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EPCE Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415

EPCE 2013: 10th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, Part I: Understanding Human Cognition

Fullname:EPCE 2013: 10th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, Part I: Understanding Human Cognition
Note:Volume 16 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Don Harris
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8019
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39360-0 hcibib: EPCE13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-39359-4 (print), 978-3-642-39360-0 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. EPCE 2013-07-21 Volume 1
    1. Cognitive Issues in HCI
    2. Measuring and Monitoring Cognition
    3. Cognitive Issues in Complex Environments
    4. Productivity, Creativity, Learning and Collaboration

EPCE 2013-07-21 Volume 1

Cognitive Issues in HCI

Data Transmission Latency and Sense of Control BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Bruno Berberian; Patrick Le Blaye; Christian Schulte; Nawfel Kinani; Pern Ren Sim
Latency has been identified as a major bottleneck for usability of human-system interaction devices. However, the theoretical basis of the effect of latency on action control mechanisms remains weak. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cognitive implications of latency for Human-Computer Interaction. We proposed models of agency (i.e., mechanism underlying the feeling of control) as a possible interpretative framework on the nature of the transformation induced by latency. In a series of 3 experiments, we propose to tackle this problem by (1) characterizing the effects (performance and agency) of transmission delays on UAS camera control, and (2) designing and evaluating HMI solutions to mitigate these effects with regard to the agency principle. Our results showed that (1) latency decreases sense of agency and human performance, (2) models of agency could provide HMI solution for latency compensation. Interests of agentive experience accounts for better system design are discussed.
Keywords: Latency; Agency; Action Control; UAS; Cognition
Towards a Model for Predicting Intention in 3D Moving-Target Selection Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Juan Sebastián Casallas; James H. Oliver; Jonathan W. Kelly; Frédéric Merienne; Samir Garbaya
Novel interaction techniques have been developed to address the difficulties of selecting moving targets. However, similar to their static-target counterparts, these techniques may suffer from clutter and overlap, which can be addressed by predicting intended targets. Unfortunately, current predictive techniques are tailored towards static-target selection. Thus, a novel approach for predicting user intention in moving-target selection tasks using decision-trees constructed with the initial physical states of both the user and the targets is proposed. This approach is verified in a virtual reality application in which users must choose, and select between different moving targets. With two targets, this model is able to predict user choice with approximately 71% accuracy, which is significantly better than both chance and a frequentist approach.
Keywords: User intention; prediction; Fitts' Law; moving-target selection; perceived difficulty; decision trees; virtual reality
Image Quality Assessment Using the SSIM and the Just Noticeable Difference Paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 23-30
  Jeremy R. Flynn; Steve Ward; Julian, IV Abich; David Poole
The structural similarity index (SSIM) has been shown to be a superior objective image quality metric. A web-based pilot experiment was conducted with the goal of quantifying, through the use of a sample of human participants, a trend in SSIM values showing when the human visual system can begin to perceive distortions applied to reference images. The just noticeable difference paradigm was used to determine the point at which at least 50% of participants were unable to discern between compressed and uncompressed grayscale images. For four images, this point was at an SSIM value of 96, while for two images it was at 92, for an average of 95. These results suggest that, despite the wide differences in the type of image used, the point at which a human observer cannot determine that compression has been used hovers around an SSIM value of 95.
Keywords: Applied cognitive psychology; Designing for pleasure of use; Display design; Formal error prediction techniques; Human error; Human Factors / System Integration; Psychophysics for display design
Presenting a Fire Alarm Using Natural Language: The Communication of Temporal Information BIBAKFull-Text 31-38
  Yan Ge; Xianghong Sun; Li Wang
Language comprehension is an important issue in fire alarm systems. This study focuses on the expression of temporal information in a fire situation. Both absolute time and relative time were designed to compare the expression types of temporal information. The time sequence and spatial sequence were designed to explore the expressions of a complicated fire that has more than one point of origin. A 5-point Likert scale and ranking task were used to evaluate the comprehensibility of different presentation forms. The results show that using absolute time to describe the point of origin of the fire and its spreading state aided better comprehension. The mechanism and potential reasons are also discussed. In addition, some suggestions for future designs of fire alarm systems are proposed.
Keywords: fire alarm; temporal information; comprehensibility
Using Cognitive Work Analysis to Drive Usability Evaluations in Complex Systems BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Aren Hunter; Tania Randall
This paper describes how Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) can be utilized to support a system-level usability analysis. Overall, we suggest that CWA-derived work tasks should be considered as useful in guiding the development of scenario-based usability questions. We also suggest that usability practitioners be mindful of the importance of time consistencies in developing scenarios and in the appropriate timing of questions throughout the scenario. When evaluating the results of a system level usability experiment it is useful to view the results in light of cognitive and attentional biases.
