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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2015: Fourth International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: Interactive Experience Design

Fullname:DUXU 2015: 4th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: Interactive Experience Design
Note:Volume 20 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:3
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9188
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20889-3 hcibib: DUXU15-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-20888-6 (print), 978-3-319-20889-3 (online)
Papers:64
Pages:708
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 3
    1. Designing the Social Media Experience
    2. Designing the Learning Experience
    3. Designing the Playing Experience
    4. Designing the Urban Experience
    5. Designing the Driving Experience
    6. Designing the Healthcare Patient's Experience
    7. Designing for the Healthcare Professional's Experience

DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 3

Designing the Social Media Experience

Social Media Interactions and the Use of Third-Party Management Applications on Effectiveness and Perception of Information BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Çakir Aker; Özgürol Öztürk
Social media has a significant impact in our daily social lives, which challenges the traditional face-to-face interaction and/or other conventional media. Most of the social media platforms provide unique and effective web sites that enable the users to connect and interact with one another yet they also update their sites with Web 2.0 improvements and innovative ways of interaction. Twitter and Facebook have launched their own applications that became really popular among users. However, there are also third-party applications, which enable the use of diverse social networking sites through one platform. These platforms are within the reach of everyone and can be accessed directly from desktop without any browser needed. This research focuses on the usability of these third-party management applications. In this context, it will explore whether the desktop versions (third-party software) of those platforms enhance the interaction capabilities and improve user experience. In this regard the focus will be on an application that enables the use of multiple social media sites simultaneously through a single graphical user interface, 'Yoono'. The user interaction with multiple accounts and social media services at the same time presents the ability to show the information in one screen rather than having separate tabs like has been done in typical browser view. Also it might be possible to have an estimate about if the user prefers to have separate tabs or just one tab to show all of the information regarding the social media that he/she is using. In order to understand this, a qualitative usability test, based on multi-method approach, was carried out with a sample of 8 participants who were experienced mobile social network site (SNS) users. Tests were conducted on a desktop computer with Yoono. After a background questionnaire, the participants were observed during the task executions and additional data was collected through eye-tracking. After the session, participants were asked to fill out a post-test form while having a small debriefing interview to gain a detailed insight into their experience. Findings support the notion that the usability problems might shroud the new and innovative capabilities of Yoono and prevents it to become an application that users would chose to use instead of browser interaction and needs further development in order to be an alternative to browsing.
Keywords: User experience; Dashboard applications; Social networking
Design Process of a Social Network System for Storage and Share Files in the Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 13-24
  Heloisa Candello; Silvia Bianchi; Leandro Cassa
This paper explores the design process of a social network based storage and share application in the workplace. One of the big challenges of our era is to handle the amount of data available. This may result in a high cost with additional servers to store the data and guarantee availability and reliability. We interviewed ten employees to understand better their share and storage practices in everyday life, and also identify opportunities to inspire the design of storage applications. As a result, we provided 20 recommendations to develop social network storage systems. Additionally, we created personas and scenarios inspired by interviewed participants. We envisioned how the system should work and we illustrated it by interaction cycles with a low-tech prototype. Finally, we provide lessons learned towards the design of storage and share files in the workplace leveraging the social relationship amongst co-workers.
Keywords: Design process; Social networks; Distributed storage systems
Evolution of e-Research: From Infrastructure Development to Service Orientation BIBAKFull-Text 25-35
  Hashim Iqbal Chunpir; Thomas Ludwig; Dean N. Williams
E-Research has reframed the process of research. Researchers can now access distributed data around the globe with the help of e-Research infrastructure. This paper presents an overview of the developmental process and evolution of an e-Research platform: Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) that evolved from a research infrastructure test-bed to a services oriented platform, in subsequent phases. ESGF is a leading distributed peer to peer data grid system in Earth System Modelling having around 27000 users distributed all over the world. Currently, it is a challenge faced by most of the e-Research facilities to provide user oriented services. Moreover, there is a strong need to conduct user experience and usability studies of e-Research facilities like ESGF, which is in demand. However, very few steps have been taken in practice to create a better user experience (UX), so that users' interest can be generated to interact with e-infrastructures, on an intuitive basis. Hence, thriving the practice of e-Research and making it more interesting overtime. Finally, this paper indicates at the service oriented and usability aspects of e-Science infrastructures.
Keywords: Service orientation of e-Science systems; E-Research; User support; Help desk; User experience; User-centered design; Federated e-Research facilities
Visualizing Group User Behaviors for Social Network Interaction Design Iteration BIBAKFull-Text 36-45
  Zhenyu Gu; Jia Ming Yu; Zhanwei Wu; Zhan Xun Dong
Considering the popularity of UCD methods in recent years, it's no surprise that User behavior data analysis has become an important tool in design process. Behavior tools based on data mining technology, such as Flurry and Google Analytics, is widely used in web-based applications to support quantitative user research. However, information visualization provided by those tools is usually adapted to business other than design needs, which could be hardly used by designers. In this paper, successful experience from CRM system is analyzed, relations between user behavior and pattern is studied according to design factors. A prototype visualizing user data gathered from a social photo app is developed to integrate user behavior visualization into interaction design iteration process. User experiments are conducted to evaluate the prototype system. Results shown, interactive visualization on real-time user data could help to promote design iteration.
Keywords: Quantitative analysis; Information visualization; Design iteration
Understanding the Semantics of Web Interface Signs: A Set of Ontological Principals BIBAKFull-Text 46-53
  Muhammad Nazrul Islam; A. K. M. Najmul Islam
Interface signs are the communication artifacts of web interfaces, with which users interact. Examples of interface signs are small images, navigational links, buttons and thumbnails. Although, intuitive interface signs are crucial elements of a good user interface (UI), prior research ignored these in UI design and usability evaluation process. This paper argues that ontology (the set of concepts and skills for understanding the referential meaning of an interface sign) mapping is critical for intuitive sign design. A light weighted experiment with six participants and twelve signs has been carried out in order to demonstrate the importance of ontology mapping in understanding the semantics of interface signs. The paper concludes with some practical implications and suggestions for future research.
Keywords: Ontology; Web interface sign; Web usability; User interface design; Usability evaluation
Cultural Reflections in Qatari Government Websites BIBAKFull-Text 54-62
  Nouf Khashman
Localizing a website by incorporating culturally appropriate design features arguably helps it become more functional and usable for its users. This paper seeks to explore cultural reflections in government websites from Qatar using the influential cultural model of Geert Hofstede. Through using systematic content analysis, the examination focused on Web design elements which have been proven to be good indicators of preferences within cultural groups. The results showed that Arab culture which Qatar belongs to is somewhat reflected in the design of Qatari websites.
Keywords: Web design; Usability; Qatar; Culture; Hofstede
Usability Analysis of IxDA.org BIBAKFull-Text 63-73
  Julija Naskova
The International Standards Organization definition of usability as documented in ISO 9241-11 is for "...specified users... specified goals... particular environments" which implies that usability varies based on those three factors. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a ten item questionnaire developed to evaluate systems' usability. Consequently, SUS became the scale of choice for measuring usability, broadly applied to various systems including websites. Contemporary websites are visited by a wide range of users for different reasons and from all kinds of environments -- can SUS still effectively measure their usability? For a professional organization such as IxDA whose focus is user interface design a heuristic evaluation aided by the Expert Review Checkpoints provides detailed feedback on its website's compliance with contemporary design standards that affect usability.
Keywords: ISO; SUS; UX; Expert Review Checkpoint; Usability; IxDA
How We Perceive Search Engines BIBAKFull-Text 74-81
  Leonardo Penna; Manuela Quaresma
This article presents a literature review related to users' perceptions about search engines. Its motivation was establish an information source upon a topic that directly affects people's interactions with these tools and currently is scattered in the literature. It was discussed impact generated in users' behavior by the confidence degree in the companies producing search engines and by credit given to algorithms responsible for selection and ordering of results. It was also analyzed the public view about impartiality, accuracy and reliability of these tools.
Keywords: Search engines; Search; Perception; Users; Results; Ordering; Ranking
Clicking Through Endless Seas: Understanding User Experience in the Design of Journalistic Websites BIBAKFull-Text 82-93
  Ben Posetti
The research explores the visual design of journalistic content websites, from a producer and user perspective, to understand the forces underlying the design. A genre analysis approach is combined with an understanding of user experience (UX) in interaction design to investigate the meaning embedded in the design features of three websites. Ethnographic Content Analysis (ECA), observation tasks, and in-depth interviews reveal a negotiation process between users and producers in achieving their purposes through the website product.
Keywords: User experience; Website design; Ethnographic content analysis
Origins and Perspectives on Designing Virtual Communities of Practice for Permanent Education: A Case Study in the Collective Health Sector BIBAKFull-Text 94-103
  Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
With the advance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), information sharing is getting faster. The use of ICTs facilitates the circulation of information and knowledge, but the cognitive ability and the capacity for innovation are not affected by the technology. By this mean, the communities of practice using traditional technological tools used in corporate, personal or relationship websites, only change their goals and forms of use. This paper describes the development of a conceptual interface to the community of practice platform used as support for Brazilian National Policy of Permanent Education in Health, of the Ministry of Health.
Keywords: Online communities; Telemedicine; Education in health; Interface design
The Challenges and Opportunities of Designing National Digital Services for Cross-Border Use BIBAKFull-Text 104-115
  Molly Schwartz; Heli Kautonen
By creating a centralized online access points for Finnish library, archives, and museum materials, the National Library of Finland's web portal, called Finna, is playing an active role in the wider movement to open and expand access to cultural content. But as its ever-expanding online audience is no longer constricted by physical or national borders, the National Library must cope with the challenges of designing personalized user experiences for diverse users. This study contains data from a survey and interviews of users accessing Finnish materials from abroad to determine the nature of potential target audiences for Finna outside of Finland and determine the major usability barriers for this group.
Keywords: Digital library; User studies; Open knowledge

