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DHM Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415-115-2

DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management, Part I: Human Modeling

Fullname:DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management, Part I: Human Modeling
Note:Volume 16 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Vincent G. Duffy
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9184
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21073-5 hcibib: DHM15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-21072-8 (print), 978-3-319-21073-5 (online)
Papers:44
Pages:447
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management, Part II: Ergonomics and Health

Fullname:DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management, Part II: Ergonomics and Health
Note:Volume 17 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Vincent G. Duffy
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9185
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21070-4 hcibib: DHM15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-21069-8 (print), 978-3-319-21070-4 (online)
Papers:53
Pages:535
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. Modeling Human Skills and Expertise
    2. Modeling Human Work and Activities
  2. DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Anthropometry and Ergonomics
    2. Motion Modeling and Tracking
    3. Human Modeling in Transport and Aviation
    4. Human Modeling in Medicine and Surgery
    5. Quality in Healthcare

DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 1

Modeling Human Skills and Expertise

Comparison Knitting Skills Between Experts and Non-experts by Measurement of the Arm Movement BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Kontawat Chottikampon; Shunyu Tang; Suchalinee Mathurosemontri; Porakoch Sirisuwan; Miyako Inoda; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
This research focused on the developing the capacity of knitting skill. The comparison of skill between the experts with non-expert was study. The movement of arms was measure to investigate the effect of arm movement on quality of knitting fabric. The experiment was carried out on a video camera to record and analyze the differences of the knitting speed and manner in knitting. The quality of the fabric is measured by a loop of fabric to see the consistency of the loop fabric is important and beautiful fabrics. The result is a procedure used to crochet knitting machines are very different in appearance, knitting and speed. The quality of the fabric is beautiful, similar to the use of a knitting machine knitting. The main difference between them is only part of the seams.
Keywords: Knitting; Arm movement measurement; Knitting skill; Plain pattern
Comparison of Braiding Skills Between Expert and Non-experts by Eye's Movement Measurement BIBAKFull-Text 14-23
  Kontawat Chottikampon; Suchalinee Mathurosemontri; Hitoshi Marui; Porakoch Sirisuwan; Akihiko Goto; Tadashi Uozumi; Miyako Inoda; Makiko Tada; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
A braiding rope is the Japanese traditional rope that a quality and beauty of them have depended on the skill and experience of a braider. In this research, the skill of a expert and two non-experts who practice the braiding everyday and every week, respectively were measured and compared through the eye's movement measurement and observed the braiding rope quality. The measurement was carried out every month for three times. It was found that the expert show the constant of eye's focus at the center of marudai plate and reveled a complete pattern of braiding rope. For two non-experts, their eye's movement wobbled around marudai plate for all trials. However, the braiding speed and quality were developed by the regular training. There are no the defects in the ropes in the trial 2 and 3.
Keywords: Braiding; Kumihimo; Eye's movement measurement; Braiding skill
Effect of Skill Level Difference in the Polishing Process of the Maki-e Making Technique BIBAKFull-Text 24-34
  Atsushi Endo; Hisanori Yuminaga; Chihiro Akatsuka; Takuya Sugimoto; Yutaro Shimode; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this research, "Maki-e" technique was focused. Maki-e technique is a decoration technique of Urushi crafts technique. There is a polishing process in the Maki-e making process. Maki-e surface is polished by a charcoal and whetstone in the polishing process. Time-served technique is needed for this process. Because this process affects a finish of Urushi crafts work, this research aimed to clarify a relationship between a skill level difference of craftspeople and a finish of Urushi crafts work in the polishing process by using charcoal. Characteristics of the finish Urushi crafts work and how to use a body of craftspeople was analyzed. As the results of this research, it was confirmed that; 1. The expert's Maki-e specimen was more brightness and yellow than the non-expert. 2. There was not much difference about the gloss and surface roughness between the expert and the non-expert. 3. The expert took the rhythmic activity in each muscle. Therefore it seemed that the finish of the work became more beautiful. These results suggest that how to use the body affects the finish of the Urushi crafts work in the polishing process. The non-expert can improve the finish of the work and the level of polishing skill by training the body position and motion like the expert.
Keywords: Urushi crafts; Maki-e; Polishing; Color; Gloss; Surface roughness; Electromyogram
Study on Method of Observing Maki-e Crafts Work in Urushi Craftspeople BIBAKFull-Text 35-45
  Atsushi Endo; Noriyuki Kida; Yutaro Shimode; Isao Oda; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Urushi crafts is a representative traditional crafts in Japan. Good Urushi crafts work had made in various periods in history in Japan, and it has been kept by the policymaker, shrine, temple and a person on the street. Urushi crafts work is damaged and Urushi comes off over a course of a long period of time. Urushi craftspeople need to identify the characteristics and conditions of the work when it is repaired because they can't repair the work appropriately. When the craftspeople identify the characteristics and conditions of the work, they observe the work by the naked eye. This observation technique is called "Mitate". This research aimed to know difference of a motion of the Urushi crafts work between the expert Urushi craftspeople and the non-expert Urushi craftspeople when they conduct the Mitate. The motion of the specimen and subject's head were measured when the expert and non-expert Urushi craftspeople conducted the Mitate of the Maki-e specimen. As the results, it is found that the expert can identify the change in appearance of Maki-e surface by moving the specimen up and down a little. Furthermore, he can skip the up-and-down motion and shorten the observation time by comparing one specimen with the other specimen in the case of the different number of the gold powder.
Keywords: Urushi crafts; Maki-e; Mitate; Expert; Non-expert; Motion analysis
Comparison of Description Skill on Characteristics of the Urushi Crafts Work Between Expert Craftspeople and Non-expert Craftspeople BIBAKFull-Text 46-57
  Atsushi Endo; Mari Shimode; Yutaro Shimode; Seishi Namiki; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
Many of Urushi crafts works have been collected as an art in the museum and art museum. They have been treasured, but some of them spent several hundred years being made, and need to be repaired. Urushi crafts people can repair these works. Before they repair them, they need to observe the condition of the work by the naked eye. This observation is called "Mitate". Expert Urushi craftspeople can identify many characteristics by conducting the Mitate, and they can plan to repair the Urushi crafts work. This research aimed to examine how to understand the characteristics of the making process in the Urushi craftspeople. Urushi craftspeople conducted the Mitate, and they described the making process, material and so on. As the result, it is found that the Urushi craftspeople with long year of experience can identify the detail characteristics like the number of metallic powder in the Maki-e making process.
Keywords: Urushi crafts; Maki-e; Craftspeople; Expert; Non-expert; Mitate
Analysis of Eye Movement of Caregiver Concerning on Transfer Operation BIBAKFull-Text 58-65
  Akihiko Goto; Mengyuan Liao; Yuka Takai; Takashi Yoshikawa; Hiroyuki Hamada
As well known, nowadays Japan is one of the several "super-ageing societies" all around the world. The aging of Japan is thought to outweigh all other nations, as the country is purported to have the highest proportion of elderly citizens; 33.0% are above age 60, 25.9% are aged 65 or above, 12.5% aged 75 or above, as of Sep 2014. The increasing proportion of elderly people also had a major impact on increased burden for caregivers. Due to a shortage of expert nursing staff, training caregivers for long-term care facilities has also become a growing concern. Therefore, in order to help speed up training process, one of the popular care processes "transfer operation" between bed and wheelchair was examined. In this study, elder staff's eye movements during transfer was measured and compared between expert, non-expert and beginner caregiver. Comparing with beginner without experience, caregivers with occupational experience were found to pay more attention on elder's body with longer eyes rested duration according to eye movement track. Especially, expert caregiver's skillful care process was also clarified, during which he put less time than non-expert to focus the objects such as bed, wheelchair and so on. Eye moving characteristic and difference between expert and non-expert suggested that transfer care assistance could be improved by instructing the caregivers to focus on specific parts of elder's body effectively.
Keywords: Caregiver; Eye movement; Transfer operation
Analysis of the Skills to Acupuncture BIBAKFull-Text 66-73
  Yoshio Ikai; Masakazu Migaki; Noriyuki Kida; Hidehisa Iwamoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In Japan, health care has been carried out by Western medicine, but acupuncture has been handled in a different form from the health care system of Western medicine. Not only doctors and dental doctors, but also acupuncturists have rights to practice. Therefore, Japanese acupuncture is responsible for the treatment of disease and the health maintenance and promote. Japanese acupuncture has been widely used in a variety of diseases and symptoms in the medical field. In addition, since acupuncture be performed using a simple means, it is possible also performed in an area that does not meet the medical institutions. For acupuncture, in order to play a role in the medicine, it is necessary to academic support, and it is required the achievements and steady research. Although it has been accumulated research results with respect to the reaction of the body caused by acupuncture, there is not research relating to the operation of acupuncturists to acupuncture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to target acupuncture with advanced technology, and it was performed motion analysis. As a result, we clarified the acupuncture motion skill of high-skilled acupuncturist.
Keywords: Acupuncture; Motion analysis; DLT method; z component; z coordinate
Differences in How Long an Ikebana Work Lasts Depending on the Skill Used in Cutting Floral Materials BIBAKFull-Text 74-82
  Yuki Ikenobo; Zelong Wang; Yusuke Shiraishi; Akihiko Goto
Ikebana (Japanese flower arrangement), one of the Japanese traditional arts, requires the use of a pair of special steel scissors to compose an arrangement. Although to cut materials with the special type of scissors plays a crucial role in the composition of arrangements, the analyses of the cutting motion have not been taken so far. Comparing the cutting motion between non-experts and experts, it is found that non-experts cut in a slow speed, and on the contrary, experts cut rapidly in a short time. Normally, it is considered that the cutting strength has an effect on the duct of the material and influences the condition of the water absorption. However, there are no specific differences of the material's cut surface between non-experts and experts' cutting. The degradation of the material after cutting was not observed as well. It is assumed to be the reason that the original condition of the material was good and the material was preserved well after cutting. Therefore, we hope to analyze the original condition of the material, researching more about the different usage of the scissors and the influence brought by the usage hereafter.
Keywords: Scissor; Process analysis; Water potential; Cutting speed
Study of Caregivers' Skills for Monitoring Senior Residents BIBAKFull-Text 83-94
  Mikako Ito; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Noriaki Kuwahara
As of September, 2015, the Japanese population over 65-years old was found to be aging at a rate of 25.0%. The results determined that the rate of aging for this sector of the Japanese population makes Japan one of the most aged societies in the world. As the aging population continues to increase in size, we anticipate that more nursing will be necessary to accommodate the future needs of seniors. Due to the complex nature and challenging field of senior care, nursing homes experience high employee turnover rates. The shortage of skillful employees is problematic, so the option of training employees without a nursing background may be an integral part of the solution. The least favorite part of nursing care among nursing-home workers is monitoring or keeping an eye on the senior residents. Caregivers are required to keep the care receivers safe, engage them in conversation, help them maintain a healthy state of mind -- all while carrying out their designated routine. They have to constantly stay alert so that the elderly don't make sudden movements that make them lose their balance and fall, choke on their meals, fight with other elderly residents, or wander out of the caregivers' field of vision. There is no manual on how to best monitor the elderly. There are no pointers that come with photos -- as in transfer techniques -- when it comes to taking care of the elderly. Because one does not have access to visual or audio demonstrations during classes on nursing care, students who specialize in nursing care have to learn on the job. The comfort level of the elderly is largely determined by the quality of the caregivers' monitoring skill, how they use their voices and how they relate to their care receivers. The difference in experience between a skilled and a unskilled caregiver can mean the difference in the number of accidents.
Keywords: Nursing home; Skill to watch; Skill to plan
Research on the Performance of Three Tea Whisks of "The Way of Tea" with Different Experience BIBAKFull-Text 95-103
