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DESRIST Tables of Contents: 09101112131415

Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology

Fullname:6th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology
Note:Service-Oriented Perspectives in Design Science Research
Editors:Hemant Jain; Atish P. Sinha; Padmal Vitharana
Location:Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Dates:2011-May-05 to 2011-May-06
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6629
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-20633-7 hcibib: DESRIST11; ISBN: 978-3-642-20632-0 (print), 978-3-642-20633-7 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Design Theory
  2. Design Science Research Strategies
  3. Design Methods and Techniques
  4. Design Evaluation
  5. Design Guidelines
  6. Service-Oriented Perspectives in Design Science
  7. Process Design
  8. Neuroscience in Design Research
  9. Designing for Social Media

Design Theory

Theorizing in Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 1-16
  Jong Seok Lee; Jan Pries-Heje; Richard Baskerville
Theory is a central element in research. Due to the importance of theory in research, considerable efforts have been made to better understand the process of theorizing, i.e., development of a theory. A review of the literature in this area suggests that two dominant theorizing approaches are anchored to deductive and inductive reasoning respectively. In contrast, an essential part of theorizing for design may involve abductive reasoning. The purpose of design theory is not to advance declarative logic regarding truth or falseness, but to guide learning and problem solving through the conceptualization of a design artifact. This paper critically examines the process of theorizing for design by developing an idealized design theorizing framework. The framework indicates that theorizing for design operates in two distinct domains: instance and abstract. Further, four key theorizing activities are identified in this framework: abstraction, solution search, de-abstraction, and registration. The framework provides grounds for building strong design theories in the design science paradigm by explicating the underlying theorizing process for design.
Keywords: Design Theory; Theorizing in Design Science Research
Forms of Reasoning in the Design Science Research Process BIBAKFull-Text 17-31
  Christian Fischer; Shirley Gregor
Several models for the conduct of design science research (DSR) in information systems (IS) have been suggested. There has, however, been little academic investigation of the basic forms of reasoning underlying these models, namely: deduction, induction and abduction. We argue that a more thorough investigation of these reasoning logics allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the DSR models and the building of information systems design theories (ISDTs). In particular, the question of whether prescriptive design knowledge can be 'theory driven" by descriptive kernel theory can be addressed. First, we show that it is important to distinguish between a context of discovery and a context of justification in theory building and to consider the fundamental forms of reasoning in this light. We present an idealized model of the hypothetico-deductive method, showing how progress is achieved in science. This model includes the contexts of discovery and justification and the matching forms of reasoning. Second, we analyze frameworks for IS DSR and ISDT in comparison with this idealized model. This analysis suggests that few frameworks explicitly refer to the underlying forms of reasoning. Illustrative case studies with first-hand accounts of how IS DSR occurs in practice lend support to the conception of the idealized model. We conclude that work on methodological models for IS DSR and ISDT building would be given a firmer base and some differences in opinion resolved if there was explicit reflection on the underlying contexts of both discovery and justification and the forms of reasoning implicated, as in our idealized model.
Keywords: Information Systems Design Theory; Information Systems Design Science Research; Scientific Method; Design Theory Development; Forms of Reasoning; Abduction; Deduction; Induction
Enhancing Design Science through Empirical Knowledge: Framework and Application BIBAKFull-Text 32-46
  Janusch Patas; Danijel Milicevic; Matthias Goeken
The discourse about differences between behavioral and design science still attains wide interest in the information systems research community. While design-oriented research is repeatedly subject to criticism on account of lacking transparency and rigor, behavioral research is fighting against the accusation of little relevance. It would be highly desirable to overcome the shortcomings of design science by using existing theories, empirical knowledge, etc. within the design of an artifact. For that purpose, we present a framework that shows how different ways of applying empirical knowledge can put the research of design scientists on a better grounding and thus improve the rigor of design science. Specifically we point out, how design science can be performed more rigorously on the basis of our framework by empirically motivating, guiding, evaluating, and analyzing design science research. To illustrate the application of our framework, we will provide an example from the domain of information security.
Keywords: Design Theory; Empirical Knowledge; Framework
Design Theory in Practice -- Making Design Science Research More Transparent BIBAKFull-Text 47-61
  Kalle A. Piirainen; Robert O. Briggs
Design Science Research seeks to develop new generalizable knowledge about design processes, design products, and designed artifacts while solving organizational problems with new work practices based on information technology. However, the ability of Design Science Research to generate knowledge has been challenged by some scholars, due weak connection of the designed artifact to the knowledge base. Design Theories offer a promising approach to codify and generalize some aspects of the knowledge created, in particular that pertaining to design processes and products for a given class of information technology-based solutions. We present a case example to support our argument that Design Theory can be integrated into the context of Design Science Research to make the connection between the design and the knowledge base more transparent, rendering it easier to defend the rigor and generalizablity of the knowledge Design Science Research yields.
Keywords: Design science; design science research; methodology; design theory
Harnessing Handheld Computing -- Managing IS Support to the Digital Ranger with Defensive Design BIBAKFull-Text 62-76
  Bo Andersson
The recent years of development in mobile computing as powerful handheld computers and high-speed wireless networks creates opportunities for new user-groups in the mobile workforce to take advantage of mobile technologies. User-groups may be more or less geographical distributed and as a consequence more or less marooned when it comes to obtaining IT/IS support and this increases the complexity of delivering IT/IS support to these geographically distributed end-users. In this design paper the aim is to develop a design theory to manage problems in IT/IS support to the outbound user. Semistructured interviews were performed with developers and documents studies of an information system comprising handheld mobile computing devices for drivers. From the interviews, a design theory based on the implemented strategy of defensive design is presented. The six components of IS design theory by Gregor and Jones is applied as a theoretical framework for evaluation of the design theory.
Keywords: Mobile Information Systems; Digital Rangers; Design Theory; Design Research; Remote Mobile Users; Support

