HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | Gamification Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
Gamification Tables of Contents: 13

Gamification'13: International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications

Fullname:Gamification'13: First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications
Editors:Lennart E. Nacke; Kevin Harrigan; Neil Randall
Location:Stratford, Ontario, Canada
Dates:2013-Oct-02 to 2013-Oct-04
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2815-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: Gamification13
Links:Conference Website
Competition as an element of gamification for learning: an exploratory longitudinal investigation BIBAFull-Text 2-9
  Sepandar Sepehr; Milena Head
This paper examines the effect of gamification techniques in engaging students in a teaching context, in particular the influence of competition. We conducted a longitudinal survey study (informed by a focus group) -- in an MBA classroom that uses ERPsim, which is a gamified simulation system for teaching the SAP ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software solution. Flow theory was used to understand engagement during this method of learning. We examined the effect of antecedents of Flow, such as skill and challenge, and the effect of Flow on its consequences such as satisfaction and student feelings. In line with earlier research, our results showed that losing a competition can have a detrimental effect on students' satisfaction and enjoyment; however, competition is still a key element that highly motivates students to engage in the gamification tasks.
Improving participation and learning with gamification BIBAFull-Text 10-17
  Gabriel Barata; Sandra Gama; Joaquim Jorge; Daniel Gonçalves
In this paper we explore how gamification can be applied to education in order to improve student engagement. We present a study in which a college course was gamified, by including experience points, levels, badges, challenges and leaderboards. The study was five years long, where the first three were non-gamified years, and the last two regarded two successive experiments of our gamified approach. To assess how gamification impacted the learning experience, we compared data from both gamified and non-gamified years, using different performance measures. Results show significant improvements in terms of attention to reference materials, online participation and proactivity. They also suggest that our approach can reduce grade discrepancies among students and help them score better. Modeling course activities with game challenges and properly distributing those over the term seem to enhance this effect.
Using gamification to inspire new citizen science volunteers BIBAFull-Text 18-25
  Anne Bowser; Derek Hansen; Yurong He; Carol Boston; Matthew Reid; Logan Gunnell; Jennifer Preece
Gamifying citizen science campaigns has the potential to further engage existing volunteers, as well as to attract new contributors. By evaluating Biotracker, a gamified mobile application that gathers plant phenology data, we explored the feasibility of engaging a secondary group of Millennials, who are notorious technology enthusiasts, with a gamified citizen science app. We also explored the potential benefits that using an application might offer these users. Results suggest that gamification is key to attracting many Millennials, as are social motivations and, to a lesser extent, education. Potential benefits to these participants include an increased awareness of community and an increase in domain knowledge.
Time's up: studying leaderboards for engaging punctual behaviour BIBAFull-Text 26-33
  João P. Costa; Rina R. Wehbe; James Robb; Lennart E. Nacke
In the workplace, an individual's punctuality will not only affect how a person is viewed by colleagues, but will also reverberate on their productivity. Being late for a meeting can be disruptive to the working team, costing everyone time and causing the individual to miss valuable information. Little has been done to improve the punctuality of working teams; therefore, we were interested in studying the effectiveness of leaderboards, a common gamification technique, for improving punctuality of participants to regular work meetings. Leaderboards were comprised of data collected by monitoring the arrival times of the participants, which influenced their scores in the leaderboards. We found that leaderboards themselves did not promote punctuality in every participant, but gave rise to various gameful social comparisons, which were reported to be the cause of their punctuality improvements.
The design and evaluation of a classroom exergame BIBAFull-Text 34-41
  Diane Watson; Regan L. Mandryk; Kevin G. Stanley
Balancing academic, physical and emotional needs of students while maintaining student interest is increasingly challenging in the resource constrained environments of the modern classroom. To answer this need we created and evaluated an exergame system called Vortex Mountain, which leverages the physical benefits of exercise and the motivational benefits of educational games to provide a healthy and engaging classroom activity for middle school students. Through a controlled study, we demonstrate that our classroom exergame provides similar affective, engagement, and learning benefits to an exercise or game intervention, while leveraging the valuable ancillary benefits of each. Thus, we believe that exergames have a future in the modern classroom and possess significant potential for future technical and pedagogical research.