  Soutatsu Kanazawa; Tomoko Ota; Zelong Wang; Akihiro Tada; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, three kinds of Japanese tea whisks' influence on bubble form in "the way of tea" process were investigated. The bubble form and distribution state by each whisk after 30%, 50%, 80% and 100% of tea making finishing time were recorded and analyzed through numerical processing. In order to verify the quality of tea whisk, two tea masters were employed as expert and non-expert, and three kinds of tea whisks' performance were evaluated and compared during the whole tea making process. The expert can controlled three tea whisks very well.
Keywords: The way of tea; Tea whisk; Bubble form; Japanese tea
Effects of Quantified Instructional Tool on Spray-up Fabrication Method BIBAKFull-Text 104-113
  Tetsuo Kikuchi; Erika Suzuki; Yiyi Zhang; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Spray up fabrication has been used for forming composite structures since ancient times as it can be performed as long as the mold, skills, and materials are available. Hence highly specialized control technique and the tradition of skill are required to ensure the consistent stability of product quality. In this study, the authors thus conducted a motion analysis experiment using spray-up fabrication experts as subjects. The experiment, seemingly a new and only attempt in Japan, quantified techniques that are not visibly apparent and considered to be tacit knowledge. The dimension stability of samples was measured, and their relationships with the motions of experts were also evaluated. It was also suggested that highly specialized control techniques, the appropriate training of non-experts, and technical tradition are possible.
Keywords: Spray up fabrication; Dimension stability; Motion analysis; Composites; Explicit knowledge
An Investigation on Conversion from Tacit Knowledge to Explicit Knowledge in Hand Lay-Up Fabrication Method BIBAKFull-Text 114-123
  Tetsuo Kikuchi; Erika Suzuki; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Hand lay-up fabrication has been used for forming composite structures since ancient times as it can be performed as long as the mold, skills, and materials are available. Hence highly specialized control technique and the tradition of skill are required to ensure the consistent stability of product quality. In this study, the authors thus conducted a motion analysis experiment using hand lay-up fabrication experts as subjects. The experiment, seemingly a new and only attempt in Japan, quantified techniques that are not visibly apparent and considered to be tacit knowledge. The mechanical properties and dimension stability of samples were measured, and their relationships with the motions of experts were also evaluated. It was also suggested that highly specialized control techniques, the appropriate training of non-experts, and technical tradition are possible.
Keywords: Hand lay-up; Dimension stability; Motion analysis; Composites; Explicit knowledge
Process Analysis of Manufacturing of Sewing Scissors by All Forging Process and Understanding of Its Sharpness BIBAKFull-Text 124-132
  Yasuko Kitajima; Kazuki Kito; Masakazu Migaki; Kanji Matsumuro; Yasuhiko Murata; Hiroyuki Hamada
In Japan there are several types of scissors such as pruning scissors, flower scissors, U-shaped scissors, and sewing scissors and so on. Among them sewing scissors was introduced when the black ships of Commodore Perry came from the United States in the last Edo period almost 160 years ago. The shape and size of sewing scissors have been changed to fit Japanese people. Yakichi Yoshida started Japanese sewing scissors by his own manufacturing process; all a forging process. His technique was distributed to many persons who learned his process through implicit knowledge base. According to the family tree starting with Yakichi, there has been a spread to the manufacturing family of 23. However at present only one person is remained. He is still making the cutlery which has very good reputation among high ranking wear making persons and other high quality manufacturing persons. In order to preserve this manufacturing technique the process analysis was performed through video recording and the records were put in this paper. The process was divided into 9 steps such as Preparation, Making the ring, Making part of the blade, Making the neck part, Grinding, Finishing machinery, Quenching, Finish grinding, Post finishing, Normally the expert needs dozens of years for the whole process, therefore the number of products per day is very small. In the case of cutting some materials two blades contact each other at very small part. Small as possible makes sharp cutting because of stress concentration at the cutting point. In order to create this phenomenon the inside of the blade should not be a flat surface; instead the surface is required to be dented. This dented surface was made at the third step, and particularly only one sub process can make it. Our further study will be made for more accurate time analysis and also the bending process will be focused to understanding the secret of sharp cutting.
Keywords: Sewing scissors; Process analysis; Skill succession
Expert vs. Elementary Skill Comparison and Process Analysis in VaRTM-Manufactured Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Yasunari Kuratani; Kentaro Hase; Takahiro Hosomi; Tomoe Kawazu; Tadashi Uozumi; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
VaRTM requires a preform to be manufactured before molding. However, it is often said that the accuracy of the preform affects the mechanical properties of the mold. Despite the progression of investigations into the automization of this process in recent years, preforms manufactured by hand still make up the majority, and the accuracy of these preforms lies in the ability of the worker. In this study, we have instructed three subjects with varying amount of years of experience working with composite materials, and manufactured VaRTM moldings. By analyzing the time taken, attitude and posture, and use of tools within the work process when layering, and by conducting an interlaminar shear strength test, we have acquired good results within the product quality of the mold, working time, and interlaminar shear strength in order of the number of years of experience. In the future, we will continue to research this subject so that we can focus on the creating a setup that has the same, consistent accuracy, regardless of the worker manufacturing the preform.
Keywords: CFRP; Vartm; Process analysis; Year of experience; Working posture
The Relationship Between Mechanical Properties and the Method Technique of GFRP Plate by Hand Lay-up Method: Effect of the Workers Experience BIBAKFull-Text 143-153
  Masakazu Migaki; Keisuke Ono; Ryo Takematsu; Yusaku Mochizuki; Eijutsu Ko; Daiki Ichikawa; Hiroyuki Hamada
The aim of this research was focused on the relationship between the skill of an operator in the hand lay-up molding method and the mechanical properties of the molding composites. Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates were prepared using the hand lay-up method by five inexperience operators. The materials of GFRP included unsaturated polyester resin and chopped glass fiber mat. The working procedure of all operators was recorded by a video camera. Mechanical properties of the GFRP plates were carried out by tensile testing. The load-displacement curve was illustrated, which was used for characterizing the molding technique of various operators. The relationship of working times and mechanical strength of the GFRP was characterized, which impacted on the mechanical properties of the specimens. From the results, the relationship was considered separately in the first half and the second half of the working times. From the results, the step of degassing squeeze out air was significantly influenced the mechanical strength of the GFRP products. Therefore, the degassing step with the iron bar was the most affected on the mechanical properties of the GFRP plate making by the inexperience operator. It can be noted that the fully degassing out of the molding product strongly suggested for the hand lay-up method in order to maintain the high strength of the GFRP products.
Keywords: Hand lay-up; Glass cloth; Polyester; Impregnation; Composite
Researching Sounds Generated During the Second Lining Pounding Process BIBAKFull-Text 154-164
  Yasuhiro Oka; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Keisuke Ono; Kozo Oka
Japanese calligraphy and works of art, which are written and painted on paper and silk, are often lined with Japanese washi paper and strengthened from the reverse side. They are then treated with various binding methods based on the purpose of the item and how it is intended to be viewed. The hanging scroll, which is a perfect example of a binding format, is only displayed when it is meant to be viewed and is hung on an alcove or beam. When it is finished being used, it is rolled up tightly from the bottom and stored in a box. In order to repeatedly roll up and open a hanging scroll smoothly, the hanging scroll is lined with several layers of Japanese washi paper, which are pasted onto the reverse side of the scroll. A paste with a low adhesive strength which has been further diluted is used to prevent the adhesive from hardening after it has dried. The joined surfaces are then pounded with a brush to enhance the adhesion. The level of expertise of this technique is determined by the sound that is generated when pounded using the traditional method. This research measures the sound generated when the joined surfaces are pounded by an expert and a non-expert with the purpose of evaluating the specific features of both sets of sounds.
Keywords: Amplitude; Hanging scroll; Pounding brush
EMG Activity Analysis of Expert Skills on Handheld Grinding Work for Metallographic Sample BIBAKFull-Text 165-173
  Takuya Sugimoto; Hisanori Yuminaga; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Akihiko Goto
Carburizing is the most common heat treatment process for hardening ferrous alloy. The quality assurance of carburizing process requires metallographic analysis of case depth, retained austenite, intergranular oxidation, and carbide network by means of metallographic sample. Metallographic preparation consists of sectioning, mounting, plane grinding, polishing to mirror surface. It is difficult for non-expert to prepare metallographic sample with global mirror surface because preparation skill needs long time experience in this field. In this study, the difference of EMG activity during handheld grinding motion for metallographic specimen between expert and nonexpert execution was analyzed. The expert's abductor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and triceps brachii were working activity than the other muscles. We considered that these muscle activity balance by the expert contribute to the stable grinding conditions and good surface finish.
Keywords: Grinding; Expert; Metallographic preparation; EMG
Difference in Polishing Process of FRP Between Expert and Non-expert BIBAKFull-Text 174-181
  Takuya Sugimoto; Daiki Ichikawa; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Yoshiaki Yamato; Akihiko Goto
One of the quality assurance methods for steel and composite materials is to verify material constitutes and structures of polished specimens by microscope. We prepared a sample used for microscope analysis in the following method: first, cut a sample from the cross-section, and mount with the epoxy resin, and then grind it. This process requires long craftsmen's experience to grind a sample properly for microscope test. In this research, we comparably evaluated the differences in grinding sound and comprehension skills between the expert and the non-expert. As a result, we found that the expert was more sensitive to the difference in the sounds generated during grinding process. He comprehended the state of a grinding sample by the sound generated during grinding and adjusted his grinding force in a wider range.
Keywords: Polish; CFRP; Expert; Microscopic analysis
An Investigation on Skillful Gel-Coat Techniques and its Application to Beginner's Application BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
  Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Gel Coating has been used for forming composite structures since ancient times. On the other hand, gel coating work itself relies on human skills, which means that the finish differs according to the operator carrying out the work, the quality of the product differs among parts depending on the ease of forming. Hence highly specialized control technique and the tradition of skill are required to ensure the consistent stability of product quality. Therefore, in this study, motion analysis experiment of gel coating experts by MAC 3D System was conducted to obtain objective data on an expert applier's skills (the default value) with compared to the non-expert one. Furthermore, dimensional stability measurements were made, and an investigation of the correlation to an expert's application techniques was conducted in order to pass the suitable training and communicating technical skills to advanced management engineering and inexperienced appliers.
Keywords: Dimension stability; Motion analysis; Explicit knowledge
Numerical Analysis on "Kana-Ami" Structure Between Expert and Non-expert BIBAKFull-Text 192-200
  Zelong Wang; Ken-ichi Tsuji; Toru Tsuji; Koji Ishizaki; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
"Kana-ami" is a kind of metal wire network in Japan, which was once prevailed many years ago in the old Japan and has been decreased in the development of social industrialization. In previous research, the characteristics of the "Kana-ami" hexagonal structure were clarified, the metal wire net of "Kana-ami" made by expert presented the convex shape in vertical direction so that helps buffer the fall. The results confirmed the superiority of the product made by expert. In this research, the actual structure of "Kana-ami" was clarified by X-Ray. And the advantage of the expert's product was confirmed. The three-dimensional analysis method was applied to present the different actual structure.
Keywords: Kana-ami; Three-dimensional scanning; X-Ray; Expert; Non-expert
Motion Analysis of Interval Time During "Kana-ami" Making Process BIBAKFull-Text 201-211
  Zelong Wang; Ken-ichi Tsuji; Toru Tsuji; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, the motion making technique of Japanese traditional handicraft was analyzed by motion analysis system. Two experts were employed as expert and non-expert for comparison. The feature of interval time for each main work process was paid attention. The subjects' interval timing during the weaving process was clarified to investigate the proficiency of weaving technique quantitatively. It is found that expert was able to go into working state easily.
Keywords: Kana-ami; Interval timing; Motion analysis; Expert; Non-expert
Brain Activity Analysis on "Kana-Ami" Making Process BIBAKFull-Text 212-219
  Zelong Wang; Ken-ichi Tsuji; Toru Tsuji; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, the brain wave activity and saliva α-armylase for expert and non-expert was measured during five test of "Kana-ami" fatigue. Two experts were employed as expert and non-expert for comparison. The feature of subjects' working state and physical condition for each trial test was paid attention. It is found that expert was able to keep charging and concentrate working state even the body under the fatigue condition.
Keywords: Kana-ami; Brain wave; Saliva α-armylase; Expert; Non-expert

