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CSCW Tables of Contents: 0608101112-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW 2015 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing

Fullname:Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing
Editors:Dan Cosley; Andrea Forte; Luigina Ciolfi; David McDonald
Location:Vancouver, Canada
Dates:2015-Mar-14 to 2015-Mar-18
Volume:1
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2922-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CSCW15-1
Papers:163
Pages:1918
Links:Conference Website

Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW 2015 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing

Fullname:Companion Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing
Editors:Dan Cosley; Andrea Forte; Luigina Ciolfi; David McDonald
Location:Vancouver, Canada
Dates:2015-Mar-14 to 2015-Mar-18
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2946-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CSCW15-2
Papers:77
Pages:324
Links:Conference Website
  1. CSCW 2015-02-28 Volume 1
    1. Keynote Address
    2. Crowdfunding
    3. Hacking and Making
    4. Aging Gracefully and Collaboratively
    5. Policy and the Legislative Context
    6. Mood and Emotion
    7. Framing Collaboration: Systems and Analysis
    8. Understanding Deviance in Collaboration
    9. Urban Environments
    10. All in the Family
    11. Trust & Anonymity
    12. Computer Supported Happiness
    13. Annotation Systems and Approaches
    14. Scientific Domains
    15. Leveraging the Crowd
    16. Mobile Collaboration
    17. Studies of Coordination
    18. Young Adults and Online Behavior
    19. Crowd Work and Crowd Process
    20. Volunteerism
    21. Teamwork Challenges
    22. Politics and Social Networks
    23. Motivating Peer Production
    24. My Mobile, My Friends
    25. Is There a Doctor in the Room?
    26. Leveraging Language
    27. Collaboration in a Globalised World
    28. Technologies in the Workplace
    29. Creative Collaborating
    30. Collaborating Around Crisis
    31. Location, Location, Location
    32. Communities for Individual Behavior Change
    33. Wikipedia: Structure & Function
    34. Collaboration in the Open Classroom
    35. Journalism and Politics
    36. Gender and Sexual Identity
    37. Social Dynamics and My Phone
    38. Recommender Systems
    39. Systems in Support of Health & Wellness
    40. Collaborative Counseling
    41. Community-Based Participatory Research
    42. Collaborative Software Development
    43. Influence and the Social Network
    44. Temporality and Rhythms of Work
    45. Collaborating through Social Media
    46. Managing Chronic Illness through Collaboration
    47. Distance Still Matters
    48. The Powers of Co-location
    49. Collaborative Design Approaches
    50. Collaborating Under Constraints
    51. Civic Participation
    52. Experiencing Social Media
    53. Children and Families
    54. Motivating Crowdwork
    55. There's Just Something About Hands
    56. Games and Virtual Worlds
    57. Motivation and Dynamics of the Open Classroom
    58. Closing Keynote
  2. CSCW 2015-03-14 Volume 2
    1. Demos
    2. Doctoral Consortium
    3. Panels
    4. Posters
    5. Workshops

CSCW 2015-02-28 Volume 1

Keynote Address

The Facebook Study: A Personal Account of Data Science, Ethics and Change BIBAFull-Text 1
  Jeff T. Hancock
Big social data, such as that produced by Facebook and Twitter, have the potential to transform the social sciences and lead to advances in understanding human behavior. At the same time, novel large-scale methods and forms of collaboration between academia and industry raise new and important ethical questions.
   In this talk I will discuss the Facebook Emotion study and step through several aspects of the study that involve important ethical decision points, and provide some insights on why the study generated such massive attention and criticism. I will also discuss the experience of an Internet-scale controversy, from the personal costs to the gift of criticism, and the potential opportunities to move the discussion forward.

Crowdfunding

Understanding the Effects of Crowdfunding on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy BIBAFull-Text 3-16
  Emily Harburg; Julie Hui; Michael Greenberg; Elizabeth M. Gerber
Crowdfunding is emerging as a new socio-technical system that is changing how entrepreneurs interact with their community of financial supporters. While computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) researchers have begun to explore how this new type of system influences entrepreneurial work, less is understood about how the system influences their psychological experience -- specifically self-efficacy, or belief in one's own ability to succeed at a task, which affects persistence, learning, and performance. Drawing on Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, we conducted a qualitative study of 53 entrepreneurs using crowdfunding and found that crowdfunding can influence self-efficacy through (1) social validation, (2) role modeling, (3) mastery, and (4) physiological states supported by socio-technical features, such as displaying a concrete goal, examples of other's work, or public feedback. Results suggest how socio-technical systems can be designed to help entrepreneurs perform to enhance our economic and social prosperity.
Crowds on Wall Street: Extracting Value from Collaborative Investing Platforms BIBAFull-Text 17-30
  Gang Wang; Tianyi Wang; Bolun Wang; Divya Sambasivan; Zengbin Zhang; Haitao Zheng; Ben Y. Zhao
In crowdsourced systems, it is often difficult to separate the highly capable "experts" from the average worker. In this paper, we study the problem of evaluating and identifying experts in the context of SeekingAlpha and StockTwits, two crowdsourced investment services that are encroaching on a space dominated for decades by large investment banks. We seek to understand the quality and impact of content on collaborative investment platforms, by empirically analyzing complete datasets of SeekingAlpha articles (9 years) and StockTwits messages (4 years). We develop sentiment analysis tools and correlate contributed content to the historical performance of relevant stocks. While SeekingAlpha articles and StockTwits messages provide minimal correlation to stock performance in aggregate, a subset of experts contribute more valuable (predictive) content. We show that these authors can be easily identified by user interactions, and investments using their analysis significantly outperform broader markets. Finally, we conduct a user survey that sheds light on users views of SeekingAlpha content and stock manipulation.
Crowdfunding Science: Sharing Research with an Extended Audience BIBAFull-Text 31-43
  Julie S. Hui; Elizabeth M. Gerber
Crowdfunding is changing how, why, and which research projects are pursued. With the increasing number of crowdfunded research projects, it is important to understand what drives scientists to launch crowdfunding campaigns and how it affects their work. To better understand this re-cent phenomenon, we present a grounded theory of how and why scientists crowdfund. Through 27 semi-structured interviews, we find that scientists are motivated to crowd-fund in order to share their work and engage the public in the research process in ways traditional science work has not offered. Scientists also perceive crowdfunding as a more accessible way to get funds quickly compared to existing fundraising mechanisms, such as grant applications. However, they must learn to use more accessible language to successfully communicate their research through social media to a broad audience of non-scientists and professional peers. Based on these findings, we discuss design implications to inform future crowdfunding platforms and sup-port tools.

Hacking and Making

Reliving the Past & Making a Harmonious Society Today: A Study of Elderly Electronic Hackers in China BIBAFull-Text 44-55
  Yuling Sun; Silvia Lindtner; Xianghua Ding; Tun Lu; Ning Gu
This paper tells a story of DIY (do it yourself) making that does not neatly fit more familiar narratives of making: as individual empowerment, as a democratizing force, and as technoscientific innovation. Drawing on ethnographic research with a collective of elderly electronic hackers in China, we provide insights into the socio-technical and politico-economic processes of hacking and making. This paper examines how the activity of making functioned for elderly DIY enthusiasts as way of remaking and reliving the past and as a means for expressing class belonging and citizenship. We show that making and hacking is not practiced in a void independent of social, political or economic forces. Rather, making unfolds in relation to, and is contingent on, societal norms and specific techno-cultural histories. As much as hacking empowers certain people, it excludes others and functions as a site for the exercise of power and social distinction making.
Hacking Culture, Not Devices: Access and Recognition in Feminist Hackerspaces BIBAFull-Text 56-68
  Sarah Fox; Rachel Rose Ulgado; Daniela Rosner
This paper examines the motivations, activities, and ideals of people organizing feminist hackerspaces: collaborative workspaces developed to support women's creative and professional pursuits. Drawing on interviews, participant observation and archival data collected across the Pacific Northwest over nine months, we show how members of these spaces use small-scale collaborative design and acts of making to work out their place in society in ways that contest widely accepted understandings of hacking, technology, and collaboration. In designing how the space should look, feel, and run, members reframe activities seldom associated with technical work (e.g., weaving, identity workshops) as forms of hacking. In so doing, they shift concerns for women in technology from questions of access (who is included) to questions of recognition (who is visible) while grappling with productive ambiguities in between. We describe lessons these tension present for examining women's relations with technology in CSCW.
Worship, Faith, and Evangelism: Religion as an Ideological Lens for Engineering Worlds BIBAFull-Text 69-81
  Morgan G. Ames; Daniela K. Rosner; Ingrid Erickson
While some in the CSCW community have researched the values in technology design and engineering practices, the underlying ideologies that reinforce and protect those values remain under-explored. This paper seeks to address this gap by identifying a common ideological framework that appears across four engineering endeavors: the OLPC Project, the National Day of Civic Hacking, the Fixit Clinic, and the Stanford d.school. We found that all four of these communities utilized elements of religious practice to affirm their membership and shared vision. We describe the forms of worship we saw in these engineering worlds, their practices of evangelism, and the ways in which they addressed doubt. We also demonstrate the role mythologies play as ideologically charged narratives. Our discussion of these parallels illuminates the extent and consequences of quasi-religious practices in engineering worlds and illustrates the utility of using religion as a "lens" for understanding ideological commitments in engineering culture.

Aging Gracefully and Collaboratively

Authenticity, Relatability and Collaborative Approaches to Sharing Knowledge about Assistive Living Technology BIBAFull-Text 82-94
  John Vines; Peter C. Wright; David Silver; Maggie Winchcombe; Patrick Olivier
Health and care providers are increasingly looking to online and peer-to-peer services to supplement existing channels of assistive living technology (ALTs) provision and assessment. We describe the findings from 12 co-design workshops with 28 people from the UK representing a range of older people with and without health conditions, users of ALT and carers for people using such devices. The workshops were conducted to explore issues related to finding reliable information about ALT with the goal of gathering requirements for the design of a peer-to-peer knowledge sharing platform. Our analysis highlights how a current reliance on peers and informal networks relates to a desire to establish the authenticity and relatability of another person's experience to one's own circumstances. This connects to a perceived mistrust in information where provenance and authenticity is not clear. We use these to critique the wisdom of taking an e-marketplace and recommendation service approach to ALT provision and assessment, and offer alternatives based on our findings.
To Risk or Not to Risk?: Improving Financial Risk Taking of Older Adults by Online Social Information BIBAFull-Text 95-104
  Jason Chen Zhao; Wai-Tat Fu; Hanzhe Zhang; Shengdong Zhao; Henry Duh
Increasing number of older adults manage their retirement savings online. A crucial element of better management is to take rational financial risk -- to strike a reasonable balance between expected gain and loss under uncertainty. With the emergence of Web 2.0 technologies, social trading networks can help individuals make better financial decisions by providing information about others' actions. It is, however, unclear whether these resources is beneficial to older adult's own financial decisions, especially because older adults are vulnerable to poor risk management. To address this question, we devise an experiment that improves upon an existing experimental economic task. We find that both peer information (detailed choices by a few individuals) and majority information (aggregated choices of the crowd) help older adults make more risk-neutral decisions. Furthermore, the combination of peer and majority information corrects more mistakes of more risk-averse older adults.