Keywords: Attention; Biases; Cognitive Work Analysis; Mental Models; System; Usability; Work Tasks
Effect of Transliteration on Readability BIBAKFull-Text 49-57
  Sambhav Jain; Kunal Sachdeva; Ankush Soni
We present our efforts on studying the effect of transliteration, on the human readability. We have tried to explore the effect by studying the changes in the eye-gaze patterns, which are recorded with an eye-tracker during experimentation. We have chosen Hindi and English languages, written in Devanagari and Latin scripts respectively. The participants of the experiments are subjected to transliterated words and asked to speak the word. During this, their eye movements are recorded. The eye-tracking data is later analyzed for eye-fixation trends. Quantitative analysis of fixation count and duration as well as visit count is performed over the areas of interest.
Keywords: Eye Tracking; Transliteration; Readability
The Effects of User Involvement in Online Games, Game-Playing Time and Display Duration on Working Memory BIBAKFull-Text 58-67
  Fang-Ling Lin; Tai-Yen Hsu; Tung-Shen Wu; Chih-Lin Chang
College students spending too much time on online games every week tend to suffer from worsened learning ability, concentration problems, poor academic performance, and decreased interactions with other people. This study's author conducted a questionnaire-based survey to examine how many hours college students from central Taiwan spend on online games per week, in order to find out their average daily involvement in such games. Using proportionate stratified sampling, the survey respondents were selected to examine the weekly involvement in online games among college students from central Taiwan, who were divided into low-, medium- and high-involvement groups in a cluster analysis. Results of the survey were tested using a self-developed evaluation system based on working memory and response time. Totally 36 college students, or 12 students from each of the low-, medium- and high-involvement groups, were randomly selected from the population to test how involvement in online games, game-playing time and display duration affected their working memory. Findings from this study include: I. The low, medium and high levels of online game involvements are defined as an average 1.34 hours, 4.84 hours and 10.27 hours spent on online games every day. 30.9% of the survey respondents said they spent more than 4 hours on online games, which suggests that online games may be the reason why college students stay up all night so often. II. This testing discovers that the levels of involvement in video gaming (p<0.05), display duration (p<0.05), and the interaction of the two factors will all have an impact on visual working memory (p<0.05).
Keywords: Online games; involvement in online games; Display duration; game-playing time; Attention
An Approach to Optimal Text Placement on Images BIBAKFull-Text 68-74
  Gautam Malu; Bipin Indurkhya
In deciding where to place a text block on an image, there are two major factors: aesthetic of the design composition, and the visual attention that the text block naturally attracts. We propose a computational model to address this problem based on the principles of visual balance and the diagonal method of placing emphasis. A between-subject study with seven participants was conducted to validate our model with subjective ratings. Eight color photographs were used to generate a set of text-overlaid images as the stimuli. Participants rated the stimuli for aesthetic appeal on a seven-point likert scale. Results show that the participants preferred text-overlaid images generated by our method of text placement over random text placement.
Keywords: Computational aesthetics; Interface design; Visual Balance; Diagonal Method
Visuospatial Processing and Learning Effects in Virtual Reality Based Mental Rotation and Navigational Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 75-83
  Thomas D. Parsons; Christopher G. Courtney; Michael E. Dawson; Albert A. Rizzo; Brian J. Arizmendi
Visuospatial function and performance in interactions between humans and computers involve the human identification and manipulation of computer generated stimuli and their location. The impact of learning on mental rotation has been demonstrated in studies relating everyday spatial activities and spatial abilities. An aspect of visuospatial learning in virtual environments that has not been widely studied is the impact of threat on learning in a navigational task. In fact, to our knowledge, the combined assessment of learning during mental rotation trials and learning in an ecologically valid virtual reality-based navigational environment (that has both high and low threat zones) has not been adequately studied. Results followed expectation: 1) learning occurred in the virtual reality based mental rotation test. Although there was a relation between route learning and practice, a primacy effect was observed as participants performed more poorly when going from the first zone to the last.
Keywords: Visuospatial Processing; Learning; Virtual Reality; Mental Rotation: Navigation
Error Analysis for Tablet User Interface Transfers Based on Operational Knowledge Interference BIBAKFull-Text 84-93
  Kazutoyo Takata; Koji Morikawa; Tsukasa Hirashima
Operational errors were collected and analyzed with regard to the use of different tablet UIs. The effects of previous operational knowledge upon the use of new devices were clarified through user experiments in which forty subjects participated. A comparison was made of three different types of tablet UIs that were equipped with three different operating systems: iOS 5, Windows 8 (release preview), and Windows 7. The results showed the user's dependence upon previous operational knowledge when using a new tablet PC. This dependency was demonstrated both in the ratio of the users' accurate operation, and in their process of exploring an unknown operation.