Modeling Human Work and Activities

Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 223-234
  Ronald Laurids Boring; Jeffrey Clark Joe; Diego Mandelli
Part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the foundational information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human interactions in RISMC simulations.
Keywords: Human reliability analysis; Probabilistic risk assessment; Simulation; Modeling
Improvement of Needle Bar in Textile Machine by Hitting Process BIBAKFull-Text 235-244
  Kontawat Chottikampon; Suchalinee Mathurosemontri; Hitoshi Marui; Ryo Marui; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
The research conducted was to study the hitting process of a needle bar used within textile machinery and how to improve its efficiency and performance. A needle bar consists of a brass bar attached with a number of small pins. The primary focus was learning technique while straightening the needle bar. In order to join pins and brass bar together, the soldering is applied. The result from the heat transfer during soldering process can cause the brass pins to bend, which is undesirable for finished product. A soldering expertise uses hitting movement technique to modify and straighten the brass bar. Even though soldering process is the only step in making the brass bar; however, its method is considered very complicated and requires refinement and specialization from the maker.
Keywords: Needle bar; Hitting process; Linking machine
Towards a Theory for Bio-Cyber Physical Systems Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 245-255
  Didier Fass; Franck Gechter
Currently, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) represents a great challenge for automatic control and smart systems engineering on both theoretical and practical levels. Designing CPS requires approaches involving multi-disciplinary competences. However they are designed to be autonomous, the CPS present a part of uncertainty, which requires interaction with human for engineering, monitoring, controlling, performing operational maintenance, etc. This human-CPS interaction led naturally to the human in-the-loop (HITL) concept. Nevertheless, this HITL concept, which stems from a reductionist point of view, exhibits limitations due to the different natures of the systems involved. As opposed to this classical approach, we propose, in this paper, a model of Bio-CPS (i.e. systems based on an integration of computational elements within biological systems) grounded on theoretical biology, physics and computer sciences and based on the key concept of human systems integration.
Keywords: Bio-CPS; Human system integration
Colorimetry and Impression Evaluation of Insert Molded GFRP Plate with Black Silk Fabrics BIBAKFull-Text 256-266
  Kiyoshi Fujiwara; Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Takashi Furukawa; Takahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Endo; Yutaro Shimode; Yuka Takai; Yuqiu Yang
Black silk fabric, a traditional craft produced using the Kyo-Yuzen dyeing technique, is another luxury product. The intention behind the present report is to mold Urushi-like glass fiber-reinforced plastic, using black silk fabric. We first manufactured a glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) molded plate consisting of various laminate layers, and compared the surface color with Urushi products. Subsequently, we used an impression evaluation to reveal how the glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) molded plate using black silk fabric was rated. As the results of this study, it was confirmed that; L* and a* value of FRP sample was similar to the Urushi sample, FRP sample was bluer than the Urushi sample according to b* value, and C* value of FRP sample was higher than the Urushi sample. About half of the subject regarded GFRP using black silk fabric with the lightness similar to the Urushi product as Urushi product in the impression evaluation. The sample regarded as the Urushi product makes subject more feel "Beauty", "Sense of luxury and high quality", "Gloss" and "Depth of blackness" than the sample not regarded as the Urushi product. Evaluation point of the subject regarded the FRP sample as the Urushi product showed a strong association between "Beauty" and "Sense of luxury and high quality", between "Beauty" and "Gloss", between "Sense of luxury and high quality" and "Gloss".
Keywords: GFRP; Kyo-Yuzen dyeing; Silk fabric; Urushi; Black; Colorimetry; Impression evaluation
Light Transmission Properties of Insert Molded GFRPs with Different Crape Structure of Silk Fabrics BIBAKFull-Text 267-276
  Kiyoshi Fujiwara; Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Takashi Furukawa; Atsushi Endo; Yuka Takai; Yuqiu Yang
In this research, the hand lay-up method was focused as one of the decoration molding techniques for the GFRP lighting materials. The hand lay-up method can be more developed in the market of the GFRP lighting material because type of form and reinforced material are free to be selected in this method. Therefore, this research aimed to clearly the light transmission property of the GFRP inserted the Kyo Yu-zen fabric with crape. The cross section structure, light transmission property and luminance distribution of the GFRP samples were analyzed. As the results of this research, it was confirmed that the structure of the GFRP inserted the silk fabric with crape was different in each sample according to a laid direction of the yarn and use of the laid yarn, the GFRP inserted the silk fabric with crape had more profound effect on a dispersion of the light with the luminous intensity and the luminance than the GFRP with only glass mat, and a degree of the dispersion of the light was changed by the structure of the crape, and it was the highest in the Silk4 showed the highest Ra value.
Keywords: GFRP; Hand lay-up; Silk fabric; Crape structure; Light transmission property; Luminance distribution
Evaluation of Kimono Clothes in Kyo-Yuzen-Zome using Image BIBAKFull-Text 277-288
  Takashi Furukawa; Yuka Takai; Noriaki Kuwahara; Akihiko Goto
"Yuzen" is a traditional but still popular method of dyeing fabrics in Japan. The products using the Yuzen method and manufactured in Kyoto city are called "Kyo-Yuzen." The dyeing method of Yuzen can be dividing into 10 procedures. A specialized craftsman is in charge of each procedure. During the paste application (Nori-oki) procedure, the expert applies a starch paste or a rubber paste to a fabric in order to resist dyeing. The two resist pastes create different effect on the dyed fabric. At market, the fabric with a starch paste application is perceived to have a higher value than that with a rubber paste. In this study, the difference of the viscosity between two materials was clarified, and specimens which craftsman dyed were observed. Then how two materials put on fabrics, and the structures of them were measured. As a result of this research, it was clarified that rubber paste penetrated into fabrics rather than starch paste.
Keywords: Fabric; Resist; Dyeing; Paste; Starch; Rubber
Effects of Spray Gun Handling of Automobile Repair on Carrier of Car Mechanic BIBAKFull-Text 289-298
  Shigeru Ikemoto; Kenta Morimoto; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
The goal of this research is development of learning system for automobile repair. In this study, the purpose is characteristics of spray gun handling of automobile repair painting expert. Spray gun movements of 55 craftsmen's were measured by using motion capture system. The spray gun movements of expert were longer length, longer time, higher speed, and narrower swing range, compared to that of non-expert. As a result, spray gun handling of expert is longer running length, longer time, higher speed, narrower spray gun swing range compare with non-expert.
Keywords: Automobile repair; Paint; Spray gun handling; Motion capture
Visual Evaluation of "The Way of Tea" Based on Questionnaire Survey Between Chinese and Japanese BIBAKFull-Text 299-306
  Soutatsu Kanazawa; Tomoko Ota; Zelong Wang; Rutchaneekorn Wongpajan; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, "The way of tea" process conducted by expert, non-expert and beginner was investigated. Firstly, final tea made by expert, non-expert and beginner applying three kinds of tea whisks were taken into photos. Afterwards, random ranked tea photos were employed as visual evaluation questionnaire and subjective ranking material. In order to compare and characterize "The way of tea" process difference, 10 Japanese and 10 Chinese participates were chosen as evaluation subjects. Consequently, it can be concluded that both Japanese and Chinese are able to distinguish expert's tea as top rank easily because of sufficient small bubble size on the tea surface.
Keywords: The way of tea; Visual evaluation; Japanese tea; Questionnaire survey; Chinese and Japanese
A Study of the Tacit Knowledge on the Design of Kimono Patterns from Japanese Painting BIBAKFull-Text 307-315
  Masashi Kano; Hiroyuki Akaji; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
One of the most important characteristics of the Nishijin obi (a traditional Japanese textile product) has been to express unique aesthetics in Japanese paintings by making full use of weaving techniques for imparting a three-dimensional effect. However, weaving today tries to distinguish itself merely through colors and patterns, losing the true depth inherent in weaving. An obi can emphasize the beauty of a kimono through its simple design, and a kimono can bring out the personality of the person dressed in it. The types of weaving that enable such design are the three main weaving styles of Nishijin-weaving. We will present the basics of these techniques, and how they are applied in order to realize the obi design that expresses unique aesthetic in Japanese paintings.
Keywords: Kimono; Nishijin obi; Nishijin-weaving; Weaving structure; Three-dimensional effect; Japanese painting
Comparison of KEMOMI Technique Between Master Craftsman and Unskilled Worker BIBAKFull-Text 316-323
  Shinichiro Kawabata; Zhilan Xu; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
The Nara FUDE, made of several kinds of fibers with different properties, can achieve quality. However, the insufficiency of the mix process of the fibers may lead to the unstable quality of the final product. Fiber bundle of about 400 pieces of brush were mixed by hand at one time, which was called 'KEMOMI'. In this study, subjects with three different experiences were chosen (Master worker with 17 years of experience, Intermediate worker with 8 years of experience, Unskilled worker with 8 month of experience.). Refer to the method of the analysis of 'KEMOMI', three colours were in the rested fiber bundle, two kinds of filaments painted red and blue on the opposite of the taper side as well as the non-painted white colour. In order to analyse the progress degree of KEMOMI, binary coded processing was carried out on the picture taken every elapsed time during 'KEMOMI'.
Keywords: Nara FUDE; KEMOMI; Traditional handicraft; High quality brush; Master work
Inside the User's Mind -- Perception of Risks and Benefits of Unknown Technologies, Exemplified by Geothermal Energy BIBAKFull-Text 324-334
  Johanna Kluge; Sylvia Kowalewski; Martina Ziefle
In the context of large scale projects public acceptance is indispensable for a sustainable roll out and broad implementation of technology. Especially when those projects deal with the implementation of relatively unknown technologies like geothermal energy. To find out what communication need the general public has, knowledge about the underlying cognitive attitudes toward the technology as well as the mental representation is important. In this context especially uncertainties about the consequences and risks are of importance. In this study we get a deeper understanding of the mental representation of geothermal energy by uncovering acceptance-relevant cognitions which were assessed by interviews with open answer format. Results show, that especially the communication about risks and possible disadvantages should be integrated in an adequate information strategy.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; Geothermal energy; Communication strategy; Information strategy
Factor of Feeling "Hannari" from Kimono Images BIBAKFull-Text 335-344
  Kumiko Komizo; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
A separation from the kimono in Japanese society has an effect which has serious implications not only for the clothing industry, but for the continuation of traditional Japanese culture. However, for clothing, the lure of the kimono's beauty only remains in a modern age as "attire for special occasions." This paper attempts to define and classify one part of the kimono's appeal, the Japanese expression, "hannari-kan," or "feelings of elegance." Considering online shopping, we used a display device to show many kimonos for consideration and ratings, to collect data and quantify "hannari". We also assessed brightness and color in relation to "hannari" ratings.
Keywords: Kimono; Obi; Aesthetics; Brightness; Color
Human Machine Epistemology Survey BIBAFull-Text 345-356
  Rémi Nazin; Didier Fass
Pluridisciplinar convergence is a major problem that had emerged with human-artefact Systems and so-called "Augmented Humanity" as academical fields and even more as technical fields. Problems come mainly from the juxtaposition of two very different types of system, a biological one and an artificial one. Thus, conceiving and designing the multiple couplings between them has become a major difficulty. Some came with reductionnist solutions to answer these problems but since we know that a biological system and a technical system are different, this approach is limited from its beginning.
   Using a specifically designed questionnaire and statistical analysis we determined how specialists (medical practitioners, ergonomists and engineers) in the domain conceive themselves what is a human-artifact System and how they relate to existent traditions and we showed that some of them relate to the integrativist views.
A Study on Learning Effects of Marking with Highlighter Pen BIBAKFull-Text 357-367
  Hiroki Nishimura; Noriaki Kuwahara
For learning students including elementary, junior high school and high school students, improvement of academic performance is one of the most important learning objectives. Types of problems in every subject are versatile and it is essential to find key points and keywords in sentences as well as questions under any situation. In order to find these key points and keywords, information on sentences as well as questions should be organized which can lead to increased attentional capacity as well as cognitive capacity. Various kinds of writing materials are used by the learners, and especially highlighter pens which are used by many learners for marking, when they are used for marking as means of organizing information, can have effects on the improvement of academic performance by the visual effects as well as through marking works.
   Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of marking with a highlighter pen as a means to recognize necessary information. The Japanese language word problems, arithmetic computation problems and English problems were used and the amount of memory and the number of correct answers were measured to verify the effects.
Keywords: Highlighter pen; Memory; Attentional capacity; Academic performance
Process Analysis of Kyo Karakami Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 368-378
  Seiji Senda; Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Mitsunori Suda; Yuka Takai
This study is to clarify technique of expert in Kyo Karakami manufacturing by using process analysis and the eye motion analysis. Kyo Karakami manufacturing consists of "Some" process and "Kata-oshi" process. "Some" process and "Kata-oshi" process divided by 4 and 5 phases, respectively. From interview to expert, "Some" process divided by 3 steps. In "Some" process, expert worked almost same time at each steps. In "Kata-oshi" process, expert gave time "phase a" which provide total working time shortening.
Keywords: Kyo karakami; Traditional hand crafts; Process analysis; Eye motion analysis
Exploring How People Collaborate with a Stranger: BIBAKFull-Text 379-388
  Haruka Shoda; Tomoki Yao; Noriko Suzuki; Mamiko Sakata
We explored human-to-human communication when two people collaboratively attempt to reproduce an abstract painting. We examined the effects of friendship (i.e., stranger versus friend) and the task's three phases (i.e., first, second, versus third) on verbal and nonverbal behaviors. In our experiment, pairs of strangers (n=24, 12 pairs) and friends (n=24, 12 pairs) reproduced three abstract paintings. We measured the duration of their conversations, gestures, and painting behaviors, and the behaviors were labeled based on Traum (1994). The results showed that the amount and the functions of painting differed as a function of friendship. Since friends seemed more likely to focus on the efficient completion of the task, painting functions as a means of communicating images to partners. On the other hand, since strangers attempt to minimize conflicts with their partners, they start painting after discussing what to paint next.
Keywords: Collaboration; Friendship; Time-series change; Nonverbal behaviors; Abstract art reproduction
Process Analysis of Expert and Non-expert Engineers in Quartz Glass Joint Process BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  Masamichi Suda; Toru Takahashi; Akio Hattori; Yuqiu Yang; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Quartz glass is a special glass material known as "King of Glass". The silicon purity of the quartz glass is very high, therefore it is excellent in heat resistance, chemical resistance and optical transparency as compared to other glasses, such as borosilicate glass. In this study, the differences in the working process between engineers with different years of experience during the "joint-process" of quartz glass material were analyzed. "Joint-process" is one of "fire-process" and is of heating and jointing glass cylinders during rotating using a dedicated glass lathe machine. It is found that these differences in the process of heating joint of glass cylinder have effects on the accuracy of finial production and the manufacturing efficiency.
Keywords: Ergonomics and sustainability; Quartz glass; Process analysis; Fire process; Mechanical property evaluation
Comparison of Eye Movement During the Polishing Process of Metallographic Sample Between Expert and Nonexpert BIBAKFull-Text 399-410
  Takuya Sugimoto; Yuka Takai; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Akihiko Goto
The carburizing process requires metallurgical inspection by means of polished metallurgical mounts. Metallographic preparation for a metallurgical mount is an important process for the quality assurance of the carburizing process. The purpose of this study is to clarify the expert's characteristics of polishing process based on the eye movement analysis. Two inspectors with 20 (hereinafter referred to as "expert") and 0.5 years (hereinafter referred to as "nonexpert") of experience in metallographic preparation were interviewed and their eye movement analyzed. As a result, the expert made pressure adjustments and cleaning the surface and supplying alumina as needed while performing the polish.
Keywords: Polish; Metallographic preparation; Eye movement analysis
Omotenashi in the Japanese Bridal Market BIBAKFull-Text 411-418
  Shigeyuki Takami; Aya Takai; Takuya Sugimoto; Masamichi Suda; Hiroyuki Hamada
Omotenashi is the Japanese approach to exceptional hospitality. In particular, the Takami Style of Omotenashi strives for the continuous improvement of customer satisfaction in the bridal market. While the price of weddings and bridal services are equivalent to purchasing luxury cars or other high end items, bridal clients are willing to pay large amounts of money for services that are not tangible items. Questionnaires were provided to brides and grooms with the purpose of discovering ways to increase customer satisfaction for bridal services.
Keywords: Omotenashi; Customer satisfaction; Bridal market; Bridal industry; Takami style
A Study on Characteristic of Calligraphy Characters Part 1 Analytical Method with Computer Technology BIBAKFull-Text 419-428
  Zelong Wang; Issei Harima; Zenichiro Maekawa
The letter develops as the means that a human being takes the communication and becomes the important element characterizing the racial culture. A variety of letters exist in the world, but it becomes two big flows of a phonogram and the ideograph at the present. The kanji is a representative of the ideographs.
Keywords: Calligraphy character; Characteristic; Analytical method
A Study on Characteristic of Calligraphy Characters Part 2 Case of One Character of Calligraphy Letter "Kanji" and "Hiragana" BIBAKFull-Text 429-436
  Zelong Wang; Mengyuan Liao; Kayo Yokota; Riichi Hagihara; Zenichiro Maekawa
During long history of Kanji in china, "Kaisho" (Regular script), "Gyosho" (Semi-cursive script), "Sousho" (Cursive script) were born from 3rd century to 5th century. The Japanese improved a kanji and devised a Hiragana originally. "Kaisho" letter is form not to transform. "Gyosho" letter is the form transformed a little than it. "Sousho" letter is the form transformed more. Hiragana letter has thin, long and smooth form. 4 kinds of calligraphy letters are analyzed by using proposed system and characteristic of calligraphy letters were thrown into relief from three viewpoints. The technique to evaluate the characteristic of the shape of the writing brush style quantitatively is proposed in this study. This study is classified into three parts. Part-2 treats one character of calligraphy Letter "Kanji" and "Hiragana". 188 characters are analyzed by using the proposed technique in part-1.
Keywords: Kanji; Hiragana; Iroha poem; One calligraphy character
A Study on Characteristic of Calligraphy Characters Part 3 Case of the Writing Paper with Calligraphy Letter Works BIBAKFull-Text 437-444
  Zelong Wang; Riichi Hagihara; Zenichiro Maekawa
The technique to evaluate the characteristic of the shape of the writing brush style quantitatively is proposed in this study. This study is classified into three parts. Part3 treats the writing paper with calligraphy letter works. 8 kinds of calligraphy letter works from songbook "Hyaku ninn isshu" are used in the part3 of this study.
Keywords: Calligraphy character works; Stability index; Songbook of hyaku ninn isshu

DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Anthropometry and Ergonomics

Estimation of Arbitrary Human Models from Anthropometric Dimensions BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Yui Endo; Mitsunori Tada; Masaaki Mochimaru
In this paper, we describe a novel approach for reconstructing arbitrary whole-body human models from an arbitrary sparse subset of anthropometric dimensions. Firstly, a comprehensive set of dimensions is estimated from the subset via the principal component space for the dimensions. Then, a skin surface model with the obtained comprehensive set of dimensions is constructed by deforming a whole-body human model template. The result is validated based on the error distribution of the dimensions of the obtained surface mesh for the target.
Keywords: Human modeling; Anthropometry
Optimisation of Product's Hand-Handle Interface Material Parameters for Improved Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 15-25
  Gregor Harih; Matej Borovinšek; Zoran Ren
Most authors have focused on the sizes and the shapes of the product handles, but neglected those interface materials of the handles, which could further improve the ergonomics of the product. Therefore we utilized optimisation method to determine optimal interface material properties of a product for optimal mechanical response of the system using numerical simulations of a fingertip model grasping a product's handle. Objective function was set to find material parameters in such way that the interface material of the product stays firm during low grasping forces to provide stability of the product in hands and deforms when a critical contact pressure is reached to provide higher contact area. This increases comfort and lowers the contact pressure on the hand and thereby the risk of injury development.
Keywords: Tool handle; Material design; Optimisation; Ergonomics; Finite element analysis; Contact pressure; Grasp simulation; Hyper-elastic foams
An Approach for Intuitive Visualization of Ergonomic Issues BIBAKFull-Text 26-36
  Walentin Heft; Michael Spitzhirn; Angelika C. Bullinger; Paul Rosenthal
Ergonomics is the science of human work. One goal is the adaption of work to the human, thus to create better working conditions and to avoid health risks. Increasingly often, digital human models and corresponding evaluation methods are used. Due to the mass of data and the variety of possible analyses which come along with a simulation, the interpretation of the outcomes can take a long time. We introduce a new concept, which enables a quick and understandable visualization and navigation of critical ergonomic situations and their causes. There are filter mechanisms available for changing the level of detail. These enable a representation for specific target groups. Prior to the development of the concept, expert interviews were conducted to specify the user requirements. Each iteration step of the design process was evaluated in cooperation with ergonomics experts.
Keywords: Overview and glyph-based visualization; Ergonomics; Concept study
Correlation Analysis on the Main and Basic Body Dimension for Chinese Adults BIBAKFull-Text 37-43
  Hui-min Hu; Chao-yi Zhao; Xin Zhang; Ling-hua Ran; Tai-jie Liu
In this paper, the correlations between the basic and five main body dimensions are studied based on the latest anthropometric data for the Chinese adults. Then the linear regression equations are established, which can provide technical support for optimizing anthropometric measurements. Application of this research finding in anthropometry can effectively reduce the working difficulty, shorten the working hours and cut capital investment. It can help expediting the update of the anthropometric data.
Keywords: Body dimension; Anthropometric data; Correlation; Regression equation
The Experimental Research of the Thumb's Comfortable Control Area BIBAKFull-Text 44-52
  Hui-min Hu; Junmin Du; Chaoyi Zhao; Fan Yang; Ling-hua Ran
Thumb control area is a significant concern for manipulating handheld controllers. In order to obtain the thumb's comfortable control area of Chinese people, experimental measurements were designed and carried out. The measuring parameters included right thumb size, comfortable control area and comfortable control angle range. The data showed that with the increase of control angle (from 0° to 90°), the thumb's comfortable control far-end limit and the near-end limit presented a monotonic increasing tendency. The thumb's comfortable control far-end limit equaled to the thumb length when control angle was about 60°. Combined with the Chinese people hand size database, typical percentiles of thumb sizes were calculated. The results can provide references for handheld controller interface design, especially those for single-handed operations.
Keywords: Thumb control area; Handheld controller; Interface design; Experimental measurement
Study on the Body Shape of Middle-Aged and Old Women for Garment Design BIBAKFull-Text 53-61
  Xiaoping Hu; Yan Zhao
The purpose of this paper is to study and determine the body shape parameters of middle-aged and old women for garment design to satisfy their needs of garment fitness. The body shape of middle-aged and old women who have been more than 50 years of age in North China, were measured by garment specialty students. The measure covered height, shoulder width, bust, waist and hip circumference. The body shape data was collected from 108 different middle-aged and old women fem. And SPSS was used for statistical analysis to reveal the change of body shape about middle-age and old women then find out the issue of size designation and the body shape of middle-age and old women. Under this premise, the difference between chest circumference and abdominal circumference as the research focus. Not only can the study provide data for the costume design of middle-aged and old women, but also provide reference data for tessellate garment size.
Keywords: Middle-aged and old; Female; Physical characteristic; Garment size
Estimating Ergonomic Comfort During the Process of Mechanism Design by Interaction with a Haptic Feedback-System BIBAKFull-Text 62-73
  Thomas Kölling; Michael Krees; Mathias Hüsing; Burkhard Corves
The use of a Haptic Feedback-System (HFS) in the mechanism design process is very promising. The RePlaLink HFS developed at the IGM -- RWTH Aachen University is presented exemplarily. It is a hybrid solution combining a parallel kinematic structure with a small serial actuator in the tool-center. Therefore it is quiet powerful and still agile. Several scenarios of implementation of hand-activated motion are shown. Moreover the way of estimating the operator's ergonomic comfort and particularly, the advantage of human posture scoring techniques are discussed in detail. Finally, it is illustrated how this HFS can be used as a process driven tool for the superior design process. The simulation capabilities and the haptic real-time display in combination with special knowledge databases concerning the mechanism design and testing are a powerful enhancement for novel as well as senior design engineers. The common work flow can basically be changed, newly arranged and improved.
Keywords: Mechanism design; Ergonomics/human factor; Haptic feedback; Virtual prototyping; Simultaneous engineering
The Role of Virtual Ergonomic Simulation to Develop Innovative Human Centered Products BIBAKFull-Text 74-83
  Daniele Regazzoni; Caterina Rizzi; Giorgio Colombo
The paper concerns the use of integrated methodologies and tools to perform innovative human centered development of products. Digital simulation of ergonomics by means of DHM is shown together with advanced tools for design, taking into account Knowledge-based systems, Design Automation and design of highly customized goods. Two different applications of the proposed approach are described, the first refers to an industrial product, the second to the medical domain. Both applications, even if belonging to completely different fields benefit from putting the human at the center of the developing paradigm from the very first step of product development. Some results and discussion highlight benefits and limitation of the approach and of the adopted tools.
Keywords: Digital human modeling; Ergonomics; Human centered design; Design Automation; Knowledge-based systems; Lower limb prosthesis
Anthropometric Casualty Estimation Methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 84-91
  Daniel Rice; Medhat Korna
The design of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for force protection is critical to soldier survivability and effectiveness for a range of combat operations. This ongoing research project will support US Army technology priorities for force protection through the research and development of new approaches for analyzing fit and form of PPE, specifically body armor systems, to better account for a range of individual body shape differences and enhance protection. By leveraging high-resolution digital 3D scans and building on existing models, this project will provide improved analysis capabilities to scientists engaged in the design of current and future PPE systems. This paper describes the ongoing research and development process for the creation of a methodology to study PPE fit and form and describes potential technological solutions and integration into existing systems.
Keywords: Anthropometry; Body armor; Personal protective equipment; Casualty estimation; Force protection
Experimental Study on Grip Ergonomics of Manual Handling BIBAKFull-Text 92-99
  Ai-ping Yang; Guang Cheng; Wen-yu Fu; Hui-min Hu; Xin Zhang; Chau-Kuang Chen
Improper design for the grip structure will lead to inefficient operation or work injuries. The study purpose was to simulate the shape, size, and position of a gripping structure by using a 30 kg rectangular box as a heavy object, to enhance the health and comfort for an operator. Ergonomic evaluation experiments for grip structural factors were performed by samples testing and virtual simulation methods for operational tasks. Research methods and results in this study have some reference meanings and guidance for the man-machine adaptation design regarding the shape, size, and location of manual handling gripping structure of products, supplies and equipment.
Keywords: Grip ergonomics; Samples testing; Virtual simulation; Manual handling; Man-Machine adaptation
Moment Analysis of Virtual Human Joint Based on JACK BIBAKFull-Text 100-109
  Qianxiang Zhou; Qingsong Yin; Zhongqi Liu; Fang Xie; Shihua Zhou
The purpose of this study is to explore the torque size of the joints of the ankle, knee, and hip under the static posture of car driving when an external force is exerted to the low limb joint. Twenty five anthropometric parameters of ten participants were sampled. The personalized digital model of ten participants was set up with sampled anthropometric data in the senior digital modeling of JACK. By simulating the driving posture and using the static strength prediction module of JACK, external force was imposed on front foot to calculate moment of low limb joint when the degree of ankle joint and knee joint was changed. The results indicated that the moment of knee joint and ankle joint produced by external force gradually decrease with the increase of ankle joint angle and the rate of decrease was faster and faster. The moment of hip joint gradually decreased with the increase of ankle joint angle and the decrease amplitude was uniform and linear trend. The moment of ankle joint monotonously increase with the increase of knee joint angle and the increase rate was slower and slower. The moment of knee joint first decreased and then increased with the increase of knee joint angle and the moment of knee was minimum when the angle of knee joint is 110°. The moment of hip joint gradually increased and made a linear increase with the increase of knee joint angle. The results calculated by JACK were compared to the data measured by Primus RS system and their results were consistent. Conclusions can be made from the result: the drivers can properly increase their ankle joint angle or decrease their knee joint angle, so as to reduce the low limb joints torque produced by external force imposed on foot because of braking; it is suggested that 108° to 113°of knee joint angle is the best.
Keywords: Human digital model; Lower limb joint moment; Driving posture; Computer simulation