Policy and the Legislative Context

Wireless Visions: Infrastructure, Imagination, and US Spectrum Policy BIBAFull-Text 105-115
  Richmond Y. Wong; Steven J. Jackson
Effective use of spectrum is essential to the forms of mobile, ubiquitous, and social computing that increasingly shape and define CSCW research. This paper calls attention to the key policy processes by which the future of wireless spectrum -- and the forms of technology design and use that depend on it -- is being imagined, shaped, and contested. We review CSCW and HCI scholarship arguing for infrastructure and policy as important but neglected sites of CSCW analysis, and separate lines of work arguing for "sociotechnical imaginaries" as key sites and outcomes of technology policy and design. We then turn to histories of U.S. spectrum regulation, before analyzing ongoing FCC policy actions around incentive auctions and unlicensed spectrum use. We argue that such processes are central to the imagination and future of mobile computing; and that CSCW can benefit from adding such policy concerns to its traditional repertoires of design and use.
Understanding Copyright Law in Online Creative Communities BIBAFull-Text 116-129
  Casey Fiesler; Jessica L. Feuston; Amy S. Bruckman
Copyright law is increasingly relevant to everyday interactions online, from social media status updates to artists showcasing their work. This is especially true in creative spaces where rules about reuse and remix are notoriously gray. Based on a content analysis of public forum postings in eight different online communities featuring different media types (music, video, art, and writing), we found that copyright is a frequent topic of conversation and that much of this discourse stems from problems that copyright causes for creative activities. We identify the major types of problems encountered, including chilling effects that negatively impact technology use. We find that many challenges can be explained by lack of knowledge about legal or policy rules, including breakdowns in user expectations for the sites they use. We argue that lack of clarity is a pervasive usability problem that should be considered more carefully in the design of user-generated content platforms.

Mood and Emotion

Emotion Map: A Location-based Mobile Social System for Improving Emotion Awareness and Regulation BIBAFull-Text 130-142
  Yun Huang; Ying Tang; Yang Wang
Effective emotion regulation can benefit many aspects of our lives such as mental health and work performance. Informed by emotion regulation theories and in consultation with our university counseling center, we designed a novel location-based mobile social app, Emotion Map, to help improve people's awareness and regulations of their emotions. The app allows users to log their emotions with the associated time, location, and activity information. Users can keep these logged emotions to themselves or share them with others publicly or anonymously. We conducted a 4-week field trial of the app with 14 university students. Combining usage logs and in-person interviews, our analysis shows promising results of the app. Specifically, we found that the app improved some participants' self-knowledge of their emotions, supported their various emotion regulations, and enabled better awareness of the emotion statuses of their friends and communities.
MoodLight: Exploring Personal and Social Implications of Ambient Display of Biosensor Data BIBAFull-Text 143-153
  Jaime Snyder; Mark Matthews; Jacqueline Chien; Pamara F. Chang; Emily Sun; Saeed Abdullah; Geri Gay
MoodLight is an interactive ambient lighting system that responds to biosensor input related to an individual's current level of arousal. Changes in levels of arousal correspond to fluctuations in the color of light provided by the system, altering the immediate environment in ways intimately related to the user's private internal state. We use this intervention to explore personal and social implications of the ambient display of biosensor data. A design probe study conducted with university students provided the opportunity to observe MoodLight being used by individuals and dyads. Discussion of findings highlights key tensions associated with the dialectics of technology-mediated self-awareness and automated disclosure of personal information, addressing issues of agency, skepticism and uncertainty. This study provides greater understanding of the ways in which the representations of personal informatics, with a focus on ambient feedback, influence our perceptions of ourselves and those around us.
Social Sharing of Emotions on Facebook: Channel Differences, Satisfaction, and Replies BIBAFull-Text 154-164
  Natalya N. Bazarova; Yoon Hyung Choi; Victoria Schwanda Sosik; Dan Cosley; Janis Whitlock
People often share emotions with others in order to manage their emotional experiences. We investigate how social media properties such as visibility and directedness affect how people share emotions in Facebook, and their satisfaction after doing so. 141 participants rated 1,628 of their own recent status updates, posts they made on others' timelines, and private messages they sent for intensity, valence, personal relevance, and overall satisfaction felt after sharing each message. For network-visible channels-status updates and posts on others' timelines-they also rated their satisfaction with replies they received. People shared differently between channels, with more intense and negative emotions in private messages. People felt more satisfied after sharing more positive emotions in all channels and after sharing more personally relevant emotions in network-visible channels. Finally, people's overall satisfaction after sharing emotions in network-visible channels is strongly tied to their reply satisfaction. Quality of replies, not just quantity, matters, suggesting the need for designs that help people receive valuable responses to their shared emotions.

Framing Collaboration: Systems and Analysis

Coordination-Artifacts Suiting: When Plans are in the Midst of Ordering Systems BIBAFull-Text 165-178
  Ilaria Redaelli; Antonella Carassa
This paper addresses the received understanding of the status of plans in cooperative work-that is, artefacts that anticipate future ways of performing activities, to challenge the received understanding of the plan's capacity to anticipate interdependencies as an immutable feature of plans. We propose conceptualizing the plan's capacity to anticipate interdependencies at work as an emergent, distributed and artifact-mediated activity that might be uncovered studying plans, planning and the plans application as work objects and activities occurring within a multiplicity of coordinative artifacts and protocols. This way we can expand our knowledge on how the plans anticipation is maintained in changing environments to support work coordination and we might support designers of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) -- efforts for the design of CSCW systems.
From The Matrix to a Model of Coordinated Action (MoCA): A Conceptual Framework of and for CSCW BIBAFull-Text 179-194
  Charlotte P. Lee; Drew Paine
The CSCW community is reliant upon technology-centric models of groupware and collaboration that frame how we examine and design for cooperative work. This paper both reviews the CSCW literature to examine existing models of collaborative work and proposes a new, expanded conceptual model: the Model of Coordinated Action (MoCA). MoCA is a broader framework for describing complex collaborative situations and environments including, but not limited to, collaborations that have diverse, high-turnover memberships or emerging practices. We introduce MoCA's seven dimensions of coordinative action and illustrate their connection to past and current CSCW research. Finally, we discuss some ramifications of MoCA for our understanding of CSCW as a sociotechnical design space.
The Effects of View Portals on Performance and Awareness in Co-Located Tabletop Groupware BIBAFull-Text 195-206
  David Pinelle; Carl Gutwin
Tabletop work surfaces have natural advantages for co-located collaboration, but also have physical constraints that can make group work difficult. View portals have been proposed as a way to provide access to other parts of a table surface, and as a way to re-orient content for group members in different locations; however, there is little research on whether portals really do improve group performance, how much they help, and whether they change other aspects of collaboration. We report on two studies that evaluate the effects of portals on group performance and behavior. Our first study showed significant performance advantages for portals: people were able to complete tasks more quickly and with more equal division of labor. Our second study, with a realistic design task, showed that people used portals extensively and saw them as valuable, but that they affected people's ability to maintain awareness, coordinate access to objects, and understand the organization of the workspace. Our work demonstrates benefits and potential drawbacks of portals for tables, and suggests that designers should carefully consider both individual and group needs before implementing these and other tabletop view augmentations.

Understanding Deviance in Collaboration

The Perverse Effects of Social Transparency on Online Advice Taking BIBAFull-Text 207-217
  Duyen T. Nguyen; Laura A. Dabbish; Sara Kiesler
Increasingly, the advice people receive on the Internet is socially transparent in the sense that it displays contextual information about the advice-givers or their actions. We hypothesize that activity transparency -- seeing an advice giver's process while creating his or her recommendations -- will increase advice taking. We report three experiments testing the effect of activity transparency on taking mediocre advice. We found that the presence of a web history increased the likelihood of following a financial advisor's advice and reduced participant earnings (Exp. 1), especially when the web history implied greater task focus (Exp. 2, 3). CSCW research usually emphasizes how to increase information sharing; this work suggests when shared information may be inappropriate. We suggest ways to counter activity transparency's potential downsides.
An Agent for Deception Detection in Discussion Based Environments BIBAFull-Text 218-227
  Amos Azaria; Ariella Richardson; Sarit Kraus
Extensive use of computerized forums and chat-rooms provides a modern venue for deception. We propose introducing an agent to assist in detecting and incriminating a deceptive participant. We designed a game, where deception in a text based discussion environment occurs. In this game several participants attempt to collectively detect a deceptive member. We compose an automated agent which participates in this game as a regular player. The goal of the agent is to detect the deceptive participant and alert other members, without raising suspicion itself. We use machine learning on the data collected from human players to design this agent. Extensive evaluation of our agent shows that it succeeds in raising the players collective success rate in catching the deceptive player.
Characterizing Online Rumoring Behavior Using Multi-Dimensional Signatures BIBAFull-Text 228-241
  Jim Maddock; Kate Starbird; Haneen J. Al-Hassani; Daniel E. Sandoval; Mania Orand; Robert M. Mason
This study offers an in-depth analysis of four rumors that spread through Twitter after the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings. Through qualitative and visual analysis, we describe each rumor's origins, changes over time, and relationships between different types of rumoring behavior. We identify several quantitative measures-including temporal progression, domain diversity, lexical diversity and geolocation features-that constitute a multi-dimensional signature for each rumor, and provide evidence supporting the existence of different rumor types. Ultimately these signatures enhance our understanding of how different kinds of rumors propagate online during crisis events. In constructing these signatures, this research demonstrates and documents an emerging method for deeply and recursively integrating qualitative and quantitative methods for analysis of social media trace data.

Urban Environments

Capture the Moment: "In the Wild" Longitudinal Case Study of Situated Snapshots Captured Through an Urban Screen in a Community Setting BIBAFull-Text 242-253
  Nemanja Memarovic; Ava Fatah gen Schieck; Holger M. Schnädelbach; Efstathia Kostopoulou; Steve North; Lei Ye
Urban screens are becoming a common element of our city landscape. As such they offer new ways of connecting people that occupy public space, e.g., by taking situated snapshots through a display-attached camera. In this paper we present a first longitudinal case study of 12 weeks of such an application -- Moment Machine -- deployed "in the wild" on an urban screen facing the street. We report findings from 1189 photos taken, 13 interviews, and 3 weeks of observations that show engagement stimulated by situated snapshots within a place-based community where the screen is located. We also analyze interaction log files to describe how often users interacted, what type of interactions they had and how long they lasted, and overall engagement on a weekly basis and throughout the week. Based on our experience, we provide three take-away snippets for designers of similar urban screen experiences.
Measuring Urban Deprivation from User Generated Content BIBAFull-Text 254-264
  Alessandro Venerandi; Giovanni Quattrone; Licia Capra; Daniele Quercia; Diego Saez-Trumper
Measuring socioeconomic deprivation of cities in an accurate and timely fashion has become a priority for governments around the world, as the massive urbanization process we are witnessing is causing high levels of inequalities which require intervention. Traditionally, deprivation indexes have been derived from census data, which is however very expensive to obtain, and thus acquired only every few years. Alternative computational methods have been proposed in recent years to automatically extract proxies of deprivation at a fine spatio-temporal level of granularity; however, they usually require access to datasets (e.g., call details records) that are not publicly available to governments and agencies. To remedy this, we propose a new method to automatically mine deprivation at a fine level of spatio-temporal granularity that only requires access to freely available user-generated content. More precisely, the method needs access to datasets describing what urban elements are present in the physical environment; examples of such datasets are Foursquare and OpenStreetMap. Using these datasets, we quantitatively describe neighborhoods by means of a metric, called Offering Advantage, that reflects which urban elements are distinctive features of each neighborhood. We then use that metric to (i) build accurate classifiers of urban deprivation and (ii) interpret the outcomes through thematic analysis. We apply the method to three UK urban areas of different scale and elaborate on the results in terms of precision and recall.
Avoiding the South Side and the Suburbs: The Geography of Mobile Crowdsourcing Markets BIBAFull-Text 265-275
  Jacob Thebault-Spieker; Loren G. Terveen; Brent Hecht
Mobile crowdsourcing markets (e.g., Gigwalk and TaskRabbit) offer crowdworkers tasks situated in the physical world (e.g., checking street signs, running household errands). The geographic nature of these tasks distinguishes these markets from online crowdsourcing markets and raises new, fundamental questions. We carried out a controlled study in the Chicago metropolitan area aimed at addressing two key questions: (1) What geographic factors influence whether a crowdworker will be willing to do a task? (2) What geographic factors influence how much compensation a crowdworker will demand in order to do a task? Quantitative modeling shows that travel distance to the location of the task and the socioeconomic status (SES) of the task area are important factors. Qualitative analysis enriches our modeling, with workers mentioning safety and difficulties getting to a location as key considerations. Our results suggest that low-SES areas are currently less able to take advantage of the benefits of mobile crowdsourcing markets. We discuss the implications of our study for these markets, as well as for "sharing economy" phenomena like UberX, which have many properties in common with mobile crowdsourcing markets.

