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CT Tables of Contents: 03050709111315

Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Communities and Technologies

Fullname:C&T 2007: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Communities and Technologies
Editors:Charles Steinfield; Brian T. Pentland; Mark Ackerman; Noshir Contractor
Location:Michigan State University
Dates:2007-Jun-28 to 2007-Jun-30
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-84628-904-0 (print), 978-1-84628-905-7 (online); hcibib: CT07
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page | http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84628-905-7 Online Proceedings
Everything in Moderation: The Effects of Adult Moderators in Online Youth Communities BIBAFull-Text 1-20
  Meg Cramer; Debbie Zutty; Brooke Foucault; David Huffaker; Dustin Derby; Justine Cassell
There is considerable debate over the appropriate role for adults in youth online communities. Although many within the mass media argue for adult supervision of youth online, our research suggests that many young people are using the Internet to communicate productively with peers, to solve problems and learn collaboratively online. However, without studies that explicitly explore the positive aspects of youth online community involvement and the actual effects of adult intervention and oversight, only misguided and chilling stories may hit the news. In this study, we examine the 1998 Junior Summit, a well-studied, early example of a large-scale international community for youth, in order to look at the effects of moderator involvement on several measures of positive youth involvement. Children who participated in the Junior Summit were asked to identify and write white-papers about the ways in which technology could help young people. We have selected the Junior Summit as our community of focus because we have access to data that is mostly otherwise unavailable to researchers -- the content of all of the community's posts as well as information about each participant, follow-up interviews five year's after the community's launch, and questionnaire data about self-efficacy and wellbeing. In this study, we compare the content of three different sub-forums, with different adult moderators and different involvement levels, in order to evaluate the impact of adult moderation on the community.
Introductions and Requests: Rhetorical Strategies That Elicit Response in Online Communities BIBAFull-Text 21-39
  Moira Burke; Elisabeth Joyce; Tackjin Kim; Vivek Anand; Robert Kraut
Online communities allow millions of people who would never meet in person to interact. People join web-based discussion boards, email lists, and chat rooms for friendship, social support, entertainment, and information on technical, health, and leisure activities [24]. And they do so in droves. One of the earliest networks of online communities, Usenet, had over nine million unique contributors, 250 million messages, and approximately 200,000 active groups in 2003 [27], while the newer My Space, founded in 2003, attracts a quarter million new members every day [27].
Rhythms of Social Interaction: Messaging Within a Massive Online Network BIBAFull-Text 41-66
  Scott A. Golder; Dennis M. Wilkinson; Bernardo A. Huberman
College students spend a significant amount of time using online social network services for messaging, sharing information, and keeping in touch with one another (e.g. [3, 10]). As these services represent a plentiful source of electronic data, they provide an opportunity to study dynamic patterns of social interactions quickly and exhaustively. In this paper, we study the social network service Facebook, which began in early 2004 in select universities, but grew quickly to encompass a very large number of universities. Studies have shown that, as of 2006, Facebook use is nearly ubiquitous among U. S. college students with over 90% active participation among undergraduates [5, 16].
A Noun Phrase Analysis Tool for Mining Online Community Conversations BIBAFull-Text 67-86
  Caroline Haythornthwaite; Anatoliy Gruzd
Online communities are creating a growing legacy of texts in online bulletin board postings, chat, blogs, etc. These texts record conversation, knowledge exchange, and variation in focus as groups grow, mature, and decline; they represent a rich history of group interaction and an opportunity to explore the purpose and development of online communities. However, the quantity of data created by these communities is vast, and to address their processes in a timely manner requires automated processes. This raises questions about how to conduct automated analyses, and what can we gain from them: Can we gain an idea of community interests, priorities, and operation from automated examinations of texts of postings and patterns of posting behavior? Can we mine stored texts to discover patterns of language and interaction that characterize a community?
Reflections and Reactions to Social Accounting Meta-Data BIBAFull-Text 87-106
  Eric Gleave; Marc Smith
Online systems are becoming increasingly social environments in which people share advice and experiences in threaded discussions, photos, videos and other files in systems like Flickr and You Tube, and display details of their social lives through a host of social networking sites. Yet even as these settings provide rich content, that content does not automatically provide us with social cues that can reveal what an interaction might mean, who we are interacting with, or the nature of their underlying character. As more of social life is embedded in these systems, we come to want and need systems for expressing identity and building reputations that can help us resolve some of this uncertainty. Because interaction in these settings leaves traces, however, we can look at histories and patterns of actions from hundreds of interactions. These types of accumulated reputations can reveal a great deal.