Motion Modeling and Tracking

Parameter Estimation from Motion Tracking Data BIBAKFull-Text 113-121
  Csaba Antonya; Silviu Butnariu; Horia Beles
User tracking for gesture recognition, object manipulation and finger-based interaction within an immersive virtual environment represents challenging problems. The motion capture system is providing the data for the user's motion recognition, but the uncertainty remains in obtaining the exact motion of the user due to the deformations, especially when the markers are attached to the clothes or to the skin. This paper address the question how can this uncertainty be solved, how can be obtained the geometrical parameters of the users based on tracking data. The tracking data obtained from markers cannot be independent and had to satisfy the physical constraint between the different body parts, represented by the joints of the human skeleton. The Bayesian filtering technique provides an efficient way to obtain the distributional estimate of the unknown parameters. The obtained algorithm is well-suited to identifying parameters of articulated models in the presence of noisy data.
Keywords: Parameter estimation; Uncertainty; Tracking
Body Tracking as a Generative Tool for Experience Design BIBAKFull-Text 122-133
  Monica Bordegoni; Serena Camere; Giandomenico Caruso; Umberto Cugini
Beyond ergonomic measurements, the study of human movements can help designers in exploring the rich, non-verbal communication of users' perception of products. This paper explores the ability of human gestures to express subjective experiences and therefore, to inform the design process at its early stages. We will investigate the traditional techniques used in the Experience Design domain to observe human gestures, and propose a method to couple Experience-driven design approach with Motion Capture technique. This will allow integrating qualitative user observations with quantitative and measurable data. However, the richness of information that Motion Capture can retrieve is usually inaccessible for designers. This paper presents a method to visualize human motion data so that designers can make sense of them, and use them as the starting point for concept generation.
Keywords: Motion Capture; Body Tracking; Concept design; User experience; Data visualization
Modeling and Simulating Lifting Task of Below-Knee Amputees BIBAKFull-Text 134-143
  Yan Fu; Shiqi Li; Qian Chen; Wei Zhou
Lifting is a common activity to below-knee amputees (BKA) in occupational and living occasions. Appropriate lifting posture is crucial to physical safety and health to those BKAs. Often healthy parts of BKAs might be hurt due to extra and asymmetric force exertion compensating for deficiency of disabled body parts. To prevent further hurt, a validated biomechanical model describing lifting is essential to analyze lifting behavior of those handicapped. In this study, twelve BKAs were recruited to lift 45 N weights from the floor. Subjects are asked to lift three levels of weights (0 N, 30 N, 60 N) by two postures: squat lifting and stoop lifting. Twelve non-BKAs were recruited as comparison group to study the variance caused by disability. Calculated forces based on Anybody were compared with EMG signals of body parts on spine and thigh. A framework of three-level constraints models were applied to adjust the difference between calculated forces and EMGs and the results validate the model.
Keywords: Below-knee; Amputees; Lifting; Modeling
Real-Time Static Gesture Recognition for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Using the Leap Motion BIBAKFull-Text 144-154
  Shawn N. Gieser; Angie Boisselle; Fillia Makedon
Cerebral Palsy is a motor disability that occurs in early childhood. Conventional therapy methods have proven useful for upper extremity rehabilitation, but can lead to non-compliance due to children getting bored with the repetition of exercises. Virtual reality and game-like simulations of conventional methods have proven to lead to higher rates of compliance, the patient being more engaged during exercising, and yield better performance during exercises. Most games are good at keeping players engaged, but does not focus on exercising fine motor control functions. In this paper, we present an analysis of classification techniques for static hand gestures. We also present a prototype of a game-like simulation of matching static hand gestures in order to increase motor control of the hand.
Keywords: Gesture recognition; Leap motion; Upper extremity rehabilitation; Gamification; Cerebral palsy
Experience Factors Influence on Motion Technique of "The Way of Tea" by Motion Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 155-163
  Soutatsu Kanazawa; Tomoko Ota; Zelong Wang; Thodsaratpreeyakul Wiranpaht; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, the difference technique of motion and process for "The way of tea" on were investigated. The expert and beginner's motion and trace were captured by High-speed camera system. In order to verify the correct motion technique, a tea master and three people were employed as expert and beginner, and two kinds of motion techniques and moving tracks were summarized and compared during the whole tea making process. The expert' motion can be considered as a good reference.
Keywords: The way of tea; Tea whisk; Bubble form; Japanese tea
Study of Caregiver's Waist Movement Comparison Between Expert and Non-expert During Transfer Care BIBAKFull-Text 164-173
  Mengyuan Liao; Takashi Yoshikawa; Akihiko Goto; Yoshihiro Mizutani; Tomoko Ota; Hiroyuki Hamada
As well know that caregivers employed in elderly nursing home suffer from low-back injuries/pain at a terrible rate worldwide, however there is little studies focusing on visual analysis of care works difference conducted by expert and non-expert caregivers. In current study, a 'hypothesis' elder was employed in both expert and non-expert caregiver's handling tasks. And two caregivers with different experience years were selected as subjects named as expert and non-expert, which were required to perform transfer care process for the same elder object. With three-dimensional motion analysis, non-expert's back pain cause was explained by waist up-down and horizontal plane movement, waist roundness, lower back bend angle and waist joint angle comparison to expert performance quantitatively. As a result, it could be concluded that expert kept straight upper body and stable waist motion in a smaller range during transfer care process which was considered as effective waist movement for back pain prevention in intensive heavy care works.
Keywords: Caregiver; Waist movement; Transfer care; Nursing home
Effect of Care Gesture on Transfer Care Behavior in Elderly Nursing Home in Japan BIBAKFull-Text 174-183
  Mengyuan Liao; Takashi Yoshikawa; Akihiko Goto; Tomoko Ota; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, care gesture effect on elder transfer care behavior between bed and wheelchair was investigated. A 'hypothesis' elder (a 80 kg co-operative female with 15 years of care occupation experience, assumed that the lower half body is paralyzed) was employed in both expert and non-expert caregiver's handling tasks. Both expert and non-expert's care gestures during transfer care process (hold up, turning, lower down) were recorded by three-dimensional motion capture system. In order to extract expert and non-expert care gesture's feature difference, motion analysis of caregiver's body exertions was also summarized by body gravity movement track, knee's flexion/extension, low-back bending situation. As a result, it could be concluded that expert master optimal care gesture to accomplish the transfer care work with reduced body loading and limited energy by taking full advantage of lower half body exertion.
Keywords: Care gesture; Transfer care; Nursing home
Balancing Power Consumption and Data Analysis Accuracy Through Adjusting Sampling Rates: Seeking for the Optimal Configuration of Inertial Sensors for Power Wheelchair Users BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Tao Liu; Chuanwei Chen; Melicent King; Gang Qian; Jicheng Fu
Smartphones have already been used to capture wheelchair maneuvering data to analyze a wheelchair user's activity level, which is directly related to his/her quality of life. Typically, the inertial sensors (e.g., accelerometer and gyroscope) in a smartphone are used for data collection. However, the limited battery life of the smartphone has become a major barrier to effective data collection. The sampling rate, as a primary configurable parameter of an inertial sensor, may have important impact on power consumption. Presumably, a lower sampling rate would consume less battery power. However, it may compromise the accuracy of data analysis. In this study, we investigate how the sampling rate of inertial sensors impacts the battery power consumption as well as the accuracy of data analysis. The four pre-defined sampling rate settings of the Android OS were evaluated for their impact on the smartphone's power consumption. Additionally, we also measured the accuracy differences of the four sampling settings by comparing the sensor data-derived wheelchair maneuvering distances with the actual distances. The experimental results showed that it is possible and practical to balance the power consumption and data analysis accuracy by switching between appropriate sampling rate settings.
Keywords: Smartphone; Inertial sensors; Power wheelchair; Power consumption; Sampling rate
MoCap-Based Adaptive Human-Like Walking Simulation in Laser-Scanned Large-Scale as-Built Environments BIBAKFull-Text 193-204
  Tsubasa Maruyama; Satoshi Kanai; Hiroaki Date
Accessibility evaluation to enhance accessibility and safety for the elderly and disabled is increasing in importance. Accessibility must be assessed not only from the general standard aspect but also in terms of physical and cognitive friendliness for users of different ages, genders, and abilities. Human behavior simulation has been progressing in crowd behavior analysis and emergency evacuation planning. This research aims to develop a virtual accessibility evaluation by combining realistic human behavior simulation using a digital human model (DHM) with as-built environmental models. To achieve this goal, we developed a new algorithm for generating human-like DHM walking motions, adapting its strides and turning angles to laser-scanned as-built environments using motion-capture (MoCap) data of flat walking. Our implementation quickly constructed as-built three-dimensional environmental models and produced a walking simulation speed sufficient for real-time applications. The difference in joint angles between the DHM and MoCap data was sufficiently small. Demonstrations of our environmental modeling and walking simulation in an indoor environment are illustrated.
Keywords: Walking simulation; Laser-scanning; Accessibility evaluation; Motion capture
Electromyography Measurement of Workers at the Second Lining Pounding Process for Hanging Scrolls BIBAKFull-Text 205-215
  Yasuhiro Oka; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hisanori Yuminaga; Kozo Oka
Hanging scrolls are a traditional Japanese form of binding and displaying artwork or calligraphy. The scrolls are rolled up from the bottom up and stored in a box, or hung on a wall for display. It is important for the scroll to be able to roll up smoothly without causing any creases when on display. Several layers of Japanese washi paper attached to the back of the scroll make these two functions possible. Wheat starch glue, a weak form of adhesive used to fortify the back, is combined with a technique called "pounding" with the use of a pounding brush, to promote adhesion. In this research, we attached an electromyograph on two subjects -- an expert and non-expert binder -- to study the movement of their muscles in 9 locations when pounding. Results of this study are expected to help contribute to the acquisition of the binding technique.
Keywords: Electromyograph; Hanging scroll; Pounding brush; Aged glue
EMG Activity of Arms Muscles and Body Movement During Chucking in Lathebetween Expert and Non-expert BIBAKFull-Text 216-226
  Porakoch Sirisuwan; Hisanori Yuminaga; Takashi Yoshikawa; Hiroyuki Hamada
The subjects were three men differential experience of lathe processing such as 87,500 h, 6,300 h and 384 h on 87, 32 and 40 years old respectively. The attendees were affixed fourteen reflective markers for motion analysis and ten surface electrodes on the muscles of arms. The chucking movement did not leaned the body and used the center of the body to be a center of movement characterized the muscle contraction of expert on bilateral muscle of Flexor carpi radialis and Triceps bracii and then they still used the right Extensor carpi radialis longus, right Biceps brachii and left Deltoid. The abnormal twisting movement by bending the body to the left side and leaned the left knee down indicated the experts still contracted the muscle as like the first movement. The muscle energy usages of the experts had higher than the non-expert whom took a muscle continuously contraction along time.
Keywords: Arms muscles contraction; Center of gravity movement; Body twisting movement; Chucking movement
Process Analysis of the Hand Lay-Up Method Using CFRP Prepreg Sheets BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
  Toshikazu Uchida; Hiroyuki Hamada; Koji Kuroda; Atsushi Endo; Masakazu Migaki; Junpei Ochiai; Tadashi Uozumi; Akihiko Goto
The autoclave molding method is performed by stacking CFRP prepreg sheets in a mold; this method is widely used in airplanes and by the automobile industry. Most three-dimensional-shaped parts are manually produced by the hand lay-up stacking sequence method. Because of this, mechanical properties such as shape accuracy and strength vary depending on the worker's skill. This is the major issue when tackling the difficulty of quality control in hand lay-up molded products. In order to alleviate these quality management difficulties, ideally, all workers are provided operation manuals and obtain the sufficient skills to prevent individual differences from occurring in the hand lay-up process. In this study, we aim to establish qualification criteria and standardize the work process of this method. We discuss how the differences in the hand lay-up work process influence the mechanical performance of molded products, based on the workers' skill.
Keywords: Hand Lay-Up; CFRP; Modulus; Tensile strength; Process analysis; Mechanical performance

