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GROUP Tables of Contents: 97990103050709101214

GROUP'14: International Conference on Supporting Group Work

Fullname:Proceedings of the 18th ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work
Editors:Sean Goggins; Isa Jahnke; David W. McDonald; Pernille Bjørn
Location:Sanibel Island, Florida
Dates:2014-Nov-09 to 2014-Nov-12
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3043-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: GROUP14
Links:Conference Website
  1. Global Collaboration
  2. Accounting for the Individual in Community
  3. Impression and Privacy Management in SNS
  4. Collaborative Systems
  5. Activist and Makers
  6. Social Business
  7. Collaborating around the home
  8. Collaborative Work
  9. Synchronous Systems
  10. Doctoral Colloquium
  11. Poster Abstracts
  12. Workshop Summaries

Global Collaboration

Turk-Life in India BIBAFull-Text 1-11
  Neha Gupta; David Martin; Benjamin V. Hanrahan; Jacki O'Neill
Previous studies on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), the most well-known marketplace for microtasks, show that the largest population of workers on AMT is U.S. based, while the second largest is based in India. In this paper, we present insights from an ethnographic study conducted in India to introduce some of these workers or "Turkers" -- who they are, how they work and what turking means to them. We examine the work they do to maintain their reputations and their work-life balance. In doing this, we illustrate how AMT's design practically impacts on turk-work. Understanding the "lived work" of crowdwork is a valuable first step for technology design.
Routine and Standardization in Global Software Development BIBAFull-Text 12-23
  Morten Esbensen; Pernille Bjørn
We present an ethnographic field study of a distributed software development team following the Scrum methodology. During a two-week period, we observed from both sites the collaboration between a Danish software company off-shoring part of their development to an Indian solution provider. Collaboration by its very definition is based on the notion of dependency in work between multiple people. Articulation work is the extra work required to handle these dependencies. In a globally distributed team, managing these dependencies is exacerbated due to the distances of time, space, and culture. To broaden our understanding of dependencies in a global context and how they influence work practices, we made them the focus of our analysis. The main contributions of this paper are (i) an empirical account of the dependencies that are part of the collaborative work in a global software development team, (ii) a discussion of the interlinked properties of dependencies, and (iii) an explanation of how the practices of standardization and routine are developed and used to manage these dependencies.
Why Closely Coupled Work Matters in Global Software Development BIBAFull-Text 24-34
  Rasmus Eskild Jensen
We report on an ethnographic study of an offshore global software development project between Danish and Philippine developers in a Danish company called GlobalSoft. We investigate why the IT- developers chose to engage in more closely coupled work as the project progressed and argue that closely coupled work supported the collaboration in a very challenging project. Three key findings are presented: 1) Closely coupled work practices established connections across the collaboration ensuring knowledge exchange and improving coordination between project members, 2) Closely coupled work practices diminished the formation of sub-groups locally and established new faultlines across the geographical distance, and 3) Closely coupled work enabled the creation of connections across organizational hierarchies allowing information to travel seamlessly between layers in the organization and consequently the project members could better anticipate issues and act accordingly. The implications of these findings include a reconsideration of the significance of closely coupled work in distributed settings. Also our findings open up discussions of why closely coupled work matters in global software development.

Accounting for the Individual in Community

Losing It Online: Characterizing Participation in an Online Weight Loss Community BIBAFull-Text 35-45
  Victor Li; David W. McDonald; Elizabeth V. Eikey; Jessica Sweeney; Janessa Escajeda; Guarav Dubey; Kaitlin Riley; Erika S. Poole; Eric B. Hekler
Many people struggle with their weight and are turning to online communities for social and informational support. The aim of this study is to understand the issues commonly discussed in online weight loss communities. Through observation and content analysis of threads in one specific weight loss community, we identified 17 distinct categories discussed by the participants. We detail four categories specifically: Personal Experience, Consumption Choices, Dieting Strategy, and Exercise. Our analysis describes some key user roles and states that often relate to different phases of a person's weight loss journey. We identify a set of transient states, which are not proper roles but are significant in an online community where individuals are attempting to change their own behaviors. We close with design suggestions for encouraging and maintaining participant engagement in an online health community.
If It Is Funny, It Is Mean: Understanding Social Perceptions of Yelp Online Reviews BIBAFull-Text 46-52
  Saeideh Bakhshi; Partha Kanuparthy; David A. Shamma
Online recommendation communities, like Yelp, are valuable information sources for people. Yet, we assert, review communities have their own dynamics behind the social interactions therein. In this work, we study the Yelp review votes of useful, funny, and/or cool to understand these social perceptions of the review. We examine the relationship between these social signals and the emotional valence of the review itself (text and rating). We aim to understand the community's perception of each of these signaling contributions. We construct a conditional inference tree of social signals from 230K Yelp reviews to study how social signals shape the deviance in review rating from the mean rating, an indicator of the overall business rating on Yelp. We find two effects of social signals. First, reviews voted as useful and funny are associated with lower user ratings and relatively negative tone in the review text. Second, reviews voted as cool tend to have a relatively positive tone and higher ratings. Our findings open a research direction for further understanding of perceptions of social signals and have implications for design of recommendation systems.

