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HCII Tables of Contents: 89-1a89-1b89-2a89-2b91-1a91-1b91-2a91-2b93-1a93-1b93-1c

Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1989-Sep-18 to 1989-Sep-22
Publisher:Elsevier Science
Standard No:ISBN 0-444-88079-8 (Set); ISBN 0-444-88077-1 (V.1); ISBN 0-444-88078-X (V.2);; hcibib: HCII89
  1. HCII 1989-09-18 Volume 1
    1. Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Organizational
    2. Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Stress
    3. Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Health

HCII 1989-09-18 Volume 1

Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Organizational

Human Factors in Information Technology -- Results from a Large Cooperative European Research Programme BIBA 3-12
  H. J. Bullinger; K.-P. Fahnrich; J. Ziegler
The project 'Human Factors in Information Technology' (HUFIT) is an extensive project of cooperation in the European ESPRIT programme, involving eleven companies and research institutes in eight European countries. The project has two major objectives: it aims at improving the design process of IT products by increasing the awareness of Human Factors issues and by providing methods and tools for a user-oriented design. The second major objective is to further develop user interface techniques, especially for multimedia and multimodal interfaces and to provide tools for prototyping, and implementation of these interfaces.
   This paper presents the areas of research in HUFIT. The focus is on the presentation of the major outcomes of the project: the HUFIT Toolset and the software tools INTUIT, DIAMANT, and MAITRE.
Research Trends of Human Interfaces in Japan in Past Decade BIBA 13-20
  Yoshio Hayashi
Since the early 1980's in Japan, computer systems have been introduced rapidly at manufactories and offices. And recently, workers and users using the interface are demanding the better interfaces.
   The basic research for the studies of interfaces in Japan has been begun from the early 1960's. And we referred to research in other countries. Because many researchers in other countries have studied the research of human interfaces at early 1960's. But in Japan, this type of research have too much not been published to date.
   The age that this research has been begun actually at public agencies and enterprises with the publication of the Japanese translation of ergonomics at Olivetti by Buruno Scagliola as a turning point was in 1985. Many reports have been published in Japan from the period of about 1985.
   On the other hand, during the last few years, methods of research on the human interfaces have been changing from physical ergonomics to cognitive ergonomics, or from hard ergonomics to soft ergonomics. This paper shows the review of the studies on human interfaces in Japan.
A Sociotechnical Framework for Integrating Social and Technical Features of Computer-Automated Manufacturing BIBA 21-27
  Ann Majchrzak; David Roitman
This paper discusses work-in-progress to identify an analytic framework for matching social and technical features in the design of computer-automated manufacturing technology. The framework offers specific technical features which have been found from the research literature to have specific human role requirements. By clarifying these constraints imposed by technical design options, a model not only for future research but for engineers designing technology can be developed.
Technology Transfer as a Framework for Understanding Social Impacts of Computerization BIBA 28-37
  T. K. Bikson; J. D. Eveland
A technology transfer framework is proposed as an appropriate model for understanding the computerization of information intensive work. This framework regards outcomes of attempts to introduce computer based tools into ongoing work as a function of three key sources of effect: features of the new technology; characteristics of the organizational context; and properties of the implementation process. Among them, the implementation process itself -- the steps taken to embed a new tool in an extant setting -- is most closely linked to social impacts. Research results are reviewed to corroborate and refine the model in relation to computer based work, using it to identify implementation process variables predictive of successful outcomes. Implications for positive change management are discussed.
Use and Non-Use of VDUs -- Organization of Terminal Work. Research Findings from Swedish Cross-Site Studies in the Field of Office Automation BIBA 38-47
  G. Westlander
To show the impact of VDU use the most common factors in occupational health research are "amount of time" at and "content" of VDU work. These are here used to describe organizational patterns. Cross site studies provide the empirical findings. Local differences are identified. The relation between these two VDU work dimensions and well-being in terms of work load and psychosocial satisfaction is discussed.
Knowledge Based Systems -- Organization and Psychosocial Aspects of their Introduction and Use BIBA 48-55
  Gunilla Bradley
This paper describes a new research program at the Stockholm University. Its aim is to study the introduction of knowledge based systems (KBS). Changes in the organizational and psycho-social work environment are being described and analyzed. These changes will have a deep impact on society as KBS come into wider use. Our study includes strategic aspects within the following areas: Company structure; Organization of work roles; Work tasks; Need of knowledge and education; Worker participation and decision-making; Leadership and management roles; Communication: human-human and human-computer.
