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DARE Tables of Contents: 00

Proceedings of DARE 2000 on Designing Augmented Reality Environments 2000-04-12

Fullname:Proceedings of DARE 2000 on Designing Augmented Reality Environments
Editors:Wendy E. Mackay
Location:Elsinore, Denmark
Dates:2000-Apr-12 to 2000-Apr-14
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DARE00
Papers:31
Pages:171
CyberCode: designing augmented reality environments with visual tags BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Jun Rekimoto; Yuji Ayatsuka
The CyberCode is a visual tagging system based on a 2D-barcode technology and provides several features not provided by other tagging systems. CyberCode tags can be recognized by the low-cost CMOS or CCD cameras found in more and more mobile devices, and it can also be used to determine the 3D position of the tagged object as well as its ID number. This paper describes examples of augmented reality applications based on CyberCode, and discusses some key characteristics of tagging technologies that must be taken into account when designing augmented reality environments.
Keywords: CyberCode, ID-aware interface, augmented reality, merging virtual and real
CyPhone -- bringing augmented reality to next generation mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 11-21
  Tino Pyssysalo; Tapio Repo; Tuukka Turunen; Teemu Lankila; Juha Röning
We describe a prototype implementation of a future mobile phone called CyPhone. In addition to voice calls, it has been designed to support context-specific and multi-user multimedia services in an augmented reality manner. Context-awareness has been implemented with GPS-based navigation techniques and a registration algorithm, capable of detecting a predefined 3-D model or a landmark in the environment. A new adaptive transport protocol has been developed to support real-time packet-switched data transfer between concurrent users of mobile augmented reality applications. The prototype itself is based on PC/104+ architecture. As a case example we describe an augmented reality-based personal navigation service.
Keywords: mobile communication, navigation, networked virtual reality, real-time data transport protocols, registration
WebStickers: using physical tokens to access, manage and share bookmarks to the Web BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  Peter Ljungstrand; Johan Redström; Lars Erik Holmquist
In the WebStickers system, where barcode stickers may be attached to physical objects making them act as bookmarks to the worldwide web in a convenient way to the user. Using readily available technology, i.e., standard barcode readers and adhesive stickers, WebStickers enable users to take advantage of their physical environment when organizing and sharing bookmarks. Starting from a user-centered rather than technology-driven point of view, we discuss how the affordances of physical tokens, as well as the context they are placed in, can act as useful cues for users. Since many objects already have barcodes printed on them, they can be used with the WebStickers system without physical modification. In addition, WebStickers meets proposed design criteria for information workspaces.
Keywords: barcodes, bookmark management, information workspaces, physical tokens, tangible interfaces, world wide Web, world wide web
Reflections on a candidate design of the user-interface for a wireless vital-signs monitor BIBAKFull-Text 33-40
  Ben McGarry; Ben Matthews; Margot Brereton
In this paper we present a case study of our candidate design for the user-interface of a wireless vital-signs monitor. We reflect on our design of the user-interface, and relate our design experience to theories of artefact design, evaluating from this case study how the theories apply to the broader design context of design for AR. Theories of 'good design' in artefact design literature do not unilaterally apply to the design for an augmented reality device. In many cases, design in AR fields requires the designer to create new cultural conventions by virtue of the fact that the designer is immersing the user in an unfamiliar environment. Thus, the designer is often unable to utilise affordances and existing cultural conventions because the functions and/or use of the object expands the environment in which affordances and cultural conventions currently have meaning.
Keywords: abstract representations, affordances, augmented reality design, cultural conventions, telemedicine, useability
A comparison of spatial organization strategies in graphical and tangible user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  James Patten; Hiroshi Ishii
We present a study comparing how people use space in a Tangible User Interface (TUI) and in a Graphical User Interface (GUI). We asked subjects to read ten summaries of recent news articles and to think about the relationships between them. In our TUI condition, we bound each of the summaries to one of ten visually identical wooden blocks. In our GUI condition, each summary was represented by an icon on the screen. We asked subjects to indicate the location of each summary by pointing to the corresponding icon or wooden block. Afterward, we interviewed them about the strategies they used to position the blocks or icons during the task.