Design Science Research Strategies

Design Range and Research Strategies in Design Science Publications BIBAFull-Text 77-91
  Philipp Offermann; Sören Blom; Marten Schönherr; Udo Bub
Not much is known about how design knowledge is re-used in Design Science Research (DSR). The concepts of "generalization" and "transfer" as different types of knowledge-building and re-use are discussed in other disciplines and in Information System Research in general, but less so in DSR. Offermann et al. [1] proposed three ranges of design theories and seven strategies for how to create and generalize design knowledge. In this paper, we classify all DESRIST 2006 -- 2010 publications according to design range and research strategy. By doing so, we empirically ground the merely theoretically established research strategies, and are able to discover three additional strategy types. The literature analysis shows that the specification of design range and strategy in abstracts is often incomplete or misleading. Based on the analysis we recommend template abstracts for design science publications which guide researchers on how to include all relevant information about design knowledge they (re-)used.
On Expanding the Scope of Design Science in IS Research BIBAKFull-Text 92-106
  Robert O. Briggs; Gerhard Schwabe
Design Science Research (DSR) has sparked a renaissance of contributions to IS, but its rigor and value of DSR could be increased by expanding its scope beyond its engineering roots to bring all modes of scientific inquiry to bear -- exploratory, theoretical, experimental, and applied science / engineering (AS/E). All DSR Cycle activities can be realized as instances of one or more of the four modes. The rigor of DSR can therefore be defended in terms of the goals, research products, and standards of rigor already established for each mode. There is, moreover, a synergy among the modes that can only be realized when all four are brought to bear, because each informs the other three. To exclude any mode of inquiry from DSR, therefore, is to impoverish knowledge about its objects of inquiry. Based on these insights, we propose a modified Cycles Model for DSR realized under the disciplines of the four modes of scientific inquiry.
Keywords: Design Science; Scientific Methods
A Design Science Research Roadmap BIBAKFull-Text 107-123
  Ahmad Alturki; Guy G. Gable; Wasana Bandara
This paper proposes and synthesizes from previous design science (DS) methodological literature a structured and detailed DS Roadmap for the conduct of DS research. The Roadmap is a general guide for researchers to carry out DS research by suggesting reasonably detailed activities. Though highly tentative, it is believed the Roadmap usefully inter-relates many otherwise seemingly disparate, overlapping or conflicting concepts. It is hoped the DS Roadmap will aid in the planning, execution and communication of DS research, while also attracting constructive criticism, improvements and extensions. A key distinction of the Roadmap from other DS research methods is its breadth of coverage of DS research aspects and activities; its detail and scope. We demonstrate and evaluate the Roadmap by presenting two case studies in terms of the DS Roadmap.
Keywords: Design Science; Design Science research Roadmap; Design Science research methodology; Design Research; Information System Design Theory; Archival Analysis
Discovering the Meanings of Design in IS: Reviews and Future Directions BIBAKFull-Text 124-137
  Jaehyun Park; Richard, Jr. Boland; Youngjin Yoo