The Technical and the Social: Their Interaction in the Development and Implementation of Office Automation Systems BIBA 56-63
  Juliet Webster
This paper examines the technical and social components of office automation. It argues that office automation cannot be understood purely in terms of the characteristics of the machines -- the hardware -- of which it is composed, but must be seen as having been shaped, both in its development and in its implementation, by various factors of a social, economic, historical and political nature. It considers some of these factors and looks at the resulting characteristics of WP systems in a series of case study offices.
Developing Software Systems to Facilitate Social Organization BIBA 64-72
  Walt Scacchi
Developing the next generation of advanced computing systems will change the patterns of work in software system development organizations. Based on empirical studies of how new computing systems are developed, we find that major system engineering problems require organizational solutions rather than just technical solutions. We continue to investigate organizational settings where large software systems are being developed to study these problems and examine possible solutions. Our experience to date indicates that we can successfully incorporate findings from social analyses of computing into system development, and use them to find more effective ways to organize system development work. Further, we believe that system development strategies that follow from such findings when applied may lead to a more participatory, democratic workplace, rather than one that is just increasingly automated and bureaucratic.
The Subject of Change, and the Job Content in Implementing New Technologies BIBA 73-81
  M. Vartiainen
First, the concept of flexibility as an aim of the sociotechnical design and its organizational barrier are discussed. Second, the definitions given to the good work are summarized. Third, the job content in two FMS's is analyzed. Finally, the possibilities to design complete activity structures are shown. In the design of activities, the participation of the personnel organized as developmental groups, a researcher/consultant as an adviser, and the work analysis are regarded as tools to define the proximal zone of the organizational development.
Electronic Work Monitoring and Measurement: Recommendations for an Elective Incentive BIBA 82-89
  Richard L. Shell
This article discusses the differences between conventional and computerized work measurement. Recommendations are offered to replace traditional work measurement and incentives with elective incentives that permit workers to select their work level and the associated incentive earnings. General guidelines are given for developing an elective incentive program.
Managing the Organisation's Knowledge Resources BIBA 90-97
  C. E. Siemieniuch; M. A. Sinclair
The paper is concerned with human-computer interaction within the Computer-Integrated Enterprise. It has been indicated that in the literature that about 80% of a company's valuation is due to the knowledge and expertise that comprise its competence and its competitive edge. Most of this knowledge is held in human heads. As organisations move into a more competitive future, it is imperative that this knowledge is mobilised effectively. This paper discusses how the knowledge can be identified and mapped into models of the organisation, the creation of 'goal states' for the organisation, and the generation of 'migration paths' to reach that goal state.
Helping Users Achieve Satisficing Goals BIBA 98-105
  Chantal Mais; Alain Giboin
Current help systems often assume that users want to achieve optimizing goals (i.e. desire to get an optimal solution to their problems). As a result, the advice that help systems provide is directed towards the completion of an optimal solution by the user, even when the user is currently attempting to complete a suboptimal solution, for he just pursues a "satisficing" goal. This paper is a claim for designing systems which help users achieve satisficing goals too. Arguments for such systems are given, which rest on the results of a threefold empirical study of casual Unix Shell programmers. Arguments are: (1) programmers achieve satisficing goals; (2) programmers seek for help with regard to their satisficing goals; (3) advisors provide help with regard to the programmers' satisficing goals.
The Design Development, Evaluation and Implementation of an Expert System into an Organization BIBA 106-113
  P. M. Wadsworth; K. C. Parsons
MAPS (Modular Applied Physiology System) is a computer based expert system designed to provide knowledge in the area of human applied physiology. It has been implemented at the British Army Personnel Research Establishment (APRE). This paper describes the process of this implementation. It illustrates the use of established HCI guidelines, together with an ergonomic approach to design procedure. MAPS is intended for users who are experts in applied physiology, but are unfamiliar with computer technology and terminology. The results of user evaluations are discussed, and conclusions drawn as to the validity of the design procedure adopted.