All in the Family

Connecting in the Kitchen: An Empirical Study of Physical Interactions while Cooking Together at Home BIBAFull-Text 276-287
  Jeni Paay; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov
Recent research has explored the role technology might play in future kitchens, including virtually dining together, recipe sharing, augmented kitchen furniture, reactive cooking utensils and gestural interaction. When people come together in a kitchen to cook it is about more than just production of sustenance -- it is about being together, helping each other, exchanging stories, and contributing to the gradual emergence of a shared meal. In this paper we present a digital ethnography of how people coordinate and cooperate in their kitchens when cooking together for the purpose of inspiring the design of social natural user interactions for technologies in the kitchen. The study is based on 61 YouTube videos of people cooking together analyzed using the frameworks of proxemics and F-formations. Our findings unfold and illustrate relationships between people's spatial organization, their cooking activities and physical kitchen layouts. Based on these we discuss the kitchen as a design space and particularly the opportunities for social natural user interaction design.
Taking our Time: Chronic Illness and Time-Based Objects in Families BIBAFull-Text 288-301
  Andrea Barbarin; Tiffany C. Veinot; Predrag Klasnja
This study examined the use of time-based objects by patients and their families to manage chronic illnesses at home. Calendar systems and medication containers, the main types of time-based objects studied, were used as part of two family-based collaborative work practices: 1) prompting health management activities, and 2) safeguarding these activities. Additionally, these artifacts were part of two social interaction patterns that managed emotional intimacy: 1) expressing support, and 2) hiding and disguising illness. Accordingly, home-based illness management may be more collaborative than previously recognized. Moreover, through their interactive incorporation into family life, time-based objects are laden with psychosocial significance. Breakdowns in temporal support were also evident, and were accompanied by: missed medication events; rationing of medications; medication errors; and difficulties with preparation for medical appointments. We propose novel artifact designs to better support patients and their families in managing the temporal aspects of chronic illness together.
"Preventative" vs. "Reactive": How Parental Mediation Influences Teens' Social Media Privacy Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 302-316
  Pamela Wisniewski; Haiyan Jia; Heng Xu; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
Through an empirical, secondary analysis of 588 teens (ages 12 -- 17) and one of their parents living in the USA, we present useful insights into how parental privacy concerns for their teens and different parental mediation strategies (direct intervention versus active mediation) influence teen privacy concerns and privacy risk-taking and risk-coping privacy behaviors in social media. Our results suggest that the use of direct intervention by itself may have a suppressive effect on teens, reducing their exposure to online risks but also their ability to engage with others online and to learn how to effectively cope with online risks. Therefore, it may be beneficial for parents to combine active mediation with direct intervention so that they can protect their teens from severe online risks while empowering teens to engage with others online and learn to make good online privacy choices.

Trust & Anonymity

"This is a Throwaway Account": Temporary Technical Identities and Perceptions of Anonymity in a Massive Online Community BIBAFull-Text 317-327
  Alex Leavitt
This paper explores temporary identities on social media platforms and individuals' uses of these identities with respect to their perceptions of anonymity. Given the research on multiple profile maintenance, little research has examined the role that some social media platforms play in affording users with temporary identities. Further, most of the research on anonymity stops short of the concept of varying perceptions of anonymity. This paper builds on these research areas by describing the phenomenon of temporary "throwaway accounts" and their uses on reddit.com, a popular social news site. In addition to ethnographic trace analysis to examine the contexts in which throwaway accounts are adopted, this paper presents a predictive model that suggests that perceptions of anonymity significantly shape the potential uses of throwaway accounts and that women are much more likely to adopt temporary identities than men.
Models and Patterns of Trust BIBAFull-Text 328-338
  Bran Knowles; Mark Rouncefield; Mike Harding; Nigel Davies; Lynne Blair; James Hannon; John Walden; Ding Wang
As in all collaborative work, trust is a vital ingredient of successful computer supported cooperative work, yet there is little in the way of design principles to help practitioners develop systems that foster trust. To address this gap, we present a set of design patterns, based on our experience designing systems with the explicit intention of increasing trust between stakeholders. We contextualize these patterns by describing our own learning process, from the development, testing and refinement of a trust model, to our realization that the insights we gained along the way were most usefully expressed through design patterns. In addition to a set of patterns for trust, this paper seeks to demonstrate of the value of patterns as a means of communicating the nuances revealed through ethnographic investigation.
Privacy as Articulation Work in HIV Health Services BIBAFull-Text 339-348
  Chrysanthi Papoutsi; Ian Brown
Normative accounts on health information privacy often highlight the importance of regulating data sharing. Yet, little attention has been paid to how health professionals perform and negotiate privacy practices in highly multidisciplinary, technologically-mediated medical work. This paper examines information privacy practices in two HIV outpatient clinics based in two NHS hospitals in London (UK). Methods include 46 semi-structured interviews, primarily with health professionals and technology developers, ethnographic observation and document analysis. Drawing on an empirically informed understanding of privacy as 'articulation work', we focus on the indeterminate nature of information privacy practices and examine the work required to translate privacy, from a normative professional duty to an enacted medical practice. This analysis also highlights the invisibility of privacy practices and their coordinating role in delivering technologically-supported medical care. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for practice and technology design.

Computer Supported Happiness

Designing for Discomfort: Supporting Critical Reflection through Interactive Tools BIBAFull-Text 349-360
  Helen Halbert; Lisa P. Nathan
A focus of human-computer interaction work and a central principle of user experience is that design should avoid discomfort and aim to craft positive experiences for individuals. However, for contexts in which an uncomfortable reaction is intended, instrumental, or indeed inevitable, we recognize that it is inappropriate to design for a positive or "feel good" experience. Herein we describe an investigation into the use of interactive technologies to support transformative learning, a process through which individuals engage with feelings of discomfort. The project is grounded by work with graduate students enrolled in a course that employed decolonizing pedagogies. Throughout the course students responded to uncomfortable, problematic scenarios through interactive tools. We present our analysis of students' learning experiences, their interactions with technologies and their reflections on the effectiveness of these engagements in terms of supporting opportunities for critical reflection, a crucial stage of the transformative learning process.
Collective Smile: Measuring Societal Happiness from Geolocated Images BIBAFull-Text 361-374
  Saeed Abdullah; Elizabeth L. Murnane; Jean M. R. Costa; Tanzeem Choudhury
The increasing adoption of social media provides unprecedented opportunities to gain insight into human nature at vastly broader scales. Regarding the study of population-wide sentiment, prior research commonly focuses on text-based analyses and ignores a treasure trove of sentiment-laden content: images. In this paper, we make methodological and computational contributions by introducing the Smile Index as a formalized measure of societal happiness. Detecting smiles in 9 million geo-located tweets over 16 months, we validate our Smile Index against both text-based techniques and self-reported happiness. We further make observational contributions by applying our metric to explore temporal trends in sentiment, relate public mood to societal events, and predict economic indicators. Reflecting upon the innate, language-independent aspects of facial expressions, we recommend future improvements and applications to enable robust, global-level analyses. We conclude with implications for researchers studying and facilitating the expression of collective emotion through socio-technical systems.
Engagement and Well-being on Social Network Sites BIBAFull-Text 375-382
  A. K. M. Najmul Islam; Sameer Patil
Prior research has reported contradictory findings on the relationship between the use of Social Network Sites (SNS) and psychological well-being. We addressed this shortcoming by incorporating a finer measure of SNS user engagement and hypothesizing a U-shaped rather than purely linear relationship between the two. We tested our hypotheses via a Web based questionnaire administered to 289 Facebook users. Ordinary least squares approach confirmed the hypothesized U-shaped relationship. Our results further show that User Engagement, and in turn well-being, is associated with the number of SNS friends. These findings indicate that well-being derived from SNS usage could be optimized by avoiding underuse as well as overuse.

Annotation Systems and Approaches

PaperChains: Dynamic Sketch+Voice Annotations BIBAFull-Text 383-392
  Jennifer Pearson; Simon Robinson; Matt Jones
In this paper we present a novel interface for collaborative creation of evolving audio-visual documents. PaperChains allows users to sketch on paper and then augment with digital audio, allowing both the physical and digital objects to evolve simultaneously over time. The technique we have developed focuses on affordability and accessibility in its design, using standard cameraphones and telephone connections, which allow it to be used in regions where literacy, technological experience and data connections cannot necessarily be taken for granted. The main use-case that we focus on in this paper is for collaborative storytelling, an area which has been well studied and previously proven to be of value in resource constrained environments. To investigate the relevance of the approach in these contexts, we undertook two usability evaluations in India and South Africa. Results from these investigations indicate users' ability to both create and interpret stories using the software, as well as demonstrating high overall usability and enjoyment. We end with a discussion of the implications of our design and opportunities for use in other contexts.
Piloting TrACE: Exploring Spatiotemporal Anchored Collaboration in Asynchronous Learning BIBAFull-Text 393-403
  Brian Dorn; Larissa B. Schroeder; Adam Stankiewicz
The use of multimedia content such as video is becoming more prevalent in educational environments. However, current platforms for hosting these media provide few collaborative tools to foster social learning between students or request help from instructors. In this paper, we explore the potential of spatiotemporal anchored collaboration, and we present a prototype media-playback environment called TrACE that exemplifies the approach. We examine a first design-based research (DBR) pilot deployment of TrACE in two post-secondary courses. Results indicate that students do take advantage of the system's affordances to interact in meaningful ways, though overall student annotation authoring was limited. Using the pilot data, we propose socio-technical modifications for the next iteration in the DBR cycle. Specifically we focus on tools to support instructors' use of the system and for promoting collaboration between students.
Learnersourcing Subgoal Labels for How-to Videos BIBAFull-Text 405-416
  Sarah Weir; Juho Kim; Krzysztof Z. Gajos; Robert C. Miller
Websites like YouTube host millions of how-to videos, but their interfaces are not optimized for learning. Previous research suggests that people learn more from how-to videos when the videos are accompanied by outlines showing individual steps and labels for groups of steps (subgoals). We envision an alternative video player where the steps and subgoals are displayed alongside the video. To generate this information for existing videos, we introduce learnersourcing, an approach in which intrinsically motivated learners contribute to a human computation workflow as they naturally go about learning from the videos. To demonstrate this method, we deployed a live website with a workflow for constructing subgoal labels implemented on a set of introductory web programming videos. For the four videos with the highest participation, we found that a majority of learner-generated subgoals were comparable in quality to expert-generated ones. Learners commented that the system helped them grasp the material, suggesting that our workflow did not detract from the learning experience.

Scientific Domains

From Personal Tool to Community Resource: What's the Extra Work and Who Will Do It? BIBAFull-Text 417-430
  Erik H. Trainer; Chalalai Chaihirunkarn; Arun Kalyanasundaram; James D. Herbsleb
Sharing scientific data, software, and instruments is becoming increasingly common as science moves toward large-scale, distributed collaborations. Sharing these resources requires extra work to make them generally useful. Although we know much about the extra work associated with sharing data, we know little about the work associated with sharing contributions to software, even though software is of vital importance to nearly every scientific result. This paper presents a qualitative, interview-based study of the extra work that developers and end users of scientific software undertake. Our findings indicate that they conduct a rich set of extra work around community management, code maintenance, education and training, developer-user interaction, and foreseeing user needs. We identify several conditions under which they are likely to do this work, as well as design principles that can facilitate it. Our results have important implications for future empirical studies as well as funding policy.
(Re)defining Land Change Science through Synthetic Research Practices BIBAFull-Text 431-442
  Alyson L. Young; Wayne G. Lutters
This paper investigates the co-evolution of scientific practice and supporting technologies for the interdisciplinary research community of Land Change Science. Through three and a half years of iterative fieldwork and system design, we have developed a deep understanding of their synthetic research practices, specifically regarding meta-studies. Here we detail the challenges researchers face conducting meta-studies and how this collective effort advances the entire scholarly community. We illustrate how our understanding of this synthetic research practice informs the design and refinement of cyberinfrastructure to better support their work.
Anticipation Work: Cultivating Vision in Collective Practice BIBAFull-Text 443-453
  Stephanie B. Steinhardt; Steven J. Jackson
Problems of temporality in distributed cooperative work have emerged as an important theme of CSCW and HCI work. This paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork into large-scale infrastructure development in ecology and ocean science and analyses of futurism in science and technology studies to call attention to "anticipation work": the practices that cultivate and channel expectations of the future, design pathways into those imaginations, and maintain those visions in the face of a dynamic world. We advance three basic claims: first, that long term technological development and sustainability in science is guided by complex and distributed forms of futurism; second, that all actors (both individual and collective) orient towards the future (at both temporally close and distant scales); and third, that actors engage in complex and skilled forms of anticipation work -- individual and collective, formal and informal -- that guide and shape the present character and experience of collaborative life.