Human Modeling in Transport and Aviation

Hybrid BFO-PSO and Kernel FCM for the Recognition of Pilot Performance Influenced by Simulator Movement Using Diffusion Maps BIBAKFull-Text 239-247
  Jia Bo; Yin-Bo Zhang; Lu Ding; Bi-Ting Yu; Qi Wu; Shan Fu
This paper proposed a novel data reduction and classification method to analyze high-dimensional and complicated flight data. This method integrated diffusion maps and kernel fuzzy c-means algorithm (KFCM) to recognize two types of simulator modes at different tasks. To optimize the unknown parameters of the KFCM, a hybrid bacterial foraging oriented (BFO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was also presented in this paper. This algorithm increased the possibility of finding the optimal values within a short computational time and avoided to be trapped in the local minima. By using the proposed approach, this paper obtained meaningful clusters respecting the intrinsic geometry of the standard data set, and illustrated the phenomenon that the pilots vestibular influenced pilot performance and control system under the Manual departure task.
Keywords: Flight simulator; Vestibular; Diffusion maps; Bacterial foraging oriented; Particle swarm optimization; Kernel fuzzy c-means algorithm
A Bi-level Optimization Approach to Get an Optimal Combination of Cost Functions for Pilot's Arm Movement: The Case of Helicopter's Flying Aid Functions with Haptic Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 248-257
  Sami Cheffi; Thomas Rakotomamonjy; Laurent Binet; Philippe Bidaud; Jean Christophe Sarrazin
Force cueing and active control technology hold great opportunities in the next generation of helicopters. The overall goal would be to reduce the pilot workload and increase the situational awareness In this paper we present an approach to help in designing such forces through the understanding of human motor control and the relation that could be established with piloting an aircraft precisely pilot's arm movement. This method is based on the comprehension of the optimality criteria (cost functions and their weightings) within inverse optimal control combined with Fitt's experiment using an active side stick.
Keywords: Cost functions; Inverse optimal control; Pilot's arm movement; Fitt's law
Development of a 3D Finite Element Model of the Chinese 50th Male for the Analysis of Automotive Impact BIBAKFull-Text 258-265
  Hui-min Hu; Li Ding; Xianxue Li; Chaoyi Zhao; Yan Yin
Occupant thoracic and abdominal injury during automotive crashes accounts for the biggest portion of all automotive injuries which is about 45 percent. So it's important to improve the vehicle's protective performance which leads to the high demand for crash test dummy. At present, crash test dummies are used in automotive impact in order to design and assess new vehicle safety performance. Hybird III I is widely used in the world and it's same in China. However Hybird III doesn't meet the Chinese anthropology which the Hybird III is bigger than Chinese. So it's in urgent need to establish the crash test dummy for Chinese. In this study, a finite element dummy with thorax and abdomen which is consistent with the 50th percentile Chinese male in order to predict the mechanism response of Chinese occupant during automotive impact and improve the impact automotive safety specifically for Chinese is developed.
Keywords: Finite element; Chest; Abdomen; Impact; Automobile
Biomechanical Analysis of Human Thorax and Abdomen During Automotive Impact BIBAKFull-Text 266-273
  Hui-min Hu; Li Ding; Xianxue Li; Chaoyi Zhao; Yan Yin
Injuries incurred to occupant during automotive frontal crashes range from every part of the human body, and especially for the thorax and abdomen. It's indeed to learn more about the impact biomechanical mechanism of human body in order to improve the impact safety of vehicles to protect the occupant. In this study, a previously developed finite model of Chinese 50th percentile male thorax and abdomen is used to study the biomechanical response under frontal impact. The stress-time, strain-time characteristics are analyzed. Quantitative results such deflection curve are obtained and indicate that the 6.7 m/s frontal impact leads to large deflection and stress which will damage the ribs, lungs and other organs. Since the experimental study with human cadavers is difficult to proceed, this finite element model based on the anthropometric data from Chinese 50th percentile male can be used to analyze the biomechanical response during automotive impact in order to improve the automotive impact safety.
Keywords: Biomechanical response; Automobile; Impact; Finite element
Toward a Model for Effective Human-Automation Interaction: The Mediated Agency BIBAFull-Text 274-283
  Kevin Le Goff; Arnaud Rey; Bruno Berberian
In our increasingly technological world, automation largely improved some aspects of our life. Nonetheless, automation can also have negative consequences. Indeed, operators seem often helpless to takeover an automated system in case of failure. This "out-of-the-loop" problem occurs when operator is unable to understand the intentions and to predict the outcome of actions of the system, causing a decrease of control. The following article illustrates how the psychological approach of agency can help (1) to better understand this OOTL performance problem and (2) to propose design principles to improve human machine interaction in case of system automation.
Semantically Integrated Human Factors Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 284-294
  Sebastien Mamessier; Daniel Dreyer; Matthias Oberhauser
This work presents a modern approach to Human Factors Engineering enabling integrated simulation and human evaluation of early prototypes of flight deck systems in a immersive environment. The presented approach introduces pragmatic considerations regarding cognitive engineering frameworks such as Cognitive Work Analysis and Hierarchical Analysis for practical use with computational system simulations, laying down the foundation for efficient, quantitative Human Factors analysis in early product design phases. This principle is further demonstrated through a decentralized implementation leveraging the advantages of semantically connecting an immersive Virtual Reality environment with system simulations and semi-automated human factor analysis modules.
Keywords: Human factors; Cognitive engineering; Virtual reality; Semantics
Single-Variable Scenario Analysis of Vehicle-Pedestrian Potential Crash Based on Video Analysis Results of Large-Scale Naturalistic Driving Data BIBAKFull-Text 295-304
  Renran Tian; Lingxi Li; Kai Yang; Feng Jiang; Yaobin Chen; Rini Sherony
Vehicle-pedestrian crashes are big concerns in transportation safety, and it is important to study the vehicle-pedestrian crash scenarios in order to facilitate the development and evaluation of pedestrian crash mitigation systems. Many researchers have tried to investigate the pedestrian crash scenarios relying on crash databases or pedestrian behavior prediction models, both of which have some limitations like limited generalizability of the results, missing of important information, biased results. In this study, we propose to study the potential crash scenarios as one surrogate targets of the actual pedestrian crash scenarios. Extended from several previous studies, one single-variable scenario analysis is completed based on the video analysis results of one large-scale naturalistic driving data collection focusing on recording pedestrian behaviors in all kinds of situations. Through calculating potential conflict rates and applying chi-square tests for around 40 attributes from 12 scenario variables individually, this study has found out that number of pedestrians, pedestrian moving speed, pedestrian moving direction, vehicle moving direction, road type, road location, and existence of road separator/median are all important scenario variables for potential pedestrian-vehicle crashes.
Keywords: Naturalistic driving data collection; Pedestrian crash; Potential crash scenarios; Video analysis; Pedestrian behavior modeling
Driving-Behavior Monitoring Using an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) BIBAKFull-Text 305-312
  Calvin Zheng; Andreina Breton; Wajeeh Iqbal; Ibaad Sadiq; Elsayed Elsayed; Kang Li
Abnormal driving behaviors have been used as cues to identify Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) drivers and prevent DWI-related accidents. Currently law enforcement officials rely on visual observation for detecting such behaviors and identify potentially DWI drivers. This approach however, is subject to human error and limited to vehicles in a very small region. To overcome these limitations, we propose to use an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) for driving-behavior monitoring to prevent accidents and promote highway safety. A high-resolution optical camera on the UAS is used to capture the movement of vehicles on the road. The vehicle trajectories are tracked from the captured videos to identify the misbehaviors. This allows for a quicker response time from law enforcement. A risk model is also developed for analyzing the severity of misbehaviors while providing a basis to take appropriate action to reduce dangerous activity. We developed a UAS prototype to showcase the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed system. It was demonstrated that dangerous driving activity on highways can be effectively and timely detected and analyzed.
Keywords: Driving behavior monitoring; Unmanned aircraft system; Driving safety