Skills and Autonomy at Different Levels of Manufacturing Technology BIBA 114-121
  P. Seppala; E. Tuominen; P. Koskinen
The impact of the introduction of advanced manufacturing technology on job contents, skill demands and autonomy in work were studied in nine manufacturing companies. Jobs at three different levels of technological advance were compared: 1) conventional single-purpose machine tools, 2) production cells consisting of CNC machines and robots, 3) flexible manufacturing cells and systems FMC/FMS. Basic machinist's skills in metal cutting are needed at all technological levels. Furthermore, skills and knowledge related to CNC technology are needed in work with more advanced systems. Job contents and autonomy are mainly determined by the organizational setting and division of labor assumed in the company. When applied properly, advanced technology gives opportunities for designing coherent jobs and for professional learning and development.
Action Schemata in Professional Contexts: Use and Elaboration of New Schemata in Administrative Tasks BIBA 122-129
  S. Sebillote
The research describes action schemata acquired through experience and studies their use and the way they are adapted. Sixteen subjects participated in an experiment: they were interviewed about their activity and then they had to carry out some tasks in an unusual context. The comparison between the subjects' representations in both situations allowed the description of action schemata. The results agree with schema theory: schema instantiation, creation of a new schema by modifying more elementary schemata. They emphasize the importance of distinguishing between declarative and procedural aspects for representing tasks and for interface design.
Computer and Telecommunications Services in Inpatient Pediatric Medicine Facility: Human Factors Issues BIBA 130-137
  George J. Boggs; Lori A. Eggert; David A. Fay
This paper reports the ergonomic and human factors issues that emerged during an assessment of computer and telecommunications service needs within a pediatric hospital. To assess patients' needs, we conducted a series of informal interviews with patients, parents, and hospital staff, and we also visited the hospital to make on-site observations. With respect to ergonomics, we found that the design constraints on physical equipment are severe. The constraints arise because hospital rooms are workspaces and because hospital equipment must be sterile. With respect to human factors, the constraints arise because the hospital population is so heterogeneous and activity schedules are idiosyncratic. Finally, some suggestions are given about future research directions.
The Role and Administration of Local Area Network in Medical Computing BIBA 138-146
  D. A. Olagunju; B. Sonterre; I. F. Goldenberg
Local Area Network (LAN) has received a proven acceptance level in the computing technology and is still growing. It varies from connecting personal computers for the purpose of sharing computing devices, files, software and user applications by creating small numbers (2-20) to large numbers (25-200) of work stations or nodes by establishing micro to mainframe communications. This paper discusses the role, benefits and administration of LAN and how medical computing can benefit from it. LAN is discussed as a cost minimizing method of computing that provides distributive data processing environment to users, while avoiding the burdens of mainframe computing,
   Essential ingredients for successful implementation, reflecting on thorough homework, costs, smooth communication between technical personnel, users and management are discussed.
Building Life Cycle Costs in the United Stated Army BIBA 147-154
  Edgar S. Neely; Robert D. Neathammer
The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory located in Champaign, Illinois, has developed a personal computer-based model for maintenance resource prediction. The model is written for a DOS environment and can be used by any organization for maintenance resource predictions. The model is being used by select sites in Germany, Korea, and the United States. This paper presents the general methodology and the current applications.
Microcomputer Implementation in a Developing Country: The Case of Small and Medium-Sized Columbian Firms BIBA 155-162
  Mary McEniry
This paper discusses the components of a national microcomputer policy for the small and medium-sized industrial firm in Colombia. The paper is based on the results of an 18-month study carried out among 31 Colombian manufacturing firms. The major components of such a policy -- managerial development, improved access to technology, the creation of the proper environment and R & D activities -- are placed in the context of the type of organizational and institutional changes needed to make microcomputer technology appropriate and beneficial for the smaller industrial firm in Colombia. The paper then considers the relevance of the Colombian experience to other developing countries.
Designing the Designers' Tasks: Participative Analysis and Evaluation of Software Development Tasks BIBA 163-168
  W. Hacker
The methods of both, Industrial and Cognitive Psychology show some deficiencies when applied at the analysis and evaluation of complex mental working tasks, e.g. software development tasks. A promising alternative is an individual and cooperative analytical and evaluative procedure assisted by a psychologist: The psychologist offers theoretically based instruments and supports the programmers in analysing and evaluating their working tasks. The psychologist works as some kind of a "living manual" of the instruments applied by the programmers and carries out steps of the procedure demanding special skills. Furthermore s/he moderates the final group discussion resulting in a joint assessment of work organization within the group. The procedure continuously proceeds to task re-design as a part of organizational development.
