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EP Tables of Contents: 90

Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography

Fullname:EP90: Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography
Editors:Richard Furuta
Location:Gaithersberg, Maryland
Dates:1990-Sep-18 to 1990-Sep-20
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
Standard No:ISBN 0-521-40286-8; hcibib: EP90
Issues and Tradeoffs in Document Preparation Systems BIBA 1-16
  Brian W. Kernighan
Users of document preparation systems must balance how much effort they put into producing their documents against how close their output is to what they want. The evolution of document preparation systems is a history of how users and implementers have dealt with this tradeoff as technology improves and as the user population itself evolves.
Towards Document Engineering BIBAK 17-29
  Vincent Quint; Marc Nanard; Jacques Andre
This article compares methods and techniques used in software engineering with the ones used for handling electronic documents. It shows the common features in both domains, but also the differences and it proposes an approach which extends the field of document manipulation to document engineering. It shows also in what respect document engineering is different from software engineering. Therefore specific techniques must be developed for building integrated environments for document engineering.
Keywords: Software engineering, Document engineering, Structured editing, Integrated environments
Managing Properties in a System of Cooperating Editors BIBAK 31-46
  Donald D. Chamberlin
Today's workstations make it possible for users to create and interact with many types of objects. It is desirable that a document creation tool allow all these types of objects to be mixed and nested without restriction in documents, that each type of object be treated uniformly wherever it is found, and that the tool be extensible to new types of objects. The Quill document creation system addresses these requirements by providing an extensible family of specialized editors, coordinated by a Shell that provides common services and presents a consistent user interface. The Shell manages a database that records the properties of various objects in the document, allows objects to inherit properties from other objects, and allows users to override properties when desired. Quill generalizes the concept of properties to include user-supplied procedures that specify the active behavior of an object during WYSIWYG editing.
Keywords: Document systems, Editors, Markup, Properties, Inheritance, Extensibility
A Logic Grammar Foundation for Document Representation and Document Layout BIBAK 47-64
  Allen L., Jr. Brown; Howard A. Blair
We represent a powerful grammar-based paradigm for electronic document markup: coordinated definite clause translation grammars. This markup is of a declarative character, being, in effect, a collection of constraints on the logical and physical structure of documents. To the best of our knowledge, coordinated grammars and their parsers can accommodate all of the descriptive and layout processing functionality enjoyed by extant electronic markup languages. We describe an operational prototype that demonstrates the feasibility of a syntax-directed basis for formalizing and realizing document layout.
Keywords: Document description language, Layout processing, Logic grammar
Structured Editing - Hypertext Approach: Cooperation and Complementarity BIBAK 65-78
  Anne-Marie Vercoustre
As Hypertext systems are now widely available, many technical and conceptual problems have been identified. We argue here that such systems could take advantage of the proven technology of structured editors in order to provide both the user and the system with a conceptual document model providing a sound basis for the hierarchical links. A prototype combining structured editing and hypertext facilities proposes two approaches to implementing non-hierarchical links to subtrees: the first one uses the paths from the tree root as anchorage mechanism, while the second one uses tree pattern matching as a first step towards semantic and more manageable links.
Keywords: Structured editing, Syntax directed editors, Hypertext, Scripted documents, Anchor
An ODA Page Planner for Professional Publishing BIBA 79-92
  Giovanni Guardalben; Mose Giacomello
By its own nature, Professional Publishing requires that document processing be completed in many steps. This is in stark contrast to Desktop Publishing, where all actions leading to the printed page are performed by a single application and usually by the same person. Nowadays, a typical Professional Publishing environment comprises a large database and processing server, usually on mainframe, and many external processors performing integrated functions, usually on independent workstations. We believe that the front-end function of layout page planning can be served by local applications running on relatively inexpensive graphics workstations. PcPage is a personal computer application that tries to ease and make more efficient the work of layout page planning. Since page planning is a transitional step in document processing, it interacts with other tools and applications. To do so, it has to be built on rich data structures and standard data exchange mechanisms. With these goals in mind, we based PcPage on the ODA/ODIF ISO standards and we chose Microsoft Windows as its graphics interface environment. This paper describes PcPage implementation of the ODA hierarchical data structure and the sophisticated user interface built upon it.
flo -- A Language for Typesetting Flowcharts BIBAK 93-106
  Anthony P. Wolfman; Daniel M. Berry
flo is a language for including flowcharts into documents typeset using the UNIX ditroff. A basic flowchart can be created with minimal effort by inputting only the basic algorithm written in a Pascal-like notation. The example below illustrates the general capability of flo. The flowchart to the left is obtained from the input to the right.