Designing the Learning Experience

Heuristic Evaluation of University Institutional Repositories Based on DSpace BIBAKFull-Text 119-130
  Maha Aljohani; James Blustein
The number of Institutional Repositories (IRs) as part of universities' Digital Libraries (DLs) has been growing in the past few years. However, most IRs are not widely used by the intended end users. To increase users' acceptability, evaluating IRs interface is essential. In this research, the main focus is to evaluate the usability of one type of IR's interface following the method of Nielsen's heuristics to uncover usability problems for development purposes. To produce a reliable list of usability problems by applying the heuristic evaluation approach, we examine the impact of experts and novices on the reliability of the results. From the individual heuristic analyses (by both experts and novices), we distilled 66 usability problems. Those problems are classified by their severity. The results of applying the heuristic evaluation show that both experts and non-experts can uncover usability problems. We analyzed the differences between these types of assessors in this paper. Experts tend to reveal more serious problems while novices uncover less severe problems. Interestingly, the best evaluator is a novice who found 21% of the total number of problems. The ability to find difficult and easy problems are recorded with both types of evaluators. Therefore, we cannot rely on one evaluator even if the evaluator is an expert. Also, the frequency of each violated heuristic is used to assigned priority to the uncovered usability problems as well as the severity level. The result of the heuristic evaluation will benefit the university through improving the user interface and encouraging users to use the library services.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Heuristic evaluation; Digital libraries; Digital repositories; Institutional repositories; Usability problems; Scholarly output; Dspace
Building Information Architecture Criteria for Assessing and Evaluating Universities' Web Portals BIBAKFull-Text 131-141
  Hamad Ibrahim Alomran
Information architecture (IA) or web information design is the art and science of organizing information on web pages. It creates ways for people to find, understand, exchange, and manage information.
   This paper aims to highlight the development of IA evaluation by proposing and explaining its main features, and by providing IA stakeholders with the necessary tools for assessing IA qualities, ensuring their suitability for business needs. This research will contribute to a greater understanding of building web IA criteria for assessing and evaluating universities' web portals.
   This paper uses the Delphi technique to identify the most important questions to build these criteria. Input from three disparate professional areas, each with a specialized area of expertise: web designers, web masters, researchers and faculty members in web design. Data collected over a three-month period.
   This paper illustrates 45 criteria and types of evidence, which are divided into seven sections: users, content, content management, structure, design and build, navigation, and security.
Keywords: Information architecture; IA criteria; Web page evaluation; Academic websites
Designing with Young Children: Lessons Learned from a Co-creation of a Technology-Enhanced Playful Learning Environment BIBAKFull-Text 142-152
  Nanna Borum; Eva Petersson Brooks; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This paper reports on the lessons learned from working with creative visual methods with young children between the ages of 3 to 5 years-of-age in an early years educational setting in Southern Denmark as part of an 18-month project on Digital Playful Learning. The overarching goal of the study was to create a practice-based technology-enhanced playful learning environment. Collaboration was with the pedagogical education University College SydDanmark, the preschool teachers and the children. 55 children took part in the sessions. The study investigated a selection of methods developed for children, but not necessarily young children, such as the Bags of Stuff technique and the Mixing Ideas technique. This paper will discuss the advantages and challenges of these when applying them together with young children. The findings suggest that when working with younger children researchers should make efforts into understanding the children and their conceptual framework before engaging in design activities. In addition, young children need support in their creative expression.
Keywords: Early years education; Creative visual methods; Designing with young children
Application of Dashboards and Scorecards for Learning Models IT Risk Management: A User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 153-165
  Ernesto Celi
The process of education of students and professional training in themes such as IT Risk Management entails use frameworks such as Magerit or Octave. The understanding of these frameworks becomes difficult when learning sessions are short, even if we use specific software, due to the large number of elements to identify, understand, relate and apply. Using dashboards and scorecards prepared in tools like Excel helps enhance this learning. The purpose of this study was to measure the usability and effectiveness in achieving the expected outcomes, evaluating the experience of users through questionnaires type System Usability Scale (SUS); and to examine the needs and expectations of users. The results show that participants learn faster the practical application of the frameworks studied, because the dashboards and scorecards allows them easier to identify its elements and its practical application.
Keywords: User experience; Ease of use; Usability; Learning; Dashboard; IT risk management
Mapping Metaphors for the Design of Academic Library Websites BIBAKFull-Text 166-172
  Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu
Internet has changed the way people acquire and consume information. In the academic setting, students turn to the library websites in the stead of visiting the library for their information needs. Using metaphor in the design of library website creates a resemblance that is grounded sensorily, psychologically, and conceptually on the physical library. This study aims to identify the analogies that connect the library website elements to the real-life library experience. Organizational, functional, visual, and textual metaphors elicited from the participating library users may provide an integrative design construct that incorporates real-life library experience into the design of library website.
Keywords: Metaphor design; Metaphor; Academic library website; Usability
A Holistic Approach to User Experience in the Context of an Academic Library Interactive System BIBAKFull-Text 173-184
  Andrea Alessandro Gasparini
This paper addresses the impact the user perspective has on an interactive system, when designing for experience. The context is the introduction of a discovery tool in an academic library, where the effects of addressing the users experience (UX) are gathered in the digital and the physical space. How the UX was addressed before the introduction of this new discovery tool and how the users experience was tested afterward, will be discussed. The paper analyzes the results of a multi-folded testing of the discovery tool, including a large survey, focus groups, observations and usability testing. The main focus of this paper is on how the results may support the re-design of this system, and how the library staff made sense of the new insight gained by this approach. This new insight is also a point of entrance to look at those usability and design processes, both intensive and somehow chaotic, that influence the design for the user experiences. This holistic approach will give new insight both to the research community and to the academic libraries.