Leveraging the Crowd

Social Eye Tracking: Gaze Recall with Online Crowds BIBAFull-Text 454-463
  Shiwei Cheng; Zhiqiang Sun; Xiaojuan Ma; Jodi L. Forlizzi; Scott E. Hudson; Anind Dey
Eye tracking is a compelling tool for revealing people's spatial-temporal distribution of visual attention. But quality eye tracking hardware is expensive and can only be used with one person at a time. Further, webcam eye tracking systems have significant limitations on head movement and lighting conditions that result in significant data loss and inaccuracies. To address these drawbacks, we introduce a new approach that harnesses the crowd to understand allocation of visual attention. In our approach, crowdsourcing participants use mouse clicks to self-report the positions and trajectory for the following valuable eye tracking measures: first gaze, last gaze and all gazes. We validate our crowdsourcing approach with a user study, which demonstrated good accuracy when compared to a real eye tracker. We then deployed our prototype, GazeCrowd, in a crowdsourcing setting, and showed that it accurately generated gaze heatmaps and trajectory maps. Such an approach will allow designers to evaluate and refine their visual design without requiring the use of limited/expensive eye trackers.
Strategic Voting Behavior in Doodle Polls BIBAFull-Text 464-472
  James Zou; Reshef Meir; David Parkes
Finding a common time slot for a group event is a daily conundrum and illustrates key features of group decision-making. It is a complex interplay of individual incentives and group dynamics. A participant would like the final time to be convenient for her, but she is also expected to be cooperative towards other people's preferences. We combine large-scale data analysis with theoretical models from the voting literature to investigate strategic behaviors in event scheduling. We analyze all Doodle polls created in the US from July-September 2011 (over 340,000 polls), consisting of both hidden polls (a user cannot see other responses) and open polls (a user can see all previous responses). By analyzing the differences in behavior in hidden and open polls, we gain unique insights into strategies that people apply in a natural decision-making setting. Responders in open polls are more likely to approve slots that are very popular or very unpopular, but not intermediate slots. We show that this behavior is inconsistent with models that have been proposed in the voting literature, and propose a new model based on combining personal and social utilities to explain the data.
Structuring, Aggregating, and Evaluating Crowdsourced Design Critique BIBAFull-Text 473-485
  Kurt Luther; Jari-Lee Tolentino; Wei Wu; Amy Pavel; Brian P. Bailey; Maneesh Agrawala; Björn Hartmann; Steven P. Dow
Feedback is an important component of the design process, but gaining access to high-quality critique outside a classroom or firm is challenging. We present CrowdCrit, a web-based system that allows designers to receive design critiques from non-expert crowd workers. We evaluated CrowdCrit in three studies focusing on the designer's experience and benefits of the critiques. In the first study, we compared crowd and expert critiques and found evidence that aggregated crowd critique approaches expert critique. In a second study, we found that designers who got crowd feedback perceived that it improved their design process. The third study showed that designers were enthusiastic about crowd critiques and used them to change their designs. We conclude with implications for the design of crowd feedback services.

Mobile Collaboration

Back in Sight, Back in Mind: Picture-Centric Support for Mobile Counseling Sessions BIBAFull-Text 486-495
  Tobias Giesbrecht; Tino Comes; Gerhard Schwabe
This paper explores unique challenges of mobile consultancy and offers a picture-centric solution. We study the example of a policeman counseling a homeowner on how to prevent burglary. As in a stationary set-up, consultants and clients collaborate to co-create solutions to match the clients' problems. Concurrently, in a mobile set-up, problem and solution information are bound to the physical environment of the house. Moving through the house, both clients and consultants forget crucial location-bound information, severely impairing their collaboration. We propose supporting such collaboration with a tablet-based application that is centered on pictures of the physical environment, called SmartProtector. In an evaluation, we show that both clients and consultants remember substantially more information when using the SmartProtector. With this study, we contribute to the ongoing research discussion on collaborative memory, memory aid systems and mobile collaboration, highlighting the roles of pictures and their large potential to enhance collaborative work practices.
Designing Mobile Experiences for Collocated Interaction BIBAFull-Text 496-507
  Sus Lundgren; Joel E. Fischer; Stuart Reeves; Olof Torgersson
Many of our everyday social interactions involve mobile devices. Yet, these tend to only provide good support for distributed social interactions. Although much HCI and CSCW research has explored how we might support collocated, face-to-face situations using mobile devices, much of this work exists as isolated exemplars of technical systems or interaction designs. This paper draws on a range of such exemplars to develop a practical design framework intended for guiding the design of new mobile experiences for collocated interaction as well as analysing existing ones. Our framework provides four relational perspectives for designing the complex interplay between: the social situation in which it takes place; the technology used and the mechanics inscribed; the physical environment; and the temporal elements of design. Moreover, each perspective features some core properties, which are highly relevant when designing these systems. As part of presenting the framework we also explain the process of its construction along with practical advice on how to read and apply it.
Searchable Objects: Search in Everyday Conversation BIBAFull-Text 508-517
  Barry Brown; Moira McGregor; Donald McMillan
This paper examines mobile internet search, presenting search not as a process of information retrieval, but as part of conversation and talk. Through video extracts of mobile search we explore how mobile phones are interwoven into talk, and how searchers manage the participation of other conversationalists alongside the search itself. We introduce the notion of a 'searchable object' -- an object that arises in conversation that can be searched for online -- and document how such an object occasions a search. In turn we discuss the differing roles of the device 'driver' and 'passenger', and how participation is managed through questions and narration. Rather than search being solely about getting correct information, conversations around search may be just as important. We conclude by critiquing some of the pessimistic views of interaction around mobile phones and their use in ordinary life and talk.

Studies of Coordination

Supporting Developers' Coordination in the IDE BIBAFull-Text 518-532
  Anja Guzzi; Alberto Bacchelli; Yann Riche; Arie van Deursen
Teamwork in software engineering is time-consuming and problematic. In this paper, we explore how to better support developers' collaboration in teamwork, focusing on the software implementation phase happening in the integrated development environment (IDE). Conducting a qualitative investigation, we learn that developers' teamwork needs mostly regard coordination, rather than concurrent work on the same (sub)task, and that developers successfully deal with scenarios considered problematic in literature, but they have problems dealing with breaking changes made by peers on the same project. We derive implications and recommendations. Based on one of the latter, we analyze the current IDE support for receiving code changes, finding that historical information is neither visible nor easily accessible. Consequently, we devise and qualitatively evaluate Bellevue, the design of an IDE extension to make received changes always visible and code history accessible in the editor.
'Is' to 'Was': Coordination and Commemoration in Posthumous Activity on Wikipedia Biographies BIBAFull-Text 533-546
  Brian C. Keegan; Jed R. Brubaker
Following the deaths of notable people, Wikipedians incorporate this new knowledge by updating or creating biographical articles. Drawing on literature from death studies and peer production, we demonstrate how the creation of these "wiki-bituaries" requires complex coordination work and highlight processes of commemoration and memorialization within socio-technical systems. Using the corpus of 6,132 articles about people who died in 2012, we examine the network relationships and contribution dynamics of users who perform this work and identify behavioral and content dynamics on the biographical articles about the deceased. The collaborations that emerge from posthumous editing of these biographies are sites of significant activity that coalesce into complex but temporary collaborations. Based on these findings, we argue that Wikipedia has re-imagined the obituary into a genre for creating memory spaces in which the death of a subject prompts a form of "death work" involving the collective re-evaluation of article content and a transition into a new mode of data stewardship.
Don't Wait!: How Timing Affects Coordination of Crowdfunding Donations BIBAFull-Text 547-556
  Jacob Solomon; Wenjuan Ma; Rick Wash
Crowdfunding sites often impose deadlines for projects to receive their requested funds. This deadline structure creates a difficult decision for potential donors. Donors can donate early to a project to help it reach its goal and to signal to other donors that the project is worthwhile. But donors may also want to wait for a similar signal from others. We conduct an experimental simulation of a crowdfunding website to explore how potential donors to projects make this decision. We find evidence for both strategies in our experiment; some donate early while others wait till the last second. However, we also find that making an early donation is usually a better strategy for donors because the amount of donations made early in a project's campaign is often the only difference between that project being funded or not. This finding suggests that crowdfunding sites need to develop designs, policies and incentives that encourage people to make immediate donations so that the site can most efficiently fund projects.

Young Adults and Online Behavior

Manifestation of Depression and Loneliness on Social Networks: A Case Study of Young Adults on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 557-570
  Sungkyu Park; Inyeop Kim; Sang Won Lee; Jaehyun Yoo; Bumseok Jeong; Meeyoung Cha
As people around the world are spending increasing amounts of time online, the question of how online experiences are linked to health and well-being is essential. This paper presents how activities on Facebook are associated with the depressive states of users. Based on online logs of 212 young adults, we show not only the sheer size of the network but also the frequency and diversity of interactions on social networks have close associations with depression. Depressed individuals reported smaller involved networks regarding comments and likes, the two popular forms of interactions. In contrast to the decreased level of interactions, depressed individuals showed an increase in the wall post rates and were active online during midday, which can be interpreted as an endemic behavior linked to the perceived degree of loneliness among young adults who are avid users of social media. We discuss these findings from theoretical, empirical, and subjective perspectives.
Coming of Age (Digitally): An Ecological View of Social Media Use among College Students BIBAFull-Text 571-582
  Yiran Wang; Melissa Niiya; Gloria Mark; Stephanie M. Reich; Mark Warschauer
We take an ecological approach to studying social media use and its relation to mood among college students. We conducted a mixed-methods study of computer and phone logging with daily surveys and interviews to track college students' use of social media during all waking hours over seven days. Continual and infrequent checkers show different preferences of social media sites. Age differences also were found. Lower classmen tend to be heavier users and to primarily use Facebook, while upper classmen use social media less frequently and utilize sites other than Facebook more often. Factor analysis reveals that social media use clusters into patterns of content-sharing, text-based entertainment/discussion, relationships, and video consumption. The more constantly one checks social media daily, the less positive is one's mood. Our results suggest that students construct their own patterns of social media usage to meet their changing needs in their environment. The findings can inform further investigation into social media use as a benefit and/or distraction for students.
Risk-taking as a Learning Process for Shaping Teen's Online Information Privacy Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 583-599
  Haiyan Jia; Pamela J. Wisniewski; Heng Xu; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
Through a secondary data analysis of a nationally representative Pew survey [35-36], we empirically test the validity of two contrasting theoretical models of adolescent information privacy behaviors. Our results suggest that in seeking to understand the underlying processes of teens' privacy risk-taking and risk-coping behaviors within social media, a "risk-centric" framework may be more useful than a traditional "concern-centric" framework that emphasizes privacy antecedents and outcomes. Our newly proposed and validated "risk-centric" framework implies a possible risk escalation process wherein teens make online disclosures and render themselves more susceptible to experiences of risky online interactions; in turn, these risky experiences are associated with higher levels of teen privacy concern. Higher levels of teen privacy concern predict both advice-seeking and remedy/corrective risk-coping behaviors. Drawing on theories of information privacy and developmental psychology, we discuss these findings from the perspective of allowing teens to experience some level of online risk so that they can learn how to navigate the dangers and reap the benefits of online engagement.