Driven to drive: designing gamification for a learner logbook smartphone application BIBAFull-Text 42-49
  Zachary Fitz-Walter; Peta Wyeth; Dian Tjondronegoro; Bridie Scott-Parker
Driving can be dangerous, especially for young and inexperienced drivers. To help address the issue of inexperience a gamified logbook application was developed for Learner drivers. The application aims to encourage learners to undertake a wider range of practice, while also making it easier to record their mandatory practice sessions. This paper reports on the design of this application, focusing on the effect that adding gamification can have on the usability and user experience of the application and the importance of playability testing for gamified systems. Two versions of the application were developed, one with game elements and one without game elements. This paper presents findings from a study that compares the user experience of these two versions of the application with twelve recent Learner drivers. Overall, participants reported that the gamified version was more engaging and motivating than the non-gamified version, however neither versions were preferred over the other. We theorise that this may have occurred due to a number of usability issues that arose, including an increased difficulty in learnability due to the added game elements. These design issues are important to address in future gamified system designs.
Gamification and serious game approaches for introductory computer science tablet software BIBAFull-Text 50-57
  Kevin Browne; Christopher Anand
In this paper, we overview the design of tablet apps built to teach introductory computer science concepts, and present the results and conclusions from a study conducted during a first year computer science course at McMaster University. Game design elements were incorporated into the apps we designed to teach introductory computer science concepts, with the primary aim of increasing student satisfaction and engagement. We tested these apps with students enrolled in the course during their regular lab sessions and collected data on both the usability of the apps and the student's understanding of the concepts. Though overall we found students preferred instruction with the apps compared to more traditional academic instruction, we found that students also recommended combined instruction using both traditional methods and the apps in the future. Based on this we conclude that gamification and serious game design approaches are effective at increasing student satisfaction, and make several recommendations regarding the usage and design of educational software incorporating game design elements.
Effects of gamification on participation and data quality in a real-world market research domain BIBAFull-Text 58-65
  Jared Cechanowicz; Carl Gutwin; Briana Brownell; Larry Goodfellow
Gamification has become an increasingly popular way to improve user engagement and motivation, but there is currently a lack of empirical research to demonstrate that increased gamification provides these benefits. To help address this problem we designed three versions of a gamified market research survey and tested them alongside the established industry standard in a study of over 600 participants. We also highlight examples where game elements compromise respondent data, and provide design solutions that correct the problem without losing the motivational benefits of gamification.
Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation?: an empirical analysis of common gamification elements BIBAFull-Text 66-73
  Elisa D. Mekler; Florian Brühlmann; Klaus Opwis; Alexandre N. Tuch
It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements -- points, leaderboard, levels -- on users' performance, intrinsic motivation, perceived autonomy and competence in an image annotation task. Implementation of these game elements significantly increased performance, but did not affect perceived autonomy, competence or intrinsic motivation. Our findings suggest that points, levels and leaderboards by themselves neither make nor break users' intrinsic motivation in non-game contexts. Instead, it is assumed that they act as progress indicators, guiding and enhancing user performance. While more research on the contextual factors that may potentially mediate the effects of game elements on intrinsic motivation is required, it seems that the implementation of points, levels, and leaderboards is a viable means to promote specific user behavior in non-game contexts.
SGSEAM: assessing serious game frameworks from a stakeholder experience perspective BIBAFull-Text 75-78
  Yongwen Xu; Philip M. Johnson; Carleton A. Moore; Robert S. Brewer; Jordan Takayama
Assessment of serious game frameworks is emerging as an important area of research. This paper describes an assessment mechanism called the Serious Game Stakeholder Experience Assessment Method (SGSEAM). SGSEAM is designed to provide detailed insights into the strengths and shortcomings of serious game frameworks through a stakeholder perspective based approach. In this paper, we report on the use of SGSEAM to assess Makahiki, an open source serious game framework for sustainability. Our results provide useful insights into both Makahiki as a serious game framework and SGSEAM as an assessment method.