Keywords: User experience; Usability testing; Academic library search tool
Antique School Furniture, New Technological Features Needs BIBAKFull-Text 185-196
  Andreia Gomes; Ernesto Filgueiras; Luís Lavin
Question: Over the years the demands of teaching design contributed to the differentiation of school furniture, giving it a specific and distinctive character from the traditional classrooms. This fact is mainly due to the tools used by the students in the activities performed in this kind of classes. However, the material used by the students and the teaching methods have undergone significant changes over the years. A recent example is the replacement of traditional design methods by computer-aided ones as a consequence of the rapid evolution of technology. The generation of students now entering higher education, millennium generation, grew up with the presence of technology and the internet, so the pencil and paper are for previous generations as the computer is for millennial. Today's furniture does not show signs of this evolution, thus still features characteristics of the beginning of the twentieth century. This absence of modern adapted furniture forced schools to provide supplementary material to compensate the problems caused by constant changes. Purpose: It is part of this article's goals to perform a morphological and evolutionary analysis of the products with which the students interact directly. The analysis of some reference situations, such as the environment in school study rooms and in the classrooms, will allow students to identify their needs. In order to achieve our goal, data will be collected through observation techniques, surveys and morphological analysis of the current and antique furniture.
Keywords: School furniture; Observation method; Morphological product methodology analysis; Conceptual product design
Analysis of Usability and Information Architecture of the UFRN Institutional Repository BIBAKFull-Text 197-207
  Débora Koshiyama; André Luís Santos de Pinho; José Guilherme Santa Rosa
In order to identify the possible problems of usability and information architecture of the institutional repositories, the case study of the Institutional Repository of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte was chosen. As research hypothesis, it was established that the information architecture of the UFRN Institutional Repository interface, version 1.8.1, disadvantage usability in performing the tasks by system user groups. Data collection was carried out by applying the techniques of Cooperative Evaluation and Usability Testing of the UFRN/IR system. Problems of usability and information architecture were found in the Institutional Repository from the results obtained. The redesign of the UFRN Institutional Repository interface on areas related to the tasks presented in the research, and considering the aspects of usability and information architecture, mentioned above, we will contribute to access and visibility of information improvement.
Keywords: Design; Information ergonomics; Institutional Repository; Usability; Information architecture
Ergonomic and Usability Analysis of Interactive Whiteboards in the Academic Environment BIBAKFull-Text 208-217
  Eduardo Oliveira; Erick Vasconcelos; Elzani Sobral; Sayonara Bittencourt; Tiago Ramos; Marcelo M. Soares
This paper presents the usability analysis about the using of interactive whiteboards, specifically the EPSON Brightlink 475wi + model, evaluating its functionality for didactic purposes in classrooms. The research was done in CAC, the Centre of Arts and Communication of the Federal University of Pernambuco, where observations, interviews and questionnaires with potential users have been done. The aim of this research is to propose possible improvements that could be done in its hardware, software and interface, in addition to evaluate the educator's preparing in relation to all the tools that the interactive whiteboard disposes, and how its knowledge is shared to the students when using this equipment. The purpose of this investigation is to do an ergonomic analysis of this important educational tool, which is generally underused by the educators, and to bring the users possible solutions so they can explore its maximum resources in their classrooms.
Keywords: Technology in education; Ergonomics; Usability
E-Learning Platforms and Lacking Motivation in Students: Concept of Adaptable UI for Online Courses BIBAKFull-Text 218-227
  Hana Ovesleová
Current trend of facilitating education for masses through MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) does not much respects different individual specifics influencing success rate of users during the learning process. This paper focuses on issues of MOOC user interfaces from the viewpoint of users' individual needs. It deals with the question of motivation of users depending on an interface, with the question of persuasive design and its potentials in a given context. The paper analyzes effects influencing the user along the learning process, the aim being to specify evaluation criteria for adaptable interface formulation. EdX, Coursera and user interfaces of e-learning courses of the largest Czech universities serve as examples.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; User interface; Motivation; Massive online open course; E-learning; Learning machine; Human computer interaction; Semiotic
A Usability Study with Children on an Online Educational Platform BIBAKFull-Text 228-239
  Tuba Ugras; Orhan Sener
Online education has become widely popular in the last decade. Although there are various online educational portals for children in the World and in Turkey, the number of usability studies focusing on the needs of children is limited. This study aims to fill this gap. The study focuses on Vitamin online educational platform in Turkey and investigates the find and search strategies that child users employ when navigating in the web site. A qualitative usability test with a multi-method approach was conducted with a sample of 12 Turkish students between the ages of 9-13. Observations were made while the participants were executing the given tasks. Additional data was collected by using the retrospective think aloud procedure, pre-test survey and video recordings. The findings showed that several improvements can be made in terms of information architecture in order to improve the usability of the platform for children.
Keywords: Usability; Children; Educational platforms
Evaluating an Education Department Portal: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 240-247
  Xiaojun Yuan; Huahai Yang; Kathleen Moorhead; Kathleen DeMers
We performed a series of usability studies to evaluate an education department portal for New York State Education Department (NYSED) (www.nysed.gov) in order to measure the quality of a user's experience when interacting with specific sections of this Web site. This study is composed of two phases: 1. heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough were carried out to evaluate 25 web pages of the site; and 2. a user testing was performed to evaluate three components of the site that have been redesigned based on the findings and recommendations from the Phase 1. The results will assist NYSED in identifying opportunities for improving customer service and enhancing the website.