The Advisory Role of Computer Meetings BIBA 169-176
  Alain Giboin
This paper is a first step in setting the respective role of various sources of help. It reports an empirical study attempting to define the advisory role of computer meetings, i.e. the role some human advisors play within meetings. Advisory role is described in terms of advisory goals: (a) goals users want meeting advisors to achieve and (b) goals advisors really pursue. A sample of such goals are presented within a provisional classification. At the top level of the classification, goals are grouped into two main classes: goals related to computing activity and goals related to advisory activity itself. Conclusion emphasizes the necessity for elaborating a sharper taxonomy of advisory goals.
An Exploratory Study of Manager-Secretary Workteams: The Role of the System "User" vs. "Operator" BIBA 177-182
  J. G. Geirland
Thirty-five manager-secretary teams participated in an exploratory study of "user" and "operator" roles vis-a-vis integrated office systems (IOS). Managers filled both user and operator roles with regard to IOS communication features, but a dichotomy of roles (manager as user, secretary as operator) was observed for use of word processing and office maintenance features. Skill differences and communication were key factors in the "shared operation" of the IOS. Implications of the results for workgroup adaptability and productivity are discussed.
User-Centred Design Practice in Office Automation BIBA 183-190
  Bronwen C. Taylor; Margaret D. Galer
Usability is increasingly accepted by Information Technology manufacturers as an important factor in the commercial success of their products. This paper reviews the comprehensive, user-centred approach needed to design usable products. The outcomes of ESPRIT project 385 -- HUFIT (Human Factors in Information Technology) aim to help manufacturers of office products adopt the user-centred approach in order to improve the design of IT products. The design tools which have been developed in the HUFIT project are briefly described.
Action Facilitation; A Theoretical Concept and its Use in User Interface Design BIBA 191-199
  Albert G. Arnold; Robert A. Roe
The concept of action facilitation, derived from Hacker's theory of goal-directed action, can be defined as an improvement or maintenance of performance under conditions of decreasing mental and/or physical effort. This concept applies to any kind of work, including work with computers. A method for operationalizing this concept in the context of human-computer interaction ls discussed, and it is shown how this method can be applied to the evaluation and design of user interfaces for office systems.
User Oriented Software Development and Dialogue Design BIBA 200-207
  Philipp Spinas
There is still little knowledge about how to involve users in the software development process in order to better match system interfaces to the user's needs and tasks. In this contribution, three cases will be presented each of which differed in the approach to user participation and the problems encountered.

Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Stress

Heart Rate Variability and Subjective Mental Workload in Flight Task Validity of Mental Workload Measurement Using H.R.V. Method BIBA 209-216
  Yasuko Itoh; Yoshio Hayashi; Ippei Tsukui; Susumu Saito
This paper discussed the validity of mental workload measurement using heart rate variability (H.R.V.) method. The H.R.V. refers to the variability of successive R-R intervals. In this experiment, fourteen well-skilled pilots performed the ordinary flights by flight simulators. From the result, there is a strong negative correlation between the spectral peak's power of H.R.V. near 0.1 beat-1 region (8 20 beats cycle) and subjective rating estimated by using Modfied Cooper and Harper scale at every flight phase. It is asserted that the spectral power of H.R.V. near 0.1 beat-1 region could accurately adjust to the change in the mental conditions.
Heart Rate Variability in Remote Manipulation System BIBA 217-224
  A. Murata; S. Miyake; M. Kumashiro
In this paper, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in the remote manipulation task over a period of 2 hours was considered using 8 HRV measures the change of these measures with time was examined to determine which HRV measures are suitable as an indicator of operators' mental workload or mental stress under the man-computer system. As a result, it was shown that HRV measures called D-complex are useful indicators of the mental workload and have strong correlations with the work performance.
Variations in EEG Activities During VDT Operation BIBA 225-232
  Sakae Yamamoto; Shigeaki Matsuoka; Tadahiro Ishikawa
The method of measuring mental stress using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was studied for tasks involving a high mental load, as represented by visual display terminal (VDT) work. The study consisted of experiments using VDTs. The brain waves investigated were the frontal-midline theta waves and theta waves. The duration of the frontal-midline theta waves was found to increase with increasing mental stress and the theta waves were found to be correlated with task performance or concentration on the task in question. These findings suggest that the observation of theta wave variation is a powerful means for measuring the mental change of VDT operators.