The purpose of this study is to identify the meanings of design to Information Systems (IS) scholars as revealed in their research. We conducted an extensive review of IS research papers from 1970 to 2007 that are related to design research broadly construed and analyzed them to reveal the overview of their scope and patterns using two approaches. The first approach locates existing research in a design space based on attention to design artifacts versus design processes, and their interests in the analytic or the synthetic aspect of design cognition. The second approach locates existing research in a design space based on the level of organization system from local to global that design affects, and the temporal state (past, present, future) that it considers. Finally, this study draws upon where the lack of design research in IS remains as future research opportunities.
Keywords: design research in IS; action research; design research framework
Design and Behavioral Science Research in Premier IS Journals: Evidence from Database Management Research BIBAKFull-Text 138-152
  Anteneh Ayanso; Kevin Lertwachara; Francine Vachon
In this article, we examine database management research that has been published in ISR, JMIS, and MISQ from each journal's inception to 2007. Our goal is to profile database research using a classification scheme that includes research paradigms, IT constructs, and research methodologies. The overall statistics obtained shows that information systems (IS) research in database management, which is widely recognized as part of the core knowledge of IS, is diverse in IT constructs, methodologies, as well as research paradigms. However, we also find that each journal has focused more on one research paradigm and some research methodologies. We summarize and discuss these results which can be useful to design science researchers in targeting their work in these three premier IS journals.
Keywords: Design Science; Behavioral Science; IS Research; Database Research; Research Diversity
Design Science Research Demonstrators for Punctuation -- The Establishment of a Service Ecosystem BIBAKFull-Text 153-165
  Daniel Rudmark; Mikael Lind
Design Science Research (DSR) is concerned with demonstrating design principles. In order to prove the utility of these principles, design ideas are materialized into artifacts and put into an environment sufficient to host the testing of these principles. When DSR is used in combination with action research, constraints in the environment may restrain researchers to fully inscribe or test such principles. In this paper it is argued that scholars pursuing DSR has paid insufficient attention to the type of change necessary in the local practice. We draw upon theories on IS change as punctuated equilibrium to illustrate when DSR demonstrators can be used to make substantial contributions to local practice as well as to the scientific body of knowledge.
Keywords: Demonstrator; Action Research; Design Science Research; Punctuated Equilibrium
Extending Prior Research with Design Science Research: Two Patterns for DSRIS Project Generation BIBAKFull-Text 166-175
  Bill Kuechler; Vijay Vaishnavi
Constructivist research -- learning through building -- is the core of a large stream of design science research in IS. Architecture has always explored through this paradigm; more recently, engineering-related disciplines, education and medicine have adopted it as well.
   Constructivist methods are chosen in all cases because many systems problems are 'wicked': difficult, multi-faceted and frequently exhibiting aspects that emerge only during attempted solution of the problem. Constructivist methods excel at the investigation of incompletely understood problems where the variables of study are inextricably confounded or theory is sparse.
   In this paper we present two patterns by which the power of constructivist methods can be directed at extending and generating practice-focused results from prior research for the benefit of the Information Systems discipline. The first pattern generates DSRIS projects based on theoretical findings; the second pattern generates DSRIS projects to clarify and extend poorly understood facets of large real-world artifacts/systems.
Keywords: information systems research methods; design science research