Impression and Privacy Management in SNS

Impression Management Struggles in Online Dating BIBAFull-Text 53-62
  Douglas Zytko; Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones
Online dating systems are now widely used to search for romance and yet there is little research on how people use these systems to manage their impressions with potential romantic partners. To address this issue we conducted an interview study of 41 online dating users, revealing that-contrary to prior work-online daters largely do not want to intentionally deceive their online dating partners because they think such lies would quickly be discovered face-to-face. Nevertheless, bad first dates were a norm rather than an exception for this study's participants. In this paper we present various frustrations online daters associate with conveying and forming impressions of potential romantic partners before meeting face-to-face. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of online dating systems.
Investigating the Use of a Simulator to Support Users in Anticipating Impact of Privacy Settings in Facebook BIBAFull-Text 63-72
  Manoel Pereira Junior; Simone Isabela de Rezende Xavier; Raquel Oliveira Prates
One of the challenges faced by Facebook users is that privacy settings change not only the visibility of the information, but also impact actions other users can take on a piece of information. These actions on their turn can also create changes to the visibility of that piece of information, sometimes granting access to people originally unintended by the user who posted the information. In this paper we investigate how a simulator that allows users to explore the different situations that can result from privacy settings may support them in anticipating the impact of their decisions. To do so, we have implemented a privacy setting simulator prototype, and evaluated it through a qualitative case-study which involved 12 regular Facebook users. Our findings indicate that the simulator improved users understanding of the effects of their privacy settings and allowed them to identify misunderstandings they had about the visibility of their information.
Designing Better Location Fields in User Profiles BIBAFull-Text 73-80
  Ting-Yu Wang; F. Maxwell Harper; Brent Hecht
Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest and many other online communities ask their users to populate a location field in their user profiles. The information that is entered into this field has many uses in both industry and academia, with location field data providing valuable geographic context for operators of online communities and playing key roles in numerous research projects. However, despite the importance of location field entries, we know little about how to design location fields effectively. In this paper, we report the results of the first controlled study of the design of location fields in user profiles. After presenting a survey of location field design decisions in use across many online communities, we show that certain design decisions can lead to more granular location information or a higher percentage of users that fill out the field, but that there is a trade-off between granularity and the percent of non-empty fields. We also add context to previous work that found that location fields tend to have a high rate of non-geographic information (e.g. Location: "Justin Bieber's Heart"), showing that this result may be site-specific rather than endemic to all location fields. Finally, we provide evidence that verifying users' location field entries against a database of known-valid locations can eliminate toponym (place name) ambiguity and any non-geographic location field entries while at the same time having little effect on field population rate and granularity.

Collaborative Systems

Exploring How a Co-dependent Tangible Tool Design Supports Collaboration in a Tabletop Activity BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Min Fan; Alissa N. Antle; Carman Neustaedter; Alyssa F. Wise
Many studies suggest that tangibles and digital tabletops have potential to support collaborative interaction. However, previous findings show that users often work in parallel with such systems. One design strategy that may encourage collaboration rather than parallel use involves creating a system that responds to co-dependent access points in which more than one action is required to create a successful system response. To better understand how co-dependent access points support collaboration, we designed a comparative study with 12 young adults using the same application with a co-dependent and an independent access point design. We collected and analyzed categories of both verbal and behavioural data in the two conditions. Our results show support for the co-dependent strategy and suggest ways that the co-dependent design can be used to support flexible collaboration on tangible tabletops for young adults.
Metrics for Cooperative Systems BIBAFull-Text 91-99
  Nils Jeners; Wolfgang Prinz
This paper proposes performance indicators and metrics for the analysis of shared workspaces. We investigate user activity in various electronic workspaces of a shared workspace system and compare these on the basis of the proposed metrics: activity, productivity and cooperativity. Based on these results we further investigate the intensity of cooperation on shared documents. The investigations show that the proposed metrics permit an identification of the current cooperation status of a workspace as well as a classification of workspaces and benchmarking of the cooperation maturity.
The Dream About the Magic Silver Bullet: the Complexity of Designing for Tablet-Mediated Learning BIBAFull-Text 100-110
  Isa Jahnke; Niels Vandel Svendsen; Simon Kristoffer Johansen; Pär-Ola Zander
In this paper, we report three cases of the integration of technology such as web-enabled media tablets in Scandinavian schools. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been applied. A daily challenge for teachers is to coordinate their group of students in a way that enables collaborative learning. We report the gaps and interrelations between the dreams and the practice of the teachers. They dream about an interconnected praxis -- the magic silver bullet -- and establish their visions of inter-connectivity because of their breakdown experiences of media tablets aiding complexity instead of reducing it. The teachers must learn how to navigate during the breakdowns before media tablets reduce complexity and reach a state in which the tablets take part in the classroom ecology as functional organs. The teachers have to deal with complex situations during class in situ. In order to be able to continue with the class, the teachers become jongleurs of different design elements including the handling of the didactical designs and the breakdowns caused by the integration of media tablets; the teaching practice in classrooms moves away from a common routine activity and turns into a design project.