Job Factors as Predictors of Stress Outcomes among VDT Users BIBA 233-240
  Pascale C. Sainfort; Michael J. Smith
A model that defines job control as the crucial determinant of stress outcomes through which other job elements (i.e. job content, job demands and career/future concerns) influence the stress outcomes was tested among a population of VDT users in a governmental organization. It was found that job control was not a critical predictor of the stress outcomes, and that career/future concerns was consistently related to the stress outcomes.
A Longitudinal Study of Stress among VDT Workers: Preliminary Results BIBA 241-247
  Pascale C. Sainfort; Soo Yee Lim
The purpose of this project was to study the relationship between job stressors and three stress outcomes over time in a population of VDT workers. Five job elements were chosen for the study: job control, future ambiguity, skill use, task clarity, and workload. One hundred twenty two VDT workers from a Midwest agency were the subjects of this study. The results showed that task clarity and workload were significantly related to daily life stress, and task clarity to mood disturbances at both time 1 and time 2 of the study. The job elements did not seem to contribute to psychological complaints.
A Study of the Direct and Indirect Effects of Office Ergonomics on Psychological Stress Outcomes BIBA 248-255
  Soo Yee Lim; Katherine J. S. Rogers; Michael J. Smith; Pascale C. Sainfort
This study proposed a model to examine the links between both objective and subjective measures of chair ergonomics, self-report of back pain, and psychological stress outcomes. We assumed that there would be both direct and indirect effects of ergonomics on stress. The model was tested with 125 office workers who used VDTs for varying amounts of time. All subjects completed questionnaires and had ergonomic evaluations performed on their workstations by trained researchers. The results showed that subjective ergonomics had both a direct and indirect effect on stress while objective ergonomics had only an indirect effect on stress (through subjective ergonomics). A new model was proposed.
Coping with Technological Change in Banking and Insurance BIBA 256-263
  K. Lindstrom; K. Pakkala; I. Torstila
Thirty patients coming to the occupational health unit of two big companies and having difficulties in coping with their job demands during the implementation of new information technology were selected for our case study. Their situation was thoroughly investigated and an individual intervention program was constructed. After 1 1/2 years follow-up including regular discussions with an occupational health nurse, their situation was evaluated by the OHS personnel. The patients' situation at the work place and their health was totally in order for one third of the cases, and clearly better for one half. The early detection and handling of work-related problems and social support during the intervention was of great help to the patients.
Technological Change Experienced by Different Occupational and Age Groups in Banks and Insurance Companies BIBA 264-269
  P. Huutanen; T. Leino
Banks and insurance companies are advanced users of modern information technology. A Finnish follow-up survey in six firms in 1985 (n=1305) and in 1987 (n=1475) revealed differences in the mastery of computer applications of different occupational and age groups. Also the effects of information technology were analyzed by different end-user groups. The updating of skills to fulfill the new work requirements under time pressure demands mental energy especially from older employees. Emphasis should be placed on developing methods which combine learning, designing and implementing information systems, and building adequate mental models of enlarged tasks at workplace level.
Mental Stress with New Technology at the Workplace BIBA 270-277
  M. Kumashiro; T. Kamada; S. Miyake
This research covered the 104 employees at the software company to study their stress mood and stress sources at their work places.
   In this survey it was that the stress mood of the software workers is conspicuously higher than that of people involved in other industrial work and the stress sources at their work places were related to negative feelings toward their jobs, the distribution of a work pace, which they cannot control at their own will, heavy overtime work, and the operation of computers.
A Survey of the Natural Outcomes of Unfettered Office Automation BIBA 278-283
  Janet L. Barnes-Farrell; Sara P. Weiner; Donald I. Tepas
Discrepancies between faculty word processing needs and support staff skills/practices were identified through the use of structured interviews conducted in an academic department of a large university. Dissatisfaction with typing services provided was attributed, in part, to differences in the nature of the hardware used by faculty and staff. A lack of attention to hardware and software provisions appears to have resulted in substantial duplication of effort.
The Co-Adaptics in Mutual Multilevel Adaption of Man-Computer Dialogues BIBA 284-290
  Valery F. Venda
The Co-adaptics is proposed as a general theory of mutual multilevel adaptation in different kinds of systems including man-machine and man-computer. The fundamentals of the Co-adaptics are the laws of mutual adaptation in man-machine and other systems (Venda, 1986). The objective studies of human operators performance have shown many individual differences (Venda, Mitkin, 1969) and led me to the necessity of individual adaptation of operator's work means (Venda, 1976; Venda and Lomov, 1983). A new type of man-computer systems as the Quadrigramms was proposed (Venda, 1988). The problem of searching of optimal level of adaptation of display and dialogue to the operators is discussed.