Keywords: knowledge transfer; tablet PC; mental model; error analysis; gesture
Multitasking: Digital Natives' Interaction with New Media BIBAKFull-Text 94-103
  Tuba Ugras; Sevinç Gülseçen
We aimed to analyze multitasking behaviors of digital natives in Turkey while interacting with new media, within the scope of the following questions: What kind of multitasking behaviors do digital natives exhibit? How does being a multitasker influence digital natives' interaction with new media? We used dominant-less dominant, quantitative-qualitative sequential mixed research method. The target group is teenagers, aged from 13 to 17 as being digital natives. The sample size is 494 in the quantitative part; 10 in the qualitative part. According to the results, the rate of being a multitasker among digital natives is very high. Multitaskers think multitasking is a very natural behavior and they feel very comfortable with it. On the other hand, there are some negative issues regarding multitasking, such as losing attention.
Keywords: Digital natives; Multitasking; New media; Cognitive load; Interaction
The Use of Timed Directional Link Analysis to Improve User Interaction during Universal Remote Control Setup Procedures BIBAKFull-Text 104-113
  Robert J. Youmans; Bridget Lewis; Ivonne J. Figueroa; Jesus Perez
The universal television remote control is one of the most common pieces of household technology in the industrialized world. In spite of the ubiquity of the television remote, the complexity of the device often means that consumers find universal remotes to be confusing to operate, particularly when programming the remote to operate a new device or piece of technology. The present study employed an advanced version of a technique called link analysis in order to decompose how a typical user would go about programming a remote control in order to better understand where users might become confused during a standard setup procedure. Next, the authors worked with a project development team at Universal Electronics Incorporated (UEI) to produce a new model of the remote that was easier to use. Finally, the setup procedures of the new version of the remote control were tested against the previous version in a short usability test. The results of the study confirmed that programming new devices using the redesigned remote was faster, less error prone, and subjectively rated by users as easier to accomplish. These findings suggest that timed directional link analysis may be a viable technique that designers and human factors psychologists can utilize to improve the user experience of consumer electronics.
Keywords: Remote Control; Usability Testing; Link Analysis; Product Design

Measuring and Monitoring Cognition

Automatic Classification of Eye Blink Types Using a Frame-Splitting Method BIBAKFull-Text 117-124
  Kiyohiko Abe; Hironobu Sato; Shogo Matsuno; Shoichi Ohi; Minoru Ohyama
Human eye blinks include voluntary (conscious) blinks and involuntary (unconscious) blinks. If voluntary blinks can be detected automatically, then input decisions can be made when voluntary blinks occur. Previously, we proposed a novel eye blink detection method using a Hi-Vision video camera. This method utilizes split interlaced images of the eye, which are generated from 1080i Hi-Vision format images. The proposed method yields a time resolution that is twice as high as that of the 1080i Hi-Vision format. We refer to this approach as the frame-splitting method. In this paper, we propose a new method for automatically classifying eye blink types on the basis of specific characteristics using the frame-splitting method.
Keywords: Eye blink; Voluntary blink; Interlaced image; Natural light; Input interface
The Experimental Research of Task Load Quantitative Analysis Based on the Pupil Diameter BIBAKFull-Text 125-133
  Xueli He; Lijing Wang; Yingchun Chen
The aim of this paper is to do experimental research of task load quantitative analysis based on the pupil diameter. Two sets of experiments were designed from several task elements: (1) Visual Tracking, Visual -- Cognitive, Visual -- Cognitive -- Response; (2) Auditory-Cognitive, Auditory -- Cognitive -- Respond. In the experiment, the pupil diameter was obtained by eye tracker. From the experimental results, the change of pupil size in visual tracking exper-iment is the same as in visual cognition experiment, which can indicate the load of these two tasks being the same. The increasing size of the pupil diameter aroused by task of responding, in the experiments of Visual-Cognitive-Respond and Auditory-Cognitive-Respond, is also in the same. The results showed that pupil diameter can be used as the index for task load quantitative analysis.
Keywords: pupil diameter; task elements; eye tracker
Analyzing Deceptive Speech BIBAKFull-Text 134-141
  Christin Kirchhübel; Alex W. Stedmon; David M. Howard
This current work explored the speech-based attributes of participants who were being deceptive in an experimental interrogation setting. In particular, the study attempted to investigate the appropriateness of using temporal speech cues in detecting deception. Deceptive and control speech was elicited from nineteen speakers and the data was analyzed on a range of speech parameters including Speaking Rate (SR), Response Onset Time (ROT) and frequency and duration of Hesitation markers. The findings point to a significant increase in SR, a significant decrease in ROT and a reduction in hesitation phenomena in the deceptive condition suggesting an acceleration of overall speaking tempo. The potential significance of temporal parameters for detecting deception in speech is recognized. However, the complex and multifaceted nature of deceptive behaviour is highlighted and caution is advised when attempting veracity judgments based on speech.