Activist and Makers

Community Code Engagements: Summer of Code & Hackathons for Community Building in Scientific Software BIBAFull-Text 111-121
  Erik H. Trainer; Chalalai Chaihirunkarn; Arun Kalyanasundaram; James D. Herbsleb
Community code engagements -- short-term, intensive software development events -- are used by some scientific communities to create new software features and promote community building. But there is as yet little empirical support for their effectiveness. This paper presents a qualitative study of two types of community code engagements: Google Summer of Code (GSoC) and hackathons. We investigated the range of outcomes these engagements produce and the underlying practices that lead to these outcomes. In GSoC, the vision and experience of core members of the community influence project selection, and the intensive mentoring process facilitates creation of strong ties. Most GSoC projects result in stable features. The agenda setting phase of hackathons reveals high priority issues perceived by the community. Social events among the relatively large numbers of participants over brief engagements tend to create weak ties. Most hackathons result in prototypes rather than finished tools. We discuss themes and tradeoffs that suggest directions for future empirical work around designing community code engagements.
Anyone for Bowling?: Coalescing for Shared Activities BIBAFull-Text 122-130
  Stephen Ricken; Sukeshini Grandhi; Doug Zytko; Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Quentin Jones
Despite the importance of individuals coming together for social group-activities (e.g. pick-up volleyball, chess clubs), the process by which such groups coalesce is poorly understood. Existing theories focus on adoption and contribution rates, group types, and the formation of group norms, as opposed to the processes involved in initial group coalescence. We address this gap in the literature through an interview study examining: 1) how well people's needs for social group activity engagement are being met; 2) the challenges they face in finding and participating in, and; 3) leading interest-based group activities. Our findings highlight how people-s needs are not being addressed by current technologies. In particular, they place a heavy burden on individuals to step forward into leadership positions where the return they will receive for their efforts is often unknown, or extremely limited. We discuss the implications of our findings for the design of interest-based group coalescing technology.
Exploring How Parents in Economically Depressed Communities Access Learning Resources BIBAFull-Text 131-141
  Parisa Khanipour Roshan; Maia Jacobs; Michaelanne Dye; Betsy DiSalvo
This qualitative study of parents in financially depressed communities in westside Atlanta examines parents' access to information technology and out-of-school learning resources through five dimensions of digital divide: technical apparatus, autonomy, social support, skill, and purpose. The context of this study is a broader research agenda to explore how technology impacts parents' knowledge and use of out-of-school learning resources for their children in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. The findings contribute to a growing body of research on marginalized groups and provide a rich description of parents' digital access and technology practices in the context of education. Finally, we identify design implications that are specific to this community and can be extended to similar populations to support parents in finding more learning opportunities.

Social Business

Media2gether: Sharing Media during a Call BIBAFull-Text 142-151
  Azadeh Forghani; Gina Venolia; Kori Inkpen
Telephone calls and videoconferencing are ubiquitous parts of everyday life. As the content of the call may extend beyond just words, people share applications and media using techniques such as screen sharing and email attachments. Little is known about the prevalence of this behavior and the benefits it can provide. We conducted a survey and a lab study to examine media sharing during a video call and found that it can be useful as well as emotionally engaging. Participants indicated that they would be more likely to have more frequent and longer calls if media sharing were easy. Overall, this work demonstrates the importance of exploring communication media that augment and enrich our everyday activities.
The Backstage Work of Data Sharing BIBAFull-Text 152-156
  Karina Kervin; Robert B. Cook; William K. Michener
Conventional wisdom suggests that there are benefits to the creation of shared repositories of scientific data. Funding agencies require that the data from sponsored projects be shared publicly, but individual researchers often see little personal benefit to offset the work of creating easily sharable data. These conflicting forces have led to the emergence of a new role to support researchers: data managers. This paper identifies key differences between the socio-technical context of data managers and other "human infrastructure" roles articulated previously in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) literature and summarizes the challenges that data managers face when accepting data for archival and reuse. While data managers' work is critical for advancing science and science policy, their work is often invisible and under-appreciated since it takes place behind the scenes.
Revisiting Corporate Social Media: Challenges and Implications from a Long-Term Study BIBAFull-Text 157-166
  Alina Krischkowsky; Verena Fuchsberger; Manfred Tscheligi
In a multi-step assessment of a corporate social media platform, which has been implemented in a large company for internal collaboration, we identified three major challenges regarding acceptance and adoption of the platform: (1) diverging perspectives & uncertain top-down communication, (2) functionality jungle & high usage complexity, and (3) lacking collaboration & customization. Based on these challenges, we discuss potential implications for design and implementation of corporate social media. The challenges and implications were derived from data gathered in two rounds of polling employees of the company, where we found that the surveyed employees tended to initially accept the internally implemented social media platform. Nevertheless, by assessing their attitude one and a half years later, we came to understand that the employees have rarely adopted the platform into their daily work practices. This finding led us to analyze in detail the qualitative data gathered along with the survey, as it holds valuable examples and explanations to better understand this phenomenon. Besides presenting the results of the surveys, this paper focuses on the discussion of challenges and implications for enhancing collaboration and supporting adoption processes of social media in workplaces.