Design Methods and Techniques

Inductive Design of Maturity Models: Applying the Rasch Algorithm for Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 176-191
  Gerrit Lahrmann; Frederik Marx; Tobias Mettler; Robert Winter; Felix Wortmann
Maturity models are an established means to systematically document and guide the development of organizations using archetypal capability levels. Often, these models lack a sound foundation and/or are derived on the basis of an arbitrary design method. In order to foster the design of relevant and rigorous artifacts, this paper presents a method for maturity model construction that applies the Rasch algorithm and cluster analysis as a sound methodical foundation. The Rasch algorithm is widely used to improve scholarly intelligence and attainment tests. In order to demonstrate the application of the proposed method and to evaluate its usability and applicability, we present a design exemplar in the business intelligence domain.
Keywords: design science; maturity models; Rasch algorithm; business intelligence
Pattern-Based Approach for Designing with Diagrammatic and Propositional Conceptual Models BIBAKFull-Text 192-206
  Wolfgang Maass; Sabine Janzen
A conceptual modeling approach for Ubiquitous Information Systems (UIS) is presented as a central part of a UIS design methodology. Three conceptual models are used for step-wise derivation of machine-executable design models for distributed service infrastructures: narratives, pattern-based diagrammatic conceptual models (Pre-Artifacts), and formalized propositional conceptual models.
Keywords: Conceptual modeling; design methodology; Ubiquitous Information Systems; semantic technologies; patterns
Enacted Software Development Routines Based on Waterfall and Agile Software Methods: Socio-Technical Event Sequence Study BIBAKFull-Text 207-222
  B. Veeresh Thummadi; Omri Shiv; Nicholas Berente; Kalle Lyytinen
In recent decades, "agile" software development methodologies have been put forth as an alternative to traditional "waterfall" methodologies. These agile methods advance a fundamentally different approach to software development. Empirical evidence indicates differences between the two with respect to outcomes and development experience. Yet little is known to what extent the actual development practices based on either agile or traditional life cycle methodologies differ. In the current study we examine the variation in performative routines during software development by contrasting agile and traditional lifecycle process models using event sequencing method for detecting activity variations among recorded performative processes in the selected projects. Our analysis shows that performative enactment of waterfall and agile ostensive routines do differ in terms of activity types carried out in the early requirements steps. However, performative routines did show conformance to ostensive specifications in iterations, affordance types, and design objects used.
Keywords: Software design; agile; sequence analysis; SDLC; Waterfall; organizational routines
e-wallet Prototypes BIBAKFull-Text 223-236
  Mia Olsen; Jonas Hedman; Ravi Vatrapu
The design outcomes of this paper are four e-wallet prototypes. E-wallets are intended to replace the existing physical wallet, with its notes, coins, bills, photos, plastic cards, loyalty cards etc. Four different user groups, including Young Teenagers, Young Adults, Mothers and Business Men, have been involved in design and test of the prototypes. Interviews and user tests have provided data for the construction of first a conceptual model, in the form of sketches, and later a functional model, in the form of mock-ups. During the design phases, knowledge was gained on what properties, including design, functional, service, and interaction, the user groups would like the e-wallet to hold. The properties have been to develop four prototypes, one for each user group.
Keywords: e-wallet; cashless society; design science; prototype