   We observed that TUI subjects performed better at the location recall task than GUI subjects. In addition, some TUI subjects used the spatial relationship between specific blocks and parts of the environment to help them remember the content of those blocks, while GUI subjects did not do this. Those TUI subjects who reported encoding information using this strategy tended to perform better at the recall task than those who did not.
Keywords: TUI, complementary strategies, spatial memory, spatial organization, tangible user interfaces
Augmenting paper to enhance community information sharing BIBAKFull-Text 51-62
  Antonietta Grasso; Alain Karsenty; Marco Susani
Paper is traditionally considered as a major gap between the physical and electronic worlds, especially after the many attempts that have failed to attain a completely digital world. Paper based artifacts have many affordances that people want to continue to exploit.
   The work presented here is part of the Campiello project. It describes how the existing paper artifacts in use during the visits to cultural and tourist towns as well as artefacts used for local communities can be extended in order to become a bridge instead of a barrier to the richness of the digital world.
   After an introduction that describes the Campiello system and the principles that have driven its functionality, a complete design and the current implementation is presented. Finally, we discuss Paper Interface issues and survey the existing approaches in the field.
Keywords: augmented reality, paper user interface, recommender systems
Video card game: an augmented environment for user centred design discussions BIBAKFull-Text 63-69
  Jacob Buur; Astrid Soendergaard
In User Centred Design, the integration of knowledge of users work practice, preferences etc. into the design process is crucial to success. For this reason, video recording has become a widespread tool for documenting user activities observed in field studies, usability tests and user workshops. To make sense of video recordings -- though a rewarding experience -- is time consuming and mostly left to experts. Even though developers may ask for expert advice on usability matters, chances are that they will not follow it, given the technical and commercial trade-offs in every project.
   In this paper we will argue that, to achieve user friendly products, working with user video should be an integral part of the activities of the design team, not a specialised task of experts. To support this, video must be made available as a resource in design discussions and developers must be allowed to form their own understanding and conclusions. This paper presents a technique for turning video into tangible arguments to support design teams work. Furthermore it discusses how this technique can be improved with Augmented Reality and presents an augmented prototype session.
Keywords: augmented reality environment, collaborative design, user centred design, video analysis
Something from nothing: augmenting a paper-based work practice via multimodal interaction BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  David R. McGee; Philip R. Cohen; Lizhong Wu
In this paper, we describe Rasa: an environment designed to augment, rather than replace, the work habits of its users. These work habits include drawing on Post-it™ notes using a symbolic language. Rasa observes and understands this language, assigning meaning simultaneously to objects in both the physical and virtual worlds. With Rasa, users rollout a paper map, register it, and move the augmented objects from one place to another on it. Once an object is augmented, users can modify the meaning represented by it, ask questions about that representation, view it in virtual reality, or give directions to it, all with speech and gestures. We examine the way Rasa uses language to augment objects, and compare it with prior methods, arguing that language is a more visible, flexible, and comprehensible method for creating augmentations than other approaches.
Keywords: augmented reality, invisible interfaces, mixed reality, multimodal interfaces, phicons, tangible interfaces, ubiquitous computing
Weakly augmented reality: observing and designing the work-place of creative designers BIBAKFull-Text 81-91
  Giorgio De Michelis; Flavio De Paoli; Costanza Pluchinotta; Marco Susani
In this paper we distinguish between two spatially oriented system design paradigms: weak and strong augmented reality. The weak augmented reality paradigm is then applied in the design of a system supporting co-operation and knowledge creation within a design centre. The system has been designed on the hints we got from two subsequent ethnographies of the work practice of creative designers. Since the design centre moved to a new location between our two sets of observations, we clearly focused our attention on the impact that space arrangements had on the practice of its members. The comparison between the two settings in terms of layout, ICT equipment, changes occurred in the practices and attitudes of the designers throughout these years, lead us to design a collaborative environment weakly augmenting the place where designers are working.