Collaborating around the home

The Nomad and the Couch Potato: Enriching Mobile Shared Experiences with Contextual Information BIBAFull-Text 167-177
  Seungwon Kim; Sasa Junuzovic; Kori Inkpen
Mobile videoconferencing is increasingly being used to bring remote friends or family along to an activity happening outside the home, such as shopping or visiting a tourist attraction. We explored how including contextual information of the event, in addition to audio and video of the person at the event, impacts the shared experience. We studied three kinds of information: a map showing the position of the person at the activity, a second live video showing what was in front of that person, and periodic high quality images showing what was in front of the person. We carried out a field study with twelve pairs of participants, where one participant (the nomad) was at a self-selected activity while the other (the couch potato) joined the activity from our living room lab. The study results show that including contextual information significantly improved connectedness and the sense of presence for both participants. Each type of contextual information offered unique benefits. The map was used for orientation and to provide directions, the live video for "do you see this" moments and to maintain a sense of liveliness, and the periodic images for "did you see that" moments and to see greater detail. Together they led to smooth view negotiation, activity input from the couch potato, and high levels of engagement.
Is Living With Others A Barrier To Technical Literacy? BIBAFull-Text 178-181
  Erika S. Poole
Prior research describes how households coordinate to resolve technology complexity in residential settings. In this paper, we examine how social roles and routines of use can potentially hinder the development of technological literacy. Through this short paper, we aim to open a discussion about ways to increase technological literacy of the public.

Collaborative Work

Supporting Collaborative Reflection at Work: A Comparative Case Analysis BIBAFull-Text 182-193
  Michael Prilla; Bettina Renner
Reflection is a common activity at work. Collaborative reflection is an activity in which multiple participants add to reflection by sharing experiences, perspectives and insights together, thus transcending individual capabilities. Despite its potential for change at workplaces, there are little insights on how to support collaborative reflection with technology. To close this gap, this paper analyses four cases in which a tool to support collaborative reflection has been used at different workplaces. It uses qualitative data from app usage, an analysis of content from the tool and feedback gathered from participants to shed light on how people use support tools for collaborative reflection. The results of this wok include factors supporting and constraining reflection in tools as well as implications for tool design.
Work Practices in Coordinating Center Enabled Networks (CCENs) BIBAFull-Text 194-203
  Betsy Rolland; Drew Paine; Charlotte P. Lee
Coordinating Centers (CCs) are central bodies tasked with the work of coordination and operations management of a virtual organization whose purpose is to conduct multi-site research projects. We call these organizations Coordinating Center Enabled Networks (CCENs). This qualitative, interview-based study followed two CCs in the field of cancer epidemiology over seven months to answer the question: How does a CC facilitate the work of networked science in a CCEN? In order to answer the question of how CCs facilitate work, we first describe the complex ecology of CCEN work practices. We further discuss how various stakeholders engage in different work practices to facilitate scientific progress. Finally, we use the conceptual lenses of local articulation work and metawork together with the diversity of work practices to better understand what practices CCs actually coordinate.
Informing Digital Cognitive Aids Design for Emergency Medical Work by Understanding Paper Checklist Use BIBAFull-Text 204-214
  Zhan Zhang; Aleksandra Sarcevic; Maria Yala; Randall S. Burd
We examine the use of a paper-based checklist during 48 simulated trauma resuscitations to inform the design of digital cognitive aids for safety-critical medical teamwork. Our analysis focused on team communication and interaction behaviors as physician leaders led resuscitations and administered the checklist. We found that the checklist increased the amount of communication between the leader and the team, but did not compromise the leader's interactions with the environment. In addition, we observed several changes in team dynamics: the checklist facilitated collaborative decision making and process reflections, but it also made some team members reactive rather than proactive. As the push toward digitizing medical work continues, we expect that paper checklists will soon be replaced by their digital counterparts. Designing interactive cognitive aids for medical domains, however, poses many challenges. Our results offer directions for how these tools could be designed to support medical work in increasingly digital environments.