Modes of Social Science Engagement in Community Infrastructure Design BIBAFull-Text 107-130
  David Ribes; Karen Baker
A new space for social science is opening within information infrastructure design projects. These are large-scale, distributed scientific collaborations with the dual goal of building community and technical resources for that community. These endeavors are complex and ambitious combinations of research, information technology deployment, and bringing together of heterogeneous communities (Finholt 2004). It is becoming increasingly common for such projects to seek out the 'services' of social scientists not only as researchers but also as project participants in building community, organizing collaboration or assisting in the implementation of novel technologies. These are opportunities for social science. In this paper we ask 'how best to make use of these opportunities?'
Workplace Connectors as Facilitators for Work BIBAFull-Text 131-150
  Norman Makoto Su; Gloria Mark; Stewart A. Sutton
Through a wide range of information technologies information workers are continuing to expand their circle of contacts. In tandem, research is also focusing more and more on the role that both face-to-face and distributed interactions play in accomplishing work. Though some empirical studies have illustrated the importance of informal interaction and networks in establishing collaborations (e.g. Nardi et al, 2002; Whittaker, Isaacs, et al, 1997), there is still a need for more in situ research to understand how different types of interactions support group work.
Online and Offline Integration in Virtual Communities of Patients -- an Empirical Analysis BIBAFull-Text 151-170
  Achim Dannecker; Ulrike Lechner
Virtual communities of patients (also mentioned as virtual communities in health care -- VCHC) provide today mainly information and mutual support for their members. They offer information concerning diseases, treatments or new research results. Information shared among members includes experience reports on how the disease was contracted, how it affects the daily life and how to cope with it or even how to overcome it. In some VCHC, experiences with medical institutions, medics or treatments are being discussed.
Life in the Times of Whypox: A Virtual Epidemic as a Community Event BIBAFull-Text 171-190
  Yasmin B. Kafai; David Feldon; Deborah Fields; Michael Giang; Maria Quintero
In the past ten years, multiplayer games have increased in popularity with now millions of players spending dozens of hours or more online each week. Researchers have documented many aspects of the activities and motivations of players highlighting how players in these communities are defined by a common set of endeavors and social practices. (2003) called game communities for this reason 'affinity' groups. Often particular practices such as avatar selling and adena farming or events such as warrior revolts and virtual elections are used to illustrate issues with community norms (Steinkuehler, 2006), ownership and freedom of expression (Taylor, 2002; 2005) in virtual worlds. With few exceptions (Cassell, Huffaker, Tversky, & Ferriman, 2006), most of these practices and events have been emergent phenomena.
Communities of Practice in MMORPGs: An Entry Point into Addiction? BIBAFull-Text 191-208
  Karsten D. Wolf
Massive Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Games (MMORPG) have become increasingly popular over the past few years. The most successful MMORPG "World of Warcraft" has to date -- according to its publisher Blizzard Entertainment -- more than 8 million subscribers1 who pay a monthly fee to play on a regular basis. The ongoing investment in online gaming services by videogame publishers such as Microsoft's Xbox Live is pushing this development further and will increase the percentage of online gamers in the near future. In this context it has to be noted that MMORPG form a special subset of online games which demand a much stronger commitment than other online genres, such as first person shooters, tactical shooters, sports and driving games, which can be played more casually.
Factors Affecting User Participation in Video UCC (User-Created Contents) Services BIBAFull-Text 209-224
  Seongcheol Kim; Eun-Kyung Na; Min-Ho Ryu
The role of users has evolved to become one that includes innovation and participation in the creation of novel products and their use (Von Hippel 1986). In prehistoric times, humans had the desire to create and share their artistic activities and experiences. A case in point is Lascaux1, which exemplifies the human endeavor regarding the creation of art. In the media environment, users no longer passively consume media contents; instead, they actively demand their preferred contents and try to create their own contents themselves.
A Socio-Technical Approach for Topic Community Member Selection BIBAFull-Text 225-244
  Aldo de Moor; Anjo Anjewierden
Wicked problems and social complexity abound in our globalizing, ever more complex society [6]. Wicked problems, such as many socioeconomic and environmental issues, cannot be solved in traditional ways, as no perfect solution can be found. Also, the understanding of the problem evolves as the solution is being worked on, but no clear agreement on what the real problem is can be reached. The only way to seriously address these problems is by examining a wide range of possible solutions, argumentations, and viewpoints by as many stakeholders as possible [13, 6]. Classical organizations, like governments and official scientific bodies, are no longer capable of representing these interests on their own. New forms of agile social structures are needed, covering a wide spectrum of public interests instead of limited national or organizational interests.