Human Modeling in Medicine and Surgery

A Mobile Application for the Stereoacuity Test BIBAFull-Text 315-326
  Silvia Bonfanti; Angelo Gargantini; Andrea Vitali
The research paper concerns the development of a new mobile application emulating measurements of stereoacuity using Google Cardboard. Stereoacuity test is based on binocular vision that is the skill of human beings and most animals to recreate depth sense in visual scene. Google Cardboard is a very low cost device permitting to recreate depth sense of images showed on the screen of a smartphone. Proposed solution exploits Google Cardboard to recreate and manage depth sense through our mobile application that has been developed for Android devices. First, we describe the research context as well as the aim of our research project. Then, we introduce the concept of stereopsis and technology used for emulating stereoacuity test. Finally, we portray preliminary tests made so far and achieved results are discussed.
Automatic Identification of Below-Knee Residuum Anatomical Zones BIBAKFull-Text 327-335
  Giorgio Colombo; Giancarlo Facoetti; Caterina Rizzi; Andrea Vitali
The research work presented in this paper is part of an innovative framework that deals with the design process of lower limb prostheses. The quality of the whole prosthesis depends on the comfort of the socket, which realizes the interface between the patient body and the mechanical parts. We developed a CAD system, named Socket Modelling Assistant that guides the user during the design of the socket, exploiting domain knowledge and design rules. In this work we present a preliminary study that describes the implementation of a software module able to automatically identify the critical areas of the residuum to adequately modify the socket model and reach the optimal shape. Once the critical areas have been identified, the Socket Modelling Assistant can apply proper geometry modifications, in order to create the load and off-load zones for a good pressure distribution over the residual limb.
Keywords: Lower limb prosthesis; Neural network; Prostheses socket; CAD
Visual Comparison of 3D Medical Image Segmentation Algorithms Based on Statistical Shape Models BIBAKFull-Text 336-344
  Alexander Geurts; Georgios Sakas; Arjan Kuijper; Meike Becker; Tatiana von Landesberger
3D medical image segmentation is needed for diagnosis and treatment. As manual segmentation is very costly, automatic segmentation algorithms are needed. For finding best algorithms, several algorithms need to be evaluated on a set of organ instances. This is currently difficult due to dataset size and complexity.
   In this paper, we present a novel method for comparison and evaluation of several algorithms that automatically segment 3D medical images. It combines algorithmic data analysis with interactive data visualization. A clustering algorithm identifies regions of common quality across the segmented data set for each algorithm. The comparison identifies best algorithms per region. Interactive views show the algorithm quality.
   We applied our approach to a real-world cochlea dataset, which was segmented with several algorithms. Our approach allowed segmentation experts to compare algorithms on regional level and to identify best algorithms per region.
Keywords: Medical image segmentation; Visual comparison; Visual analytics; Segmentation evaluation
Analyzing Requirements Using Environment Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 345-357
  Dominique Méry; Neeraj Kumar Singh
Analysing requirements is a major challenge in the area of safety-critical software, where requirements quality is an important issue to build a dependable critical system. Most of the time, any project fails due to lack of understanding of user needs, missing functional and non-functional system requirements, inadequate methods and tools, and inconsistent system specification. This often results from the poor quality of system requirements. Based on our experience and knowledge, an environment model has been recognized to be a promising approach to support requirements engineering to validate a system specification. It is crucial to get an approval and feedback in early stage of system development to ensure completeness and correctness of requirements specification. In this paper, we propose a method for analysing system requirements using a closed-loop modelling technique. A closed-loop model is an integration of system model and environment model, where both the system and environment models are formalized using formal techniques. Formal verification of the closed-loop model helps to identify missing system requirements or new emergent behaviours, which are not covered earlier during the requirements elicitation process. Moreover, an environment model assists in the construction, clarification, and validation of the given system requirements.
Keywords: Environment modelling; Closed-loop modelling; Analysing requirements; Verification
Modeling of a Virtual Open Platform for Human Cranium Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 358-366
  Pedro Perestrelo; Maurício Torres; Pedro Noritomi; Jorge Silva
To prevent, detect and treat trauma brain injuries (TBI) one must understand them and know how they occur. With the integration of biomechanical and clinical theories, as well as research cases, a new era of cooperation must be initiated. For that reason, our proposal of developing a virtual platform based on the BioCAD protocol through computed tomography (CT) software, computer aided design (CAD) software and finite element method (FEM) analysis software, represents a joined effort in that direction. Results obtained with the resultant model were in line with maxillary expansion results from the literature, thus validating it. This model must be adaptable to the user and/or patient, leading to an innovative tool for research, prevention and treatment of TBI.
Keywords: BioCAD; Brain; Finite element method; Simulation; Trauma
Influence of Proficiency on Eye Movement of the Surgeon for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy BIBAKFull-Text 367-373
  Hisanori Shiomi; Masamori Notsu; Tomoko Ota; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this study, a training system of laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined surgical instrument simulation and eye movement analysis was established. The surgical tool usage also was recorded by video cameras during the whole training process. The eye track information and utilization information of surgical tool were provided to interns as a study reference. The expert's information also was showed to interns in order to make a comparison after practice. The system had been shown to be effective in a variety of practices.
Keywords: Eye movement; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Surgeon; Expert; Non-expert
Formalizing the Cardiac Pacemaker Resynchronization Therapy BIBAKFull-Text 374-386
  Neeraj Kumar Singh; Mark Lawford; Thomas S. E. Maibaum; Alan Wassyng
For many years, formal methods have been used to design and develop critical systems in order to guarantee safety and security and the correctness of desired behaviours, through formal verification and validation techniques and tools. The development of high confidence medical devices such as the cardiac pacemaker, is one of the grand challenges in the area of verified software that need formal reasoning and proof-based development. This paper presents an example of how we used previous experience in developing a cardiac pacemaker using Event-B, to build an incremental proof-based development of a new pacemaker that uses Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), also known as biventricular pacing or multisite pacing. In this work, we formalized the required behaviours of CRT including timing constraints and safety properties. We formalized the system using Event-B, and made use of the included Rodin tools to check the internal consistency with respect to safety properties, invariants and events. The system behaviours of the proven model were validated through the use of the ProB model checker.
Keywords: Pacemaker resynchronization therapy; Event-B; Refinement; Formal methods; Verification; Validation
Stepwise Formal Modelling and Reasoning of Insulin Infusion Pump Requirements BIBAKFull-Text 387-398
  Neeraj Kumar Singh; Hao Wang; Mark Lawford; Thomas S. E. Maibaum; Alan Wassyng
An insulin infusion pump (IIP) is a critical software-intensive medical device that infuses insulin satisfying patient needs under safety and timing constraints that are appropriate for the treatment of diabetes. This device is used by millions of people around the world. The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reported several recalls in which IIP failures were responsible for a large number of serious illnesses and deaths. The failures responsible for this harm to people who are dependent on external insulin were caused by the introduction of hardware or software design errors during the system development process. This paper presents an incremental proof-based development of an IIP. We use the Event-B modelling language to formalize the given system requirements. Further, the Rodin proof tools are used to verify the correctness of functional behaviour, internal consistency checking with respect to safety properties, invariants and events.
Keywords: Insulin Infusion Pump (IIP); Event-B; Refinement; Formal methods; Verification; Validation