Design Evaluation

A Fitness-Utility Model for Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 237-252
  T. Grandon Gill; Alan R. Hevner
Current thinking in design science research (DSR) defines the usefulness of the design artifact in a relevant problem environment as the primary research goal. Here we propose a complementary evaluation model for DSR. Drawing from evolutionary economics, we define a fitness-utility model that better captures the evolutionary nature of design improvements and the essential DSR nature of searching for a satisfactory design across a fitness landscape. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and challenges of the fitness-utility model for performing rigorous DSR.
Keywords: Design science research; design evaluation; usefulness; utility; fitness; evolutionary economics
Interface Design Elements for Anti-phishing Systems BIBAKFull-Text 253-265
  Yan Chen; Fatemeh (Mariam) Zahedi; Ahmed Abbasi
Anti-phishing systems are developed to prevent users from interacting with fraudulent websites. However these tools are ineffective since users often disregard their warnings. We present a design science-based assessment of interface design elements for such systems. An extensive taxonomy of important design elements is constructed. A survey is used to evaluate the perceived saliency of various elements encompassed in the taxonomy. The results suggest preferred design elements are in line with efficient information processing of human vision, and indicate that existing tools often fail to consider users' preferences regarding warning design alternatives. The results of users' preference also show the presence of a subset of design elements that could potentially be customized for the population of our sample and others that could be personalized. These findings are being applied in an NSF-supported project, in which we evaluate the impact of customized and personalized warnings on user performance.
Keywords: Anti-Phishing Systems; Interface Design; Warnings; Taxonomy
Experimental Evaluation of Peer Endorsement System Artifacts Using Best-of-Breed Ideals -- Effects of Online Decision Confidence on Post-choice Regret BIBAKFull-Text 266-275
  Mitchell Church; Lakshmi Iyer
Peer endorsement systems (PES), systems for the collection and presentation of online product reviews represent a new and increasingly common sight on many e-Commerce websites. The number of reviews and scope of data presentation made possible by PESs pose demands on the information processing abilities of a typical customer. This study posits that differences in PES design based on quality and presentation of online customer reviews can impact user perceptions about whether they are getting "the whole story" about a product. Drawing on economic regret theory, we develop a theoretical model to test the impact of PES design on consumer's decision confidence and post-choice regret. We conduct an expost experimental analysis of two competing PES interfaces and show that key differences in PES design have a surprising and relevant impact on the way in which data from that interface is perceived and used by customers in the online decision-making process.
Keywords: Peer endorsement system; design science; regret; decision confidence; artifact design

Design Guidelines

Managing the Future -- Six Guidelines for Designing Environmental Scanning Systems BIBAKFull-Text 276-290
  Jörg H. Mayer
The 2008/2009 economic crisis provided a sustainable impulse for improving environmental scanning systems. Although a substantial body of knowledge exists, these concepts are not often used by practitioners. Based on a literature research, this article outlines six guidelines for designing environmental scanning systems that are more applicable than the state of the art. We incorporate these guidelines in a six-step method and focus on how the capabilities of "modern" information systems (IS) enable a better "grasp" of weak signals and a closer incorporation of the findings into the executives' decision-making process. Applying this reworked method at a raw materials and engineering company leads to a first instantiation -- the "Corporate Radar." The version discussed here ends with a value-driver tree showing economic value added at risk on top. The resulting lessons learned helped us in two ways: providing concrete starting points for future research and arguing for the research method presented here.
Keywords: Corporate management; balanced chance and risk management; corporate business intelligence (BI); method design
Utilizing User-Group Characteristics to Improve Acceptance of Management Support Systems -- State of the Art and Six Design Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 291-305
  Jörg H. Mayer; Robert Winter; Thomas Mohr
In information systems (IS) design, understanding users and their preferences for interacting with IT is key. Such awareness is particularly important in the field of management support systems (MSS). We conduct a literature review on how user-group characteristics can be incorporated into MSS design and propose six design guidelines to enhance their adaptation capabilities. Three of these guidelines aim at better meeting users' functional preferences: incorporate more subjective information needs in MSS design, expand the scope of functional MSS principles beyond the user interface, and provide a comprehensive model of MSS functions for the growing number of expert users. Strengthen the constructional MSS perspective should make the design more concrete for practice. The fifth finding is to understand the characteristics of MSS usage by considering MSS use cases and access modes in addition to users' working style. Last but not least, MSS research should place more emphasis on principles for situational artefact design.
Keywords: Situational artefact design; working style; corporate business intelligence (BI); human-computer interaction (HCI)