Crowd Work and Crowd Process

Flock: Hybrid Crowd-Machine Learning Classifiers BIBAFull-Text 600-611
  Justin Cheng; Michael S. Bernstein
We present hybrid crowd-machine learning classifiers: classification models that start with a written description of a learning goal, use the crowd to suggest predictive features and label data, and then weigh these features using machine learning to produce models that are accurate and use human-understandable features. These hybrid classifiers enable fast prototyping of machine learning models that can improve on both algorithm performance and human judgment, and accomplish tasks where automated feature extraction is not yet feasible. Flock, an interactive machine learning platform, instantiates this approach. To generate informative features, Flock asks the crowd to compare paired examples, an approach inspired by analogical encoding. The crowd's efforts can be focused on specific subsets of the input space where machine-extracted features are not predictive, or instead used to partition the input space and improve algorithm performance in subregions of the space. An evaluation on six prediction tasks, ranging from detecting deception to differentiating impressionist artists, demonstrated that aggregating crowd features improves upon both asking the crowd for a direct prediction and off-the-shelf machine learning features by over 10%. Further, hybrid systems that use both crowd-nominated and machine-extracted features can outperform those that use either in isolation.
Bridge the Gap!: What Can Work Design in Crowdwork Learn from Work Design Theories? BIBAFull-Text 612-627
  Obinna Anya
Integrating crowd-based systems to organizations is highly complex. A major of source of this complexity stems from the nature of organizational work design. Work design and configurations of work performance, in the traditional organizational model, are tightly woven into the structure and functions of organizations, whereas crowdwork leverages an undefined network of people without an organized managerial or hierarchical model. This paper examines work design theories in organizational studies with a view to exploring their potential for addressing the fundamental challenges of work design in organizational crowdwork. Drawing on review of extant literature on crowdwork and analysis of perspectives in work design theories, the paper outlines ways in which crowdsourcing research, on one hand, can interpret and utilize work design theories, and on the other, contribute to redesigning work design theories to keep pace with the important and rapid transformation of work from the traditional staffing paradigm to crowd and open models.
And Now for Something Completely Different: Improving Crowdsourcing Workflows with Micro-Diversions BIBAFull-Text 628-638
  Peng Dai; Jeffrey M. Rzeszotarski; Praveen Paritosh; Ed H. Chi
Crowdsourcing has become a popular and indispensable component of many problem-solving pipelines in the research literature, with crowd workers often treated as computational resources that can reliably solve problems that computers have trouble with, such as image labeling/classification, natural language processing, or document writing. Yet, obviously crowd workers are human, and long sequences of the same monotonous tasks might intuitively reduce the amount of good quality work done by the workers. Here we propose an investigation into how we can use diversions containing small amounts of entertainment to improve crowd workers' experiences. We call these small period of entertainment "micro-diversions", which we hypothesize to provide timely relief to workers during long sequences of micro-tasks. We hope to improve productivity by retaining workers to work on our tasks longer and to either improve or retain the quality of work. We experimentally test micro-diversions on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, a large paid-crowdsourcing platform. We find that micro-diversions can significantly improve worker retention rate while retaining the same work quality.

Volunteerism

CURIOS: Connecting Community Heritage through Linked Data BIBAFull-Text 639-648
  Gemma Webster; Hai Nguyen; David E. Beel; Chris Mellish; Claire D. Wallace; Jeff Pan
The CURIOS project explores how digital archives for rural community heritage groups can be made more sustainable so that volunteer members can maintain a lasting digital presence. It is developing software tools to help remote rural communities to collaboratively maintain and present information about their cultural heritage. The objective is to investigate the use of semantic web/linked data technology to build a general, flexible and "future proof" software platform that could help such projects to develop digital archives and to be sustainable over time. As an interdisciplinary project we aim to synthesise a narrative that draws from both social science and computer science perspectives by critically reflecting upon the novel approach taken and the on-going results that are being produced.
Restructuring Human Infrastructure: The Impact of EHR Deployment in a Volunteer-Dependent Clinic BIBAFull-Text 649-661
  Charlotte Tang; Yunan Chen; Bryan C. Semaan; Jahmeilah A. Roberson
Non-profit organizations (NPOs) are often resource-restricted and rely on volunteers to function. As such, their human infrastructure -- the social system supporting work -- is different from conventional organizations, and technologies that function in a traditional organization with a stable workforce may not work in NPOs. Through an investigation of the deployment of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system in a safety-net free clinic serving underprivileged populations, we report how the EHR disrupted the human infrastructure -- namely, the work typically enacted by volunteers. Specifically, there was a mismatch between the technological and human infrastructures leading to diminished volunteer roles, an increased workload for paid employees, and a negative impact on the quality of patient care. In turn, employees acted to reconcile the disrupted human infrastructure by creating new work roles for volunteers, re-establishing the quality of patient care, and developing workarounds for volunteers to resume their volunteer work. Finally we discuss how the commercial EHR system failed to support the fluid volunteer-based human infrastructure of the free clinic.

Teamwork Challenges

Expertise in the Wired Wild West BIBAFull-Text 662-675
  Joanne I. White; Leysia Palen
This ethnographic study reveals how expertise was sought, articulated and actuated across online and offline worlds to enable the evacuation of 38 horses from an isolated ranch in the mountainous region of Northern Colorado following a series of devastating flash floods in September 2013. The shared expertise within a loosely connected community of practice bridged spatial-temporal limitations and afforded opportunities for practical assistance and response, both virtually and on the ground. Interaction via social media articulated the parameters of the emergent problem to be solved, and "cast a net" to find the expertise necessary to address different aspects of the perceived problem. Eventually, more than 60 people with equine expertise converged onto the ranch, bringing their materials to execute a single-day evacuation and relocation of the herd.
Exiting the Design Studio: Leveraging Online Participants for Early-Stage Design Feedback BIBAFull-Text 676-685
  Xiaojuan Ma; Li Yu; Jodi L. Forlizzi; Steven P. Dow
Online collaboration tools enable developers of interactive systems to quickly reach potential users for usability testing. Can these technologies serve designers who seek feedback on user needs during the earliest stages of design? Online needfinding may help designers create products and services that can target a more diverse user population. To explore this, we conducted a feasibility study to compare face-to-face methods with online needfinding sessions. We found that video can sufficiently capture nuanced reactions to preliminary concept storyboards, but that feedback providers need guidance and structure. We then introduce a tool for collecting early-stage design feedback from online participants and conduct a case study with a professional design team. The team conducted needfinding activities with local participants, as well as a cost-equivalent number of online participants The case study demonstrates that combining online crowdsourcing with a video survey tool provides a simple and cost-efficient way to collect early-stage feedback.
Procid: Bridging Consensus Building Theory with the Practice of Distributed Design Discussions BIBAFull-Text 686-699
  Roshanak Zilouchian Moghaddam; Zane Nicholson; Brian P. Bailey
Consensus is a desired but elusive goal in many distributed discussions. A critical problem is that discussion platforms lack mechanisms for realizing consensus strategies and realizing these strategies without tool support can be hard. This paper introduces Procid, a novel browser plugin that provides interaction and visualization features for bringing consensus strategies to distributed design discussions. Key features include the ability to organize discussions around ideas, to register and visualize support for or against ideas, and to define criteria for evaluating ideas. It also applies interaction constraints fostering best practices of consensus building. Procid extends the discussion platform of one open source software community. Two evaluations were conducted. The first collected perceptions of the tool from members of the community for their own discussions. The second compared how Procid affects a distributed design discussion relative to the current discussion platform in the community. Results of both studies showed that users found the features of our tool beneficial and perceived it as more effective for consensus building than the existing platform.

Politics and Social Networks

Content and Network Dynamics Behind Egyptian Political Polarization on Twitter BIBAFull-Text 700-711
  Javier Borge-Holthoefer; Walid Magdy; Kareem Darwish; Ingmar Weber
There is little doubt about whether social networks play a role in modern protests. This agreement has triggered an entire research avenue, in which social structure and content analysis have been central -- but are typically exploited separately.
   Here, we combine these two approaches to shed light on the opinion evolution dynamics in Egypt during the summer of 2013 along two axes (Islamist/Secularist, pro/anti-military intervention). We intend to find traces of opinion changes in Egypt's population, paralleling those in the international community -- which oscillated from sympathetic to condemnatory as civil clashes grew. We find little evidence of people "switching" sides but observe clear changes in volume with both pro- and anti-military camps becoming more active at different stages.
   Our work contributes new insights into the dynamics of large protest movements, specially in the aftermath of the main events -- rather unattended previously. It questions the standard narrative concerning a simplistic mapping between Secularist/pro-military and Islamist/anti-military. Finally, our conclusions provide empirical validation to sociological models regarding the behavior of individuals in conflictive contexts.
Exploring the Ownership and Persistent Value of Facebook Content BIBAFull-Text 712-723
  Catherine C. Marshall; Frank M. Shipman
In this paper, we present the results of a study examining 244 participants' attitudes about the value, ownership, and control of social network data. We use Facebook-based scenarios to elicit reactions to hypothetical statements about saving social network content that belongs to others, reusing, repurposing, and monetizing social network data, and removing social network content that is not specifically one's own. Participants also report on their own practices in each of these areas. Findings not only address issues related to ownership, but also explore the use of social networks as documentary records, and the discrepancies between participants' perceptions of how they would like their social network content to be used, and how it is actually used.
Participatory Militias: An Analysis of an Armed Movement's Online Audience BIBAFull-Text 724-733
  Saiph Savage; Andrés Monroy-Hernández
Armed groups of civilians known as "self-defense forces" have ousted the powerful Knights Templar drug cartel from several towns in Michoacán. This militia uprising has unfolded on social media, particularly in the "VXM" ("Valor por Michoacán," Spanish for "Courage for Michoacán") Facebook page, gathering more than 170,000 fans. Previous work on the Drug War has documented the use of social media for real-time reports of violent clashes. However, VXM goes one step further by taking on a pro-militia propagandist role, engaging in two-way communication with its audience. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of VXM and its audience. We examined nine months of posts, from VXM's inception until May 2014, totaling 6,000 posts by VXM administrators and more than 108,000 comments from its audience. We describe the main conversation themes, post frequency and relationships with offline events and public figures. We also characterize the behavior of VXM's most active audience members. Our work illustrates VXM's online mobilization strategies, and how its audience takes part in defining the narrative of this armed conflict. We conclude by discussing possible applications of our findings for the design of future communication technologies.

Motivating Peer Production

MoodBar: Increasing New User Retention in Wikipedia through Lightweight Socialization BIBAFull-Text 734-742
  Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia; Dario Taraborelli
Socialization in online communities allows existing members to welcome and recruit newcomers, introduce them to community norms and practices, and sustain their early participation. However, socializing newcomers does not come for free: in large communities, socialization can result in a significant workload for mentors and is hard to scale. In this study we present results from an experiment that measured the effect of a lightweight socialization tool on the activity and retention of newly registered users attempting to edit for the first time Wikipedia. Wikipedia is struggling with the retention of newcomers and our results indicate that a mechanism to elicit lightweight feedback and to provide early mentoring to newcomers improves their chances of becoming long-term contributors.
The Success and Failure of Quality Improvement Projects in Peer Production Communities BIBAFull-Text 743-756
  Morten Warncke-Wang; Vladislav R. Ayukaev; Brent Hecht; Loren G. Terveen
Peer production communities have been proven to be successful at creating valuable artefacts, with Wikipedia as a prime example. However, a number of studies have shown that work in these communities tends to be of uneven quality and certain content areas receive more attention than others. In this paper, we examine the efficacy of a range of targeted strategies to increase the quality of under-attended content areas in peer production communities. Mining data from five quality improvement projects in the English Wikipedia, the largest peer production community in the world, we show that certain types of strategies (e.g. creating artefacts from scratch) have better quality outcomes than others (e.g. improving existing artefacts), even if both are done by a similar cohort of participants. We discuss the implications of our findings for Wikipedia as well as other peer production communities.
The Effects of Visualizing Activity History on Attitudes and Behaviors in a Peer Production Context BIBAFull-Text 757-764
  Jennifer Marlow; Laura A. Dabbish
In a variety of peer production settings, from Wikipedia to open source software development to crowdsourcing, individuals may encounter, edit, or review the work of unknown others. Typically this is done without much context to the person's past behavior or performance. To understand how exposure to an unknown individual's activity history influences attitudes and behaviors, we conducted an online experiment on Mechanical Turk varying the content, quality, and presentation of information about another Turker's work history. Surprisingly, negative work history did not lead to negative outcomes, but in contrast, a positive work history led to positive initial impressions that persisted in the face of contrary information. This work provides insight into the impact of activity history design factors on psychological and behavioral outcomes that can be of use in other related settings.

