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ECCE Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2006 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Note:Trust and Control in Complex Socio-technical Systems
Editors:Antonio Rizzo; Gudela Grote; William Wong
Location:Zurich, Switzerland
Dates:2006-Jun-20 to 2006-Jun-22
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-906509-23-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ECCE06
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Human-computer interaction
  2. Socio-technical systems design
  3. Conceptual issues
  4. Interactive posters & demonstrations
  5. Methods in design

Human-computer interaction

Analysis of user attitude and behaviour in evaluating a personalized search engine BIBAFull-Text 1-9
  Effie Lai-Chong Law; Toma Klobuèar; Matic Pipan
This paper reports an empirical work on user-based relevance evaluation of a personalized search engine (PSE). The aim of the work is threefold: To develop metrics for evaluating PSE; to study how users' trust in personalized information retrieval systems influences their relevance judgments; to identify patterns of relevance criteria applications. Our findings corroborate some of those of the previous work and reveal some new phenomena: the optimality of sample size, consistency of relevance criteria application and role of pre-formed trust in automation.
Information layering to de-clutter displays for emergency ambulance dispatch BIBAFull-Text 10-16
  Jared Hayes; Antoni Moore; B. L. William Wong
In this paper we report on a study to examine the usefulness of the MLD (Multi-Layered Display) as a device for creating physically distinct but visually overlapping information, what we refer to as 'information layering'. The technique was applied to emergency ambulance control, as a method for reducing visual clutter and information complexity in displays used by controllers. The results of the study show that participants completing simulated dispatch tasks in the MLD condition performed better on all categories of task difficulty compared to participants using a standard single layer display. However the improvements in performance were not significantly different.
Trust, cognitive control, and control: the case of drivers using an Auto-Adaptive Cruise Control BIBAFull-Text 17-24
  Bako Rajaonah; Franoise Anceaux; Nicolas Tricot; Marie-Pierre Pacaux-Lemoine
This paper analyses the links between control and cognitive control, in the case of drivers using an Auto Adaptive Cruise Control (AACC). We carried out an experiment using a driving simulator and two simulated AACCs which differentiated one another from the operating mode. It was assumed that these modes would induce different driving behaviours, and thus, different underlying cognitive control processes (inferred from the links between subjective assessments about the interaction with the device). The results show that the drivers have the same behaviour whatever the AACC mode but underlying cognitive processes differ according to the mode.
3is Learning objects: organization of knowledge through the capture of narrative structures BIBAFull-Text 25-32
  Jevon Brunk; Maurizio Caporali; Antonio Rizzo; Elisa Rubegni
This paper presents a research project that aims to improve teaching and learning activities through the use of electronic tools for sharing of knowledge. The project, 3is ("trace"), is in progress at the University of Siena and is devoted to the design of new artefacts for the support of learning and teaching activities. The concepts inspiring the design process are Dialogical Knowledge Construction (DKC) and Situated Editing (SE). 3is facilitates these conceptual models through the capture, construction, and organization of narrative timeline structures. The 3is project seeks to construct an ever-growing, interrelated library of academic content that can trace the development of concepts and arguments over time and among various authors, both professors and students.