"I want to be a captain! I want to be a captain!": gamification in the old weather citizen science project BIBAFull-Text 79-82
  Alexandra Eveleigh; Charlene Jennett; Stuart Lynn; Anna L. Cox
Gamification is increasingly implemented in citizen science projects as a means of motivating and sustaining participation. In a survey and subsequent interviews we explored the appeal of gamification for participants in the Old Weather project, and its impact upon data quality. We found that the same competitive mechanisms which some volunteers found rewarding and motivating were either ignored by other participants, or contributed to a decision to discontinue participation. We also identified an opportunity to use gamification to exploit the narrative appeal of a project such as Old Weather. In contrast to previous citizen science research, much of which focuses on how to support the most active or prolific contributors, we offer new design recommendations which recognise varying levels of engagement with a project.
Serious indie games for social awareness: gamifying human characters with disabilities BIBAFull-Text 83-86
  Amber Choo; Özgün Eylül Iscen; Mehdi Karamnejad
By avoiding holistic and accurate portrayals of the physical limitations of human beings, contemporary games ultimately fail to acknowledge the more marginalized qualities of humankind in their characters. For example, we often see idealized human heroes who require no food, water or sleep in games from all generations, such as the majority of characters in first person shooters (FPS), role-playing games (RPG) and action adventure games. Such characters shrug off extreme bodily damage and are almost always in perfect mental health. 3=3 aims to expand the definition of what it means to experience the journey of an ideal protagonist through the realization and development of three characters, each of whom have an individualized disability or impairment. Inspired by games with proven design frameworks, game mechanics and user experiences, their journey together to survive a contemporary disaster scenario becomes a memorable experience of emotive and relational understanding. 3=3 aims to encourage a positive shift in the way gamers understand and perceive the embodied experiences that manifest from the addressed disability demographics, not only in virtual characters, but in real life encounters. Additionally, the success of 3=3 would invoke new perceptions in regards to how notable characters can be portrayed, encouraging game designers to consider more realistic, inclusive portrayals.
Gamifying behaviour that leads to learning BIBAFull-Text 87-90
  Diane Watson; Mark Hancock; Regan L. Mandryk
Many courses require self-study to succeed. This is especially true of online courses. However, self-study activities, such as reading the textbook and completing the associated workbook, are not motivating and do not contribute directly to grades. As a result many students do not complete these activities and this may lead to a lower understanding of the material and a lower overall grade in the class. In this paper we present the prototype of a casual game, Reading Garden, which encourages self-study through casual gameplay.
Gamifying the employee recruitment process BIBAFull-Text 91-94
  Sam Chow; Derek Chapman
Recently, a number of organizations have employed the use of gamification for the purpose of employee recruitment. Results of these gamified recruitment processes are reportedly positive, although no clear statistics have been provided to objectively gauge its effectiveness. We submit that gamification of the recruitment process may be conceptualized as a system of persuasive design. That is, gamification may be used to attract a wide range of potential job applicants, engaging them and directing their attention to pertinent organizational information. Once attracted gamification affects applicants through influencing their states of decisive attention. This paper will draw from foundational theories of psychology to illustrate the possible mechanisms of attitude change that gamification may engender. When applied to recruitment, attitude changes towards an organization may possibly lead to job pursuit behaviours, or greater awareness of an organization. This theory paper is one of the first on the psychology of gamification as applied to recruitment. The propositions in this paper will later be empirically tested.
Improving student creativity with gamification and virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 95-98
  Gabriel Barata; Sandra Gama; Manuel J. Fonseca; Daniel Gonçalves
Games are of great interest in education. Their motivational qualities make players more persistent and resilient. In particular, virtual environments have proven to be good learning engagers, as they generate opportunities to create, explore and communicate. Here we present an exploratory study on how student autonomy and creativity can be improved by mixing virtual environments and gamification. To attain this, we added to a gamified course a 2.5D virtual environment that grows along with student grading, called AvatarWorld. There, students are represented by customized avatars, and they also can create custom content. Preliminary results suggest that even though students did not spend too much time in AvatarWorld, they were motivated to perform creative tasks that required knowledge acquired in the course.