My Mobile, My Friends

"You Never Call, You Never Write": Call and SMS Logs Do Not Always Indicate Tie Strength BIBAFull-Text 765-774
  Jason Wiese; Jun-Ki Min; Jason I. Hong; John Zimmerman
How effective are call and SMS logs in modeling tie strength? Frequency and duration of communication has long been cited as a major aspect of tie strength. Intuitively, this makes sense: people communicate with those that they feel close to. Highly cited research papers have pushed this idea further, using communication as a direct proxy for tie strength. However, this operationalization has not been validated. Our work evaluates this assumption. We collected call and SMS logs and ground truth relationship data from 36 participants. Consistent with theory, we found that frequent or long-duration communication likely indicates a strong tie. However, the use of call and SMS logs produced many errors in separating strong and weak ties, suggesting this approach is incomplete. Follow-up interviews indicate fundamental challenges for inferring tie strength from communication logs.
Dwelling Places in KakaoTalk: Understanding the Roles and Meanings of Chatrooms in Mobile Instant Messengers BIBAFull-Text 775-784
  Da-jung Kim; Youn-kyung Lim
Recently, a great amount of conversation is taking place through mobile instant messaging (MIM) applications. The emergence of mobile messengers has enabled people to spend significant time in MIM, dwelling with close people. To investigate how this persistent use of MIM shaped the roles and meanings of MIM chatrooms, we conducted semi-structured interviews with ten users of KakaoTalk, one of the most popular MIM applications in South Korea. By understanding how participants determine the notion of centrality in MIM, we discovered three functional regions, namely, primary, secondary, and tertiary regions, which respectively support different functions not only in communication, but also in social interaction with various types of relationships: performing everyday life, connecting to the maintained social capital, and connecting to the expired relationship. Based on the valued meanings and user behaviors in those regions, we highlight two approaches that would trigger a new perspective in the design of messaging applications.

Is There a Doctor in the Room?

Collaborative Affordances of Hybrid Patient Record Technologies in Medical Work BIBAFull-Text 785-797
  Steven Houben; Mads Frost; Jakob E. Bardram
The medical record is a central artifact used to organize, communicate and coordinate information related to patient care. Despite recent deployments of electronic health records (EHR), paper medical records are still widely used because of the affordances of paper. Although a number of approaches explored the integration of paper and digital technology, there are still a wide range of open issues in the design of technologies that integrate digital and paper-based medical records. This paper studies the use of one such novel technology, called the Hybrid Patient Record (HyPR), that is designed to digitally augment a paper medical record. We report on two studies: a field study in which we describe the benefits and challenges of using a combination of electronic and paper-based medical records in a large university hospital and a deployment study in which we analyze how 8 clinicians used the HyPR in a medical simulation. Based on these empirical studies, this paper introduces and discusses the concept of collaborative affordances, which describes a set of properties of the medical record that foster collaborative collocated work.
Visible but Unseen?: A Workplace Study of Blood-Test Icons on Electronic Emergency-Department Whiteboards BIBAFull-Text 798-807
  Arnvør á Torkilsheyggi; Morten Hertzum
Studies have shown that whiteboards support much cooperative work by for example strengthening awareness, improving communication, and reducing mental workload. In line with these predominantly positive findings, an emergency department (ED) turned to its whiteboard to improve the coordination of its work with blood tests. We investigate this use of the whiteboard through observations and informal interviews in the ED and analyze the ability of the whiteboard to support coordination and awareness in the work with blood tests. Our findings show limitations in the ability of the whiteboard to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible.
Comparing Health Information Sharing Preferences of Cancer Patients, Doctors, and Navigators BIBAFull-Text 808-818
  Maia L. Jacobs; James Clawson; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
As technologies such as personal health records and symptom trackers become more common, we are seeing an increase in patients actively engaging in health tracking behaviors. Patient collected data can provide valuable insight for healthcare providers, particularly in the area of breast cancer. Thus far, little work has examined whether the health information that patients are willing to track and share aligns with the information needs of healthcare providers. Our work provides a comparison between the health information sharing preferences of breast cancer patients, doctors and navigators. We identify discrepancies between stakeholders' preferences, such as patients' hesitation to share feelings of loneliness, signifying where technology can play an important role in helping patients prioritize the health information shared with providers. We present design implications from this work to guide the development of future health information sharing tools that consider the differing needs of healthcare stakeholders.

Leveraging Language

They Said What?: Exploring the Relationship Between Language Use and Member Satisfaction in Communities BIBAFull-Text 819-825
  Tara Matthews; Jalal U. Mahmud; Jilin Chen; Michael Muller; Eben Haber; Hernan Badenes
In online communities, satisfied members are essential to community success, since they are more likely to contribute and consume content, engage with other members, and feel committed to the community. However, it is difficult for community leaders to know, on an on-going basis, whether members are satisfied. In this paper, we explore the relationship between member satisfaction and language use within content posted in workplace online communities. We hope to find patterns of language use that are associated with satisfied members. We employ linguistic analysis based on LIWC, and a survey to directly measure member satisfaction in 142 workplace communities. We contribute a better understanding of how members interact in effective workplace communities, and show that linguistic analysis could be a useful part of future methods to automatically assess community member satisfaction.
Turkers, Scholars, "Arafat" and "Peace": Cultural Communities and Algorithmic Gold Standards BIBAFull-Text 826-838
  Shilad Sen; Margaret E. Giesel; Rebecca Gold; Benjamin Hillmann; Matt Lesicko; Samuel Naden; Jesse Russell; Zixiao (Ken) Wang; Brent Hecht
In just a few years, crowdsourcing markets like Mechanical Turk have become the dominant mechanism for building "gold standard" datasets in areas of computer science ranging from natural language processing to audio transcription. The assumption behind this sea change -- an assumption that is central to the approaches taken in hundreds of research projects -- is that crowdsourced markets can accurately replicate the judgments of the general population for knowledge-oriented tasks. Focusing on the important domain of semantic relatedness algorithms and leveraging Clark's theory of common ground as a framework, we demonstrate that this assumption can be highly problematic. Using 7,921 semantic relatedness judgements from 72 scholars and 39 crowdworkers, we show that crowdworkers on Mechanical Turk produce significantly different semantic relatedness gold standard judgements than people from other communities. We also show that algorithms that perform well against Mechanical Turk gold standard datasets do significantly worse when evaluated against other communities' gold standards. Our results call into question the broad use of Mechanical Turk for the development of gold standard datasets and demonstrate the importance of understanding these datasets from a human-centered point-of-view. More generally, our findings problematize the notion that a universal gold standard dataset exists for all knowledge tasks.
Dissecting a Social Botnet: Growth, Content and Influence in Twitter BIBAFull-Text 839-851
  Norah Abokhodair; Daisy Yoo; David W. McDonald
Social botnets have become an important phenomenon on social media. There are many ways in which social bots can disrupt or influence online discourse, such as, spam hashtags, scam twitter users, and astroturfing. In this paper we considered one specific social botnet in Twitter to understand how it grows over time, how the content of tweets by the social botnet differ from regular users in the same dataset, and lastly, how the social botnet may have influenced the relevant discussions. Our analysis is based on a qualitative coding for approximately 3000 tweets in Arabic and English from the Syrian social bot that was active for 35 weeks on Twitter before it was shutdown. We find that the growth, behavior and content of this particular botnet did not specifically align with common conceptions of botnets. Further we identify interesting aspects of the botnet that distinguish it from regular users.

Collaboration in a Globalised World

Two is Better Than One: Improving Multilingual Collaboration by Giving Two Machine Translation Outputs BIBAFull-Text 852-863
  Ge Gao; Bin Xu; David C. Hau; Zheng Yao; Dan Cosley; Susan R. Fussell
Machine translation (MT) creates both opportunities and challenges for multilingual collaboration: While MT enables collaborators to communicate via their native languages, it can introduce errors that make communication difficult. In the current paper, we examine whether displaying two alternative translations for each message will improve conversational grounding and task performance. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which monolingual native English speakers collaborated with bilingual native Mandarin speakers on a map navigation task. Each dyad performed the task in one of three communication conditions: MT with single output, MT with two outputs, and English as a common language. Dyads given two translations for each message communicated more efficiently, and performed better on the task, than dyads given one translation. Our findings show the value of providing multiple translations in multilingual collaboration, and suggest design features of future MT-based collaboration tools.
In the Flow, Being Heard, and Having Opportunities: Sources of Power and Power Dynamics in Global Teams BIBAFull-Text 864-875
  Pamela Hinds; Daniela Retelny; Catherine Cramton
In our qualitative study of 9 globally distributed software development teams, we found that power and how it was distributed across locations had a significant effect on team dynamics. We describe the sources of power for these teams, which include being in the flow of information, feeling that one's voice is heard by decision makers, and having opportunities for career growth and advancement. We also examine power dynamics across locations by team and show that having more balanced power was typically associated with more power struggles rather than fewer. Four of the 9 teams had ongoing power contests. Each of these teams had some sources of power at one location and other sources of power at the other location. Both sites worried about losing power, felt they should have more, and struggled against losing ground. We conclude with a discussion of the need for CSCW to expand beyond collaboration to address issues of power. We propose ideas for systems to support globally distributed teams in creating more equal access to more sources of power and alleviating unhealthy power dynamics.
Why Replacing Legacy Systems Is So Hard in Global Software Development: An Information Infrastructure Perspective BIBAFull-Text 876-890
  Stina Matthiesen; Pernille Bjørn
We report on an ethnographic study of an outsourcing global software development (GSD) setup between a Danish IT company and an Indian IT vendor developing a system to replace a legacy system for social services administration in Denmark. Physical distance and GSD collaboration issues tend to be obvious explanations for why GSD tasks fail to reach completion; however, we account for the difficulties within the technical nature of the software system task. We use the framework of information infrastructure to show how replacing a legacy system in governmental information infrastructures includes the work of tracing back to knowledge concerning law, technical specifications, as well as how information infrastructures have dynamically evolved over time. Not easily carried out in a GSD setup is the work around technical tasks that requires careful examination of mundane technical aspects, standards, and bureaucratic forms, as well as the excavation work that keeps the information infrastructure afloat.