Designing the Playing Experience

Ads-on Games and Fake Brands: Interactions, Commercials and Playful Branding BIBAKFull-Text 251-262
  Herlander Elias; Ernesto Filgueiras; Breno Carvalho
Today's communication-based world relies on advertising as a positive medium, and branding is no exception. Also, the gaming industry relies on videogames as a heavy player in our time, since "narrative", "graphics" and "gameplay" are constantly worked out in the name of the best digital experiences, where the user is the center. We have noticed that a fusion is taking place between commercials, real and/or fake brands, in order to turn digital worlds more convincing for the user-player. Relying on analytics, media theory and user experience, we have conducted a study to better understand, in analytical and experimental form, what is happening between the user, the brands, the games and the outputs of such experiences in terms of interaction and playfulness. Gamification seems to be the new rule.
Keywords: Brands; Videogames; User experience; Interaction; Advertisement; Connection; Player; Gamification
Heartbeat Jenga: A Biofeedback Board Game to Improve Coordination and Emotional Control BIBAKFull-Text 263-270
  Yu-Chun Huang; Chung-Hay Luk
In most biofeedback interfaces, the user learns his/her biometric reading, but does not need it to guide consequent motor control. Here we demonstrate a game that requires the user to actively adjust his/her play in response to his/her heartbeat. The game is based on Jenga, where players take turns removing a wooden block from a tower of blocks and putting it on the top without causing the tower to collapse. Heartbeat Jenga's added biofeedback component changes the difficulty of the game based on real time monitoring of the player's heart rate during the player's turn. If heart rate increases (indicating that the player is not calm), the platform holding the blocks shakes and the room lights dim, making the game harder to play. Through such manipulation, the player actively prompts him/herself to calm down, while improving coordination.
Keywords: Biofeedback; Board game; Heart rate monitoring; Tangible interfaces; Soft circuits
Evaluation of User Experience in Interaction with Computer Games BIBAKFull-Text 271-282
  Tihana Lapaš; Tihomir Orehovacki
Positive user experience (UX) is considered to be one of the main predictors of users' loyalty. In the context of Massively Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games, absorption & dissociation, immersion, presence, flow, and social play constitute a set of essential user experience (UX) facets. With an objective to determine to what extent the aforementioned UX dimensions contribute to MOBA games players' continuance intentions, an empirical study was carried out. Participants in the study were randomly selected MOBA games players. Data were collected by means of an online post-use questionnaire. The psychometric features of the conceptual model that reflects an interplay of UX facets and players' loyalty were examined by means of the partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modelling (SEM) technique. Implications for both researchers and practitioners are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Massively Online Battle Arena (MOBA); Computer games; User experience; Empirical study; Post-use questionnaire; Conceptual model; SEM-PLS
Doctor Who: Legacy, an Analysis of Usability and Playability of a Multi-platform Game BIBAKFull-Text 283-291
  Rennan Raffaele; Renato Alencar; Iran Júnior; Bruno Colley; Gabriel Pontes; Breno Carvalho; Marcelo M. Soares
Doctor Who: Legacy is a multiplatform game, available for web and smartphones, which pays tribute to the sci-fi adventure serial Dr Who from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as part of the 50th anniversary commemorations of the program. The game is a Puzzle Quest, in which the user has to destroy blocks by turns, full of collectible characters. The central plot features the "Doctor" who has to travel through time and space to bring together all his friends and ex-assistants so as to prevent a war that threatens the universe. This study sets out to investigate the gameplay and usability of the game on mobile and web platforms, grounded on the concepts set out by Preece, Rogers and Sharp, and by observing the interactions that users engaged on.
Keywords: Multi-platform; Social games; Usability and gameplay; User's experience; Doctor who
Newsgames: Gameplay and Usability in Simulation Games BIBAKFull-Text 292-302
  Carla Teixeira; Breno Carvalho; Jarbas Agra; Valeska Martins; Anthony Lins; Marcelo M. Soares; André Neves
Newsgames are a game format that use the news as a basis for constructing their narrative. Observations made between 2012 and 2014 indicated a gap in the observation of gameplay and usability of this kind of game, which has arisen as a different format of publishing information. The objective of this study was to analyze the usability and playability of newsgames produced since 2000, for which three simulation newsgames were chosen: Iced -- I can end deportation, Heartsaver and The Candidate. The analysis was based on studies by Niesen and Preece and Rogers, who observed users interacting with newgames. From the results obtained we intend to investigate other genres of newsgames, with a view to improving the game experience.
Keywords: Newsgames; Gameplay; Usability; Simulation games
Improving Song Guessing Games Through Music Track Composition BIBAKFull-Text 303-314
  João Marcelo Teixeira; Dicksson Almeida; Edvar Neto; Veronica Teichrieb
In this work we propose a different scheme for music guessing games, based on a constructive approach. By analyzing current available mobile games, we show the barriers that must be surpassed to make such games viable and how novel this work is. We have implemented a game prototype called "What's the Song" and performed user tests with both usual and constructive approaches. A Likert questionnaire was answered by all users and it points out that the constructive approach improves game engagement and overall user experience.
Keywords: Game experience; Music guessing games; Casual games
Evaluating and Customizing User Interaction in an Adaptive Game Controller BIBAKFull-Text 315-326
  Leonardo Torok; Mateus Pelegrino; Jefferson Lessa; Daniela Gorski Trevisan; Cristina N. Vasconcelos; Esteban Clua; Anselmo Montenegro
When playing a game, the user expects an easy and intuitive interaction. While current game console controllers are physical pre-defined hardware components with a default number, size and position of buttons. Unfortunately, different games require different buttons and demand different interaction methods. Despite that, the play style of each player differs according to personal characteristics (like hand size) or past gaming experiences. To achieve an optimal controller configuration for each player, this work proposes a virtual controller based on a common touchscreen device, such as smartphone or tablet, that will be used as a joystick to control a game on a computer or console, collecting user input data and applying machine learning techniques to adapt the position and size of its virtual buttons, minimizing errors and providing an enjoyable experience. With the prototype controller, tests were performed with a set of users and the collected data showed considerable improvements in the precision and game performance of the players.
Keywords: Adaptive interfaces; Adaptive game control; Machine learning; User behavior; Mobile; Touchscreen
New Research Methods for Media and Cognition Experiment Course BIBAKFull-Text 327-334
  Yi Yang; Shengjin Wang; Liangrui Peng
With the development of human-brain cognition and signal processing techniques, there is more attention on media and cognitive disciplines, especially focus on human-computer interaction and human's brain function analysis. Electronic media is a new expression of human civilization, culture and arts. Media and cognition experiment course is to complete the goal of training talents through a large number of state-of-the-art methods. This paper describes the understanding of the new practical engineering projects on media and cognition course. Students were asked to complete several sets of practical engineering courses. Some optional contents are also included. After this training, we were able to select and train more high-level talents further. In fact, this kind of practical engineering course can improve the students' ability to grasp related knowledge points. Eventually they will have the ability to plan projects and solve practical problems.
Keywords: Media and cognition; Analysis of human brain; Human-computer interaction; High-level talents; Investigation of project programming