Service-Oriented Perspectives in Design Science

How Service Orientation Can Improve the Flexibility of Executive Information Systems -- An Architecture Reworked from a Business Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 306-320
  Jörg H. Mayer
In recent years, service orientation has been discussed as a new design paradigm promising better manageability and changeability of increasingly complex IS. This article examines their role in executive information systems (EIS) design and contributes a reworked architecture that is more flexible than the state of the art. Structured in terms of four layers strategy, organization, alignment, and IT support it uses cross-layer modeling chains that enable even drill-through analyses when needed. Mapping loosely coupled services within an alignment layer provides the necessary flexibility. Two typical changes in financial accounting and management accounting processes at a telecom company provided an opportunity to evaluate the reworked architecture. Finally, the lessons learned helped us in two ways: providing concrete starting points for integrating service orientation into EIS architecture design and arguing for the reworked architecture on hand.
Keywords: Enterprise architecture (EA); informations systems (IS) integration; corporate business intelligence (BI); pilot implementation
How IT-Based Co-creation Can Provide Small Banks Access to the Financial Market -- A Prototype Development from a Design Science Research Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 321-334
  Sven Weber; Roman Beck
The asset-backed securities (ABS) market shrank due to the financial crises in 2007/2008. The financial collapse was caused by both the consumer and the commercial ABS markets failure. However, the ABS market is an important source of funding for market participants in the financial services industry. Hence, we see a returning trend for ABS markets and present in this paper the development of a prototype from a design science research (DSR) perspective to enable smaller banks to securitize and sell their assets. Given the relatively low mortgage and credit volumes within smaller banks they are currently not able to package and sell their securities. The prototype developed in this paper offers a solution by pooling all mortgages gathered from hundreds of smaller banks, calculating the attached risk, and finally, selling them to investors. In this context, DSR enabled us to build such a cooperative strategy in form of a prototype.
Keywords: Asset-backed Securities; Design Science Research Approach; Small Banks; Financial Services Sector
Service Extraction from Operator Procedures in Process Industries BIBAKFull-Text 335-349
  Jingwen He; Sandeep Purao; Jon Becker; David Strobhar
Procedures are a common knowledge form in process industries such as refineries. A typical refinery captures hundreds of procedures documenting actions that operators must follow. Maintaining the action-knowledge contained in these procedures is important because it represents a key organizational asset that can be leveraged to minimize the threat of accidents. We develop an approach that extracts services from these operator procedures. The paper describes the heuristics underlying this approach, illustrates its application, and discusses implications.
Keywords: Service Extraction; Knowledge Modules; Knowledge Representation; Heuristics
Reconsidering Modular Design Rules in a Dynamic Service Context BIBAKFull-Text 350-365
  Jason Nichols; Michael Goul; Kevin Dooley; Haluk Demirkan
Modular design rules are rooted in a tradition of process design for physical production. In response to an emerging information systems research agenda for design logic in the realm of services and digital goods, and through the lens of dynamic capabilities theory, the research presented here re-examines traditional modular design in the context of a service-centric volatile marketplace. A complex adaptive systems simulation artifact from prior literature is augmented with a novel operationalization of market volatility, and a series of hypotheses are tested that demonstrate a need for revision of modular design rules in a dynamic context. Rules that have historically isolated the modular design decision to characterizations of task interaction are expanded to incorporate a new objective: adaptive parity with the environment. It is the goal of this continuing research stream to make early contributions in the recently proposed agenda for new organizing logic in digital innovation and services.
Keywords: modular design; service design rules; dynamic capabilities theory; complex adaptive systems; simulation; service-oriented enterprise
Design Science in Service Research: A Framework-Based Review of IT Artifacts in Germany BIBAKFull-Text 366-375
  Jörg Becker; Daniel Beverungen; Martin Matzner; Oliver Müller; Jens Pöppelbuß
The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of IT artifacts that have been proposed in the emerging discipline of Service Science, Management and Engineering (SSME) as well as to provide further directions for design research in the service discipline. We review a sample of 123 service-related IT artifacts -- that we identified on a German online research portal -- by coding them with a framework for design research in the service science discipline. The key insights derived from the analysis are: (1) methods dominate other artifact types; (2) instantiations are almost exclusively developed for supporting the potential dimension of services; (3) research on customer solutions focuses on an inside-out perspective; (4) new constructs are predominantly developed for modeling the outcome dimension of services; (5) artifacts often possess a narrow scope; and (6) artifacts are seldom instantiated into software tools. These novel insights are expected to guide future design research in the service discipline by identifying areas which have only been sparsely addressed by design research or are yet to evolve to a sufficient state of maturity. Our approach is original as it features an early and innovative endeavor for identifying the nature of IT artifacts in SSME.
Keywords: Design Science; Service Science; IT Artifacts; Germany; Hybrid Value Creation; Customer Solutions; Product-Service Systems
Service Orienting the Swedish Vaccination Recommendation Activity with the Business Rules Centric Digital Service VacSam BIBAKFull-Text 376-386
  Nicklas Holmberg; Odd Steen; Sven Carlsson
Uniform control and coordination of immigrant children's vaccination is a critical current problem in the Swedish child health safety work. In this paper we discuss the Business Rules (BR) centric and SOA architected digital service VacSam. VacSam incorporates principles of SOA, Business Rules Approach, and Business Process Management. The incorporation is used for deriving VacSam from a part of the Swedish vaccination business process by separating decision logic from process logic. Based on regulatory texts and empirical investigations, VacSam BRs presently provides vaccination diagnosis of and recommendations to immigrant children. By ensuring the basic principles of SOA, VacSam becomes an eligible, SOA executable digital service. VacSam is in development and has hitherto been evaluated in an artificial context, where we show that the service can provide explained diagnosis of and recommendations to immigrant children's vaccinations totally based on natural language BRs.
Keywords: SOA; BRA; BP Modeling; Design Science Research