Synchronous Systems

Verbal Equity, Cognitive Specialization, and Performance BIBAFull-Text 215-225
  Marcela Borge; John M. Carroll
In this paper, patterns of communication are examined in order to unpack the extent to which verbal equity is a critical factor in determining group success. A microanalysis of 20 teams working to complete a complex, information dependent, collaborative task was conducted. Interaction analysis methods were used as means to determine patterns of interaction and the sophistication of cognitive activity that teams engaged in. Findings suggest that verbal equity may not be as important as previous research indicates. A more critical variable may be cognitive specialization. The authors explain their findings by drawing on theories of cognition, thereby contributing to a better understanding of collective intelligence.
Supporting String-Wise Operations and Selective Undo for Peer-to-Peer Group Editing BIBAFull-Text 226-237
  Weihai Yu
Real-time group editing has been envisioned as an effective manner of collaboration. For years, operational transformation (OT) has been the standard concurrency control mechanism for real-time group editing, due to its potential for high responsiveness to local editing operations. OT algorithms are generally non-trivial to be error-free and are computation intensive. Recently, commutative replicated data types (CRDT) have appeared as an alternative to OT. The state-of-the-art OT and CRDT work still lacks the basic functionality found in single-user text editors. In particular, there is no published work that supports both string-wise operations and selective undo. This paper presents an approach that combines and extends OT and CRDT strengths. It is fully decentralized and supports string-wise editing operations and selective undo. Our performance study shows that it provides sufficient responsiveness to the end-users.
A Field Trial of an Anonymous Backchannel Among Primary School Pupils BIBAFull-Text 238-242
  Matti Nelimarkka; Kai Kuikkaniemi; Giulio Jacucci
Backchannels are tools that allow participants to discuss during a performance, such as lecture or presentation, without interrupting it. They are used in higher education and conferences to facilitate audience participation. This study examines backchannels in a Finnish primary school with a class of 12-13-year-old pupils. Backchannels can allow anonymous participation and this feature has been found practical in higher education. In this study, we observed that primary school pupils posted relevant messages at the same level as reported prior studies conducted in higher education. The pupils also appreciated the anonymity as it provided additional safety for self-expression.
How Do You IM When You Get Emotional? BIBAFull-Text 243-249
  Afarin Pirzadeh; Mark S. Pfaff
Nowadays instant messaging (IM) is getting very common in everyday life especially in casual contexts. Studying emotional communication in this channel is still growing. The main focus of this study is how four emotional states (relaxed, angry, happy, sad) influence the type and quantity of emotion-related cues used during informal conversations between college friends in IM. Results of the analysis revealed that the happy condition led to more use of nonverbal cues than the other three conditions, including more punctuation, vocal spellings, lexical surrogates, and minus features. Understanding how emotions affect emotional cues users apply in IM has implications for future research on emotion communication via CMC, as well as for the design of the next generation of IM tools that can facilitate communicating those emotional cues.