Designing the Urban Experience

Learning from Hourly Household Energy Consumption: Extracting, Visualizing and Interpreting Household Smart Meter Data BIBAKFull-Text 337-345
  Sam Borgeson; June A. Flora; Jungsuk Kwac; Chin-Woo Tan; Ram Rajagopal
In this paper, we present the Energy Visualization and Insight System for Demand Operations and Management platform (VISDOM), a collection of smart meter data analysis algorithms and visualization tools designed to address the challenge of interpreting patterns in energy data in support of research, utility energy efficiency and demand response programs. We provide an overview of how the system works and examples of usage, followed by a discussion of the potential benefits of using VISDOM to identify and target participants whose electricity consumption is best aligned with the goals of efficiency and demand response programs.
Keywords: Information design; Data visualization; Energy; Sustainability; Energy efficiency; Customer segmentation; Machine learning
Defining HCI/UX Principles for Urban Environment BIBAKFull-Text 346-356
  Pavel Farkas
Interaction design works successfully with several design principles that are widely implemented and used in the community of designers and theoreticians. In this article, the author argues that urban designers and architects who are designing built environment may very well face similar questions and problems as the interaction designers in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design. The text sets the design thinking and semiotics of interaction in a large scale and tries to outline the connections between the UX design and urban design for cities we live in. Moreover it targets means of interaction and attempts to encourage designers of to engage in turning our modern cities into more livable, user-friendly and inclusive environments.
Keywords: Architecture; Communication; City; Design thinking; Information; Interaction; Semiotics; Smart city; UX; Wayfinding
Participatory Explorations on a Location Based Urban Information System BIBAKFull-Text 357-367
  Özge Genç; Damla Çay; Asim Evren Yantaç
In this paper, we share our user research experiences from an ongoing participatory location based urban information system design study. While the geographical information system (GIS) field advanced by means of sensors, data collection and data processing, there is still a limited number of visualization studies. Here, we envision novel solutions that represent spatio-temporal data for effective use in daily life. With this intention in mind, as early stage studies in our research process, we conducted a series of participatory design (PD) workshops together with an ethnographic artifact, a custom sketchbook to identify user scenarios and explore possible visualization techniques. The main objective of the study is to explore new ways of visualizing and interacting with the complex location based data that will provide intuitive yet easier and more effective daily life information for the public.
Keywords: Participatory design; Design research; Journal; Urban information visualization; Spatio-temporal data; Ethnographic research
Diffusion of Feedback: Perceptions and Adoption of Devices in the Residential Market BIBAKFull-Text 368-379
  Beth Karlin; Angela Sanguinetti; Nora Davis; Kristen Bendanna; Kristen Holdsworth; Jessie Baker; David Kirkby; Daniel Stokols
Providing households with energy feedback is widely promoted as a conservation strategy and its effectiveness has been established in field studies. However, such studies actively recruit participants and little is known about naturalistic consumers. Despite hundreds of products emerging, few have taken hold in the market. Diffusion of innovation is a theory of technology adoption that details both the general process by which innovation spreads as well as the individual process of technology adoption. The current study analyses survey data from 836 individuals through a diffusion framework to assess the current and potential market of energy feedback. Questions related to knowledge and perceptions of feedback reveal important insights about customer acceptance and statistical comparison of adopters and non-adopters identify key characteristics related to adoption. Implications for the design and marketing of feedback technologies are discussed.
Keywords: Sustainability; Feedback; Energy; Usability user experience
Design and Implementation of a Mobile Cloud Environmental Application for Riyadh City BIBAKFull-Text 380-389
  Heba Kurdi; Amani Al-Fayez; Anfal Al-Tuwaim; Hanan Al-Mohammadi; Mona Al-Mutairi; Sarah Al-Kharji
Environmental problems are a global issue that everyone should contribute to minimize. As it is difficult for people in charge alone to locate all the cases of the environmental hazards and to address them on time, this paper proposes a cloud based mobile application with a user friendly interface that allows citizens to help their government make their city a better place by reporting environmental violence. The aim is to help the responsible agencies have easy and quick access to notifications provided by the community about environmental issues, so they can be addressed promptly. We choose to customize the mobile application to Riyadh City, the capital of Saudi Arabia. However, the software is generic and can be customized to any other city.
Keywords: Mobile application; Environmental software; Cloud computing; Android
How Do I Get to Room 3106? BIBAKFull-Text 390-399
  Judith A. Moldenhauer
Built in 1895, Old Main is the oldest building on the Wayne State University campus. The building is a warren of rooms and hallways that is occupied by a wide variety of academic disciplines. However, there has never been any signage system for Old Main. Through using the experience of volunteers who specifically navigated to rooms and locations in Old Main, design students developed signage prototypes that connected the "story" of the building's information (e.g., rooms and locations, landmarks, stairs and elevators, hallways) with the "story" of the volunteers (e.g., the time it took to get to room, their use of landmarks, obstacles they encountered). This paper describes the students' design process and design work to demonstrate the importance of user-testing and the use of storytelling in design education.
Keywords: Wayfinding; Storytelling; Information design; User-testing; User-based design; Design education
A Practice on Wayfinding System Design with Service Design Thinking BIBAKFull-Text 400-411
  Jing Pan; Zhengsheng Yin
Environment around people has become more complex than ever before due to the development of society and economy. It is easy to feel lost when exposed to wide-open and unfamiliar environments. Thus, wayfinding system design becomes increasingly important. Various factors affect people's wayfinding experience. Factors such as color, symbol or material of wayfinding facilities have been discussed a lot while the importance of systematic planning of wayfinding system has been ignored. This study combined service design thinking with wayfinding system design. Different service design methods had been applied to the different stages of wayfinding system design process in order to help designers make a more comprehensive design strategy. The wayfinding system design of Tea Experience Museum had been taken as a practice to show how service design thinking was used in wayfinding system design process.
Keywords: Wayfinding system; Service system; Design; Experience
Hidden Presence: Sensing Occupancy and Extracting Value from Occupancy Data BIBAKFull-Text 412-424
  Larissa Suzuki; Peter Cooper; Theo Tryfonas; George Oikonomou
In this paper we review various technical architectures for sensing occupancy in commercial real estate spaces and discuss the potential benefits of applications that could be built upon the collected data. The technical capabilities reviewed range from simple presence detection to identifying individual workers and relating those semantically to jobs, teams, processes or other elements of the business. The volume and richness of accumulated data varies accordingly allowing the development of a range of occupancy monitoring applications that could bring multiple benefits to an organization. We find that overall occupancy-based applications are underappreciated in the Smart Buildings mantra due to occupancy's inability to align to traditional building engineering silos, a lack of common view between stakeholders with respect to what is 'value' and the current client assessment tendencies which use predominantly demonstrator-based logic rather than a combination of practical demonstrators and theoretical value. We demonstrate that in commercial office buildings, occupancy-based Smart Building concepts have the potential to deliver benefits that can be orders of magnitude greater than current practice associated with silos such as energy and lighting. The directness of value in these is far more variable however, and the barriers and enablers to its realization are non-trivial. We identify and discuss these factors (including privacy, perceived additional capital expenditure, retrofitting requirements etc.) in more detail and relate them to stages of design and delivery of the built environment. We conclude that, on the presumption costs of development and implementation are relatively similar, the value streams of occupancy-based systems, while requiring more careful and bespoke design in the short term, could produce greater lifetime value in commercial office scenarios than leading smart building technologies.
Keywords: Smart built environments; Occupancy detection
Designing Apps for Tourists: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 425-436
  Virginia Tiradentes Souto; Caio Cristo; Maria Gabriela Araújo; Lucas Santos
With the popularity of new digital media, such as smartphones and tablets, many applications have been designed in order to help tourists at different moments of their trips. This study shows the creative process of designing an app for tourists. The design of this mobile app is a part of a project that aims to investigate the design of mobile apps for tourists and their implications for interaction design and information visualization fields. It also describes the method, the stages, and different approaches taken during the creative process. In addition, some related studies on designing such apps are reviewed. It finally shows some reflections on the possibilities, difficulties and challenges designers have while trying to create an innovative app for tourists.
Keywords: Designing apps; Mobile tourist applications; Visualization information; Creative process