Keywords: augmented reality, creative design, knowledge management systems, spatial arrangements
The rototack: designing a computationally-enhanced craft item BIBAKFull-Text 93-101
  Tom Wrensch; Glenn Blauvelt; Mike Eisenberg
This paper describes our progress in creating a device called a rototack. In its design, the rototack is an example of a computationally-enhanced craft item: a small, robust, inexpensive, and versatile -- but also programmable -- physical object for use in a variety of educational and home crafting projects. In particular, the tack is a source of rotational motion, suitable for turning light objects or for powering (e.g.) cams, gears, and linkages in complex, user-defined patterns. We describe the engineering decisions and trade-offs involved in creating our current prototype of the tack; discuss the central issues in creating a programming language and environment for the device; and sketch a variety of potential uses to which the tack might be put.
Keywords: computation and crafts, computationally-enhanced craft items, rototack
Informative art: using amplified artworks as information displays BIBAKFull-Text 103-114
  Johan Redström; Tobias Skog; Lars Hallnäs
Informative art is computer augmented, or amplified, works of art that not only are aesthetical objects but also information displays, in as much as they dynamically reflect information about their environment. Informative art can be seen as a kind of slow technology, i.e. a technology that promotes moments of concentration and reflection. Our aim is to present the design space of informative art. We do so by discussing its properties and possibilities in relation to work on information visualisation, novel information display strategies, as well as art. A number of examples based on different kinds of mapping relations between information and the properties of the composition of an artwork are described.
Keywords: art, augmented and amplified reality, design, information visualisation, ubiquitous computing
Real-world programming BIBAKFull-Text 115-120
  Toshiyuki Masui
Although more and more computing is performed away from desktop computers, most programs used in handheld computers, ubiquitous computers, and augmented-reality systems in the real world are still developed on desktop computers, and users of these systems cannot modify the behavior of the systems or make a new program for the systems without using desktop computers. Programs used in real-world environments should also be programmed in the real world, so we have developed a new programming paradigm, "Real-World Programming (RWP)," which enables users to make programs for handling real-world environments as well as data in computers. By combining simple hardware and software, users can specify actions and conditions and create programs in the real world without using desktop computers. In this paper we describe the features required for RWP, programming techniques for RWP, useful devices for RWP, and examples of RWP.
Keywords: FieldMouse, augmented reality, real-world interface, real-world programming
In search of metaphors for tangible user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 121-129
  Dag Svanaes; William Verplank
In this paper, we seek to identify interesting sources of metaphor for tangible user interfaces (TUIs). We begin by doing a systematic exploration of the design space that results from constructing simple TUI devices. From this we argue that a new set of metaphors are needed for this domain. From usability tests of simple tangible devices, we suggest that magic and paranormal phenomena could be a fruitful place to look for new metaphors for TUIs.
Keywords: interaction design, magic, metaphor, ontology, research methodology, tangible user interfaces
Augmenting fun and beauty: a pamphlet BIBAKFull-Text 131-134
  J. P. Djajadiningrat; C. J. Overbeeke; S. A. G. Wensveen
In this article we describe how the augmented reality and product design communities, which share the common interest of combining the real and the virtual, might learn from each other. From our side, we would like to share with you some of our ideas about product design which we consider highly relevant for the augmented reality community. In a pamphlet we list 10 sloganesque points for action which challenge the status quo in product design. Finally, we present some projects which show how these points could be implemented. We hope this approach will inspire those involved in augmented reality design and help them to avoid the pitfalls that the product design community is now trying to crawl out of.
Keywords: aesthetics, augmented reality, emotion, perceptual-motor, usability
"Interactive rooms -- augmented reality in an architectural perspective" BIBAKFull-Text 135-137
  Peter G. Krogh
This paper will discus aspects of applying augmented reality technologies in architecture through experiments conducted in full-scale, and seen through the concept of atmosphere in architecture. Working with augmented reality in an architectural perspective brings a set of new artistic effects that will change the perception of the architectural space. The theories and experiments described in this paper take their departure in working interdisciplinary with full-scale models taking in considerations of both enhanced digital functions and as well as architectural working methods.
Keywords: atmosphere, augmented reality, interdisciplinary, mock-ups
Support for flexible work settings by augmenting artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 138-140
  Ernest Holm Svendsen; Astrid Pinholt Søndergaard
Based on experiments, this paper argues that augmentation works well to support complex work settings with heavy demands of flexibility. But augmenting particular artifacts has consequences that reach far beyond the artifact itself and into the practice that surrounds it.