Tracking Online Collaborative Work as Representational Practice: Analysis and Tool BIBAFull-Text 245-264
  Johann Ari Larusson; Richard Alterman
Online communities of practice are social entities comprised of users who have overlapping or shared goals and interests. Technology that supports activity within an online community of practice takes several forms, ranging from alternate channels of communication, to the virtual meeting rooms, to wiki-based methods for sharing documents. The evaluation of the role of technology, and its design, in the productivity of online communities of practice is a significant and necessary step to engineering better environments for online collaboration.
Implicit Many-to-One Communication in Online Communities BIBAFull-Text 265-274
  Mu Xia; Yun Huang; Wenjing Duan; Andrew B. Whinston
The recent explosive growth of popular social communities such as Flickr.com, YouTube.com and Digg.com has generated much renewed interest on the Internet as a new medium. This new movement is often considered attributable to the Web 2.0 technologies (e.g., Ajax, XML, RSS, and Wiki) and social computing concepts (e.g. blog, tagging, and voting) that make mass user interactions both easy and multi-faceted. They retain the existing ingredients of online community-based communications, such as individual relationship and message-based conversations. At the same time, non-message-based and often collective interactions, e.g., voting and ranking, enrich user communication.
Sharing Wireless Internet in Urban Neighbourhoods BIBAFull-Text 275-294
  Matthew Wong; Andrew Clement
Over the last decade, Internet use in countries around the world has grown dramatically. This is especially true in Canadian cities, and Canada is widely acknowledged as having strong broadband penetration rates (Frieden 2005; Wu 2004). Residential households are increasingly adopting Internet technology and using it in their daily activities. In large urban centres, Internet usage rates approach 80%, overwhelmingly via broadband connections (Statistics Canada 2006). Users commonly report using the Internet for many facets of their lives, including communication, entertainment, and information-seeking in the home, at work, and at school (Dryburgh 2001).
CommunityNetSimulator: Using Simulations to Study Online Community Networks BIBAFull-Text 295-321
  Jun Zhang; Mark S. Ackerman; Lada Adamic
Help-seeking communities have been playing an increasingly critical role the way people seek and share information online, forming the basis for knowledge dissemination and accumulation. Consider:
  • About.com, a popular help site (http://about.com), boasts 30 million distinct
       users each month
  • Knowledge-iN, a Korean site (http://kin.naver.com/), has accumulated 1.5
       million question and answers.
  • Technology and Community Behavior in Online Environments BIBAFull-Text 323-350
      Anita L. Blanchard; M. Lynne Markus
    The literature on virtual or online communities contains two largely disjoint bodies of scholarship. One, which we call the "communities" literature, is concerned primarily with the social and psychological processes observable within groups of people that interact regularly in online environments. The other, concerned primarily with the effects of technological environments on individual and group behavior, we call the "environments" literature.
    Trust in Electronic Networks of Practice: An Integrative Model BIBAFull-Text 351-370
      Wei Zhang
    Trust plays an important role in facilitating information and knowledge sharing (e.g. Levin and Cross 2004; Szulanski et al. 2004). It helps create a knowledge-sharing culture by encouraging knowledge seeking and motivating knowledge contribution (Kankanhalli et al. 2005). It increases the effectiveness of knowledge sharing: A trusting knowledge contributor gives out more information and information of higher quality (Tsai and Ghoshal 1998), and a trusting recipient perceives the received information more favorably and is more likely to act on it (Sussman and Siegal 2003). The importance and the effects of trust for knowledge sharing are well documented; however, much less research has explored the development of such trust.
    Embeddedness and Media Use in Networks of Practice BIBAFull-Text 371-394
      Bart van den Hooff; Marleen Huysman; Marlous Agterberg
    In this paper, we analyze the value of networks of practice in terms of their contribution in supporting the exchange of distributed knowledge. In explaining this value, we focus on the degree of embeddedness of these networks -- both social embeddedness and embeddedness in practice. Since both forms of embeddedness can be assumed to be related to different modes of communication, we will seek explanations for both forms of embeddedness in media use.
    Enriching Community Networks by Supporting Deliberation BIBAFull-Text 395-417
      Fiorella De Cindio; Antonio De Marco; Laura Anna Ripamonti
    Community Networks (CNs), as conceived in the 1990s (Silver 2000; Bishop 1994; Schuler 1994) are virtual (or online) communities, strongly rooted in a specific territory, whose shared focus of interest is 'public affairs'. Community networks have provided a framework for gathering civic intelligence (Civille 2000; Schuler 2001), for supporting the development of people's projects (De Cindio, 2004), and for promoting public dialog among citizens and between citizens and local institutions (De Cindio and Ripamonti 2005; Ranerup 2000; Osborne and Gaebler 1992).