   This input uses default settings except for a sizing parameter in the .FL command. flo is a pic preprocessor, which in turn is a ditroff preprocessor. flo lets most of its input pass through untouched; it translates flo commands lying between .FL and .FE into pic commands that draw the flowcharts.
   This paper was typeset camera-ready using flo, pic, ditroff, and other ditroff preprocessors.
Keywords: Flowcharting, Typesetting, Ditroff, Pic
Design of Hypermedia Publications: Issues and Solutions BIBAK 107-124
  Paul Kahn; Julie Launhardt; Krzysztof Lenk; Ronnie Peters
For a hypermedia collection to function properly, an author must successfully combine the verbal language of the document content with an equally persuasive visual language of hypermedia design. This visual language should help define a sense of hierarchy in the presentation of information, create a sense of order, structure and clarity, and allow the user to focus on what is alike and what is different. This paper discusses some of the issues that face the designer of hypermedia documents being considered by a joint research team of software engineers, software designers, content specialists and graphic designers. We discuss specific implementation issues that informed the creation of Exploring the Moon and The Dickens Web, the first two hypermedia publications created with IRIS Intermedia version 3.0. In analyzing these two works as well as ideas for future hypermedia publications, we have identified a new set of issues which we list at the end of the paper.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Graphic design, Intermedia
Strengths and Weaknesses of Database Models for Textual Documents BIBAK 125-138
  B. N. Rossiter; M. A. Heather
User requirements in large and complex textbases are discussed in the light of current models. Examples applying relational and semantic models suggest criteria for a more fundamental approach involving the merger of object-oriented programming techniques with database methods in future complex object textbases.
Keywords: Document modelling, Databases, Complex objects
A Structured Document Database System BIBA 139-151
  Pekka Kilpelainen; Greger Linden; Heikki Mannila; Erja Nikunen
We describe a database system for writing, editing, and querying structured documents. The structure of the text is described using a context-free grammar, and the operations are implemented using a powerful query language. The system supports the use of user-defined multiple views of the documents: one view can contain all the structure explicitly, while another can contain only part of the document and have only part of the structure visible. This makes the system flexible for different editing tasks. The system is implemented in C using a relational database system.
The Integration of Structured Documents into DBMS BIBAK 153-168
  Jose Valdeni De Lima; Henri Galy
The modeling of structured documents creates enormous problems for database designers. Those problems are related to the requirements to consider the logical structure and the exchange of documents in an open system. We want to be able to handle documents, both as atomic objects and as objects composed of other objects. We first try to classify different possible approaches according to the typical database concepts. After describing an integration of the ODA Standard to a functional type model, the "Fact Model", we describe the implementation of a functional interface built on the top of a relational DBMS, ORACLE.
Keywords: Structured documents, Databases, Logical structures, Complex objects, ODA, ODIF, Functional models, ORACLE, DOEOIS
Electronic Publishing -- Practice and Experience BIBAK 169-182
  David F. Brailsford; David R. Evans; Geeti Granger
Electronic Publishing -- Origination, Dissemination and Design ('EP-odd') is an academic journal which publishes refereed papers in the subject area of electronic publishing. The authors of the present paper are, respectively, editor-in-chief, system software consultant and senior production manager for the journal. EP-odd's policy is that editors, authors, referees and production staff will work closely together using electronic mail. Authors are also encouraged to originate their papers using one of the approved text-processing packages together with the appropriate set of macros which enforce the layout style for the journal. This same software will then be used by the publisher in the production phase. Our experiences with these strategies are presented, and two recently developed suites of software are described: one of these makes the macro sets available over electronic mail and the other automates the flow of papers through the refereeing process. The decision to produce EP-odd in this way means that the publisher has to adopt production procedures which differ markedly from those employed for a conventional journal.
Keywords: Journal production, Computer aided refereeing system, Remote file access
ADAPT: Automated Document Analysis Processing and Tagging BIBAK 183-192
  John Handley; Stuart Weibel
ADAPT is a document processing system that automatically builds full-text databases from document images. The major components of the process are scanning, image segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), layout object identification, and database building. A retrieval system and user interface completes the functionality. The system features a general document representation that includes the document image and an SGML tagged version. Standards are adhered to where applicable.