Socio-technical systems design

Driver coordination in complex traffic environments BIBAFull-Text 35-40
  Linda Renner; Björn Johansson
Even though many situations in driving involve more than one road user and interaction between those road users, most car driving models utilize a single driver perspective. Collisions between cars constitute a significant part of the total number of crashes each year. A consequence is that driver modeling should move beyond single driver behavior and aim at explaining interaction between drivers. In this paper we will present an approach that merges Hollnagel's Extended Control Model with Clark's Joint Action perspective on coordination. The purpose is to suggest a basic model to help explain coordination in traffic.
On learner control in e-learning BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Chris Stary; Alexandra Totter
Learner control became a crucial issue for the utilization and (re-)development of e-learning environments. Learners should be able to control the selection and presentation of content, as well as the transfer process itself, according to their needs, learning styles, and preferences. We revisited two e-learning developments, both strengthening learner self-control, but developed on different grounds and following different development paradigms. Scholion implemented learner self-control in a bottom-up approach putting learner needs and preferences upfront. Lab@Future transformed key characteristics of a pedagogical theory into learner tasks and a process to support learning in a top-down approach. Field studies of both approaches revealed several types of learner control to be supportive for self-managed learning processes.
Building employer credibility in corporate intranet portals BIBAFull-Text 49-54
  Marcin Sikorski
This paper presents the role of intranet portals in creating the brand of employer as a trustful and credible partner for the employees -- intranet users. Survey results showing the usage of intranets in Polish companies have been presented as a starting point for developing research agenda and guidelines for building employer brand and credibility in intranet portals. Presented guidelines are based on recent research on trust and credibility in on-line transactions on the Polish internet market.
Redefining task interdependence in the context of supply networks BIBAFull-Text 55-63
  Hannes Günter; Gudela Grote
This paper clarifies the meaning of task interdependence and discusses its importance in heterarchic supply networks. Based on enactment theory (Weick, 1979) we develop the concept of enacted task interdependence and present a method for its empirical assessment. Empirical results from two forestry supply networks demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of enacted task interdependence. We find individuals to enact a composite of interdependencies in day-to-day activities. Further, individuals partly misperceive task interdependence which is likely to undermine coordination processes. Analyzing interdependence through an enactment lens helps to identify new approaches to collaboratively coordinate processes in heterarchic networks, e.g. through questioning and re-enacting task interdependencies.
Intermediation for trust-enabling networked decentralized exchange systems BIBAFull-Text 64-70
  David Parlanti; Dino Giuli; Maria Chiara Pettenati
We compare two distinct (and, apparently, mutually exclusive) models of collaboration support-mechanisms, and evaluate their applicability to Internet-based economic exchanges. The first model is grounded on a bottom-up approach where decision-making is completely decentralized and global-order self-organizes out of multiplex local interactions among numerous and interdependent agents. The second model focuses on centralized, hierarchical institutions that coordinate and regulate individual behaviour to conform, at higher level of aggregation, to the system functional-requirements. In the first model, socially efficient exchange outcomes are possible but problematic, and eventual cooperation can be said to be 'trust-based', in contrast to the 'contract-based' solution of the second model. We claim that both models have significant drawbacks, and we propose a third model which grounds on the concept of 'intermediation' a semi-decentralized approach to the problem of cooperation, which envisages in a proper mix of identity-management and trust-support mechanisms the key-tools for the emergence of an efficient and feasible trade-off between trust and control in complex socio/technical systems.
Role-playing exercises to strengthen the resilience of command and control systems BIBAFull-Text 71-78
  Rogier Woltjer; Jiri Trnka; Jonas Lundberg; Björn Johansson
In this paper, we describe how role-playing exercises can be used to strengthen the resilience of command and control systems in emergency management. Through role-playing exercises, the participants gain experience with adapting to changing demands and risk relative to challenges to their ability to predict future risk, adapt, and recover from harmful events. Role-playing exercises at the same time enable researchers to analyse how resilient behaviour emerges, or how the resilience of complex socio-technical systems may be improved. Two role-playing exercises, one concerning forest fire fighting, the other concerning power grid restoration, are discussed to illustrate these concepts.

Conceptual issues

Experience as meaning: some underlying concepts and implications for design BIBAFull-Text 81-91
  Dhaval Vyas; Gerrit C. van der Veer
As the current computing systems move from desktop and work settings into our everyday lives (e.g. mobile and ubiquitous systems) a growing interest is seen for designing interactive systems with experiential support. Some conceptual work already exists that tries to analyze and understand users' experience with interactive systems but in practice this is still not frequently used. Drawing on the concepts from the domain of art, this paper introduces a way to conceptualize users' experience as the meanings or interpretations they construct during their interaction with or through the interactive systems. We consequently apply this conceptualization in a design project where we use it at an early concept design stage for designing aware technologies in care-taking situations.
Affordance in interaction BIBAFull-Text 92-99
  Dhaval Vyas; Cristina M. Chisalita; Gerrit C. van der Veer
The concept of affordance has different interpretations in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However, its treatment has been merely as a one-to-one relationship between a user and a technology. We believe that a broader view of affordances is needed which encompasses social and cultural aspects of our everyday life. We propose an interaction-centered view of affordance that can be useful for developing better understandings of designed artefacts. An interaction-centered view of affordance suggests that affordance is an interpretative relationship between users and the technology that emerges during the users' interaction with the technology in the lived environments. We distinguish two broad classes of affordances: affordance in Information and affordance in Articulation. Affordance in information refers to users' understanding of a technology based on their semantic and syntactic interpretation; and affordance in articulation refers to users' interpretations about the use of the technology. We also argue that the notion of affordance should be treated at two levels: at the 'artefact level' and at the 'practice level'. Consequently, we provide two examples to demonstrate our arguments.
Mobile phone: a tool for expressing co-actualisation BIBAFull-Text 100-104
  Fariza H. A. Razak; Alan Dix
In this paper, we present an overview of the data collected from field studies of mobile phone use by Malaysian women who live in the United Kingdom. Through the data, we suggest that these women use mobile phones to help them coordinate activities in their everyday lives. Such practices, we claim, shape the way they are living in this everyday world. Their apparently mundane phone-mediated activities help support their everyday life activities, and these activities can help them become actualised in what they are potential. We found that their mundane phone-mediated activities are for other people as well -- how they help support the need for self-actualisation of other people.
Tacit knowledge and frugal artifacts: a challenge for technology mediated collaboration BIBAFull-Text 105-108
  Monica Tavanti; Patrizia Marti; Marc Bourgois
Air Traffic Control has an intrinsic collaborative nature that should be addressed and considered in the design of novel technologies. A field study aiming to discover controllers' collaborative actions within the control tower was carried out. The results of the study suggest that collaboration takes different forms, both explicit and implicit and that artefacts play an important role in supporting and mediating collaboration and communication. These elements represent a real challenge for the design of novel tools.