Keywords: CSCW, Groupware, augmented reality, evolution of artifacts, flexibility, interactive argumentation, multiple contexts, video card game, work settings
The human device abstraction BIBAKFull-Text 141-143
  Daniel P. Mapes
A human device abstraction is proposed as a way to promote development of commercial applications which apply advanced sensing and viewing technologies found in human computer interaction (HCI) research disciplines such as virtual and enhanced reality.
   A few simple enhanced reality examples are presented which show how human device compliant applications can be developed which are compatible with future sensor technology advancements and remain stable as these device configurations evolve and change over time.
Keywords: CAVE, device abstraction, enhanced reality, human computer interaction, human device, sensors, virtual reality, vodget, widget
A multi-disciplinary course on augmented reality design BIBAFull-Text 144
  Blair MacIntyre; Jay Bolter
In this position statement, we summarize a research seminar we are teaching this spring as a vehicle for discussing our common research interest in the design of augmented reality applications.
Co-opting everyday objects BIBKFull-Text 145-146
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Keywords: audio, augmented reality, awareness, light-weight interaction, ubiquitous computing, visualization
Eyes on the road -- augmenting traffic information BIBAKFull-Text 147-148
  Martin Johansson; Mårten Pettersson
This position paper outlines design ideas gained from a project dealing with different interaction concepts when designing a computer based navigation systems for truck drivers working over large areas and where the delivery and pick-up points from time to time are unfamiliar to the driver. The extension of this previous project includes more 'untraditional' technology, but has the same approach and uses the same basic concepts. Both the original design and the new design are based on an empirical study of truck drivers work practice.
Keywords: augmented reality, interaction paradigms, traffic information, work practice based design
Our little orchestra: the development of an interactive toy BIBAKFull-Text 149-150
  Carolina Browall; Kristina Lindquist
This paper describes the process and the results of a project to develop an interactive educating toy for children. The purpose was to work together with the users and to take advantage of the different disciplines represented in each project group. We were interested in questions such as: How do children play and interact? How do children co-operate and what do they want to play with? To encourage children to cooperate was one of our thoughts, another was to let them help us in the process of developing the toy. Through observations and interviews with the children and studies of scientific literature and studies of what kind of instruments, mixers and music-toys already was out on the market we decided to develop "something-that-makes-music", and the result was a sound-mixer, Our Little Orchestra, looking like a birthday cake.
Keywords: interactive, music, toy, user oriented
ARVIKA: augmented reality for development, production and service BIBAKFull-Text 151-152
  Wolfgang Wohlgemuth; Gunthard Triebfürst
The project ARVIKA, sponsored by the BMBF (ministry of education and research) and supervised by the DLR (German Aerospace Center), uses augmented reality (AR) technologies to research and create a user-oriented and system-driven support of operation procedures. It focuses on the development, production, and service of complex technical products and systems.
   This article aims to give an survey of the project ARVIKA. The realisation of the particular AR-applications results from the partners specified at the end of this article.
Keywords: augmented reality, industrial applications, wearable computing
Human hands as a link between physical and virtual BIBFull-Text 153-154
  Thomas Pederson
Developing mixed reality boundaries BIBAKFull-Text 155-156
  Boriana Koleva; Holger Schnädelbach; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh
Our work in the field of mixed reality has been concerned with the development of the mixed reality boundary approach. In contrast to other approaches that focus on superimposing the virtual and the physical environment, the spaces on either side of the boundary are adjacent but remain distinct. In this position statement we describe the development of mixed reality boundaries, including the basic idea, the properties that can be associated with them and demonstrators. We also discuss our latest work on a particular type of boundary that establishes the illusion that virtual and physical worlds are joined together and that users can physically cross from one to the other.