Process Design

A Meta-model-Framework for Structuring the Requirement Analysis in Process Design BIBAKFull-Text 387-397
  Stephanie Meerkamm; Stefan Jablonski
Today, with process management generally established as an integrated management tool, there is a strong interest in process modeling. The organizations spent time and effort in generating the optimal process model. Although there is a multitude of process modeling techniques available, the modeling process is often inefficient and the results are not satisfying. As each use case makes other demands on a process modeling language and tool it may be due to the neglect of some aspect of the design phase supposed to include a comprehensive requirement analysis and the implementation of these in an appropriate language and tool. Thus we want to offer a framework which focuses more on the design phase. The approach is based on a meta model hierarchy, focusing on modeling. This hierarchy is extended with a design phase. The increased quality of the final process models will also influence the whole process life cycle.
Keywords: process management; process design; process modeling; meta model hierarchy; specification of process modeling languages; requirement analysis
Why Grandma Trims the Brisket: Resource Flows as a Source of Insight for IT-Enabled Business Process Design BIBAKFull-Text 398-411
  George M. Wyner
Systems analysts and organizational designers are increasingly called upon to rethink business processes both to respond to changing conditions and to realize the potential of new information technologies. Existing process modeling tools typically represent one particular version of a process but do not represent the alternative ways in which that process could be organized. Dependency diagrams offer analysts a way past this difficulty by representing the underlying coordination issues in a process, allowing analysts to consider alternative process designs. Unfortunately, dependency diagrams can be difficult to draw because dependencies can be difficult to discover. This paper describes Resource Flow Graph Analysis (RFGA), a method for developing dependency diagrams which leverages the observability of activities and resource flows to allow analysts to systematically uncover the dependencies which shape a given business process. The potential application of the method to process analysis and system design is illustrated by a "design exercise."
Keywords: process design; dependencies; coordination; resource flows; design methodology
Analyzing Web Service Choreography Specifications Using Colored Petri Nets BIBAKFull-Text 412-426
  Enrique Caliz; Karthikeyan Umapathy; Arturo J. Sánchez-Ruíz; Sherif A. Elfayoumy
Enacting cross-organizational business processes requires critical support for long-running and complex interactions involving multiple participants. The Web Services Choreography Description Language (WS-CDL) aims at facilitating just that, by providing means to describe correlated message exchanges among services geared towards achieving a business goal. While WS-CDL specifications are machine-readable documents, they do not necessarily allow developers to determine -- by direct inspection -- whether or not the patterns of message exchanges they stipulate do indeed describe the intended service behavior. In this research paper, we show how Colored Petri Nets (CPN) can be used to analyze WS-CDL documents in order to identify faults in the specification. We have developed a research prototype that assists in the creation of a CPN model from a given WS-CDL document. The CPN model generated is then analyzed using the formal verification environment and simulation capability provided by CPN-Tools. We provide a discussion on the analysis of an example WS-CDL document using this approach, as well as on the advantages and limitations of using CPN for analyzing WS-CDL specifications.
Keywords: Web service; WS-CDL; Service Choreography; Colored Petri Nets; ChorToNet; Analyzing Specifications