Work with Computers: Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects; Health

Bank Office Work and Discomforts -- Changes Due to VDT Use BIBA 292-299
  U. Bergqvist; A. Hultgren; M. Voss
The possible effects on health of introducing VDTs in bank offices are presently studied in three Swedish regions. The first preliminary analysis on one region suggests that, when VDT work times increased drastically due to VDT introduction in these workplaces (work with VDTs increased from 3 to 42% of the total work volume), a limited increase in eye discomforts occurred. No changes in muscle or skin problem prevalences were seen. Responses in terms of stress-related problems, in attitude and in worry were mixed.
Electromagnetic Fields and VDT's; Assessing the Science, A Review BIBA 300-307
  W. E. Baker
The various experiments and studies dealing with the purported health effect of electromagnetic fields and VDTs need to be considered together in the context of scientific discipline and rigor.
Visual Strain of VDT Operators: The Right and the Wrong BIBA 308-315
  P. Rey; A. Bousquet
The disparity of results concerning visual strain in Visual Display Terminal (VDT) operators is shown, in this paper, to originate from the complexity of pathways linking VDT work to symptoms of visual discomfort or disability.
   A model of interrelated risk factors is presented. Right and wrong statements on the problem are discussed.
Characteristics of Accommodative Response Toward Depth Sensation BIBA 316-323
  T. Takeda; T. Iida; Y. Fukui
The three-dimensional optometer (TDO) was applied to measure the visual responses gazing at a spotlight which changes its radius in an otherwise completely dark room. Three emmetropic females served as subjects and the stimuli were presented at 33cm from the subjects. The subjects felt that the spotlight approached them when the radius was increased. The magnitude of the accommodation towards the smaller radius spotlight was greater than the one toward larger radius spotlight. It means that the eye accommodates farther, though the spotlight approaches the subjects subjectively, and contradicts the measurement reported Ittelson and Ames in 1950. It was pointed out that this should come from the effort in reducing accommodation lag to watch the smaller target more clearly.
Merits of Periodic Visual Screening Tests in VDU-Operators BIBA 324-329
  T. Laubli; H. Nibel; C. Thomas; U. Schwaninger; H. Krueger
A questionnaire was administered to 174 VDT-operators that were passing routine visual screening tests, which are mandatory for VDT-operators in Germany. The screening tests revealed short-sightedness in 55 cases and long-sightedness in 47. With correction all subjects reached a good binocular visual acuity in "working distance" (>= 1.0 snellen equivalents). Eye complaints tended to be increased in subjects using glasses or with lower monocular visual acuity in working distance. The only visual test, that was clearly (p < 0.01) correlated with visual symptoms, was the Ishihara test for colour blindness. It is concluded that regular screening ensures use of proper visual corrections, but minor visual deficiencies may still increase visual discomfort. Colour-contrasts can be difficult to recognize by subjects with deficient colour vision and therefore may cause increased visual fatigue.
Musculoskeletal Symptoms among VDU Operators BIBA 330-337
  J. Jeyaratnam; C. N. Ong; W. C. Kee; J. Lee; D. Koh
The purpose of this study was to obtain additional information about the occupational origin of musculoskeletal complaints among Visual Display Unit (VDU) operators. A field study was conducted on 672 full time female operators in 3 large organizations in Singapore to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints. Results show that stiffness and discomfort of the neck was a significant feature, with a prevalence rate of 60%. Low back pain also appeared to be common (54%) followed by shoulder pain (43%). The prevalence for musculoskeletal problem of upper limbs, ie hand/wrist and elbow were comparatively low (<20%). A higher prevalence of complaints was found with increasing time spent at the workstation. The prevalence was also found to decrease with advancing age. The results also show that musculoskeletal complaints were more prevalent among working mothers.
The Work Posture and the Postural Load of the Neck/Shoulder Muscles when Correcting Presbyopia with Different Types of Multifocal Lenses on VDU-Workers BIBAK 338-347
  Gunnar Horgen; Arne Aaras; Hans E. Fagerthun; Stig E. Larsen
This project studied how correction of presbyopia by bifocals and progressive lenses influenced the muscle load and working posture. The muscle load in the neck/shoulder region was measured by electromyography (EMG). The work posture was measured by recording postural angles of the head, upper arm in the gleno-humeral joint, and back, with pendulum potentiometers.