Keywords: Deception; Speaking Rate; Response Onset Time; Hesitations
Note: Best paper award
A Detection Method of Temporary Rest State While Performing Mental Works by Measuring Physiological Indices BIBAKFull-Text 142-150
  Shutaro Kunimasa; Kazune Miyagi; Hiroshi Shimoda; Hirotake Ishii
In order to evaluate intellectual productivity such as the efficiency of performing mental works, several studies were conducted where specially designed tasks were given. However, the result may not be reflected the actual intellectual productivity because the designed tasks are different from office works. Meanwhile, there are two mental states (work and temporary rest state) in office workers which are changing alternatively during mental work and the ratio of the two states reflects the productivity. If the mental states of the workers can be detected, the productivity can be measured more accurately. In this study, a detection method of temporary rest state while performing mental works by measuring physiological indices has been developed. As the result of the subject experiment, it was found that the detection accuracy was 80.2%. This result shows the possibility to use the physiological indices as one of the mental state detection methods.
Keywords: intellectual productivity; physiological psychology; cognitive psychology; office work; mental work
Affective Priming with Subliminal Auditory Stimulus Exposure BIBAKFull-Text 151-157
  Juan Liu; Yan Ge; Xianghong Sun
The primacy hypothesis about affection (Zajonc, 1980) holds that positive and negative affective reactions can be elicited with minimal stimulus input and virtually no cognitive processing. This hypothesis challenges the cognitive appraisal viewpoint (Lazarus, 1982), which maintains that affection cannot emerge without prior cognitive mediation. There have been many studies shown that human emotion could be affected by subliminal visual stimulus, so how about subliminal auditory stimulus (SAS)? In this study two pieces of traditional Chinese music were used as SAS, and the unheard music was played in a continuous loop, which was different from the commonly used priming paradigm. 56 undergraduates were randomly divided into two groups; participants in one group were exposed to the subliminal happy music, and in the other group were exposed to the subliminal sad music. A before-and-after self-paired design was used to assess the emotion of all the subjects. During the experiment their galvanic skin response (GSR) and subjective ratings were recorded. The results showed that SAS caused the obviously change on human's GSR, but there was no change found in their subjective ratings of emotional valence (happy-unhappy). A lot of evidence showed that GSR was more sensitive than subjective ratings for the evaluation to current emotion status. The overall results of our study confirmed this perspective. So, we believed that SAS affected people's emotion, and this kind of affective priming wasn't perceived consciously by people themselves.
Keywords: Effective priming; Subliminal auditory stimulus; Emotion; Unconscious
Novel Chromatic Pupillometer: Portable Pupillometry Diagnostic System BIBAKFull-Text 158-166
  Peyton Paulick; Philipp Novotny; Mark Bachman; Herbert Plischke
This research study explores development of a novel chromatic pupillometer that can analyze the characteristics of a patient's pupil light reflex (PLR). Characteristics of the PLR are not only used to determine retinal function but also have been recently used as a non-invasive diagnostic for a variety of neurological disorders and diseased states. This device is a compact diagnostic goggle that contains both stimulating and recording abilities of the PLR. This paper will discuss the design and function of the prototype as well as present preliminary data on evaluation of a subset of cells within the PLR.
Keywords: chromatic pupillometry; pupil light reflex; ipRGCs; pupillometry; eye tracking; assistive device; portable system
Estimation of Operator Input and Output Workload in Complex Human-Machine-Systems for Usability Issues with iFlow BIBAKFull-Text 167-176
  Stefan Pfeffer; Patrick Decker; Thomas Maier; Eric Stricker
Usability studies often use methods focused on product parameters. Test designs are processed in laboratories and evaluation is commonly performed by expert opinions. For validation studies we want to point out the importance of field studies and user and system oriented evaluation. For this purpose we want to present the methodological approach iFlow (information flow) as multiple assessment technique for usability issues in real or quasi-real (simulated) situations. The idea of iFlow is to assess input and output workload via video and audio recordings combined with subjective and objective measurement techniques of workload. In this contribution the iFlow method and an evaluative study in anesthesiology are presented. The added value to already existing methods and approaches is considered in the sensitivity of iFlow to identify situations of overload in a descriptive way. For design interventions it would be helpful to consult the iFlow chart to deduct cause and effect relations.
Keywords: Information Flow; Usability; Input Workload; Output Workload
Effects of Task and Presentation Modality in Detection Response Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 177-185
  Roman Vilimek; Juliane Schäfer; Andreas Keinath
To assess driver distraction adequately, cognitive workload measurement techniques are necessary that can be used as part of standard in-vehicle testing procedures. Detection response tasks (DRTs) are a simple and effective way of assessing workload. However, as DRTs require cognitive resources themselves, interferences between task modality and DRT modality are possible. In this study, DRT stimuli (auditory, visual, tactile) are varied systematically with secondary task presentation modality (auditory, visual, or purely cognitive tasks). The aim is to infer if different DRT variants remain sensitive to changes in workload even if primary and secondary task convey information using the same presentation modality, thus making resource conflicts likely. Results show that all DRTs successfully discriminate between high and low workload levels in terms of reaction time independent of DRT presentation modality. Differences in discriminability can be found in hit rate measurement.