Keywords: Document processing, Full-text retrieval, Document structure analysis, Abstract syntax notation one
Recognition Processing for Multilingual Documents BIBAK 193-205
  A. Lawrence Spitz
We have extended earlier work on document recognition systems to include multilingual documents, specifically those containing both English and Japanese. The segmentation process divides the page into areas of homogeneous content and produces a hierarchical representation of page layout called the segment map. There is an initial halftone segmentation pass, followed by text/graphics segmentation. Text segments are subjected to analysis to determine whether they are English (roman) or Japanese, before routing the output to the appropriate character recognition process. Graphics segments are routed to a raster-to-vector converter. Having identified text and graphics segments, we then attempt to recognize their individual internal structures and merge all of this information into an intermediate representation from which output transformations are performed. We have implemented three output filters, two for commercial document formatting systems, and one into an international standard document architecture.
Keywords: Document recognition, Segmentation, Character recognition, Vectorization, Multilingual
Editing Images of Text BIBAK 207-220
  Gary E. Kopec; Steven C. Bagley
Most document recognition systems are based on the paradigm of format conversion, in which scanned document images are converted into a structured symbolic description which can be manipulated by a conventional document processing system. While this approach is attractive in many respects, there are situations in which complete recognition and format conversion is either unnecessary or very difficult to achieve with sufficient accuracy. This paper describes Image EMACS, a text editor for binary document images which illustrates an alternative to the format conversion paradigm. The inputs and outputs of Image EMACS are scanned images of text and the primary document representation within Image EMACS is the image itself, rather than a symbolic description of it. The goal of Image EMACS is to allow images of text to be created and manipulated as if they were conventional text files. The central insight behind Image EMACS is that many text editing operations may be implemented directly in terms of geometrical operations on image blobs, without explicit knowledge of the symbolic character labels (i.e. without character recognition).
Keywords: Document recognition, Text editing, Bitmap editing
Automatic Generation of Gridfitting Hints for Rasterization of Outline Fonts or Graphics BIBA 221-234
  Sten F. Andler
The advent of bitmapped displays and printers, high-function page description languages, and outline fonts, have dramatically changed the ability of computers to produce typeset documents. Using outline fonts and rasterizing them into bitmaps on demand eliminates costly storage of raster bitmaps for all combinations of device resolution and type size. The problem, however, with these resolution-independent fonts are that aesthetic quality is hard to achieve at low device resolution and/or small font size. This paper presents a method for achieving aesthetic quality without manual intervention.
Chinese Fonts and Their Digitization BIBA 235-248
  Y. S. Moon; T. Y. Shin
This paper presents the state-of-the-art in digital Chinese font design. Both academic and industrial achievements are covered. We first highlight the difficulties in Chinese typography which are not encountered in English typesetting. Existing techniques for designing digital Chinese fonts are then examined, with their limitations identified. Finally, we propose future research directions, taking into account the recent trend in outline font technology.
Documents as User Interfaces BIBAK 249-262
  Eric A. Bier; Aaron Goodisman
Each year the electronic documents community produces better tools for creating and changing document elements, including text, illustrations, tables, equations, video, voice, hypertext links, and animation. At the same time, the user interface community is working to build interfaces that improve the quality of interaction by effectively presenting information to the user and making it easy to act on and manipulate that information. These efforts can be combined by using documents as user interfaces. This paper describes a prototype architecture, EmbeddedButtons, that allows arbitrary document elements to behave as buttons. Using examples from EmbeddedButtons, we enumerate some of the reasons that user interfaces should be documents and documents should be user interfaces.
Keywords: Active documents, User interfaces, Buttons, EmbeddedButtons
An Extensible, Object-Oriented System for Active Documents BIBA 263-276
  Paul M. English; Ethan S. Jacobson; Robert A. Morris; Kimbo B. Mundy; Stephen D. Pelletier; Thomas A. Polucci; H. David Scarbro
An extensible, object-oriented system for describing and executing active documents is discussed. An existing commercial, structured document processing system was extended with a run-time bindable object system and Lisp interpreter.
The Role of a Descriptive Markup Language in the Creation of Interactive Multimedia Documents for Customized Electronic Delivery BIBAK 277-290
  Gil C. Cruz; Thomas H. Judd
The emerging broadband telecommunications network promises to support a myriad of new mass-market information services that may in turn create a tremendous demand for new source material capable of exploiting the multimedia transport capability of the network. Authoring such material is presently a complex and time consuming process requiring specialized tools. We propose that a descriptive markup language, based on SGML and enhanced for interactive multimedia applications, can form the basis for a new set of authoring tools that will let experienced text authors transfer their skills to multimedia documents. Experience with a prototype version of such a language in the production of an experimental electronic magazine indicates that the approach is valid and useful. Future work includes defining text-like structure in temporal media and creating a unified set of editing and previewing tools.
Keywords: Authoring, Hypermedia, Interactive, Markup, SGML