M. T. Jubis
This study investigated the effectiveness of redundant color-codes and monochrome shape-codes for coding the operational states of scanpoints displayed on a CRT-displayed process-control diagram. Response-times were faster with color-coding than with shape-coding, across all levels of display density and inspection load, with both search and identification tasks. Also, color coding mitigated the detrimental effects of increased density and load. Coding did not affect response-accuracy on the search task, but on the identification task more errors were produced with shape-coding. It was concluded that redundant color-coding was superior to monochrome shape coding given the present task conditions.
Construction Manipulator Operation with "Ergosticks" BIBA 571-578
  P. J. Hughes; D. G. Alciatore; J. T. O'Connor; A. E. Traver
The Ergosticks control system has been developed for teleoperation of a large construction manipulator. It gives an operator intuitive proportional control of a 20 meter radius, eight axis hydraulic arm. A spectrum of enhancements is in development, including simple joint rate control, developed cartesian motions, and closed loop position control. This allows evaluation of "appropriate technology" for this large scale environment, and investigation of construction automation issues.
Multiservice Telecommunications Terminals: Performance and Design Concepts for the User Interface BIBA 579-586
  W. Blohm; A. Prussog
Service-integrated telecommunication networks suggest the use of a single terminal for accessing various narrow and broadband services. Such multiservice terminals encourage a combined use of services. Previous human factors tests revealed that a service-oriented operational concept has fundamental shortcomings in handling this form of service use. This paper presents a discussion of alternative operational concepts. On the basis of their pros and cons, a hybrid operational concept is derived. Empirical human factors tests of this new concept are in progress.
Editing Graphical Structures BIBA 587-594
  Gerd Szwillus
In this paper we present a project called GEGS, standing for Generation of Editors for Graphical Structures. With the GEGS system the user can generate a graphical structure editor from the definition of a graphical language. It comprises a specification of the graphics to be edited, as well as information about the editor's interface. Both aspects are treated within a common framework using only a few basic concepts. The GEGS-system up to now is in operation only partially, but the concepts involved in itself are interesting enough for presentation.
Development of New Keyboard Optimized from Standpoint of Ergonomics BIBA 595-603
  Masauke Morita
The author explained the role of the keyboard and the basic desired requirements. The author then indicated in concrete terms the way in which those requirements could be fulfilled. The author then describes an actual example implementation of the keyboard as a commercial product developed with consideration given to ergonomics. The new keyboard permits touch-typing use of all keys (including function keys). This permits high-speed input and reduces operator fatigue over long periods of continuous operation.

Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Interface -- Human Factors

A Methodology for the Analysis of Error Processes in Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 605-612
  S. Bagnara; A. Rizzo
The analysis of how humans make, detect and correct errors in interacting with computers is of crucial importance both in designing and in evaluating human-computer interaction. The present paper is aimed at illustrating a methodology of cognitive error analysis which allows to discriminate human errors on the basis of where the attentional control is directed to when an error occurs, to identify the characteristics of error detection as a function of the events which make apparent a mismatch in the course of action, and to single out the strategies utilized for error recovery.
People: The Driving Force in Human Computer Interaction BIBA 613-619
  K. Fielden
The key to better human computer interaction is through developing human potential, both in the development of better systems to interact with, and in the use of computer systems. A technological education program which encompasses explicitly a variety of thinking styles and work practices allows for the emergence of creativity. Co-operative work in small groups allows students to tackle multi-media projects which embrace a range of skills from hard science to technology to interpersonal communication. Educating for technological change and complexity, and interpersonal communication skills provides a possible solution for improved utilization of technological tools of the future.
Selecting Appropriate Subjects for Documentation Usability Testing BIBA 620-627
  Stephanie Rosenbaum
Subject selection is a crucial element of documentation usability testing. The accuracy and benefit of usability testing depend on how well the test audience emulates key segments of the actual audience for the documentation.
   This paper discusses how to select subjects for usability testing of computer documentation. Many of the issues presented apply to testing of other technical products and documentation, but my experience has primarily involved usability of computer software and systems.
   Subject selection for usability testing involves three major activities:
  • Developing appropriate user profiles.
  • Locating and obtaining suitable subjects.
  • Making decisions related to the experimental design (such as sample size and
       population groups). For this paper, I take subject selection to include identifying desired criteria for subjects (including the composition of subject subgroups) and obtaining the subjects. Except for a few remarks, I exclude the issue of organizing the subgroups into samples for specific test settings, which deserves a treatment of its own under the topic of experimental design.
       The following pages describe procedures and criteria for identifying appropriate subjects for computer documentation usability testing. In addition, I present an example of user group identification, based on the subject selection process for a documentation usability testing project my firm recently performed.
  • Influences of Sex and Age on a Visual Inspection Task with a VDT BIBA 628-635
      K. Mikami; S. Izumi; M. Kumashiro
    The influences of sex and age on the adaptability to a visual inspection task with a VDT dependent on workers' visual judgment and hand functions were investigated from the viewpoint of psychophysiological functions, work efficiencies and feelings of fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine how to best utilize female workers by evaluating their exact capabilities and to contribute to the improvement of productivity in the workshop.