Technologies in the Workplace

Mood Squeezer: Lightening up the Workplace through Playful and Lightweight Interactions BIBAFull-Text 891-902
  Sarah Gallacher; Jenny O'Connor; Jon Bird; Yvonne Rogers; Licia Capra; Daniel Harrison; Paul Marshall
Many companies would like to redesign their workspaces to make them more pleasant and even fun places to work in. An assumption is it will result in social and economic benefits. However, it can be difficult to achieve because of cost, level of disruption and regulations. We present an alternative approach that provides an injection of playfulness into "drab" office buildings. A lightweight technology intervention was designed -- Mood Squeezer -- that asks people to reflect on their mood by squeezing a colored ball from a box set. The squeezes are mirrored back as an aggregate colorful visualization on a public floor display. An in-the-wild study showed how this intervention was successful at getting people to squeeze their mood, leading to a diversity of conversations throughout the building. We discuss how this lightweight approach to office augmentation can provide new opportunities for opening up a "closed" workplace.
Focused, Aroused, but so Distractible: Temporal Perspectives on Multitasking and Communications BIBAFull-Text 903-916
  Gloria Mark; Shamsi Iqbal; Mary Czerwinski; Paul Johns
A common assumption in studies of interruptions is that one is focused in an activity and then distracted by other stimuli. We take the reverse perspective and examine whether one might first be in an attentional state that makes one susceptible to communications typically associated with distraction. We explore the confluence of multitasking and workplace communications from three temporal perspectives -- prior to an interaction, when tasks and communications are interleaved, and at the end of the day. Using logging techniques and experience sampling, we observed 32 employees in situ for five days. We found that certain attentional states lead people to be more susceptible to particular types of interaction. Rote work is followed by more Facebook or face-to-face interaction. Focused and aroused states are followed by more email. The more time in email and face-to-face interaction, and the more total screen switches, the less productive people feel at the day's end. We present the notion of emotional homeostasis along with new directions for multitasking research.
The Importance of Publicly Available Social Networking Sites (SNSs) to Entrepreneurs BIBAFull-Text 917-928
  Toni Ferro
This study examines the use of social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook and LinkedIn by entrepreneurs. The results contribute to the growing body of research on the uses of SNSs in the workplace. The findings show that entrepreneurs use SNSs in some of the same ways workers at large companies do (e.g. to cultivate business relationships and find job candidates) as well as some unique ways (e.g. to find credible subcontractors and to develop fundamental business relationships). Understanding the potential of SNSs to support work suggests implications for SNS design and theory development.

Creative Collaborating

Toward Collaborative Ideation at Scale: Leveraging Ideas from Others to Generate More Creative and Diverse Ideas BIBAFull-Text 937-945
  Pao Siangliulue; Kenneth C. Arnold; Krzysztof Z. Gajos; Steven P. Dow
A growing number of large collaborative idea generation platforms promise that by generating ideas together, people can create better ideas than any would have alone. But how might these platforms best leverage the number and diversity of contributors to help each contributor generate even better ideas? Prior research suggests that seeing particularly creative or diverse ideas from others can inspire you, but few scalable mechanisms exist to assess diversity. We contribute a new scalable crowd-powered method for evaluating the diversity of sets of ideas. The method relies on similarity comparisons (is idea A more similar to B or C) generated by non-experts to create an abstract spatial idea map. Our validation study reveals that human raters agree with the estimates of dissimilarity derived from our idea map as much or more than they agree with each other. People seeing the diverse sets of examples from our idea map generate more diverse ideas than those seeing randomly selected examples. Our results also corroborate findings from prior research showing that people presented with creative examples generated more creative ideas than those who saw a set of random examples. We see this work as a step toward building more effective online systems for supporting large scale collective ideation.
Towards an Appropriable CSCW Tool Ecology: Lessons from the Greatest International Scavenger Hunt the World Has Ever Seen BIBAFull-Text 946-957
  Joseph A. Gonzales; Casey Fiesler; Amy Bruckman
If you could accomplish a complex, collaborative work task with one tool or many tools working together, which would you choose? In this paper, we present a case study of GISHWHES (the "Greatest International Scavenger Hunt the World Has Ever Seen"), an annual event in which teams spend one week completing complex, creative tasks. Building on the literature of IT ecosystems, we show how teams used different collections of tools to meet their communication needs. We interviewed team members, finding that most teams used multiple tools during GISHWHES. By analyzing which tools they chose over others for each function, we gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of these tools, and the complexity surrounding work processes. In light of this complexity, this research highlights the importance of designing appropriable tools that can work with unanticipated workflows and mesh well with other tools in a communicative ecology.
Digital Entanglements: Craft, Computation and Collaboration in Fine Art Furniture Production BIBAFull-Text 958-968
  Amy Cheatle; Steven J. Jackson
This paper joins a growing body of CSCW and HCI work exploring questions of creativity and collaboration at the intersection of digital and material practices of craft. Drawing on studio visits and interviews with fine art furniture maker Wendell Castle and his team, we investigate one studio's experience with integrating digital fabrication tools into their studio practice, and its implications for the collective organization of work and creativity. We explore how the introduction of new computational and industrial machine objects (here, Computer Numerical Controllers) remediates traditional relations of craft and the forms of human-object value, care, and creativity built around them. We also chart new forms of creative practice and material flow that emerge from this encounter, and show how remediations of craft in the Castle studio may pose questions and opportunities for wider CSCW concerns around craft, creativity, and design.

Collaborating Around Crisis

Connected Through Crisis: Emotional Proximity and the Spread of Misinformation Online BIBAFull-Text 969-980
  Y. Linlin Huang; Kate Starbird; Mania Orand; Stephanie A. Stanek; Heather T. Pedersen
During crises, the ability to access relevant information is extremely important for those affected. Previous research shows that social media have become popular for rapid information exchange between members of the online community after crisis events. This study focuses on the effects of proximity to a crisis on information sharing behaviors. Using constructivist grounded theory to guide our inquiry, we conducted interviews with eleven people who used social media in the aftermath of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings. Salient themes emerging from this study suggest that both physical and emotional proximity to a crisis influence online information seeking and sharing behaviors. Additionally, speed of information sharing and information access renders social media especially useful during crisis and particularly susceptible to the spread of misinformation. We view the latter as a consequence of the inevitable sensemaking process that occurs as individuals attempt to make sense of incomplete information.
Think Local, Retweet Global: Retweeting by the Geographically-Vulnerable during Hurricane Sandy BIBAFull-Text 981-993
  Marina Kogan; Leysia Palen; Kenneth M. Anderson
Hurricane Sandy wrought $6 billion in damage, took 162 lives, and displaced 776,000 people after hitting the US Eastern seaboard on October 29, 2012. Because of its massive impact, the hurricane also spurred a flurry of social media activity, both by the population immediately affected and by the globally convergent crowd. In this paper we explore how retweeting activity by the geographically vulnerable differs (if at all) from that of the general Twitter population. We investigate whether they spread information differently, including what and whose content they chose to propagate. We investigate whether the Twitter-based relationships are preexisting or if they are newly formed because of the disaster, and if so if they persist. We find that the people in the path of the disaster favor in their retweeting locally-created tweets and those with locally-actionable information. They also form denser networks of information propagation during disaster than before or after.
What to Expect When the Unexpected Happens: Social Media Communications Across Crises BIBAFull-Text 994-1009
  Alexandra Olteanu; Sarah Vieweg; Carlos Castillo
The use of social media to communicate timely information during crisis situations has become a common practice in recent years. In particular, the one-to-many nature of Twitter has created an opportunity for stakeholders to disseminate crisis-relevant messages, and to access vast amounts of information they may not otherwise have. Our goal is to understand what affected populations, response agencies and other stakeholders can expect-and not expect-from these data in various types of disaster situations. Anecdotal evidence suggests that different types of crises elicit different reactions from Twitter users, but we have yet to see whether this is in fact the case. In this paper, we investigate several crises-including natural hazards and human-induced disasters-in a systematic manner and with a consistent methodology. This leads to insights about the prevalence of different information types and sources across a variety of crisis situations.

Location, Location, Location

Do Birds of a Feather Watch Each Other?: Homophily and Social Surveillance in Location Based Social Networks BIBAFull-Text 1010-1020
  Shion Guha; Stephen B. Wicker
Location sharing applications (LSA) have proliferated in recent years. Current research principally focuses on egocentric privacy issues and design but has historically not explored the impact of surveillance on location sharing behavior. In this paper, we examine homophily in friendship and surveillance networks for 65 foursquare users. Our results indicate that location surveillance networks are strongly homophilous along the lines of race and gender while friendship networks are weakly homophilous on income. Qualitatively, an analysis of comments and interviews provides support for a discourse around location surveillance, which is mainly social, collaborative, positive and participatory. We relate these findings with prior literature on surveillance, self-presentation and homophily and situate this study in existing HCI/CSCW scholarship.
There's No Such Thing as the Perfect Map: Quantifying Bias in Spatial Crowd-sourcing Datasets BIBAFull-Text 1021-1032
  Giovanni Quattrone; Licia Capra; Pasquale De Meo
Crowd-sourcing has become a popular form of computer mediated collaborative work and OpenStreetMap represents one of the most successful crowd-sourcing systems, where the goal of building and maintaining an accurate global map of the world is being accomplished by means of contributions made by over 1.2M citizens. However, within this apparently large crowd, a tiny group of highly active users is responsible for the mapping of almost all the content. One may thus wonder to what extent the information being mapped is biased towards the interests and agenda of this group of users. In this paper, we present a method to quantitatively measure content bias in crowd-sourced geographic information. We then apply the method to quantify content bias across a three-year period of OpenStreetMap mapping in 40 countries. We find almost no content bias in terms of what is being mapped, but significant geographic bias; furthermore, we find that bias in terms of meticulousness varies with culture.
Monetizing Network Hospitality: Hospitality and Sociability in the Context of Airbnb BIBAFull-Text 1033-1044
  Tapio Ikkala; Airi Lampinen
We present a qualitative study of hospitality exchange processes that take place via the online peer-to-peer platform Airbnb. We explore 1) what motivates individuals to monetize network hospitality and 2) how the presence of money ties in with the social interaction related to network hospitality. We approach the topic from the perspective of hosts -- that is, Airbnb users who participate by offering accommodation for other members in exchange for monetary compensation. We found that participants were motivated to monetize network hospitality for both financial and social reasons. Our analysis indicates that the presence of money can provide a helpful frame for network hospitality, supporting hosts in their efforts to accomplish desired sociability, select guests consistent with their preferences, and control the volume and type of demand. We conclude the paper with a critical discussion of the implications of our findings for network hospitality and, more broadly, for the so-called sharing economy.

Communities for Individual Behavior Change

Snack Buddy: Supporting Healthy Snacking in Low Socioeconomic Status Families BIBAFull-Text 1045-1057
  Christopher L. Schaefbauer; Danish U. Khan; Amy Le; Garrett Sczechowski; Katie A. Siek
We conducted a 12-week comparative field trial with 20 low socioeconomic status (SES) caregivers from 10 families to explore their use of a sociotechnical mobile application designed to promote healthy snacking, Snack Buddy. Our analysis of the semi-structured interviews, pre/post-intervention instruments, and photo-elicitation interviews suggests that participants gained a greater awareness of their own snacking practices and those of their family members. Users were empowered to adjust their own practices and beliefs around healthy eating because they were more aware of their family's snacking behaviors. We describe the unique social dynamics of how families engaged with each other and the application, which includes positive social support for healthy eating. By providing insights into family interactions and experiences with the application, we identify benefits, challenges, and strategies when designing family-level sociotechnical interventions for healthy behavior.
I Would Like To..., I Shouldn't..., I Wish I...: Exploring Behavior-Change Goals for Social Networking Sites BIBAFull-Text 1058-1069
  Manya Sleeper; Alessandro Acquisti; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Patrick Gage Kelley; Sean A. Munson; Norman Sadeh
Despite benefits and uses of social networking sites (SNSs) users are not always satisfied with their behaviors on the sites. These desires for behavior change both provide insight into users' perceptions of how SNSs impact their lives (positively or negatively) and can inform tools for helping users achieve desired behavior changes. We use a 604-participant online survey to explore SNS users' behavior-change goals for Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. While some participants want to reduce site use, others want to improve their use or increase a range of behaviors. These desired changes differ by SNS, and, for Twitter, by participants' levels of site use. Participants also expect a range of benefits from these goals, including increased time, contact with others, intrinsic benefits, better security/privacy, and improved self presentation. Based on these results we provide insights both into how participants perceive different SNSs, as well as potential designs for behavior-change mechanisms to target SNS behaviors.
Understanding the Roles and Influences of Mediators from Multiple Social Channels for Health Behavior Change BIBAFull-Text 1070-1079
  Yeoreum Lee; Youn-kyung Lim
People become increasingly influenced by others in changing and maintaining health behaviors. Along with the advancement of persuasive technology and social networking technologies, the place where social interaction occurs has expanded. As a result, mediators who influence an individual's behavior change can come from diverse social channels. However, little work exists on what roles the mediators have and how differently the mediators motivate and affect the maintenance of health behavior changes of users through various social channels. To investigate this, we conducted interviews with 13 participants who use a running exercise application for maintaining their health behavior changes. This study reveals the roles of mediators from three different social channels, which are the social feature in the application, general social media, and the agent feature in the application. Mediators from the application could influence participants' health behavior change either positively or negatively according to the level of intimacy and the similarity of the physical condition. Social media mediators influence participants' social face and support their health behavior changes by keeping participants in countenance. Lastly, the agent mediator of the application provides continuous reinforcement to participants for maintaining their health behavior changes.