Interactive posters & demonstrations

Individual and social needs motivating trust-enabling intermediation services BIBAFull-Text 111-112
  Dino Giuli; Maria Chiara Pettenati; David Parlanti
The aim of this research is to single out individual and social requisites to be addressed in the design and development of trust-enabling systems providing network-based intermediation services.
   The aim of this research is to single out individual and social requisites to be addressed in the design and development of trust-enabling systems providing network-based intermediation services.
Online card sorting: as good as the paper version BIBAFull-Text 113-114
  Stefano Bussolon; Barbara Russi; Fabio Del Missier
Netsorting is a web based cardsorting tool. Our research group used Netsorting to run a number of experiments on cognitive science and on information architecture. In the study we are presenting here we compared two couples of card sorts with the same data: two performed with Netsorting, the other two with the traditional paper based card sorting. We measured the performance of the two groups with two indices: the number of correct classification and the correlation among sampled subsets of participants. The participants who used Netsorting performed as good as the ones who used the paper sorting.
Eye tracking to identify strategies used by readers seeking information from on-line texts BIBAFull-Text 115-116
  Susan Wilkinson; Stephen Payne
The aim was to investigate how readers effectively allocate their time across multiple texts under time pressure. Two experiments using an eye tracker to follow readers' eye movements when studying for a specific test from written texts showed that all or most pages of a text were consulted by the reader, with the later paragraphs within a page of a bad text being viewed for less time than the early paragraphs. Readers employed a 'skimming by satisficing' strategy to adaptively allocate their time to the most beneficial information sources. Evidence of how readers reject a page of text if it is not meeting their threshold level of satisfaction in terms of information gain is presented.
Facilitating socio-pleasure as mediated by ubiquitous technology BIBAFull-Text 117-118
  Marije Kanis; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Robert Macredie
This paper aims to increase understanding of how ubiquitous interactive systems could facilitate Socio-Pleasure: the enjoyment derived from relationships with others. A framework, termed THE Medium model, is presented; it describes the factors that could affect socio-pleasure and it is used to classify and design technologies.
Understanding the academic environments: developing personas from field-studies BIBAFull-Text 119-120
  Dhaval Vyas; Spencer de Groot; Gerrit C. van der Veer
Ethnographic methods have been widely used for requirements elicitation purposes in systems design, especially when the focus is on understanding users' social, cultural and political contexts. Designing an online search engine for peer-reviewed papers could be a challenge considering the diversity of its end users coming from different educational and professional disciplines. This poster describes our exploration of academic research environments based on different in situ methods such as contextual interviews, diary-keeping, job-shadowing, etc. The data generated from these methods is analysed using a qualitative data analysis software and subsequently is used for developing 'personas' that could be used as a requirements specification tool.
Practises of process control in digital control room: possibilities and threats BIBAFull-Text 121-122
  Leena Salo; Paula Savioja
This paper introduces an interview study that was carried out in Finland in four conventional power plants. The aim of the work was to gather user experiences on the effects of control room modernisations and digital control room technology on operator work.
Programmer's mood and their performance BIBAFull-Text 123-124
  Iftikhar Ahmed Khan; Rob M. Hierons; Willem-Paul Brinkman
Moods might influence the quality and performance of programmers while programming. It is evident from literature that positive and negative moods influence divergent thinking, quantity/quality of ideas and creative problem solving (Vosburg, 1998). The hypothesis of this study is that the programmers' performance and the quality of their work could be affected by their moods when they develop or test an application. We will briefly discuss our experiment to test this hypothesis. We will also discuss a test carried on to validate movies. These movies then will be used in the experiment to induct moods.
Vendor credibility in e-shops design in Poland: an empirical study BIBAFull-Text 125-126
  Igor Garnik
A survey, preformed by the author with the use of electronic questionnaires, was aimed to identify factors affecting user-perceived credibility of vendors (e-shops) in the Polish market. The survey identified specific features of e-shops, which affect credibility of Polish vendors perceived by local consumers, with declared impact of these features on the user willingness to make a final purchase. As a result of the author's research a descriptive model of vendor's credibility was worked out and then verified in an experimental study.