Keywords: augmented reality, mixed reality boundaries, tele-presence, virtual environments
Evaluating navigation methods for an AR system BIBAKFull-Text 157-158
  Morten Fjeld
BUILD-IT is a planning tool based on computer vision technology, supporting complex planning and composition tasks. A group of people, seated around a table, interact with objects in a virtual scene using real bricks. A plan view of the scene is projected onto the table, where object manipulation takes place. A perspective view is projected on the wall. The views are set by virtual cameras, having spatial attributes like shift, rotation and zoom. However, planar interaction with bricks provides only position and rotation information. This paper explores two alternative methods to bridge the gap between planar interaction and three-dimensional navigation. An empirical evaluation of the two alternatives is in process.
Keywords: augmented reality, bricks, design, evaluation, groupware, interaction, navigation, tangible, ubiquitous, viewpoint control
Interweaving objects, types and people BIBAKFull-Text 159-160
  Matthew Chalmers
This position paper reflects a line of research that focuses on patterns of human activity over time. We aim to fit, show and support human activity via a rich record of people's motion amongst information, tools, other people, and space. We have built tools that track activity in the web and local files, and are now extending them to track motion amongst the streets of the city and the artifacts of a local museum. They make recommendations for movement and selection that are specific to the ongoing context of each user. Our intention is to treat physical and electronic objects as uniformly as possible, concentrating on their similarities as information bearing entities, rather than on their different characteristic media. A higher-level aim is to build systems that conform to contemporary models of language and semiology, that offer a unifying view of information based on its role in human activity and interpretation.
Keywords: context, guides, heterogeneous data, path systems, recommender systems, semiology
Information retrieval system using real world objects BIBAKFull-Text 161-162
  Hiroaki Tobita; Hideki Koike
We propose a new information retrieval system using real world objects, books. This system will replace the role of keyword in searching or query a database. In our system, the user can make VennDiagram by manipulating books on hands, and access to information directory with them. As information is distributed on it, he/she can understand relationships of information at first glance. We considered using real world objects and Venn Diagram to allow the user to focus on a particular area of interest inside the database.
Keywords: Information Retrieval, Venn Diagram, Real World Objects, Visualization, Dynamic Arrangement
New directions: a value-sensitive design approach to augmented reality BIBAKFull-Text 163-164
  Batya Friedman; Peter H., Jr. Kahn
In this position paper we bring a new approach -- Value-Sensitive Design -- to understanding the value implications of augmented reality. We examine seven values: psychological well-being, physical well-being, privacy, deception, informed consent, ownership and property, and trust. In addition, we briefly describe our work where we apply a Value-Sensitive Design approach to augmented reality of the natural world.
Keywords: augmented reality, value-sensitive design
Augmented reality: which augmentation for which reality? BIBAKFull-Text 165-166
  Emmanuel Dubois; Laurence Nigay
In this paper, we first present a brief review of approaches used for studying and designing Augmented Reality (AR) systems. The variety of approaches and definitions in AR requires classification. We define two intrinsic characteristics of AR systems, task focus and nature of augmentation. Based on these two characteristics, we identify four classes of AR systems. In addition our OP-a-S notation provides a complementary characterization method based on interaction. Using OP-a-S, an AR system is modeled as a set of components that communicate with each other. One crucial type of OP-a-S component is the Adapter that establishes a bridge between the real world and the virtual world. By defining a classification scheme, we aim at providing a better understanding of the paradigm of AR and at laying the foundations of future design principles according to the class of systems.
Keywords: classification, interaction characterization
Magic by metaphors BIBAKFull-Text 167-169
  Kim Halskov Madsen
Most research on metaphors and computers focus on the augmentative power of the similarity between the computer application and something already familiar to the user. But metaphor may play two fundamentally different roles depending on whether the primary role of the metaphor is to express something by building on the similarity between the two referents or whether the primary role is to express something new by emphasizing the dissimilarities. On the one hand, when designing computer system we strive for system with a resemblance with the previous environment but, on the other hand, we would also like to benefit from the power of the technology and provide opportunities not available in the current environment.
Keywords: metaphors, seeing-as, tradition and innovation
Augmented reality: dangerous liaisons or the best of both worlds? BIBAFull-Text 170-171
  Wendy E. Mackay
In this paper, we consider the new and evocative work on tangible interfaces and the issues this raises in the light of some old lessons of HCI. In doing so, we make the point that many of these lessons of good design still apply, even when we are considering radically novel forms of interface.