Designing the Driving Experience

Designing for the Naturalistic Driving Experience BIBAKFull-Text 439-449
  Wanda Eugene; Jerone Dunbar; Alison Nolan; Juan E. Gilbert; Renesha L. Hendrix
We designed a naturalistic driving study to compare voice-texting alternatives. The design accounts for the nuances we have discovered through research in our simulations studies and through the literature. We then conducted a pilot study to gauge the practice implications of our design. In this paper, we present the problems we encountered, solutions we developed, and other challenges faced in moving from a simulator experience to a real-world naturalistic study. Leveraging these findings, we put forth a set of design principles that will inform future research endeavors and provide instructions for conducting naturalistic driving studies. We hope this research serves as a comprehensive design guide for an effective naturalistic distracted driving study.
Keywords: Naturalistic driving study; Road safety; Transportation; Distracted driving; Design guidelines
Exploring User Experience in the Wild: Facets of the Modern Car BIBAKFull-Text 450-461
  Dimitrios Gkouskos; Ingrid Pettersson; MariAnne Karlsson; Fang Chen
Experiential approaches to technology create opportunities for facilitating a wider range of in-car user experiences, however holistic knowledge regarding experiences that car users find enjoyable is lacking. We present the experience themes of the car as a caretaker, the car as a space for relatedness, the car as a space for stimulation, and the car as a space for transition, collected through a holistic study of 16 drivers, using contextual interviews, reflexive photography and the UX curve method. The use of the themes is exemplified through a design example. The experience themes can help designers empathize with users and create design solutions that can support positive in-car experiences, while the methodology used, serves as an example of how user's experiences with technology can be studied.
Keywords: User experience; Automotive; Qualitative; Holistic; HMI
Drivers and Automation: A Study About Cultural and Behavioral Influence in the Interaction with Driver Assistants BIBAKFull-Text 462-472
  Rafael Cirino Gonçalves; Manuela Quaresma
ADAS or advanced driving assistant systems are rapidly gaining popularity all over the world, but in order to work properly and prevent risks, ADAS must be designed considering the context that it will be working on. The problem is that most ADAS sold in Brazil were developed based in others cultures, not considering specific issues of Brazilian traffic. This study aimed to point out the most relevant problems of interaction between Brazilian drivers and their ADAS. The results of this research concluded that the problem is not related to individual aspects of Human-Machine communication, but to social and cultural factors that misrepresents the way that people should use this kind of system.
Keywords: ADAS; Automation; Safety; Ergonomics; Drivers' behavior
Going on a Road-Trip with My Electric Car: Acceptance Criteria for Long-Distance-Use of Electric Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 473-484
  Julian Halbey; Sylvia Kowalewski; Martina Ziefle
In this study we report on four focus group discussions to examine cognitions, attitudes of a broad variety of users with respect to battery electric vehicles (BEV). Specifically, we identified relevant criteria for the use of electric cars as a long distance vehicle and gathered first impressions of where users wish to locate such charging stations. Four main aspects were identified as acceptance relevant: The battery's capacity, given in the driving range in kilometers, the time it takes to regain this given range (charging time), the density of the charging stations grid and the attractiveness of the places where the charging stations are located, which could for example be a service area or a simple parking lot off the highway. Results of this study might provide detailed insights into conditions and technical specifications that have to be met beyond the possibility of quick charging to reach higher acceptance and a broad willingness to use BEVs for more than short-tracks in the city.
Keywords: Battery electric vehicles (BEV); User acceptance; Quick charging; Infrastructure; Adoption of novel technologies
A Study on a Split-View Navigation System BIBAKFull-Text 485-495
  Jongsung Lee; Heewon Lee; Sung Woo Kim
CNS (Car Navigation System) provides traffic information with an intention to offer safe and comfortable driving experience. However, because too much information is presented into a single screen it often becomes information-crowded. This paper analyzed four commercial CNS products to collect information elements and conducted user studies such as focused groups, surveys and interviews to determine what information is needed for each position of the seat; the driver and the passenger seat. The result showed that there is clear difference in information priority between driver and the person on passenger seat. Based on such finding, this paper proposes using split-view based CNS. Split-view CNS contributes to enhance user satisfaction of driving experience by providing different information to needed for a driver and a passenger.
Keywords: Navigation; Split-view; Information delivery element
What Travelers Want: An Investigation into User Needs and User Wants on Display BIBAKFull-Text 496-504
  Tingyi S. Lin; Chia-Nien Chang
Travel information about public transportation is essential for all commuters and travelers before and during their journey. The experience from a journey creates long-lasting impressions for each traveler. Positive impressions create good reputations for public services in and between cities. The effectiveness of public transportation often relies on brief transfers between connections. Even if they already have a clear touring map, travelers always need on-site information to confirm schedules and so on. The improvement of travel information for passengers is not only a must for enhancing transportation flow, but also a necessary condition for passengers' anxiety-free experience of transportation. Wayfinding and signage systems have been important aspects of public transportation for decades and, in recent years, have attracted more and more attention owing to rapid technology changes that allow for extraordinarily innovative creations. This information-saturated era gives us an opportunity to rethink and to re-make information so that it is more visible and more understandable.
   A successful design for information delivery and communication can successfully guide users through their journey and can reduce confusion considerably. In the current study, we examine the representation of railway information relative to display-interface sections. The very first and essential step in such an examination is to consider users. Here, our aim is to define the information needs attributable to travelers during their journeys by train. In order to understand what users need and what can motivate them, we observed and interviewed users and conducted a task-based analysis -- all to clarify user perceptions and reactions. The results will help future design thinking and processing in the field of information services.
   Our study's results show that (1) the types of information needed for long trips differ from the types of information needed for short trips; (2) current displays suffer from several problems such as ambiguity, low legibility, and unaesthetic layouts; and (3) users like to have rapidly conveyed information at stops, on routes, and at transfers. Technical information and entertainment are of secondary importance. The two principal issues are what to show (i.e., the issue of organizing needed information) and how to show it (i.e., the issue of designing easy-to-understand information). The results and findings from this study should be references for re-design processes, and should also be key items for checking usability tests of new models for train displays. Through this passenger-focused process serving to meet travelers' demands, it is vital to take into account visual information for short- and long-distance transport networks.
Keywords: Railways and transportation networks; Wayfinding; Visual-Information; User experience; Interface design
Head Up Display in Automotive: A New Reality for the Driver BIBAKFull-Text 505-516
  Annie Pauzie
In the context of automotive, Human Systems Interactions Design is a great challenge, taking into account the road safety issues and the complexity of the driving task under high time constraint. To support this task, existing on-board systems display mainly visual messages, forcing the drivers to move their eyes away from the road. This paper presents an overview of studies related to drivers' perception and cognition when this information is displayed on the windshield (Head-Up Display or HUD), as it can be a solution to reduce the duration and frequency drivers look away from the traffic scene. Nevertheless, HUD might have also shortcomings raising new critical contexts, which are discussed. The Augmented Reality (AR) concept is also presented, as this solution can bear HUD potential drawbacks such as the risk of occluding relevant objects of traffic as well as phenomena like perception tunneling and cognitive capture.
Keywords: Head Up Display; Augmented Reality; Road safety; Human factors in automotive; Advanced driver information system
What Are the Expectations of Users of an Adaptive Recommendation Service Which Aims to Reduce Driver Distraction? BIBAKFull-Text 517-528
  Nadine Walter; Benjamin Kaplan; Carmen Wettemann; Tobias Altmüller; Klaus Bengler
Adaptive systems are a promising approach to reduce driver distraction caused by using functions of the infotainment system while driving. The number of operation steps can be reduced through proactive recommendations based on the user behavior in the past. We describe the methods and results conducted in the first two iterations of an user-centered design process to develop an interaction concept for an adaptive recommendation service. The result of an extensive requirements analysis is described and how different concepts perform in comparison with each other.
Keywords: Adaptation; Recommendation service; User-centered design process; Heuristic evaluation; User study
Cross Cultural Comparison of Users' Barge-in with the In-Vehicle Speech System BIBAKFull-Text 529-540
  Peggy Wang; Ute Winter; Timothy Grost
The focus of this paper is user barge-in behavior during interactions with an in-vehicle speech system. This study is part of a cross-cultural research conducted in the US and China that explored the cultural differences regarding users' expectations and interactions with in-vehicle speech applications. In this paper, we describe the methodology of the field study, the interface of the prototype, the experimental set up, the analysis procedure, as well as the participants' demographics from both the US and China. We categorize the observed barge-in behavior and the typical scenarios in which it occurred, from both prompt timing and a dialog sequence perspective. After analyzing all barge-in instances, we discuss design implications for a barge-in feature and system prompts of an in-vehicle speech system that considers the different cultural norms of the two regions.
Keywords: User barge-in; In-vehicle speech system; Human-machine communication; Turn-taking; Cross cultural comparison