Methods in design

Developing an instrument to assess the impact of attitude and social norms on user selection of an interface design: a repertory grid approach BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Willem-Paul Brinkman; Steve Love
This paper presents a questionnaire instrument to evaluate designs of a mobile phone and a multimedia player. The study adopted a bottom up approach by interviewing 20 participants using Kelly's Repertory Grid Technique. This resulted in two sets of 200 personal constructs participants considered relevant when evaluating a set of 15 designs for each device. Two initial questionnaire instruments were developed and their validity was examined in a survey among 156 university students. In the interview, data was also collected about participants' attitude, social norm and their intention to select a design. This data was used to develop two statistical models. These models suggest that beliefs about the preference of participants social reference group, such as peers, had a small, but significant impact on the users' selection on the more publicly noticeable mobile phone, but failed to have a significant impact on the selection of designs for the more private multimedia player.
Rich evaluations of entertainment experience: bridging the interpretational gap BIBAFull-Text 137-144
  Dhaval Vyas; Gerrit C. van der Veer
This paper reports a qualitative study of evaluating the 'experience' supported by a state-of-the-art interactive television application. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) system is a new technology in the ever-growing industry of interactive entertainment. Focusing on the users' interpretations, we applied a set of rich evaluation strategies to collect data about users' experiences with the IPTV. The results show implications about how the users constructed complex and reflective understandings about the system. The evaluation suite helped us gather information about users' aspirations, expectations, and intellectual and emotional states of their understandings. The results also imply a strong support for taking into account the non-technical values of human-technology interaction.
The persistency of psychological tools in air traffic management BIBAFull-Text 145-153
  Simone Pozzi; Antonio Rizzo
This paper presents the application of cultural-historical concepts to the study of human activity in safety critical systems. The methodological issue we explore is how to better elicit expert knowledge in domains with professional users. In particular, we focus on the contribution of the genetic method to the study of air traffic controllers' cognitive activity of anticipating aircraft trajectories. Our claim is that a cultural-historical perspective on the nature of expertise can provide useful insights of what constitutes the expertise and in the communication with the domain experts.
A cognitive systems engineering perspective on the design of mixed reality systems BIBAFull-Text 154-161
  Susanna Nilsson; Björn Johansson
This paper examines usability issues in Mixed Reality (MR) systems from a Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) (Hollnagel & Woods 1983; 2005) perspective with the purpose of finding an alternative approach to usability in MR-systems. A qualitative user study has been performed at a Swedish hospital where professionals have tested an MR prototype providing instruction of the use of advanced medical equipment. The results indicate that the participants in this study do not consider the MR system as a traditional computer based manual, but rather as an interactive personal instructor. The fact that users work through the MR system rather than with the MR system raises some fundamental design issues regarding usability and the perspective on usability. This suggests that there may be a need to utilize a different approach for usability concerning MR systems, instead of transferring traditional human-computer usability guidelines to the MR domain.
Self-regulation as a central mechanism to collaboratively manage unexpected events in complex work environments BIBAFull-Text 162-169
  Tanja Manser; Steven K. Howard; David M. Gaba
Within acute patient care that is characterized by highly dynamic work processes the competent and coordinated management of unexpected events is essential to patient safety. The qualitative analysis of interview data on coordination requirements and processes during cardiac anesthesia within the conceptual framework of cooperation by Wehner et al. (2000) highlights the central importance of anticipation in dealing with possible breaks in coordination. Our results underlined the heuristic value of this model regarding coordination and teamwork in complex environments. However, the discrepancies between data and the model point to areas that need further theoretical development such as the relationship between initial coordinatedness and self-regulation as well as the role of personal trust.
From decisions in time to temporal decisions: two studies investigating temporal control behaviour BIBAFull-Text 170-177
  Michael Hildebrandt
This paper summarises two studies highlighting different aspects of temporal decision-making. In the first study, participants had to manage a trade-off between decision accuracy and timeliness. Experimental results were compared to a normative model combining signal detection theory and Bayesian updating. Contrary to previous studies, evidence for an action-oriented strategy (over-emphasising timeliness over accuracy) was found in one experimental condition. The second study investigated information use and updating in a supervisory control and fault-servicing task. Results suggest that increasing workload, changes in the expected event rate distribution, and longer durations of constant event rate may lead to a decrease in monitoring of temporal information and an increase in the use of more conservative temporal control strategies.