    Models of Government Blogging: Design Tradeoffs in Civic Engagement BIBAFull-Text 419-438
      Andrea Kavanaugh; Hyung Nam Kim; Manuel Pérez-Quiñones; Philip Isenhour
    Some local government officials and staff have been experimenting with emerging technologies as part of a broad suite of media used for informing and communicating with their constituencies. In addition to the typical government website and, for some, email exchange with citizens, some town and municipal governments are using blogs, video streaming, podcasting, and Real Simple Syndication (RSS) to reach constituencies with updates and, in some cases, interaction and discussion between citizens and government.
    Tuning In: Challenging Design for Communities through a Field Study of Radio Amateurs BIBAFull-Text 439-461
      Cristian Bogdan; John Bowers
    As illustrated by the emerging field of Communities and Technologies, the topic of community, whether further qualified by 'virtual' (Rheingold 1993), 'on line' or 'networked' (Schuler 1996), has become a major focus for field study, design, technical infrastructural provision, as well as social, psychological and economic theorising. Let us review some early examples of this 'turn to community'. (1999) discuss the 'network communities of SeniorNet', an organisation that supports people over the age of 50 in the use of computer networking technologies. The SeniorNet study highlights the complex 'collage' of participation and interaction styles that community members sustain, many of which go beyond conventional understandings of older people, their practices and relations to technology. While the members of SeniorNet are geographically dispersed, (1996) describe the 'Blacksburg Electronic Village', a local community computing initiative centred around Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. As long ago as 1994, (1994) claimed the existence of over 100 such projects in the US with very diverse aims and experiences but all concerned to be responsive to a community's needs while exploiting the Internet and the technical developments it has made possible. For their part, (2001) offer some generic infrastructural tools for community computing, including support for 'identity management'.
    Analyzing the Dynamics of Community Formation Using Brokering Activities BIBAFull-Text 463-477
      Matthias Trier; Annette Bobrik
    During the past years, a growing attention on electronic collaboration and group formation among internet users but also among employees in knowledge related work context could be recognized. Indicators are the intensive discussion of the role of social software and web2.0 but also of corporate electronic communities of practice and knowledge management (e.g. Wasko and Faraj, 2000). This development invoked increased interest in observing, visualizing, analyzing, and even 'measuring' the structures of such networks.
    A Relational Scaffolding Model of Hybrid Communication BIBAFull-Text 479-508
      Jens O. Meissner; Harald Tuckermann
    Two fundamental trends with important implications for today's management of organizations build the impetus for this paper. The first is the ubiquity of computer-mediated communication (CMC). The second is the revived interest for social relations and social networks at the workplace and its focus on relational processes in organizations.
    Advice Networks and Local Diffusion of Technological Innovations BIBAFull-Text 509-529
      Juan Carlos Barahona; Alex Sandy Pentland
    Classical writers such as John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx speculated that the standard of living could not rise indefinitely unless advances in technology increased the yield of the means of production. Neoclassical growth theory, based on capital accumulation, supports this intuition [1]. Digital tools increase personal productivity. Communication technologies enhance the coordination among individuals and increase the efficacy and efficiency of collective efforts. In both ways, technology contributes with wealth creation and the overall welfare of the community.
    World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access BIBAFull-Text 531-544
      Liezl Coetzee
    "As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a 'universal' medium of egalitarian communication." (Trend 2001:2)
    High Tech Programmers in Low-Income Communities: Creating a Computer Culture in a Community Technology Center BIBAFull-Text 545-563
      Yasmin B. Kafai; Kylie A. Peppler; Grace M. Chiu
    For the last twenty years, issues of the digital divide have driven efforts around the world to address the lack of access to computers and the Internet, pertinent and language appropriate content, and technical skills in low-income communities (Schuler & Day, 2004a and b). The title of our paper makes reference to a milestone publication (Schon, Sanyal, & Mitchell, 1998) that showcased some of the early work and thinking in this area. Schon, Sanyal and Mitchell's book edition included an article outlining the Computer Clubhouse, a type of community technology center model, which was developed to create opportunities for youth in low-income communities to become creators and designers of technologies by (1998). The model has been very successful scaling up, with over 110 Computer Clubhouses now in existence worldwide.