Keywords: DRT; PDT; workload; driver distraction

Cognitive Issues in Complex Environments

The Role of Specular Reflection in the Perception of Transparent Surfaces -- The Influence on User Safety BIBAKFull-Text 189-196
  Marcin Brzezicki
The perception of transparency in human's build environment constitutes a significant cognitive challenge, also affecting the user's safety. It is supposed that, apart from the mid-level vision transparency cues, specular reflection is also a key feature of the perceived image taken into consideration by the visual system. In the paper, this optical phenomenon was observed and estimated based on the author's own method, here called the "pictorial image analysis", which uses pairs of photographs: unmodified -- showing the virtual image on the building's transparent façade, and modified -- devoid of this image. The images were digitally processed to extract the reflection laid over the undisturbed transmitted image. The results show that evident specular reflection significantly improves the perception of transparent surfaces, but, in the case of excess or back-lit panes, it can hardly be used as perceptual cue.
Keywords: transparency perception; mirror-like reflections; building's façade
Cognitive Engineering and Emergency Management BIBAKFull-Text 197-204
  Denis A. Coelho
It is intended with this paper to shed light on the potential of cognitive engineering approaches to advance emergency management. Hence, the paper may inform future research on the problem domain. The paper considers cognitive engineering research paradigms, e.g., Hollnagel and Woods' (2001) cognitive systems engineering and design seeded by immersion in the application domain. The paper concludes with future directions for research in order to fulfil the gaps identified.
Keywords: cognitive systems engineering; disaster management; emergency management; decision-making
Design and Implementation of a Cognitive Simulation Model for Robotic Assembly Cells BIBAKFull-Text 205-214
  Marco Faber; Sinem Kuz; Marcel Ph. Mayer; Christopher M. Schlick
Against the background of a changing global economy, new production technologies have to be developed to stay competitive in high-wage countries. Therefore, an integrated cognitive simulation model (CSM) has been developed to support the human operator and the assembly process. By making the behavior of the system more intuitive the cognitive compatibility between the operator and the production system is enhanced significantly. The presented CSM faces three different challenges: (1) visualizing the behavior of the system to give the human operator an understanding of the technical systems, (2) cognitive control of a real robotic assembly cell and (3) performing mass simulations in order to evaluate parameters, new assembly or planning strategies or the assembly of new products. Additionally, a graph-based planner supports the cognitive planning instance for realizing complex tasks.
Keywords: cognitive simulation; joined cognitive systems; human-machine interaction; production systems
Evaluation of Advanced Multi-Modal Command and Control Communication Management Suite BIBAKFull-Text 215-221
  Victor Finomore; Adam Sitz; Kelly Satterfield; Courtney Castle; Elizabeth Blair
Command and Control (C2) operators function in communication intensive environments that impose a high degree of workload on them, thus resulting in failures of detection or comprehension of messages. To combat these issues, researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory have developed an advanced network-centric communication management suite that aids C2 operators in their mission called Multi-Modal Communication (MMC). This system provides operators with the tools to manage communication in a single, intuitive, dynamic display that reduces perceived mental workload and aids in decision making and situation awareness. This study set out to evaluate the MMC tool as a communication management suite, which affords participants the ability to detect as well as comprehend the presentation of multiple critical messages. The use of the MMC tool resulted in more detections of critical messages and greater message comprehension, while also lowering ratings of perceived mental workload as compared to traditional communication tools such as radio and chat.
Keywords: Command and Control; Operational Research; Multi-Modal Display Design; Mental Workload
Evaluating Two Modes of Observational Learning in Cognitive-Spatial Task Training BIBAKFull-Text 222-231
  Nirit Gavish; Michal Shelef
The focus of the current study was to evaluate the effect of two modes of observational learning, dyad trainer-trainee performance and preliminary observational learning part, on training, as well as the interaction between them. We conducted an experimental study with a 3-D computerized puzzle. Each trainer offered four trainees instruction in solving this puzzle in a 2X2 between-participants design: with or without preliminary observational learning, and with dyad trainer-trainee performance or with verbal guidance only during training (16 trainees in each group). Results demonstrated that the preliminary observational learning resulted in longer training time but better performance in terms of success rates, and that dyad trainer-trainee performance led to shorter training time and did not influence performance. No significant interaction between the two modes was found. The cost-effectiveness matrix that was found in this study can assist in designing guidelines for choosing the appropriate observational learning methods in training.
Keywords: Observational learning; Training; Dyad performance; Cognitive tasks
Symbology Development for a 3D Conformal Synthetic Vision Helmet-Mounted Display for Helicopter Operations in Degraded Visual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 232-241
  Patrizia Knabl; Helmut Többen
To increase situation awareness for helicopter pilots in poor visibility symbology for a helmet-mounted display was developed. The symbology comprises the conformal presentation of obstacles, route information and threat areas. In an online survey 48 helicopter pilots evaluated the designs from a user-centered perspective and provided comments and suggestions of improvement. The paper presents selected results of the survey and discusses general aspects associated with the use of conformal symbology and helmet-mounted displays.