Quality in Healthcare

Later Life: Living Alone, Social Connectedness and ICT BIBAKFull-Text 401-412
  Alma L. Culén
The paper presents a qualitative, interview-based study that seeks to describe participants' perceptions and experiences with information and communication technology. The participants in the study were active people, aged 67 and over, who live alone in an urban setting. Interactionist theory of loneliness was used to guide the inquiry, in particular regarding the perception of the relation between the quality and quantity of connections, loneliness, and technology. A set of visual tools such as communication maps and cards were made to aid reflections and associations during interviews.
Keywords: Loneliness; Social connectedness; Communication technology; Elderly
Effective Design of Traditional Japanese Tea Ceremony in a Group Home for the Elderly with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Teruko Doi; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
Our group home is based on the following concept: "With the collaboration of medical treatment and nursing care, we make it our goal to have everyone smile every day and live life in accordance with their true selves." There are many ways of inducing smiles, and one of them is providing recreation rooted in Japanese traditional culture. We arrange events according to the season. In this way we seek to arrange the environment and offer an individualized care plan for the care of elderly persons with dementia whom we make every effort to support every day. As dementia progresses, it becomes impossible to maintain relationships or to remember one's past. Vexation and antagonistic attitudes become prominent due to anxiety, and communicating becomes problematic. But we have discovered that elderly persons with dementia change through participation in a traditional Japanese tea ceremony, recovering their smiles and their dignity. The tea ceremony is a tool enabling them to concentrate and share information with staff. This record shows the gradual introduction of tea ceremony at our group home.
Keywords: Japanese traditional culture; Dementia care
A Collaborative Change Experiment: Diagnostic Evaluation of Telecare for Elderly Home Dwellers BIBAKFull-Text 423-434
  Suhas Govind Joshi; Anita Woll
This paper presents the diagnostic evaluation of a longitudinal collaborative change experiment that introduces telecare as a means for delivery of home care service to elderly home dwellers. The television is used as platform for delivery of care services from the home care nurses office to the private homes of the elderly home dwellers. We have included 34 participants in three sessions with evaluation and we use the results from the diagnostic evaluation to discuss how we can optimize the design of remote care in real environment. Our main findings concentrate on contextual factors that made impact on experienced usability issues, including timing and unstable network connection, complexity, and privacy and trust. In our study, we found that telecare is not for every elderly home dweller as it requires a high degree of functional capability in order to be experienced as appropriate and useful for the elderly users.
Keywords: Diagnostic evaluation; Usability issues; Elderly; Home telecare; Collaborative change experiment
A Mobile Visual Diary for Personal Pain Management BIBAKFull-Text 435-440
  Tor-Morten Grønli; Gheorghita Ghinea; Fotis Spyridonis
Back-pain is one of the most prolific health problems within the population and costs industry lost revenue due to the amount of days people have to take off in order to recover. In this paper, we have targeted this problem and suggested a mobile app for visually diarizing the pain experience of patients. The Android platform is utilized and its technology stack forms the basis for this 3D centric application. Positive evaluations obtained provide evidence of the promising nature of the approach and indicate several future directions of research within mobile pain management.
Keywords: Pain management; Pain diary; Interface; Mobile application; Android; 3D
Usefulness of Ikebana a Nursing Care Environment BIBAKFull-Text 441-447
  Yuki Ikenobo; Yusaku Mochizuki; Akinori Kuwahara
Japanese society is aging rapidly and currently one in four people of the population are the elderly. Due to the increasing number of the elderly who need nursing care, improvement of their QOL is required. As a recreation activity of the nursing care for the elderly, I implemented Ikebana, an aspect of Japanese traditional culture of life. There was no change in the test subject's NPI score, but in the GBS scale, which measures an immediate change, improvement in emotional state of the subject was found. Compared to popular recreation activities such as karaoke or viewing of DVD video, the subject's mental state was maintained in good condition for a long period of time even after making ikebana. The result suggested that ikebana has a healing effect, especially for reducing the anxiety or for recovering calmness. Enjoying a sense of season through flower materials, use of five senses by touching or seeing, thinking for oneself, hand working with tools such as scissors and having a dialogue with people are possible contributing factors. It is likely that ikebana gives the elderly mental stability and that it is useful for keeping them stay in good mental health, making a great contribution for the QOL in aging society in the future.
Keywords: Nursing care; Health; Recreation activity; Dementia
Usability of Mobile Applications Supporting Training in Diagnostic Decision-Making by Radiologists BIBAKFull-Text 448-454
  Min Soon Kim; Awatef A. Ben Ramadan; Martina A. Clarke; Mia K. Markey; Kraig J. Lage; Michael R. Aro; Kevin L. Ingalls; Vivek Sindhwani
The objective of this study is to systematically review the usability of mobile applications currently available in radiology to support training in diagnostic decision-making. Two online stores with major market share (Google Play and iTunes) were searched. A multi-step review process was utilized by three usability investigators and five radiology experts to identify eligible applications and extract usability reviews. From 381 applications that were initially identified, user reviews of final 52 applications revealed 79 usability issues. Usability issues were categorized according to Nielsen's heuristic usability evaluation principles (HE). The top three most frequent types of usability issues were: Naturalness (43), Simplicity (43), and Efficient Interactions (21). Examples of the most frequent usability issues were: lack of information, lack of labeling, and details about images. This study demonstrates the urgent need of usability test to provide evidence-based guidelines to help choose mobile applications that will yield educational and clinical benefits.
Keywords: Education; Mobile application; Radiology; Training; Usability
An Investigation of Caregiver's Fatigue During Nursing Work in China BIBAKFull-Text 455-464
  Mengyuan Liao; Yuqiu Yang; Yuka Takai; Takashi Yoshikawa; Akihiko Goto; Ting Yang; Tomoko Ota; Hiroyuki Hamada
In order to evaluate caregiver's fatigue during daily care work, an investigation was carried out in Chinese nursing house. 100 employees from four different nursing houses including day and night working shift were selected in random for sampling survey. And the fatigue situation was evaluated applying Japanese "subjective fatigue symptoms" (new edition of 2002) and "Tired body parts" questionnaires in field question-answer form. Collecting "subjective fatigue symptoms" questionnaire results were analyzed, which showed that caregiver's fatigue degree at the end of working day is more serious with larger scores than that of the beginning, especially caregiver in night shift displayed more fatigue in blurry vision and languidness. The aim of this work is to get a good knowledge of caregiver's fatigue situation basically and put forward some effective measures and necessary assisted device to adjust to Chinese nursing house development.
Keywords: Caregiver; Fatigue investigation; Nursing work
Mobile Application to Aid in the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers BIBAKFull-Text 465-473
  Alvaro G. Lima; Lara Araújo; Isabel Italiano; Luciano V. Araujo
Pressure Ulcer (PU) is a wound in the skin and underlying tissues caused by the lack of patient's movement leading to prolonged pressure exposure on certain body part. The PU's may cause complications to the patient's treatment, since it becomes a route of infection. Consequently, it can extend the length of hospital stay and treatment costs. This paper presents the development of a smartphone app to assist healthcare professionals in the prevention of Pus in bedridden patients. The developed app aims to collect and analyze data for estimating the severity of a health episode regarding suffering from patients. In addition, a prototype was developed for testing using the Wearable platform, based on temperature and humidity sensors together with ZigBee modules for data acquisition and communication between architecture components. This approach simplifies the interaction between sensors, applications, and medical staff with a focus on improved patient care.
Keywords: Pressure ulcer; Temperature sensor; Humidity sensor; Bedridden patient monitoring; Pressure ulcer prevention; M-Health application
Development of a Self-learning System for Chest Auscultation Skills Using an RFID Reader for Nursing Students BIBAKFull-Text 474-481
  Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Kyohei Koyama; Yasuko Kitajima; Jukai Maeda; Masako Kanai-Pak
The purposes of this study are (1) To develop a chest auscultation self-learning system for nursing students with which both a self-learning tool and an evaluation tool are integrated, and (2) To evaluate the system whether nursing students are able to acquire the chest ausculation skills. We have developed a system using RFID tags and RFID reader (TECCO). Six nursing students used this system for 15 min, and received feedback after each performance from this system. The students' performance was evaluated. The highest score was 85, and the lowest score was 10. The range of practice time was between 5 and 13. The differences between highest score and lowest score for each examinee ranged from 63 to 25. The results indicated that nursing students can learn the chest auscultation skills using this system even they spend a limited time for practice if they use repeatedly.
Keywords: Chest auscultation skill; Nursing education; Nursing skill; Nursing student; RFID reader; Simulation
The Digital Reminiscence Method: Effect on Dementia in Japanese Day Care Centers BIBAKFull-Text 482-489
  Masayuki Nakamura; Takashi Yoshikawa; Kayo Tanaka; Mengyuan Liao; Noriaki Kuwahara
When considering working with dementia patients in communities or welfare facilities, manpower problems and the existing caregiver's support system must be considered. It is a modern reality that many facilities often struggle while coping with dementia patients. However, as recent studies have reported, depending on the way dementia patients are cared for, it is possible to suppress problematic behavior such as violence, screeching, and/or wandering.
   In order to assist dementia patients while using the "digital reminiscence" method, students, facility staff members, dementia patients and their families worked together in this study.
Keywords: Effects on one's lifestyle; Movie production; Good staff coordination; Families and students
Verbal and Nonverbal Skills in Open Communication: Comparing Experienced and Inexperienced Radio Duos BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Noriko Suzuki; Yu Oshima; Haruka Shoda; Mamiko Sakata; Noriko Ito
This paper examines how the difference in talk skill for open communication affects the orientation of the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the talk partner or audience. An experiment was carried out using multiple radio duos having different levels of talk skill, i.e., experienced and inexperienced. The experiment's task was conducted in a pseudo-radio setting under three conditions: audience-present talk, audience-absent talk, and audience-absent/post-talk sessions. The speech and body gestures of all participants were video-recorded and analyzed. The results suggest that the different levels of experience in radio talk are expressed in different speech and gesture orientations. These findings seem applicable to the speech- and gesture-expression model for conversational robots, especially for nursing-care robots designed to talk with other robots or cohabitants.
Keywords: Open communication; Radio talk skill; Orientation of verbal and nonverbal behaviors; Experienced and inexperienced radio duos
The Transfer of Expertise in Conducting a Participatory Music Therapy During a Combined Rehabilitation-Recreational Program in an Elderly Care Facility BIBAKFull-Text 500-511
  Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Henry Cereno, Jr. Barrameda; Tatsunori Azuma; Hideaki Kasasaku; Kayoko Hirota; Momo Jinno; Maki Sumiyama; Tomoko Ota; Akihiko Goto; Noriyuki Kida; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
Not so long ago, in Japan, much emphasis were given to elderly's basic life's needs like eating, sleeping, excretion and bathing, however support for other problems of aging like mental and emotional health, muscle tone weakness, and life satisfaction are much left out. Just until recently, new concepts like QOL (Quality of Life) were seriously considered. This signaled the start of not just focusing on giving support on the material needs but also giving equal importance on issues pertaining to mental and emotional health, as well as life satisfaction of the residents in the elderly care facility. Recreation for improvement of mind and body functions of residents, as well as improvement of daily quality of life are now being carried out. Jurisprudence, administrative measures on recreational activities were also created. It has since been a standard for the elderly welfare care facilities of to provide recreational events appropriate to the number of residents. Different kinds of rehabilitation and recreational activities were introduced, one of them is Music Therapy. Activation of the brain, strengthening of the muscles for swallowing, and emotional and mental stability are just few of the most common beneficial effects of the said therapy. In this study, the setting for the music therapy is a paid elderly care facility.
Keywords: Caregiver; Paid elderly facility; Recreation; Participatory music therapy
Research of Work Climate at Nursing Home -- From Job Separation and Management Capability Point BIBAFull-Text 512-523
  Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Tomoko Ota; Akihiko Goto; Noriyuki Kida; Hiroyuki Hamada; Henry Cereno, Jr. Barrameda; Tatsunori Azuma
Nursing care insurance system, which was introduced 14 years ago in Japan, helps our life. However, there are some problems such as job separation rate and excess and deficiency of employees at nursing home. "Care Work Foundation (CWF)" investigates about state of care work under name of the investigation "Actual Condition of Care Work" every year. According to the investigation in 2013, Staff Turnover Rate for one year (October 1st, 2012 -- September 30th, 2013) was 16.6% in all. And 56.5% of the nursing care staff felt that the employee's number was insufficient. (Insufficient = "greatly insufficient" + "insufficient" + "somewhat insufficient") In this research, the work climate at nursing home regarding Staff Turnover Rate and the management capability, which was not analyzed by "Actual Condition of Care Work", was carried out on 44 nursing homes in my company. Specially, analyzed the employee satisfaction, and examined the correlation of the reason and the timing of leaving their job. In addition, there are 6 points as management capability of nursing home; "management principle" "performance capability" "nursing ability" "expressing gratitude to others" "employee satisfaction" "customer satisfaction". Moreover the correlation of Staff Turnover Rate and the management capability on each nursing home was examined as well. These 6 points are based on the screening criterion of a management quality grand-prix. These 6 points are large categories, and there are 20 medium categories inside large category. "Management principle" has a medium category "empathy degree to management principle". "Performance capability" has 5 categories; (1) operating ratio, (2) admission rate, (3) Staff Turnover Rate, (4) labor cost rate, (5) number of nonconformity to ISO. "Nursing ability" has 3 categories; (1) Achievement rate of short-term target, (2) Number of accidents during the care, (3) Number of incident reports. "Expressing gratitude to others"; (1) number of "Thanks" Card, (2) number of "Voice for Super Court Staff" Card. "Employee satisfaction" has 4 categories; (1) satisfaction and fairness to the personnel evaluation, (2) number of interview, (3) Independent and caring personality, (4) employee satisfaction. In the "customer satisfaction", there are 5 categories; (1) service satisfaction, (2) meal satisfaction, (3) cleaning satisfaction in community area, (4) cleaning satisfaction in the room, (5) total customer satisfaction. The research showed the trend that the lower Staff Turnover Rate at each nursing home becomes, the higher the "operating ratio of nursing home". And the higher Staff Turnover Rate at each nursing home, the higher the "accident frequency rate during nursing care". However, there is no correlation between Staff Turnover Rate and "degree of empathy to management principle", "employee satisfaction" and "total customer satisfaction". The results shows that the nursing home with the maximum number of thanks cards in the 44 nursing home is the least in Staff Turnover Rate.
Caregiver's Eye Gaze and Field of View Presumption Method During Bathing Care in Elderly Facility BIBAKFull-Text 524-532
  Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Tatsunori Azuma; Henry Cereno, Jr. Barrameda; Noriyuki Kida; Akihiko Goto; Tomoko Ota
Japan faces a critical need for nursing care as its elderly population continues to grow along with a rise in dementia, the number of elderly people who are bedridden and require extended care. Bathing is one of the most important aspects of daily life in which provision of better quality care can improve quality of life. However, in many elderly facilities, bathing is fraught with dangers, such as falling and drowning in a big bath. Bathroom floors can be slippery and cause residents to fall, and the constant vigilance required can cause caregivers significant mental stress. Advancement in biomechanics along with the development of nursing care devices had reduced the physical stress on the caregivers. However, the efforts to relieve mental burdens are still insufficient, especially when caring with elderly people or those suffering from dementia, whose actions are rather unpredictable. By measuring the caregiver's eye gaze and field of view, we believe we would be able to locate the blind spots during bathing care. With the use of the data gathered we aim to develop a system to improve bathing as a good experience to the customer and a less stressful task to the caregiver. While measurement by video camera was considered optimal, we conducted the experiment using motion sensors due to privacy concerns. We performed four experiments to progress towards our final result set. This paper focuses on the second of these experiments.
Keywords: Caregiver; Elderly facility; Bath care assistance; Presumption method; Blind spot; Motion capture