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CT Tables of Contents: 03050709111315

Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Communities and Technologies

Fullname:Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Communities and Technologies
Editors:Wolfgang Prinz; Christine Satchell
Location:Munich, Germany
Dates:2013-Jul-01 to 2013-Jul-02
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2104-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CT13
Links:Conference Website | IISI Website
The impact of influential leaders in the formation and development of social networks BIBAFull-Text 8-15
  Boram Park; Kibeom Lee; Namjun Kang
This study investigates the communication patterns and network structure of influential opinion leaders on Twitter during the 2011 Seoul mayoral elections. Among the two candidates, we focus on the usage pattern of Wonsoon Park, who actively used Twitter during the election campaign. We analyzed the network structure of candidate Park and his 15 Twitter mentors during the election period (September 26, 2011 -- October 26, 2011). The gathered data consists of 19,227 tweets from 8,547 users who were responded to by one of the 17 selected opinion leaders through mentions (@) or retweets (RT). To find the authorities and hubs, which play a crucial role in information propagation, the HITS algorithm was used to quantify the influence exerted by the opinion leaders. In addition, social network triads were used to identify the communication patterns between individual users on Twitter. Results of the analysis showed that the structure of the communication patterns in Twitter were mostly fragmented rather than transitive. This signified that communication occurred from, or converged to, a single node, rather than circulating through multiple nodes during the election period. The majority of the network structures were fragmented, or one-way conversations. In other words, communication happened in the form of aggregation and propagation, rather than sharing and circulating various ideas.
Agorà 2.0: designing hybrid communities BIBAFull-Text 16-25
  Emilia Louisa Pucci; Ingrid Mulder
The current work envisions Agorà 2.0 as a conceptual framework for designing hybrid communities inspired by the values of the ancient Greek agorà as well as those of Web 2.0. We report a research-through-design study of a digital social network extended with a wearable ubiquitous device aiming at augmenting social bonding in contemporary cities. Various research and design iterations as well as the resulting prototypes are described and reflected upon. The elaborated Agorà 2.0 paradigm seems to be helpful for incorporating citizens in future (co-)design of cohesive environments.
Patterns of support in an online community for smoking cessation BIBAFull-Text 26-35
  Bernd Ploderer; Wally Smith; Steve Howard; Jon Pearce; Ron Borland
Social support offers various benefits for health and behaviour change. However, previous work has shown that individuals are typically reluctant to ask for support on social network sites, unless they can present a changed, healthier identity. To examine the relationship between stage of change and social support we conducted a thematic analysis of messages posted in a public Facebook support group for people trying to quit smoking. Our findings show that the kind of support exchanged online is related to participants' stage of change. Contrary to our expectations, supportive responses and leadership in the support group came mainly from users who just started their change process rather than people who had already changed. We discuss contributions to theories of online participation and impression management as well as implications for practitioners who seek to establish support groups.
A stake in the issue of homelessness: identifying values of interest for design in online communities BIBAFull-Text 36-45
  Jes A. Koepfler; Katie Shilton; Kenneth R. Fleischmann
Social media has the potential to impact how traditionally marginalized and geographically disparate communities, such as the homeless, connect with each other and social services online. However, little is known about how best to support these interactions through designing new information and communication technologies or by enhancing existing ones. Considering the values of stakeholders in an online community before embarking on design is one increasingly utilized step in designing for, by, and with traditionally disenfranchised communities. Current values-based design methods emphasize face-to-face interactions, but online interactions also provide spaces to elicit and consider values. This paper synthesizes the results of three studies into a suite of methods for eliciting shared values and conflicting values in online communities. This paper also contributes a survey-based tool containing value portraits as a first step towards implementing these methods. These methods for identifying values of interest to design contribute to a growing body of tools that support values researchers and designers in explicating values prior to, during, and in the evaluation of the design of ICTs.
Agora2.0: enhancing civic participation through a public display BIBAFull-Text 46-54
  Gianluca Schiavo; Marco Milano; Jorge Saldivar; Tooba Nasir; Massimo Zancanaro; Gregorio Convertino
Providing a common place for the civil society to gather and discuss topics of mutual interest is a growing challenge for social and collaborative computing. Web-based tools for civic engagement, while promising, are still disconnected from meaningful physical locations where citizens usually meet and might limit the involvement of a considerable portion of the citizen population. We propose a system, Agora2.0, designed to recover the useful function that public places have had in the past in promoting and regulating citizens' participation in public decisions. Agora2.0 is inspired by the old concept of the Greek agora, or public square. It is composed of an onsite interactive public display and an online site. We present the project, the analysis of the requirements, the system prototype, and its evaluation during deployments in a university and in a public relations office of a European city.