Positively playful: when videogames lead to player wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 99-102
  Kellie Vella; Daniel Johnson; Leanne Hides
Videogames are an increasingly popular entertainment choice, yet we have a limited understanding of their potential wellbeing benefits. The current research used an online survey (N = 429) to investigate how gameplay choices and the psychological experience of gameplay impact on player wellbeing. Specifically, a hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to determine if, controlling for age and gender, current gameplay choices (amount of play, game genre, mode of play) and play experience (flow, psychological need satisfaction) predicted current wellbeing. Results indicated that age, social play, relatedness during gameplay and flow were positively associated with player wellbeing. Implications for our understanding of player wellbeing, as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Videogame reward types BIBAFull-Text 103-106
  Cody Phillips; Daniel Johnson; Peta Wyeth
This research has been conducted to ascertain the validity of existing videogame reward categorisations. An overview of current videogame reward types is provided and the need for further research in the area of videogame reward systems is identified. Possible limitations of the primary existing reward taxonomy are identified. We propose a definition of videogame rewards and present initial findings on a partially validated videogame reward taxonomy. Future games and gamified applications stand to benefit from a categorisation of videogame rewards, as videogame rewards play a pivotal role in player motivation.
Reimagining leaderboards: towards gamifying competency models through social game mechanics BIBAFull-Text 107-110
  Katie Seaborn; Peter Pennefather; Deborah I. Fels
Competency models have been widely employed within education, training and development contexts. In particular, medical education programs have become a platform of exploration around innovations in competency-based assessment. Approaches that employ dynamic, flexible models in a social context are now being sought. In this paper, we present the design of a deliberately gamifiable competency model system that encourages pre-professional development through collaborative peer appraisals. We propose a framework for incorporating social game mechanics into a competency modelling system and draw attention to how a collaborative approach to evidencing progress is a potentially fruitful solution to the threat of demotivation associated with the competitive slant of traditional leaderboards.
When Wii doesn't Fit: how non-beginners react to Wii Fit's gamification BIBAFull-Text 111-114
  Lindsay Reynolds; Victoria Schwanda Sosik; Dan Cosley
This paper highlights the reactions of non-beginners to gamification in persuasive health technologies data from a month-long 15-person study of first time Wii Fit users. Participants represent beginners and non-beginners with respect to past fitness experiences and current goals, and we find that these starting points affect their experiences with the system. While beginners respond positively to gamified elements in Wii Fit, these same elements have a detrimental effect on non-beginners' experiences, leading them to abandon the system as a fitness tool. This suggests the need for gamification in persuasive systems to better consider the nuanced context of use, and we recommend ways in which tools like Wii Fit can use gamification to motivate users with varied levels of experience with the target behavior.
Got skillz?: player matching, mastery, and engagement in skill-based games BIBAFull-Text 115-118
  Yaniv Corem; Naor Brown; Jason Petralia
In this paper we explore mastery, a powerful intrinsic motivator, and its relationship to player engagement in a mobile skill-based game platform (Skillz.com). More specifically, we present a unique Elo-based rating system for quickly matching players with similar skill levels, which results in fair tournaments. Our rating system assigns a player with a relative rating that predicts how well they will do against another player. In an n-player game, the players with higher ratings have a higher likelihood of winning against those with lower ratings. We show that a system that promotes fairness allows players to improve by competing against players close to their skill level, which in turn promotes a sense of mastery. We show that when players feel they are improving, their engagement in the game increases. Finally, we discuss the implications of our approach for increasing fairness in gamification by matching users and tasks based on skill level.