Keywords: helicopter operations; degraded visual environment; synthetic vision systems; helmet-mounted display; conformal symbology
Empirical Insights on Operators' Procedure Following Behavior in Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 242-251
  Huafei Liao; Michael Hildebrandt
In nuclear power plants (NPPs), operators are in general expected to strictly (but not blindly) follow symptom-based emergency operating procedures (EOPs) in responding to emergencies. The procedures are highly prescriptive by their nature as their purpose is to enable the operators to restore and maintain plant safety functions without having to diagnose events or the specific causes of process disturbance. However, this does not necessarily imply that operators' procedure following behavior can simply be assumed as a preeminently step-by-step, rule-based activity of reading, understanding and following individual steps without much cognitive effort.
   This paper examines the procedure following behavior of NPP control room operators in a large-scale empirical human reliability analysis (HRA) study, referred to as the US Empirical HRA Study [1-2]. Observations on challenges that operators experienced in following the EOPs are presented, and their implications for enhancing operator performance and modeling operator behavior under the naturalistic decision making (NDM) framework are discussed.
Keywords: procedure following; emergency operating procedures; nuclear power plant; human reliability analysis; naturalistic decision-making
The Impact of Type and Level of Automation on Situation Awareness and Performance in Human-Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 252-260
  David Schuster; Florian Jentsch; Thomas Fincannon; Scott Ososky
In highly autonomous robotic systems, human operators are able to attend to their own, separate tasks, rather than directly operating the robot to accomplish their immediate task(s). At the same time, as operators attend to their own, separate tasks that do not directly involve the robotic system, they can end up lacking situation awareness (SA) when called on to recover from automation failure or from an unexpected event. In this paper, we describe the mechanisms of this problem, known as the out-of-the-loop performance problem, and describe why the problem may still exist in future robotic systems. Existing solutions to the problem, which focus on the level of automation, are reviewed. We describe our current empirical work, which aims to expand upon taxonomies of levels of automation to better understand how engineers of robotic systems may mitigate the problem.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; robot design; situation awareness; automation
When Stereotypes Meet Robots: The Effect of Gender Stereotypes on People's Acceptance of a Security Robot BIBAKFull-Text 261-270
  Benedict Tiong Chee Tay; Taezoon Park; Younbo Jung; Yeow Kee Tan; Alvin Hong Yee Wong
A recent development of social robotics suggests the integration of human characteristics social robots, which allows a more natural interaction between users and these social robots targeting better task performance and greater user acceptance to such social robots. It is interesting to note that the recent successful integration of human characteristics has brought an overarching research paradigm, known as Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) theory which suggests that people react and respond to computers and robots, often similar to the way they treat another social entities. Based on the research paradigm of CASA theory, this study further examined the impact of gender-related role stereotypes on the assessment of a social robot in a particular occupation. Though previous research in social science found that stereotyping makes a significant influence on personal decisions, involving career promotion, development, and supervision, as well as personal competence evaluations, limited insights has been found in HRI research. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 40 participants (gender balanced) at a public university in Singapore to investigate the effect of gender-related role stereotypes on user acceptance of a social robot as a security guard. Largely within our expectations, the results also showed that users perceived the security robot with matching gender-related role stereotypes more useful and acceptable than the mismatched security robot as a second-degree social response.
Keywords: Social Robots; Human-Robot Interactions; User Acceptance; Gender Stereotypes

Productivity, Creativity, Learning and Collaboration

Effects of Individual Differences on Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-robot Control BIBAKFull-Text 273-280
  Jessie Y. C. Chen; Stephanie A. Quinn; Julia L. Wright; Michael J. Barnes
In the current experiment, we simulated a military multitasking environment and evaluated the effects of RoboLeader on the performance of human operators (i.e., vehicle commanders) who had the responsibility of supervising the plans/routes for a convoy of three vehicles while maintaining proper 360° local security around their own vehicle. We evaluated whether -- and to what extent -- operator individual differences (spatial ability, attentional control, and video gaming experience) impacted the operator's performance. In two out of three mission scenarios, the participants had access to the assistance of an intelligent agent, RoboLeader. Results showed that RoboLeader's level of autonomy had a significant impact on participants' concurrent target detection task performance and perceived workload. Those participants who played action video games frequently had significant better situation awareness of the mission environment. Those participants with lower spatial ability had increasingly better situation awareness as RoboLeader's level of autonomy increased; however, those with higher spatial ability did not exhibit the same trend.