The role of community in exercise: cross-cultural study of online exercise diary users BIBAFull-Text 55-63
  Sanna Malinen; Piia Nurkka
This study investigates users of a newly launched website aimed at tracking exercise activities. The data was collected through an online questionnaire with 282 respondents. Three nationalities, Spanish, Germans and Americans, were compared, and the results show that their relation to community aspects of the service was significantly different. The Spanish showed most interest in collaboration and creation of new contacts, whereas Germans were the least interested in these activities. The finding may be explained by the differences of these national cultures along the individualism-collectivism dimension of Hofstede's cultural theory. Across the nationalities, the users were foremost motivated by using the website for promoting their individual goals in exercise.
Social and mobile interaction design to increase the loyalty rates of young blood donors BIBAFull-Text 64-73
  Marcus Foth; Christine Satchell; Jan Seeburger; Rebekah Russell-Bennett
Young adults represent the largest group of first time donors to the Australian Red Cross Blood Service, but they are also the least loyal group and often do not return after their first donation. At the same time, many young people use the internet and various forms of social media on a daily basis. Web and mobile based technological practices and communication patterns change the way that young people interact with one another, with their families, and communities. Combining these two points of departure, this study seeks to identify best practices of employing mobile apps and social media in order to enhance the loyalty rates of young blood donors. The findings reported in this paper are based on a qualitative approach presenting a nuanced understanding of the different factors that motivate young people to donate blood in the first place, as well as the obstacles or issues that prevent them from returning. The paper discusses work in progress with a view to inform the development of interactive prototypes trialling three categories of features: personal services (such as scheduling); social media (such as sharing the donation experience with friends to raise awareness); and data visualisations (such as local blood inventory levels). We discuss our translation of research findings into design implications.
How user communities improve mass customization productivity BIBAFull-Text 74-79
  Simon Straßburger
This papers addresses the question how mass customization firms use communities to improve customer interaction and thus making mass customization more productive. Out of a pool of 118 mass customization firms and their communities, we selected representative companies (in terms of community size, -- integration and openness) within an iterative approach for in-depth interviews.
   We found that communities can serve as levers for mass customization productivity, but companies seem to exploit them differently: Companies with a small customer base tend to limit communities merely on marketing communication to increase sales output. Providers with large and integrated communities realize a broader productivity potential from communities, exploiting them not only for increasing productivity output but for decreasing input factors in customer interaction processes (such as support in product configuration).
Work-to-rule: the emergence of algorithmic governance in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 80-89
  Claudia Müller-Birn; Leonhard Dobusch; James D. Herbsleb
Research has shown the importance of a functioning governance system for the success of peer production communities. It particularly highlights the role of human coordination and communication within the governance regime. In this article, we extend this line of research by differentiating two categories of governance mechanisms. The first category is based primarily on communication, in which social norms emerge that are often formalized by written rules and guidelines. The second category refers to the technical infrastructure that enables users to access artifacts, and that allows the community to communicate and coordinate their collective actions to create those artifacts. We collected qualitative and quantitative data from Wikipedia in order to show how a community's consensus gradually converts social mechanisms into algorithmic mechanisms. In detail, we analyze algorithmic governance mechanisms in two embedded cases: the software extension "flagged revisions" and the bot "xqbot". Our insights point towards a growing relevance of algorithmic governance in the realm of governing large-scale peer production communities. This extends previous research, in which algorithmic governance is almost absent. Further research is needed to unfold, understand, and also modify existing interdependencies between social and algorithmic governance mechanisms.
Exploring the dynamics of ownership in community-oriented design projects BIBAFull-Text 90-99
  Ann Light; Katie J. Hill; Nicolai Brodersen Hansen; Fiona Hackney; Kim Halskov; Peter Dalsgaard
This paper contributes an exploration of ownership as a dynamic process in community-oriented projects. We use case study accounts of two design projects to consider participation in contexts where social structure is relevant to design outcomes. In studying these dynamics, we consider four aspects: what motivates ownership; how ownership transitions; structures to support ownership; and facilitating efficacy among participants. Specifically, we study the contribution of a Danish research team to the production of a media façade for a Swedish municipality and how British researchers engaged community groups in making internet radio podcasts to share insight. We examine the complexity of the social process involved and trace patterns of change, before concluding with pragmatic and ethical reasons for technology design to pay attention to ownership issues.
Understanding situated action in ludic ecologies BIBAFull-Text 100-109
  Alyson L. Young; Tamara Peyton; Wayne G. Lutters
In order to understand the social mechanics of alternate reality games, this paper presents a situated action analysis of one game, "I Love Bees". We examine the action traces found within the ILB forum accounts around teamwork and puzzle solving. The playful assemblages demonstrate that the presence or absence of certain non-human actants has a definite impact on each "ludic ecology," and that each impact is contextually specific. We found that the careful design of in-game challenges by the game designers worked differently in practice because of the impact of unconsidered non-human actants. In response, players formed teams and adopted technologies to overcome their specific temporal, spatial and organizational constraints. Therefore, designers need to provide appropriate sociotechnical infrastructure to support player needs, and nonhuman actants should be considered when studying and designing hybrid digital/physical environments.