Designing the Healthcare Patient's Experience

PostureMonitor: Real-Time IMU Wearable Technology to Foster Poise and Health BIBAKFull-Text 543-552
  Fatemeh Abyarjoo; Nonnarit O-Larnnithipong; Sudarat Tangnimitchok; Francisco Ortega; Armando Barreto
This paper presents the prototype development and verification of a simple wearable posture monitor system, based on a miniature MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The Inertial Measurement Unit uses accelerometers and gyroscopes to estimate the orientation of the module through sensor fusion algorithms. The system provides a warning to the user wearing it when he/she is departing by an adjustable margin from the posture indicated to the system as correct. Continuous real-time warnings of this type will help the user acquire good posture habits, which has the potential to prevent or assuage health problems caused by chronic bad posture.
Keywords: Posture monitoring; Inertial measurement system; Accelerometer; Gyrosscope; MEMS; Sensor fusion
Robot-Era Project: Preliminary Results on the System Usability BIBAKFull-Text 553-561
  Roberta Bevilacqua; Elisa Felici; Fiorella Marcellini; Sebastian Glende; Susann Klemcke; Isabel Conrad; Raffaele Esposito; Filippo Cavallo; Paolo Dario
The European project Robot-Era is an ambitious integrated project (FP7-ICT-2011.5.4), which objective is the development of advanced robotic services, integrated in intelligent environments, to provide independent living to older people.
   In order to guarantee the matching of the users' need and the demands, two loops of experimentation were conceived, in realistic and real setting.
   The aim of the paper is to described the methods applied and the main results coming from the first experimental loop, concerning the degree of usability of the interfaces and provide guidelines for testing socially assistive robots with older people.
Keywords: Usability assessment; Older people; HRI; HCI; Acceptability
User Experience Research on the Rehabilitation System of Speech-Impaired Children BIBAKFull-Text 562-574
  Wenyi Cai; Jun Liu; Qiang Liu; Ting Han
A large number of Chinese speech-impaired children and their families face long-term tough training and lack of professional speech therapists and training products. The rehabilitation experience of preschool children in the critical period of speech learning need attention. By the analysis to the traditional treatment, it shows that young children generally have difficulty in concentration. Parents worry about time-consuming, economic pressure, fatigue from training, uncontrollable children. Speech therapists concern about the problem of searching record, limitation of treatment. Accordingly, ICT-based speech training product which suits Chinese learning has been designed to improve these stakeholders' experience. The product has interaction, gamification, professional knowledge, substitute for parents' demonstration in part, visualization of the progress and training program. By comparing using the product in the training with the traditional way, the experience has been improved in attracting the attention of children, reducing the burden of parents, lifting participation of speech therapists.
Keywords: User experience; Speech rehabilitation; Speech-impaired children and their parents; Speech therapist; ICT; Speech training product
"Keep What You've Earned": Encouraging Sailors to Drink Responsibly BIBAKFull-Text 575-586
  Kristina Cook; Erin Brennan; Colleen Gray; Teha Kennard
The U.S. Navy contracted Booz Allen Hamilton, a strategy and technology consulting firm, to develop and implement a social marketing campaign to encourage Sailors to drink responsibly. The "Keep What You've Earned" campaign, launched in April 2013, aims to encourage Sailors to drink responsibly through the use of affirmative messaging, reminding them of all they have accomplished in their Navy careers. The primary product of the social marketing campaign is a mobile application game that combines role-playing with real-life tools to help encourage Sailors to drink responsibly. Navy leadership has indicated that the Keep What You've Earned campaign, in combination with other cultural and policy-related changes, contributed to a decline in the number of reported alcohol-related incidents.
Keywords: Social marketing; Alcohol abuse prevention; Health communication model; Gamification; Behavior change; U.S. Navy
The Use of Generative Techniques in Co-design of mHealth Technology and Healthcare Services for COPD Patients BIBAKFull-Text 587-595
  Anita Das; Silje Bøthun; Jarl Reitan; Yngve Dahl
People suffering from COPD commonly experience exacerbations leading to hospital admissions. mHealth technologies holds a potential for improved healthcare delivery to this group, with a possible impact on preventing COPD exacerbations. Designing appropriate technology and services for people with COPD requires an in-depth understanding of their needs, values and life situation. Co-design is an approach where users are actively involved in the design process, with democratic participation and empowerment at its center. We involved COPD patients in exploring their perspective on how mHealth technology and appurtenant healthcare services could support them. By the use of generative tools, we identified central aspects that the participants experienced to be of importance related to their health condition and disease. We here report on the main findings using this approach and on reflections on the process.
Keywords: Design thinking; mHealth; Service design; Generative techniques; COPD
Human-Computer Interaction in Bed BIBAKFull-Text 596-605
  Gustavo Desouzart; Ernesto Filgueiras
Sleep disorders are increasingly common view and it is a growing problem in modern societies. There are several problems that can cause this type of disturbance, being the demanding obligations of work and study, a current problem, which leads individuals to allocate more time their rest period in at home. Currently, we are seeing the replacement of handwork by mental, automated and computerized work, which translates into an increasing percentage of time spent performing repetitive static character tasks (physical effort), being able to compare yourself to your work done in industry, traditional production lines (Caetano and Vala 2002). It is no less demanding contexts of labor among which are those activities that involve the long hours spent at the computer. This paper presents a study whose objective was to research the human-computer interaction with the time spent by young adults in carrying out activities with computing devices (computer, tablet or mobile phone) in residences' bedrooms of air force military and university students in rest time periods and with ecological validation with observation method to video analysis and using a Software iSEE. A sample of 32956 observations, which corresponds to 1824 sleep-hours of 24 young adults, was classified into two (2) Interaction Categories (IC), body position while participants were awake in bed (2873 observations) and doing activities (3001 observations). The image registration was performed during the period of six months, divided into two periods with each participant, to enable the analysis of different times of the year and not just a single period can mean a higher specific activity. The results show that 38.7% (N = 1113 observations) of the participants presented the sitting as the most common postural behavior during awake in bed when the participants doing activities. In reference of activities in bed, 49.2% (N = 1475) used the computer, followed by Using mobile devices, with 16.7% (N = 501) of observations. When we analyze the group of participants, the students showed 49.2% of the period of activity in bed, using the computer, and 13.8% used mobile equipment. In the same reference, the military also used the computer (49%) as the main activity in bed during the night rest, but they used more mobile devices (19.4%) than students.
   Regarding the postures, students used the sitting (57.1%) as the main active posture when in bed, however, the military was the only sitting 3rd indication posture in bed, being the 1st observation of posture in bed, was the supine position with 30.7%. This data set the type of use of computer devices in bed (studying, playing games, watching movie or playing). Findings of this study allow suggesting what graphical interface designers must seek as new strategies and solutions for posture in bed, exploring other peripheral equipment for using informatics equipment in bed position.
Keywords: Human-Computer interaction; Activities in rest period; Health care professionals' procedures; ISEE
Designing an Interface Agent-Based Architecture for Creating a Mobile System of Medical Care BIBAKFull-Text 606-615
  Ariel Escobar Endara; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena
This paper presents a software-based architecture aiming to provide a mechanism for creating computer systems for telemedicine. The proposed architecture has two execution environments. First, the server environment where all the system information is centralized, processed by agents that are executed in this environment. Secondly, the mobile environment. Highlighting the interface agent, which exploits the information that is provided by the patient and the other agents in order to become a personal assistant to the patient. Together they are able to guide the patients in the care of their health and help the physician on patient's care remotely.
Keywords: Agents; Interface agents; Healthcare; Telemedicine
A Study of Conversation Support System Between the Elderly Person and Young Adults by Using Facial Expression Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 616-627
  Miyuki Iwamoto; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
Japanese society is recently facing a problem of a super-aging population. The proportion of aged people is growing. The number of families with old couples and old singles is increasing. In some case s/he passes a day without speaking a word, and that causes a disuse of cognitive functions and a risk for dementia and/or depression. In the future, it is expected that young adults in the region will be involved with the elderly actively as a conversational partner. They focused on reminiscence technique which is effective to control dementia in order to reduce the mental burden of the partner young adult. We have already examined the difference of the mental burden and the quality of communication between the elderly and young adults when they use any photographs as content for communication support. As a result, depending on the category of the photo as a content for conversation support we are sure that there is tension in conversation. So, we went to build a conversation support system for the elderly and young adults to provide content according to the circumstances of the conversation to allow the conversation to go smoothly without feeling a sense of tension and discomfort. In previous studies, the frustration and discomfort was determined by using wearable devices (such as for heart or brain wave). However, in order to construct a system, it is necessary to use a non-contact device that can easily measure the frustration and discomfort. We measure the dissatisfaction, discomfort during a conversation using the expression analysis sensor. Therefore, in this study, it is an object of comparison and evaluation of the data obtained by measuring the dissatisfaction, discomfort in wearable devices (heart-EEG) and non-contact devices (expression analysis).
Keywords: Elderly; Reminiscence videos; Dementia; Conversation
The Turkish Central Doctor Rendezvous System Under Spotlight: A User Study with Turkish Senior Users BIBAKFull-Text 628-637
  Edibe Betül Karbay; Kerem Rizvanoglu
The Central Doctor Rendezvous System (MHRS), which is one of the platforms within "Health in Transformation Project" to provide efficient health services, is promulgated by Turkish Republic Ministry of Health. The aim of this multi-method qualitative user study is to test the usability of MHRS web site with senior users. The sample includes 10 senior users. The test procedure is based on three steps: The semi-structured pre-test interview, the task observation phase and a debriefing post-test interview. The participants are asked to execute the pre-selected tasks through think-aloud protocol and the audio/mouse tracks are recorded during the navigation. The findings support the notion that the system comprises fatal problems not only for senior users who -- due to relevant literature -- already fight an uphill battle when interacting with any web environment, but also for a regular citizen who tries to find healthcare support.
Keywords: Usability; Healthcare; Senior users; User experience
Evaluation of Users Acceptance of a Digital Medicine Fact Sheet: Findings from a Focus Group BIBAKFull-Text 638-647
  Amélia Lageiro; Catarina Lisboa; Emília Duarte
Most medicine fact sheets are printed in small type and have information hierarchy and layout issues. In Europe, these sheets are individual bulletins that are put inside the packages. Users frequently report difficulties in reading the material, finding the required information and understanding the technical jargon, and/or have lost the sheet. The purpose of this study was to assess the participants' needs and major difficulties in using a medicine paper fact sheet, as well as their acceptance of a digital solution. Two focus groups sessions were conducted on a sample of 15 participants, divided into three groups (young adults, middle-aged adults, young-older adults). Differences among groups were found for difficulties with the paper version and the expectations regarding the digital version. Findings suggest that digital fact sheet may serve as a positive solution, but is mostly seen by the participants as a complement of the paper version.
Keywords: Medication; Fact sheet; Focus group; Information design; Interaction design