Keywords: human-robot interaction; intelligent agent; military; individual differences; multitasking
A Collaborative Multi-source Intelligence Working Environment: A Systems Approach BIBAKFull-Text 281-289
  Peter Eachus; Ben Short; Alex W. Stedmon; Jennie Brown; Margaret Wilson; Lucy Lemanski
This research applies a systems approach to aid the understanding of collaborative working during intelligence analysis using a dedicated (Wiki) environment. The extent to which social interaction, and problem solving was facilitated by the use of the wiki, was investigated using an intelligence problem derived from the Vast 2010 challenge. This challenge requires "intelligence analysts" to work with a number of different intelligence sources in order to predict a possible terrorist attack. The study compared three types of collaborative working, face-to-face without a wiki, face-to-face with a wiki, and use of a wiki without face-to-face contact. The findings revealed that in terms of task performance the use of the wiki without face-to-face contact performed best and the wiki group with face-to-face contact performed worst. Measures of interpersonal and psychological satisfaction were highest in the face-to-face group not using a wiki and least in the face-to-face group using a wiki. Overall it was concluded that the use of wikis in collaborative working is best for task completion whereas face-to-face collaborative working without a wiki is best for interpersonal and psychological satisfaction.
Keywords: Collaborative working; intelligence analysis; Wiki
Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility Predict Poetry Originality BIBAKFull-Text 290-296
  Ivonne J. Figueroa; Robert J. Youmans
To be successful at creative tasks, people are often required to think flexibly by selectively switching from one cognitive strategy to a more optimal strategy when presented with changing environmental cues [1]. In this study, we measured differences in students' cognitive flexibility, and then examined how well flexibility predicted performance on a subsequent creative task, a Haiku poem. Cognitive flexibility was measured using two variables found in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). Measures of cognitive flexibility predicted the Haiku poem's originality that students created. The results of this study suggest that cognitive flexibility may play an important role in creative writing and in predicting an individual's level of creativity. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Individual differences; cognitive flexibility; creativity; poetry
A New Behavioral Measure of Cognitive Flexibility BIBAKFull-Text 297-306
  Christian A. Gonzalez; Ivonne J. Figueroa; Brooke G. Bellows; Dustin Rhodes; Robert J. Youmans
Individual differences in cognitive flexibility may underlie a variety of different user behaviors, but a lack of effective measurement tools has limited the predictive and descriptive potential of cognitive flexibility in human-computer interaction applications. This study presents a new computerized measure of cognitive flexibility, and then provides evidence for convergent validity. Our findings indicate moderate to strong correlations with the Trail Making Task, and in particular, those aspects of the task most closely associated with cognitive flexibility. Results of this study provide support for the validity of a new measure of cognitive flexibility. We conclude by discussing the measure's potential applicability in the field of HCI.
Keywords: cognitive flexibility; individual differences; user modeling
The Roles of Anxiety and Motivation in Taiwanese College Students' English Learning BIBAKFull-Text 307-315
  Mou-Tzu Yang; Yi-an Hou; Yen-ju Hou; Hsueh-yu Cheng
The study aims to explore the roles of anxiety and motivation in foreign language learning. A total of 141 freshmen at a private university in south Taiwan served as subjects. The research instrument includes the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986), Motivation/attitude about foreign language learning (Gardner, 1985), as well as two English scores of Taiwan College Entrance Exam (CEE) and National English Test of Proficiency All on the Web (NETPAW). All available data were processed by SPSS 16 (Statistical Package of Social Science). Findings show the two English scores of CEE and NETPAW, as well as motivation, attitude and motivational intensity are strongly correlated to one another. In addition, motivational intensity is related to score of NETPAW, but anxiety is the best predictor of students' score of NETPAW positively. It's expected that the findings can provide teachers with some hints for more effective foreign language teaching and learning by being aware of students' individual differences.
Keywords: Anxiety; motivation; attitude; foreign language learning; CEE; NETPAW
Impact of Different Course Contents on Working Memory of Elementary School Students BIBAKFull-Text 316-324
  Tai-Yen Hsu; Fang-Ling Lin; Chih-Lin Chang; Hsien-Te Peng
Students tend to have poor learning efficiency when distracted by numerous internal and external factors in class. And there were many evidences demonstrate that students' attention plays a significant role in teaching. Therefore, this study aims to probe into working memory of elementary school students by administering three different courses, including math, physical education (PE), and athletics training courses, to three experimental groups. It compares the impact of the three courses on students' attention. In this study, purposive sampling was implemented to select 36 fifth graders from an elementary school in Taichung City, who were divided into three experimental groups. The data were analyzed based on the correctness of students' responses to attention tasks. The experimental test was employed using display duration of 0.3 and 0.4 seconds, respectively. A Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks were conducted to identify the significance of the difference between the experimental groups (α=.05). When a substantial difference existed between experimental groups, the researcher implemented a post hoc comparison using a Mann-Whitney U test. The experimental results show that all three groups scored strikingly higher on the post-tests than on the pretests, reaching a significant different (p<.05). Moreover, the researcher compared the post-test results and discovered that there was a vast difference between the group receiving the PE course and the one receiving the athletics training course (p<.05). When the experimental test was given using a time interval of 0.3 seconds, the difference among the three groups was not statistically significant (p>.05). The conclusions of this study were as follows: (1) the implementation of different courses has a significant and impact on the working memory of higher-grade elementary school students; (2) different course contents may influence working memory of students; (3) regular athletic training is helpful in enhancing student attention.