Neuroscience in Design Research

Neuroscience in Design-Oriented Research: Exploring New Potentials BIBAKFull-Text 427-439
  Jan vom Brocke; René Riedl; Pierre-Majorique Léger
Design-oriented research has evolved as a major research paradigm in the academic discipline of information systems (IS) aiming at the design of innovative and useful IT artifacts such as methods, models, constructs, and instantiations. With the concept of "user-perception" at the core of this approach, it appears promising to explore the potentials of neuroscience in design-oriented research that allow for measuring physiological effects of people interfering with artifacts. In this paper, we discuss fields of application concerning both the design and evaluation of artifacts. However, we also argue that neuroscience, despite its value for design-oriented IS research, should complement rather than substitute traditional research approaches and that results require thorough interpretation. We report on a first study that triangulates quantitative and neuroscientific data in the area of enterprise resource planning systems and indicate directions for future research.
Keywords: design science research; design theory; brain; neuroscience; fMRI
On a NeuroIS Design Science Model BIBAKFull-Text 440-451
  Christopher Liapis; Samir Chatterjee
In this paper, we present a novel frontier for IS research that we have termed "NeuroIS Design Science". Our study introduces a novel framework to the IS community which leverages neuroscience to better understand the design of human-computer interfaces. As a contribution to knowledge, the NeuroIS Design Science Model (NDSM) hopes to provide the scientific community with physiological measurements and thereby potentially advancing artifact design. This may serve as useful data to engineers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and manufacturers. What's more, the design and development of artifact creation could have a host of contributions in computer science, electrical engineering, as well as material sciences. With regard to information systems, this research presents a framework in human and interface interaction which does not currently exist. It allows researchers to follow a structure which may produce efficient technological artifacts for our future.
Keywords: Design Science; Neuroscience; Design Science Research Methodology; Human Threading; EEG; Information Systems

Designing for Social Media

The Value of Anonymity on the Internet BIBAKFull-Text 452-464
  Dongwon Lim; Hangjung Zo; Dukhee Lee
As anonymity has both positive and negative effects at the same time, it is arguable whether or not anonymity is worth preserving. However, there are few studies that seek to clarify the effects of anonymity on the society as a whole by integrating individual behaviors and macroscopic models. We propose an opinion diffusion model that introduces a 'conviction' dimension to represent behaviors of an anonymous agent, and investigate the way anonymity can affect the society using simulation method. Results indicate that anonymity is more effective in a society with a higher similarity threshold. In addition, increasing anonymity resulted in increasing the time to reach consensus and increasing the number of agents in the biggest cluster.
Keywords: anonymity; opinion dynamics; agent-based model; privacy; Internet
Citizen Science 2.0: Data Management Principles to Harness the Power of the Crowd BIBAKFull-Text 465-473
  Roman Lukyanenko; Jeffrey Parsons; Yolanda Wiersma
Citizen science refers to voluntary participation by the general public in scientific endeavors. Although citizen science has a long tradition, the rise of online communities and user-generated web content has the potential to greatly expand its scope and contributions. Citizens spread across a large area will collect more information than an individual researcher can. Because citizen scientists tend to make observations about areas they know well, data are likely to be very detailed. Although the potential for engaging citizen scientists is extensive, there are challenges as well. In this paper we consider one such challenge -- creating an environment in which non-experts in a scientific domain can provide appropriate and accurate data regarding their observations. We describe the problem in the context of a research project that includes the development of a website to collect citizen-generated data on the distribution of plants and animals in a geographic region. We propose an approach that can improve the quantity and quality of data collected in such projects by organizing data using instance-based data structures. Potential implications of this approach are discussed and plans for future research to validate the design are described.
Keywords: design; citizen science; management; database design; conceptual modeling; data quality