    How Affects a Human-Error Probability by Physiological Conditions in the Man-Machine System BIBA 636-643
      Kenji Yoshino; Kenichi Takano; Akihiko Nagasaka
    Studies were made on the relationship between the skin resistance reflex (SRR) observed on skin surface of man's palms and mental work load (MWL) and relationships between the skin resistance level (SRL) and the arousal level (AL). And the relationship error rate and MWL and AL was quantitatively examined. It was found that increase of error rates could be assessed by monitoring SRR and SRL.
    A Study on the Method of Measuring the Activity Level of VDT Workers BIBA 644-653
      Masaharu Takeda; Yoshio Hayashi
    Recently, the number of people who come in contact with video display terminals (VDT's) in offices, schools and homes is rapidly increasing. This may contribute to causing health-related problems, since man's visual and auditory sensation is already being exposed to a large number of strong stimulus. On what grounds should the time in which man is exposed to VDT's be limited? The limited time in which one should be exposed is related to one's health. Critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) has been used to measure the activity level of the cortex. In this study, the author has conducted an experiment on the hypothesis that the minimum audible pressure may be a measure of the activity level of the cortex and, as a result, has concluded that the hypothesis is valid. This makes cortex activity measurement more convenient and therefore, contributes to health management.
    A New Apparatus for Evaluating Fatigue of VDT Workers BIBA 654-658
      Kazuo Saito; Toshiyuki Hosokawa
    Many offices and industries have integrated computerized work into their routines in accordance with the high-tech revolution in the past 10 years. In spite of these changes in the mode of labor we still do not possess adequate instrument for accurately measuring the fatigue involved in computer work and visual task accompanied by hand and arm movement.
       In order to meet this situation we devised new apparatus named VRT (Visual Reaction Test) using a visual display terminal. In this report physical makeup and the validity of this new apparatus were introduced.
    Ergonomic Evaluation of User-Interfaces by Means of Eye-Movement Data BIBA 659-665
      W. Graf; H. Krueger
    The effect of the layout of alphanumeric VDU-displays as well as the effect of different cognitive loads on eye-movement parameters was investigated. Accurate measurement of eye-movements was used. A model for search-tasks concerning eye-movements was developed.
       Subjects had to answer questions concerning the information on a VDU-display. Thus, a visual search-task was caused. The layout of the displays and the difficulty of questions (cognitive load) was varied. The results of the reported research show that the investigation of a man-machine-interface using eye-movement data (for example during the prototyping phase) offers a measure of performance which allows an evaluation of the layout of a user-interface as well as an evaluation of the cognitive load of users.
       Some practical conclusions are drawn to evaluate user-interfaces according to eye-movement data.
    A Study of Human Interface Using an Eye-Movement Detection System BIBA 666-673
      M. Iida; A. Tomono; Y. Kobayashi
    In this paper, a spectacle type eye-movement detector allowing movement of the head is proposed in order to utilize a person's gaze for human interface. The system detects the gaze point on the display screen even when the head is moving, and calibration is easily performed. To upgrade calibration precision, a method of least squares is used, and to facilitate obtaining the required data, an indicator moving in a circular orbit on the display screen is used. An experiment evaluated the subject's ability to position his gaze on the indicator displayed on the screen.
    Visual Evoked Potential as an Indicator of Visual Fatigue BIBA 674-679
      Toshimasa Yamazaki; Ken-ichi Kamijo
    Visual fatigue encountered in viewing a stereoscopic 3D display was examined using visual evolved potential (VEP) by light flash. The peak latencies of the VEPs measured after viewing the 3D display were significantly later than that before viewing. The average latencies in the 3D observation were significantly later than those in the standard 2D display for 30, 60 and 90 minutes. These findings suggest that the unnatural stereopsis forced in the 3D display under low luminance conditions can cause visual fatigue.
    Evaluating Complexity of Task Content in Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 680-687
      Katsuhiko Ogawa
    This paper proposes a measure, called Task Content Complexity TCC, for evaluating the task complexity a human operator faces while performing a task using a given computer system. It is theoretically proven that the TCC measure is related to the content of the task, independent of the operation of the computer system used. An experiment confirms a strong relationship between the subjective complexity of the input material, in this case graphical information, and the TCC measure of the task the operator performs, using two different systems. The TCC measure will be of great use in the evaluation of computer operations.
    Measurement of Reflections of Displays BIBA 688-692
      M. Menozzi; H. Krueger
    The negative influence glare, respectively reflections, has on character reading on VDU's is well known. In most cases glare changes the adaptation level of the eye. Therefore the characters on the screen are more difficult to be read. Because of their sharp images the reflections may lead to an irritation of the accommodation of the eye. They force the VDU user to accommodate his or her eye to the distance of the target reflected in the display. As the viewing distance of the reflected target does not correspond to the viewing distance to the screen the characters on the screen are therefore seen as blurred. Beside the described negative effects of glare and reflections it has to be mentioned that any overlay of superfluous light on the screen diminishes the contrast of the characters and therefore reduces their legibility. This becomes worse as the details which have to be recognized on the screen get smaller.
       Considering the above mentioned facts it is clear that reflections on the screen have to be eliminated. The best method is to arrange screen and illumination in a way that no glare or reflections are produced at all. Mostly this cannot be realized. Therefore antiglare devices have to be installed additionally on the surface of the screen. As there are various devices available which work on different physical principles, the question arises which is the antiglare device which best reduces reflections and how the efficiency of different devices can be compared to each other? In this paper we propose a method for ranking different antiglare devices which correlates with subjective ratings. The main aim of the presented study was to find an easy to use method for assessing the quality of antiglare devices.