Making space for values: communication & values levers in a virtual team BIBAFull-Text 110-119
  Katie Shilton; Jes A. Koepfler
The infrastructure underlying the Internet continues to evolve, with ramifications for not only the technical protocols that govern network functions, but also implications for social, economic, and legal issues. This paper uses ethnography to examine how and why ethical and social issues arise during the design of Named Data Networking, a new approach to Internet architecture. By focusing on communications modes among a distributed team of network architects, it investigates how particular modes may enable or constrain values levers: practices which encourage discussion of values during design. While face-to-face retreats encourage interdisciplinary work and subsequent discussion of moral values, mediated modes of communication tend to constrain values levers. These limitations may be overcome by encouraging communications techniques such as scenarios and demos, which can be used in both face-to-face and mediated settings.
Political blend: an application designed to bring people together based on political differences BIBAFull-Text 120-130
  Abraham Doris-Down; Husayn Versee; Eric Gilbert
Modern social media have increasingly helped people separate themselves by worldview. We watch television shows and follow blogs that agree with our views, and read Twitter streams of people we like. The result is often called the echo chamber. Scholars cite political echo chambers as partly to blame for the divisive and destructive U.S. political climate. In this paper, we introduce a mobile application called Political Blend designed to combat echo chambers: it brings people with different political beliefs together for a cup of coffee. Based on interviews, we discovered that people are open to this kind of application and feel it may help the broader political environment. The primary contribution of this work is evidence that people are open to meeting those different from them, even those who ideologically oppose them. In an environment dominated by applications matching based on similarities, we see that this is an important finding.
Community engagement for research: contextual design in rural CSCW system development BIBAFull-Text 131-139
  Alan Chamberlain; Andy Crabtree; Mark Davies
In order to bring about innovation within a community-based context, different stakeholder communities often need to be engaged so that they may appropriately take part in the design process. The 'invisible' work of engagement is frequently overlooked, and yet it plays an important, often pivotal role within many design-based research projects. It revolves around negotiations with a series of stakeholder communities in the design setting and ethnographic understandings of the site and community. Insights and accounts are offered based upon practical experience: existing methodologies and engagement strategies are expanded upon. Our research has shown that understanding and employing community engagement strategies is key to the creation of a network of successfully civilly-engaged stakeholders. Failure to instigate such civil engagement appropriately can endanger the project, as the research 'turns' upon this. We present the approaches taken and critically understand the role of community engagement within the design process, with the purpose of enabling designers and other practitioners to appreciate the role that community engagement plays in systems design and the practical implications this might have for it. This research proceeds from a long-term project in which researchers explored community engagement within the context of design.
Studying social technologies and communities of volunteers in emergency management BIBAFull-Text 140-148
  Sergio Herranz; Paloma Díaz; David Díez; Ignacio Aedo
Communities of volunteers are fundamental agents in the emergency management process. In spite of the unquestionable value that social technologies could bring to such communities of volunteers it is not clear whether they are exploiting all their potential and why. This work presents a qualitative study with volunteers from different emergency communities with the purpose of establishing design challenges to better leverage social technologies that can augment the capabilities of such communities. The results of the study suggest the need to address specific design challenges related to reliability, integrity, and efficient analysis of information. In addition, the integration of multiple interaction mechanisms and shared calendars as well as the design of effective and adaptive messages for crisis communications are also considered important aspects by emergency volunteers.
Introducing the space recommender system: how crowd-sourced voting data can enrich urban exploration in the digital era BIBAFull-Text 149-156
  Martin Traunmueller; Ava Fatah gen. Schieck
Navigation systems like Google Maps and TomTom are designed to generate the shortest and less time consuming path for the user to reach a certain destination from his origin location, not taking into account the user's actual walking experience.
   This paper investigates physical and digital urban navigation and describes a new approach by implementing common digital online methods of commenting and recommender systems into the physical world. Those methods are being translated into the urban environment, using Facebook voting data to generate an alternative to the shortest route in order to maximize the pleasure of an urban walk. Initial findings highlight the general importance of the walking experience to the public and suggest that implementing recommendations, based on social media voting systems, in route finding algorithms for mobile applications may enhance the pleasure of urban strolling. The testing of the system in a real world context together with collected feedback and the observations throughout the design process stimulate the discussions of wider issues.
Collective city memory: field experience on the effect of urban computing on community BIBAFull-Text 157-165
  Dimitrios Ringas; Eleni Christopoulou
In this paper we present field experience and user evaluation results from a long-term real world deployment of a novel urban computing application. Our goal has been to study the effect of applying urban computing to its three constituents: place, community and infrastructure. A suitable application for this, should enable us to evaluate how a city is altered, how the perception of people about the city changes, whether the communication among people is encouraged and what is the benefit from a city's infrastructure. We deployed CLIO, an urban computing application that allows forming and interacting with the collective city memory, in two different cities, in Greece and Finland. We carried out in-the-field user trials and interviews, and collected detailed logs for more than two months, evaluating both the suitability of our application for our purpose and the effect of this urban computing application to the city and its people. Our findings shed light on how a city and the perception of people about it change, reveal the extend to which an urban computing system can affect a community and evaluate the role of public infrastructure in those transformations.