Doctoral Colloquium

Citizen Adoption of Technology Mediated Social Participation Systems BIBAFull-Text 250-251
  Fahad Alayed
I study technologies developed to encourage the public to contribute to the public good. However, few of these systems are well accepted and adopted by public. Using a mixed methods approach grounded on technology acceptance theoretical frameworks, my dissertation explores why people are motivated to take participatory actions to be more involved and engaged within their communities? By using an example of Balagh Tejary, a public participation mobile application used to report merchant violations with the Ministry of Commerce in Saudi Arabia I aim to explore the motivational factors underpinning the acceptance of public participation systems in public good domain.
Networked Handhelds for Collaborative Sense-Making in Undergraduate Physics BIBAFull-Text 252-254
  Lisa A. Hardy
Classroom networks of handheld devices have the potential to support a new genre of collaborative learning activities, enabling complex small group tasks that encourage and support the simultaneous engagement of all students. At the same time, one-to-one personal computing with intuitive touchscreen interfaces offers engaging simulations and visualization aids to individual learners. However, it is not well understood how to design effective simulations to be used by and to engage groups of students in a collaborative setting. My dissertation work is an exploration of the collaborative physics activity design space opened up by networked handheld devices. Specifically, I study the design of networked simulations with the aim of engaging students in high-level discourse about physics concepts.
Using Technology to Increase Meaningful Engagement in a Memory Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 255-257
  Amanda Lazar
Dementia is affecting an increasing number of people due to the global aging of the population. People with dementia living in memory care units (MCUs) often lack access to meaningful activities and social interactions. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have a tremendous potential to increase activity opportunities for people in MCUs. In two longitudinal studies, I used observations, interviews, and repeated quantitative measures to evaluate the use of a commercially available multi-functional technology system with people with dementia, staff, and family members. Next steps include data analysis and generating recommendations for system designers.
Designing Communication Technologies for Children with a Chronic Illness BIBAFull-Text 258-260
  Leslie S. Liu
Children with a chronic illness who must frequent the hospital for various treatments and procedures are removed from familiar environments, such as their home or school, to stay close to the hospital. Their temporary removal from familiarity can cause feelings of isolation. Social connectedness with their friends and classmates may help alleviate their feelings of isolation and help make them feel more "normal" like their healthy counterparts. However, current communication technologies are not designed specifically for chronically ill patients. By understanding how patients use current technologies to stay connected with their friends, I propose to develop and carry out a participatory design methodology to produce technologies that assist the chronically ill pediatric population.
Distributed Leadership in OSS BIBAFull-Text 261-262
  Nora McDonald
Open-source software (OSS) is software whose source code is available to view, change, and distribute without cost, and is typically developed in a collaborative manner that has captured the imagination of those who view the web as enabling more "democratic" models of governance. Researchers have, for years, debated the social structure of OSS projects -- in particular, the extent to which they represent decentralized forms of organization. Many have argued that the significant concentration of code development responsibility raises doubts about whether the level of power-sharing truly qualifies as "distributed" in the way early observers predicted. This research will investigate how changes in the technology that supports these projects -- specifically the greater visibility that characterizes the GitHub workspace may lead to a more broadly and quantifiably distributed leadership. Over the course of several studies employing several methodologies, it will examine leadership in OSS projects when visibility is a feature of the workspace.
The Collaborative Management of Information Problems in Hospitals BIBAFull-Text 263-265
  Alison R. Murphy
With the rapid emergence of health information technologies (HIT) in hospitals, it is important to understand how the design of these systems affects the communication of patient information and the collaboration of hospital teams. HIT systems can provide benefits to the patient-care process, but they do not always address serious information problems. In some cases, the design and use of HIT systems can cause additional information problems. Therefore, this qualitative study seeks to understand how hospital teams identify and manage these information problems, and how information problems impact the collaborative activities of the hospital team.
The Potential of VMC Systems to Support Social Capital BIBAFull-Text 266-268
  Katja Neureiter
Video-mediated communication systems allow to communicate over distance and offer possibilities to build up or maintain social relationships. Such systems convey a variety of non-verbal cues (e.g., gestures or facial expressions), which support mutual understanding and can evoke the feeling of being close to the remote communication partner. The aim of my thesis is to investigate the potential of video-mediated communication systems to increase cohesion and identity of small groups and develop a sense of belongingness, i.e., support bonding forms of social capital. This will be done by investigating the interrelation between social presence and social capital in video-mediated communication.
Pregnancy Ecologies As Teachable Moments For The Lifecourse: Changing The mHealth Design Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 269-271
  Tamara Peyton
I investigate the potential for mobile health communication and social collaboration technologies (mHealth) to have a positive impact on pregnancy for lower-income American women. Recognizing that pregnancy is more than medical health, I set out to understand what pregnancy is for this population and how the embodied experience of pregnancy impacts women's lives. I have initiated a mixed methods study, which uses focus groups, interviews, information landscape analysis and social media discourse analysis. From the preliminary focus group and interview data, I have created a structuring health concept that I call the pregnancy ecology, accounting for the multi-faceted experience of pregnancy as a transformational event. The future work will incorporate all of the data into a holistic health ecology concept for pregnancy. Using this concept, I intend to design and build a mHealth app that treats pregnancy as a teachable moment for health, wellness and social support throughout the lifecourse.
Emotional Communication in Instant Messaging BIBAFull-Text 272-274
  Afarin Pirzadeh
In spite of rapid growth of text-based instant messaging (IM) in diverse settings, emotion communication in IM has received limited empirical scrutiny, especially inside casual settings. The main goal of my dissertation project is to, through design research, critically examine how users communicate their emotions in IM and to establish user-centered design solutions to comprehensively support emotional communication via this medium.
Collaboratively Designed Information Structures in Wikipedia BIBFull-Text 275-277
  Katherine Thornton
Supporting the Information Management Needs of People Helping Animals in Disasters BIBAFull-Text 278-280
  Joanne I. White
Many things influence human decision-making in disasters. This work considers the information management needs and collaborative work of those focused on animal care and evacuation in disasters. Empirical ethnographic work on-site at two animal evacuation locations, as well as fieldwork responding to large animal needs, and ongoing participant observer fieldwork between events has led to both academic and practical contributions aimed at improving the ways animal advocates, animal owners and emergency responders are able to communicate and attend to the needs of animals and their owners in a disaster.