Keywords: attention; training course; working memory; elementary school students
Developing Metacognitive Models for Team-Based Dynamic Environment Using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping BIBAKFull-Text 325-334
  Jung Hyup Kim; Gretchen A. Macht; Ling Rothrock; David A. Nembhard
In this paper, by using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) technique, we developed the metacognitive models for team-based dynamic environment. Preliminary findings from our metacognitive studies provided a possible metacognitive framework in dynamic control tasks [1, 2]. By analyzing metacognition, performance, and communication data between team, we are able to develop the team-based evolving metacognitive models for the dynamic environments using a fuzzy cognitive map. In this research, a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted to collect communication data, objective performance data (operator on-time action performance), and subjective rating data (retrospective confident metacognitive judgment) from 6 dyads (12 participants). Within the Anti-Air Warfare Coordinator (AAWC) simulation domain, the simulation test bed provides an interactive simulating condition in which the monitoring team must communicate with their team member to defend their ship against hostile aircraft.
Keywords: Metacognition; Team Performance; Human-in-the-loop simulation; Fuzzy Cognitive Map
Proposal of Intellectual Productivity Model Based on Work State Transition BIBAKFull-Text 335-343
  Kazune Miyagi; Kotaro Oishi; Kosuke Uchiyama; Hirotake Ishii; Hiroshi Shimoda
Aiming to reveal the mechanism of intellectual productivity variation of office workers, the authors analyzed the behavior of subjective experiment assuming office work, and proposed an intellectual productivity model. The model is a three state transit model assuming "working state", "short-term rest state" and "long-term rest state". A subject experiment was conducted where illuminance on the desk and work motivation were controlled to vary their productivity. The result was analyzed with this model and it is confirmed that the model can explain the productivity variation.
Keywords: intellectual productivity; human modeling; working state; illuminance
Promotion of Cooperative Behavior in Social Dilemma Situation -- How Group Heuristics, Restriction of Short-Term Memory, and Penalty Promote Cooperative Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 344-353
  Atsuo Murata; Saki Kubo; Naoki Hata; Takuma Kanagawa
The group identity effect in a social dilemma situation might be very important in order to attain cooperation. It is important for organizational managers to make efforts and take measures to enhance cooperative behaviors. First, it was explored how the group heuristics promotes a cooperative behavior in a social dilemma situation. The group heuristics was found to play an important role in a social dilemma situation, and enhance a cooperative behavior. Second, it was examined how the ability of short-term memory affected cooperation. The shorter memory span was found to lead to more frequent cooperative behaviors. An agent whose short-term memory was restricted tended to cooperate more frequently than that whose short-term memory is not restricted at all. In the third experiment, we focused on the effects of penalty and probability of the revelation of defection on the cooperation, and getting insight into how punishment strategy should be used to get rid of social dilemmas and enhance cooperation. The defection (uncooperative behavior) decreased when the penalty to the defection was heavy and the probability of the revelation of defection was low than when the penalty to the defection was light and the probability of the revelation of the defection was high.
Keywords: social dilemma; group heuristics; experimental game theory; cooperative behavior; restriction of short-term memory; punishment model
User Requirement Analysis of Social Conventions Learning Applications for Non-Natives and Low-Literates BIBAKFull-Text 354-363
  Dylan Schouten; Nanja Smets; Marianne Driessen; Marieke Hanekamp; Anita H. M. Cremers; Mark A. Neerincx
Learning and acting on social conventions is problematic for low-literates and non-natives, causing problems with societal participation and citizenship. Using the Situated Cognitive Engineering method, requirements for the design of social conventions learning software are derived from demographic information, adult learning frameworks and ICT learning principles. Evaluating a sample of existing Dutch social conventions learning applications on these requirements shows that none of them meet all posed criteria. Finally, Virtual Reality is suggested as a possible future technology improvement.
Keywords: Social conventions; adult education; ICT learning; low-literates; non-natives; situated cognitive engineering; virtual reality; mixed reality
An Intellectual Productivity Evaluation Tool Based on Work Concentration BIBAKFull-Text 364-372
  Hiroshi Shimoda; Kotaro Oishi; Kazune Miyagi; Kosuke Uchiyama; Hirotake Ishii; Fumiaki Obayashi; Mikio Iwakawa
The authors have proposed a concentration time ratio as a new evaluation index of intellectual productivity, which had been difficult to be quantitatively evaluated, with a concept of concentration on target task, and a measurement tool has been developed based on the index. In addition, a subject experiment was conducted with the tool in which the illumination conditions were changed. As the result, it was found that the index was not affected by learning effect and the difference of intellectual productivity by changing the illumination conditions could be evaluated quantitatively with the index.
Keywords: intellectual productivity; office environment; task and ambient light; work concentration