The kaleidoscope of effective gamification: deconstructing gamification in business applications BIBAFull-Text 119-122
  Dennis L. Kappen; Lennart E. Nacke
Developers of gamified business applications face the challenge of creating motivating gameplay strategies and creative design techniques to deliver subject matter not typically associated with games in a playful way. We currently have limited models that frame what makes gamification effective (i.e., engaging people with a business application). Thus, we propose a design-centric model and analysis tool for gamification: The kaleidoscope of effective gamification. We take a look at current models of game design, self-determination theory and the principles of systems design to deconstruct the gamification layer in the design of these applications. Based on the layers of our model, we provide design guidelines for effective gamification of business applications.
Design-driven research for workplace exergames: the limber case study BIBAFull-Text 123-126
  Derek Reilly; Emma Westecott; David Parker; Samuel Perreault; Derek Neil; Nathan Lapierre; Kate Hartman; Harjot Bal
Limber is an office "exergame" aimed at incentivizing regular body movement and good posture. In this paper we describe our progression in design and implementation from a wearable system targeting repetitive stress injury to the back, wrist and neck, to our current vision-based system focused on posture, gross motor mobility and whole body stretches. We argue that our design-driven research approach has helped us to uncover key research questions while also leading to a robust design that effectively manages a tension between motivation to play and the need to concentrate on primary work activities.
Designing game-based cognitive assessments for elderly adults BIBAFull-Text 127-130
  Tiffany Tong; Mark Chignell
Gamification is the use of game-like properties in non-game scenarios, and is applied in the design of our application to stimulate cognition, and enjoyment, which often decreases due to age-related changes. The goal of the research reported here is to develop a game, targeted for elderly citizens, that has a user-friendly interface and the ability to predict cognitive ability. This paper will introduce and evaluate a game designed based on the classic carnival game called whack-a-mole, which has the objective of a user 'hitting' a 'mole'. Our version of the game underwent a usability study where we evaluated the game in an experiment, and investigated its cognitive predictive ability. This paper will discuss the results from the experiment, detail the limitations, and propose future research.
Designing for fun and play: exploring possibilities in design for gamification BIBAFull-Text 131-134
  Kristina Knaving; Staffan Björk
Gamification -- the use of game design elements in non-game contexts -- is touted by many as the solution of how to make applications and processes more engaging to people that may have little or no motivation to engage with them otherwise. Based upon a literature review, the paper argues for guidelines concerning two aspects of gamifying an activity: ensuring that a continued focus on the main activities can be preserved and considering designing for playfulness. Furthermore, the relation between gamification and play is discussed, and some possible issues with gamification are presented.
The missing piece in the gamification puzzle BIBAFull-Text 135-138
  David Rojas; Bill Kapralos; Adam Dubrowski
Gamification, that is, employing game design elements to non-gaming applications to make them more fun, engaging, and motivating, has been growing in popularity and is seen in a large number of contexts. In this paper we present a framework that seeks to provide investigators with guidelines for the implementation of gamification. The proposed framework is an adaptation of a framework proposed by the Medical Research Council in 2000, and has been extensively applied to research in health services, public health, and social policy related to health. The use of this framework within the gamification field may help make gamification a more controlled intervention that can be documented, and evaluated, with replicated outcomes amongst differing contexts.
Deconstructing 'gamified' task-management applications BIBAFull-Text 139-142
  Dennis L. Kappen; Jens Johannsmeier; Lennart E. Nacke
Tasks have an overwhelming effect on our management capacity, including the societal need to attend events as part of our office culture. Using gamification to make task and chore management more exciting could allow people to be more productive while they are engaged and focused on their tasks. There is currently a lack of studies on the usefulness of gamified task-management applications. We address this by investigating two memory-aid applications with task-based gamification. One app was easier to learn to use while the other was more satisfying and motivating. Participants, who felt good about an apps' reward system, were also more satisfied with its use. Conventional task managers are, however, preferred for speed and efficiency. Based on interviews, it seems that gamified task managers are not more useful than classical ones. However, there is a relationship between how participants perceive game mechanics and how useful they find an app for task management.