Poster Abstracts

The Collaborative Agile Knowledge Engine CAKE BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Ralph Bergmann; Sarah Gessinger; Sebastian Görg; Gilbert Müller
The Collaborative Agile Knowledge Engine (CAKE) is a prototypical generic software system for integrated process and knowledge management. CAKE integrates recent research results on agile workflows, process-oriented case-based reasoning, and web technologies into a common platform that can be configured to different application domains and needs. We describe the main concepts and the architecture of CAKE and sketch three example applications.
BIG Science: A Collaborative Framework for Large Scale Research BIBAFull-Text 285-287
  Samuel J. Hill; Kyle A. Brown; Andreea I. Cirstea; Alexandra R. Morgan; Ahmed Mustafa; Andrea Tartaro
Large-scale research projects that involve multiple investigators from many disciplines and many universities face challenges that affect collaboration and cohesion of the project. In this poster, we propose a "Big Science" collaboration system that uses Human Computer Interaction, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data methods to identify project cohesion and create effective collaborative connections.
Support for Collaboration between Large and Small & Medium Enterprises BIBAFull-Text 288-290
  Wolfgang Gräther; Michal Laclavik; Martin Tomasek
Collaboration between large and small & medium enterprises is still not adequately supported by current groupware solutions. In this paper, we present the VENIS approach for lightweight collaboration that addresses the challenges of inter-enterprise collaboration. Key elements of our approach are interoperability to legacy applications, basic services for sharing and management of shared collaboration spaces, use of email for collaboration on the SME's side and the application of lightweight semantic technologies to enable semantic search in inter-enterprise collaborations. We tested the approach on a use case from software development and describe the results.
"I Am Not a Lawyer": Copyright Q&A in Online Creative Communities BIBAFull-Text 291-294
  Casey Fiesler; Jessica Feuston; Amy S. Bruckman
Once referred to by the Supreme Court as the "metaphysics" of law, many parts of copyright policy are historically confusing. Therefore, it isn't surprising that in communities where amateur content creators work within a legal gray area, copyright is a frequent topic of conversation. Here, people with often little knowledge of the letter of the law are asking and answering complex legal questions in the context of their creative activities. Working from a content analysis of public forum conversations in eight different online communities, we have examined these questions and answers more closely. By studying these interactions, what can we learn about how people engage with the law and how non-expert advice affects behavior and knowledge?
Presenting the Kludd: A Shared Workspace for Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Stefan Nilsson; Lars Svensson
In this poster, we would like to present the current state of the Kludd system. Kludd is a web-based collaboration tool, enabling users to collaborate around various media objects like images, videos, texts and audio in a shared workspace. The design metaphor is an online whiteboard, where multiple actors can add, manipulate and remove objects, all while everyone sees the same view. The system is made with standard components like HTML5, CSS3 and a number of open-source javascript libraries enabling real-time collaboration in a browser. Utilizing a Design Science Research methodology, the initial design was based on 9 design requirements. In this poster, a further four requirements are presented as a result of the analysis of the first phase, and an initial design of the second phase of the project is presented.
Sound Planet: An Interactive Sound Visualization on the Spherical Display for Group Work BIBAFull-Text 299-301
  Seong-Hoon Ban; Kwangyun Wohn
Sound Planet is a spherically-shaped interactive installation with the group interaction and the real-time visualization against audiences' voice and singing. The audience approaches the sleeping planet, wakes it up, creates some artifacts such as soil, water, and atmosphere, and then populates it with the life forms, thereby creating a living planet of their own. Its compelling storyline reinforces the audience's experience while the audience -- mostly young children -- establishes an emotional engagement with the fictitious planet. The installation whose primary purpose is to provide the synesthetic experience to young children has been operational since April 2014, serving about one hundred children and their family per day.
Evaluating Mobile Remote Presence (MRP) Robots BIBAFull-Text 302-305
  Tristan Lewis; Jill Drury; Brandon Beltz
Video teleconferencing systems (VTCs) have enhanced remote meetings because their ability to convey nonverbal or social cues can make them simulate in-person interaction more closely than telephone conversations. Yet many people feel that something is still lacking, most likely because VTCs require all interaction to take place in a pre-defined set of rooms and/or from a single viewpoint. In contrast, mobile remote presence (MRP) robots, sometimes called telepresence robots, enable participants to move their focus from their colleagues' faces to a screen at the front of the room, to artifacts on a table, to posters or sticky notes on the room's walls, etc. Consumers now have a choice of several commercially available MRP systems, but there are few evaluation methods tailored for this type of system. In this paper we present a proposed set of heuristics for evaluating the user experience of a MRP robot. Further, we describe the process we used to develop these heuristics.
Designing Meaningful Participation: Analyzing Contribution Patterns in an Alternate Reality Game BIBAFull-Text 306-309
  Nassim Jafarinaimi; Eric M. Meyers; Allison Trumble
This article presents an analysis of participation patterns of an Alternate Reality game World Without Oil. This game aims to bring people together in an online environment to reflect and share insights about oil dependence. We present a series of participation profiles based on a quantitative analysis of 1554 contributions to the game narrative made by 322 players. We build on these profiles to suggest a preliminary outline of design challenges for building effective interactive learning environments that foster meaningful participation.