Designing for the Healthcare Professional's Experience

An Internet of Things Application with an Accessible Interface for Remote Monitoring Patients BIBAKFull-Text 651-661
  Chrystinne Oliveira Fernandes; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena
E-health area is a research field whose exploration can bring numerous benefits to society. In this paper, we present results from a case study performed in a healthcare environment supported by an Internet of Things (IoT) solution to automate techniques commonly used in patients' treatment and data collection processes. This solution comprises hardware prototypes including sensors, micro-controllers and software agents that work together to make hospital environments more proactive. In addition, the proposed solution provides remote storage of patient data in cloud-based platforms, allowing for any authorized person, including external professionals to work collaboratively with the local team. A web system enables real-time visualization of patient's record as graphical charts through an intuitive interface. Software agents constantly monitor collected data to detect anomalies in patients' health status and send alerts to health professionals when they occur. This work also aims to enable remote patient monitoring to increase proactivity and save resources.
Keywords: Healthcare; Medical systems; Internet of things; Multi-agent systems; E-health; Sensors; Monitoring; Accessibility
Three-Dimensional Models and Simulation Tools Enabling Interaction and Immersion in Medical Education BIBAKFull-Text 662-671
  Soeli T. Fiorini; Leonardo Frajhof; Bruno Alvares de Azevedo; Jorge R. Lopes dos Santos; Heron Werner; Alberto Raposo; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena
The article proposes the creation of a library of clinical cases generated from images of minimally invasive procedures, which will enable students to experience immersive way of performing procedures enabling the implementation of a Biodesign Lab in Medicine, which will bring real cases (initially in the domain of obstetrics and cardiology) as a premise, to the virtual world, hands-on learning and experimentation of advanced technologies based on a multidisciplinary and active participation of physicians and computing engineers, experiencing and sharing experiences.
Keywords: Virtual reality; 3D modeling; Visual simulation; Minimally invasive surgery; Noninvasive diagnostic methods
MedData: A Mobile Application Designed for Medical Teams to Monitor Clinical Evolution of Inpatient in ICU Context BIBAKFull-Text 672-681
  Carlos Alberto Pereira de Lucena; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão; Bruno Alvares de Azevedo
Intensive Care Units inside hospitals are usually managed by different teams of physicians. Each team is in charge of a specific number of patients and are composed by physicians that cover different specialties. The information gathered by the physicians regarding each patient is crucial to their treatment and is also very valuable for the rest of their team. In the reality of the majority of the Brazilian hospitals, this type of information is recorded in paper notes and later archived in hospital records. In order to share this information with the rest of the medical team, physicians nowadays regularly create their own digital files and saves them in cloud based servers such as Drop Box or Google drive in order to give access of the data with their peers. Aiming to solve this problem, research teams from PUC-Rio university developed a mobile application named MedData. This app is currently being developed and tested, as described in this paper.
Keywords: Healthcare; Design; HCI; Mobile; E-health; Application
A Usability Study of a Gesture Recognition System Applied During the Surgical Procedures BIBAKFull-Text 682-692
  Antonio Opromolla; Valentina Volpi; Andrea Ingrosso; Stefano Fabri; Claudia Rapuano; Delia Passalacqua; Carlo Maria Medaglia
Within an operating room, surgeons need to interact with a large amount of patient's medical information and data. In order to avoid misunderstandings among the staff and protecting the patient safety, the medical staff may use a touchless interaction system that allows the surgeons to directly interact with digital devices that visualize digital images. The RISO project aims to create a gesture recognition system for the visualization and manipulation of medical images, useful for the surgeons even during the surgical procedures. In this paper we show the main findings from a usability study carried out with the aim to evaluate, among others, the learnability of the system and the memorability of the gestures employed for the interaction.
Keywords: Touchless interaction; Gesture recognition; Usability; Surgery; Operating room
A Novel User-Specific Wearable Controller for Surgical Robots BIBAFull-Text 693-701
  Carmen C. Y. Poon; Esther Y. Y. Leung; Ka Chun Lau; Billy H. K. Leung; Yali L. Zheng; Philip W. Y. Chiu; Yeung Yam
Wearable sensors have emerged as an active field of research in human-computer interaction. This study explores the use of wearable sensors to detect human motion for precise control of a two-arm surgical robot designed for gripping and dissecting tissues. The wearable sensory sheath was designed with flexible e-textile bipolar electrodes to collect forearm electromyogram (EMG) and inertial measurement units (IMU) to capture arm motions of the user. Four pairs of bipolar electrodes were used to collect EMG from the forearm muscles and two IMU for detecting rotation and translation of each arm of the subject. Features were extracted from the EMG and linear discriminant analysis was used as the decoding method to classify the signals of the muscles. A calibration procedure was setup in the beginning for calibrating the IMU sensors to familiarize the user with the working space environment and the mapped-motions of the robot arms. A training session was then conducted for each user to control wrist flexion, wrist extension, hand opening and hand closure of the robot arms. Six users were asked to perform random arm and hand movements to ensure satisfactory mapping of the movements of the surgical robot. To evaluate the system, two tasks which were important in controlling surgical robots were designed: (1) using the dissector to mark dots along a straight line and (2) lifting a weight from one location to another. The results of this study found that the performance of different users in operating the motion controller and the wearable sensory sheath were similar in accuracy. Most users completed the same task in a shorter time with a standard motion controller than the wearable sensory sheath. The results show that most users adapt to a standard motion controller faster than the wearable sensors although the latter can be calibrated individually and is a user-specific approach for the control of robot.