   Subjects performed a data-entry task whilst wearing four alternative correction spectacles, three multifocals and one single vision lens. The multifocal lenses were fitted according to manufacturers specifications, then with the near segments 2 mm. up, and then 2 mm. below the recommendation.
   The paper concludes with a discussion of the difference in load on the musculo-skeletal system and work posture, when comparing single vision lenses to different types of multifocals.
   However, if the work task demands both distant and near vision, multifocal lenses can be used if the workplace is ergonomically designed and the near segments of the multifocal lenses are corrected for the working distance.
Keywords: VDU, Multifocals, EMG
Analysis of Seated Posture as a Basis for Ergonomic Design BIBA 348-354
  Marvin J. Dainoff; Leonard S. Mark
Design of an ergonomic chair for prolonged seated work posture entails consideration of interaction among four factors: system goals, work environment, operator characteristics, and chair characteristics. These entail a degree of flexibility required to support operators in a variety of task-determined postures. However, flexibility alone may be counter productive. Careful consideration of the operator control problem is essential.
A Psycho-Physical Model for Predicting Health Effects of Female Office Workers BIBA 355-360
  Kevin E. Coray; Barbara G. F. Cohen; Chaya S. Piotrkowski
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a conceptual model for understanding some of the complexities surrounding health effects within the sociotechnical context of reconciling women, work, and families. New research from a large scale field study of women's health and the work place (Cohen et al., 1987) is used as the heuristic for this way of thinking. That study reported the development and intercorrelations of six working conditions indexes and the health complaints index, demonstrating that better working conditions are associated with fewer health complaints. Additive or interactive effects, to improve the prediction of health effects, were discussed but not reported. This paper reports one simple ANCOVA model which depicts the complexity of this research arena. The generic hypothesis of such models being that a complex dynamic of work, family, and personal factors controls the overall health, well-being, and productivity of female office workers.
   Specifically, the health complaints index scores from a total sample of 625 female secretaries, clerks, and clerical information processors (response rate 71.7%) were predicted by picking illustrative variables from domains identified as relevant from previous psycho-social research on occupational stress. These were: type of work (information processor vs. other); job constraints on mobility; feelings of daily tension and exhaustion; presence or absence of children at home; and diagnosis of a musculoskeletal disease, arthritis. This specific model accounted for 32% of the variance of health complaints, suggesting the predictive utility of such approaches as well as the complexity and richness of the research area.
Strain Reduction at Word Processing Workplaces Using Biofeedback Techniques BIBA 361-368
  K. Landau; C. Leonhardt
Word processing workplaces of a German car manufacturer were first evaluated for psycho-physical strains caused by VDU work using a design checklist. This was followed by a biofeedback training program on upper and lower part of the trapecius muscle. Between the first and the eighth biofeedback session muscle activity decreased in the upper trapecius muscle and increased in its lower part. A complaint questionnaire reflects the change in the subjects' feelings and thus supporting the electro-physiological findings.
Dissatisfaction with VDT Work and Ocular Subjective Discomfort of VDT Operators BIBA 369-376
  Tadeusz Marek; Czeslaw Noworol; Waldemar Karwowski
One of the most important questions in ergonomics of VDT's is whether or not the introduction of VDT's caused an increase in visual fatigue. There is comparatively little evidence to suggest that the use of the VDT itself leads to more complaints of visual fatigue. The twenty-six subjects who participated in this research study were female data entry operators, between the ages of 20-31. After a typical workday the VDT operators were asked to respond to eleven ocular subjective discomfort questions and to four questions which were related to a general discomfort with VDT work. It was found that the general dissatisfaction with VDT work and fear arising from the introduction of the new technology increase the ocular subjective discomfort symptoms.
Effects of Microbreaks on Performance and Well-Being in Data Entry Work BIBA 377-380
  R. A. Henning; S. L. Sauter; G. Salvendy; E. F., Jr. Krieg
Scheduled microbreaks of discretionary length were evaluated for their effects on performance and well-being in a highly repetitive, data entry task. The results indicated that discretionary-length "microbreaks" were instrumental in reducing fatigue and associated performance decrements, but did not fully prevent the accumulation of fatigue.