Workshop Summaries

Human-Robot Interaction in Groups: Theory, Method, and Design for Robots in Groups BIBAFull-Text 310-312
  Lionel P. Robert; Sangseok You
For the last decade, robots have been adopted into group work ranging from corporate offices to military operations. While robotic technology has matured enough to allow robots to act as team members, our understanding of how this alters group work is limited. In particular, little work has examined how the adoption of robots might alter group processes and outcomes. The purpose of this workshop is to bring together researchers investigating issues related to the theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches to studying human robot interactions within groups. We expect the workshop will contribute to our understanding of how to better design robots for group interactions.
Potentials of the "Unexpected": Technology Appropriation Practices and Communication Needs BIBAFull-Text 313-316
  Manfred Tscheligi; Alina Krischkowsky; Katja Neureiter; Kori Inkpen; Michael Muller; Gunnar Stevens
Whether in private or professional life, individuals frequently adapt the technology around them and work with what they have at hand to accomplish a certain task. In this one-day workshop, we will discuss how this form of technology appropriation is used to satisfy communication needs. Thereby, we specifically focus on technology that was not intended to facilitate communication, but which led to appropriation driven by individuals' communication needs. Our aim is to identify "unexpected" communication needs, to better address these in the design of interactive systems. We focus on a variety of different contexts, ranging from not restricted contexts to environments that are characterized by strict regulations (e.g., production lines with 24/7 shift production cycles). Consequently, this workshop aims at better understanding how users adapt technology to match their individual communication purposes and how these appropriation practices interrelate with and support organizational cooperation.
The Morphing Organization: Rethinking Groupwork Systems in the Era of Crowdwork BIBAFull-Text 317-320
  Obinna Anya; Laura Carletti; Tim Coughlan; Karin Hansson; Sophia B. Liu
Web 2.0 has provided organizations remarkable opportunities to improve productivity, gain competitive advantage, and increase participation by engaging a crowd to accomplish tasks at scale. However, establishing and integrating crowd-based systems into organizations is still an open question. The systems and the collaborative processes they enable appear diametrically in dissonance with the norms and culture of collaboration and knowledge sharing in traditional organizations. They require mechanisms for articulation of work, coordination, cooperation, and knowledge co-creation that are fundamentally different from those in current groupwork systems and processes. Building on two workshops hosted at ACM CSCW 2014, we will explore questions such as: How does the shift in organizational work from a closed system with known individuals, to an open and crowd model that requires engagement with an undefined network of people, affect how we conceptualize groupwork? What are the implications for the design of groupwork systems? What can the crowdsourcing research community learn from groupwork systems, or conversely what can groupwork researchers learn from crowdsourcing? How do cultures, motivations, ownership and representation fit into these systems? This workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners in crowdsourcing, social computing, collaborative technologies, organizational science, and workplace research, to discuss the future of groupwork systems in the era of crowdwork with the goal of articulating an agenda for future research.
Quality Hackathon: Evaluating the Products of Online Co-Production Systems BIBAFull-Text 321-323
  Andrea Wiggins; David Gurzick; Sean Goggins; Brian Butler
This full-day workshop focuses on building Big Social Data research competencies for scholars interested in issues of contribution quality and contributor performance in online co-production systems that generate value through contributions by volunteers. The workshop is designed to engage discussion and promote co-working through a hackathon format to stimulate productive conversation and learning, using shared data sets to provide a common focus for participants to engage questions of contribution quality and contributor performance with multiple disciplinary, theoretical, and analytical backgrounds.
Collaboration and Coordination in the Context of Informal Care (CCCiC): Concepts, Methods, and Technologies BIBAFull-Text 324-327
  Hilda Tellioglu; Myriam Lewkowicz; Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti De Carvalho; Ivan Breškovic; Susanne Schinkinger; Matthieu Tixier
Increasing attention is currently paid to informal care and the physical, emotional, and psychological burden stemming from it. Research findings suggest that such a burden might be intensified when informal caregivers are at older ages. Aiming at reducing the burden associated with informal care, some research studies have focused on developing innovative technologies to support caregivers with their activities and responsibilities. These studies highlight the importance of understanding the many variables that characterise different care situations, emphasizing the relevance of user-centered and participatory design approaches. Following up the successful first edition of the CCCiC workshop held at the 2014 ACM CSCW conference in Baltimore, this workshop elaborates on the resulting roadmap for future research in the domain: concepts, methods, and technologies. This workshop seeks contributions exploring issues of collaboration and coordination for informal care addressing concepts emerging from field research, methodological challenges, work-in-progress, and the design and evaluation of technological solutions.