Wikipedia: Structure & Function

Is It Good to Be Like Wikipedia?: Exploring the Trade-offs of Introducing Collaborative Editing Model to Q&A Sites BIBAFull-Text 1080-1091
  Guo Li; Haiyi Zhu; Tun Lu; Xianghua Ding; Ning Gu
Online question and answer (Q&A) sites, which are platforms for users to post and answer questions on a wide range of topics, are becoming large repositories of valuable knowledge and important to societies. In order to sustain success, Q&A sites face the challenges of ensuring content quality and encouraging user contributions. This paper examines a particular design decision in Q&A sites-allowing Wikipedia-like collaborative editing on questions and answers, and explores its beneficial effects on content quality and potential detrimental effects on users' contributions. By examining five years' archival data of Stack Overflow, we found that the benefits of collaborative editing outweigh its risks. For example, each substantive edit from other users can increase the number of positive votes by 181% for the questions and 119% for the answers. On the other hand, each edit only decreases askers and answerers' subsequent contributions by no more than 5%. This work has implications for understanding and designing large-scale social computing systems.
Functional Roles and Career Paths in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 1092-1105
  Ofer Arazy; Felipe Ortega; Oded Nov; Lisa Yeo; Adam Balila
An understanding of participation dynamics within online production communities requires an examination of the roles assumed by participants. Recent studies have established that the organizational structure of such communities is not flat; rather, participants can take on a variety of well-defined functional roles. What is the nature of functional roles? How have they evolved? And how do participants assume these functions? Prior studies focused primarily on participants' activities, rather than functional roles. Further, extant conceptualizations of role transitions in production communities, such as the Reader to Leader framework, emphasize a single dimension: organizational power, overlooking distinctions between functions. In contrast, in this paper we empirically study the nature and structure of functional roles within Wikipedia, seeking to validate existing theoretical frameworks. The analysis sheds new light on the nature of functional roles, revealing the intricate "career paths" resulting from participants' role transitions.
The Virtuous Circle of Wikipedia: Recursive Measures of Collaboration Structures BIBAFull-Text 1106-1115
  Maximilian Klein; Thomas Maillart; John Chuang
In open collaboration, knowledge is created and iteratively improved by a multitude of editors who freely choose what should be their contributions. The quality of knowledge artifacts (e.g. article, source code file) is deeply tied to their individual expertise, and to their ability to collaborate well. Conversely, the expertise of contributors is a function of artifacts contributed to. Building upon a large stream of literature on the measurement of article quality and contributor expertise, we propose a recursive algorithm to measure how editor expertise influences the quality of articles, and how contributions to articles influence editor expertise. This bi-partite network random walker metric reveals the specific structure of cooperation and how the quality of articles is achieved through coordination. We show that while the wisdom of crowds is well pulled in some categories, more editors per article can also create disvalue.

Collaboration in the Open Classroom

Talkabout: Making Distance Matter with Small Groups in Massive Classes BIBAFull-Text 1116-1128
  Chinmay Kulkarni; Julia Cambre; Yasmine Kotturi; Michael S. Bernstein; Scott R. Klemmer
Massive online classes are global and diverse. How can we harness this diversity to improve engagement and learning? Currently, though enrollments are high, students' interactions with each other are minimal: most are alone together. This isolation is particularly disappointing given that a global community is a major draw of online classes. This paper illustrates the potential of leveraging geographic diversity in massive online classes. We connect students from around the world through small-group video discussions. Our peer discussion system, Talkabout, has connected over 5,000 students in fourteen online classes. Three studies with 2,670 students from two classes found that globally diverse discussions boost student performance and engagement: the more geographically diverse the discussion group, the better the students performed on later quizzes. Through this work, we challenge the view that online classes are useful only when in-person classes are unavailable. Instead, we demonstrate how diverse online classrooms can create benefits that are largely unavailable in a traditional classroom.
Massive Open Online Proctor: Protecting the Credibility of MOOCs certificates BIBAFull-Text 1129-1137
  Xuanchong Li; Kai-min Chang; Yueran Yuan; Alexander Hauptmann
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) enable everyone to receive high-quality education. However, current MOOC creators cannot provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests, which would be required for any certification. In this paper, we propose a Massive Open Online Proctoring (MOOP) framework, which combines both automatic and collaborative approaches to detect cheating behaviors in online tests. The MOOP framework consists of three major components: Automatic Cheating Detector (ACD), Peer Cheating Detector (PCD), and Final Review Committee (FRC). ACD uses webcam video or other sensors to monitor students and automatically flag suspected cheating behavior. Ambiguous cases are then sent to the PCD, where students peer-review flagged webcam video to confirm suspicious cheating behaviors. Finally, the list of suspicious cheating behaviors is sent to the FRC to make the final punishing decision. Our experiment show that ACD and PCD can detect usage of a cheat sheet with good accuracy and can reduce the overall human resources required to monitor MOOCs for cheating.
Structuring Interactions for Large-Scale Synchronous Peer Learning BIBAFull-Text 1139-1152
  D. Coetzee; Seongtaek Lim; Armando Fox; Bjorn Hartmann; Marti A. Hearst
This research investigates how to introduce synchronous interactive peer learning into an online setting appropriate both for crowdworkers (learning new tasks) and students in massive online courses (learning course material). We present an interaction framework in which groups of learners are formed on demand and then proceed through a sequence of activities that include synchronous group discussion about learner-generated responses. Via controlled experiments with crowdworkers, we show that discussing challenging problems leads to better outcomes than working individually, and incentivizing people to help one another yields still better results. We then show that providing a mini-lesson in which workers consider the principles underlying the tested concept and justify their answers leads to further improvements. Combining the mini-lesson with the discussion of the multiple-choice question leads to significant improvements on that question. We also find positive subjective responses to the peer interactions, suggesting that discussions can improve morale in remote work or learning settings.

Journalism and Politics

The Editor's Eye: Curation and Comment Relevance on the New York Times BIBAFull-Text 1153-1157
  Nicholas A. Diakopoulos
The journalistic curation of social media content from platforms like Facebook and YouTube or from commenting systems is underscored by an imperative for publishing accurate and quality content. This work explores the manifestation of editorial quality criteria in comments that have been curated and selected on the New York Times website as "NYT Picks." The relationship between comment selection and comment relevance is examined through the analysis of 331,785 comments, including 12,542 editor's selections. A robust association between editorial selection and article relevance or conversational relevance was found. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing journalistic curatorial work load, or scaling the ability to examine more comments for editorial selection, as well as how end-user commenting experiences might be improved.
Navigating Imagined Audiences: Motivations for Participating in the Online Public Sphere BIBAFull-Text 1158-1169
  Bryan Semaan; Heather Faucett; Scott Robertson; Misa Maruyama; Sara Douglas
Little is known about why and how people use multiple social media platforms for political participation, or about the contexts through which social media is appropriated. This paper reports on a qualitative interview study of social media use by politically interested citizens. We interviewed 27 residents of the state of Hawaii who integrated one or more social media tools into their daily lives to participate in the online public sphere. Different social media environments offer both different affordances for action and different audiences, and we describe how media choice is driven by the match between motivations and affordances, and also by the imagined audience. We identified a number of motivations including understanding different viewpoints, formulating perspectives, engaging in positive discourse, repairing Hawaii's image, increasing political awareness and improving civic engagement. We discuss how these goals relate to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Finally, we examine how social media choice and satisfaction were tied to the physical world context and people's sense of the audience within any particular medium.
Content, Context, and Critique: Commenting on a Data Visualization Blog BIBAFull-Text 1170-1175
  Jessica Hullman; Nicholas Diakopoulos; Elaheh Momeni; Eytan Adar
Online data journalism, including visualizations and other manifestations of data stories, has seen a recent surge of interest. User comments add a dynamic, social layer to interpretation, enabling users to learn from others' observations and social interact around news issues. We present the results of a qualitative study of commenting around visualizations published on a mainstream news outlet, The Economist's Graphic Detail blog. We find that surprisingly, only 42% of the comments discuss the visualization and/or article content. Over 60% of comments discuss matters of context, including how the issue is framed and the relation to outside data. Further, over one third of total comments provide direct critical feedback on the content of presented visualizations and text articles as well as on contextual aspects of the presentation. Our findings suggest using critical social feedback from comments in the design process, and motivate the development of more sophisticated commenting interfaces that distinguish comments by reference.

Gender and Sexual Identity

Disclosure, Stress, and Support During Gender Transition on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 1176-1190
  Oliver L. Haimson; Jed R. Brubaker; Lynn Dombrowski; Gillian R. Hayes
Social computing technologies, such as social networking sites (SNSs), often privilege people who fit within expected, static categories. Thus, users embarking on major identity changes, such as gender transition, often encounter stress when using SNSs to interact with their online social networks. To address this problem and reflect on the design of SNSs and other social computing systems, we present the results of a comprehensive online survey of transgender and gender non-conforming SNS users. Our findings indicate that although Facebook can be a stressful place for gender transition due to difficulties of transition disclosure, support from one's Facebook network can help to mitigate some of this stress. We examine Facebook both as a site of stress and as a site of support. Better understanding the relationships between stress, disclosure, and support on SNSs for these particular users can inform technology design that will benefit people who struggle with navigating a wide range of major identity changes online.
Simulating Marriage: Gender Roles and Emerging Intimacy in an Online Game BIBAFull-Text 1191-1200
  Guo Freeman; Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Susan C. Herring
Virtual marriage is a complex social activity in virtual worlds, yet it has received relatively little research attention. What happens when an important relationship such as marriage is transformed into gameplay? In this paper we present an empirical study of how players perceive, experience, and interpret their in-game marriages, especially with regard to representations of gender and sexuality, in an online game (Audition) where a ludological simulation of marriage is centrally embedded in gameplay. Findings reveal that marriage-as-ludic-rule-system and marriage-as-significant-sociocultural-institution provide a double set of gameplay/social/psychosexual resources that players collaboratively learn and perform, and that this negotiation is a source of pleasure, frustration, and meaning in the game. These findings can contribute to understanding the specificity and heterogeneity of players' gender representation in virtual worlds and inform the design of mixed reality games that simulate important life events for learning.
Outnumbered but Well-Spoken: Female Commenters in the New York Times BIBAFull-Text 1201-1213
  Emma Pierson
Using eight months of online comments on New York Times articles, we find that only 28% of commenters of identifiable gender are female, but that their comments receive more recommendations from other readers. Comments from women are more common on forums about parenting, fashion, and health, and on articles written by women. The number of recommendations comments from women receive is positively correlated with the percentage of men on a forum, and the number of recommendations men receive is negatively correlated with the percentage of men on a forum. Female commenters are more likely to remain anonymous and anonymous commenters receive fewer recommendations. Male and female commenters differ in their choice of topics to emphasize, backgrounds, and language; we find three specific examples in responses to articles about sexual assault, contraception, and farm subsidies. We discuss the implications of these gender differences for democratic discourse and suggest ways to increase gender parity.

Social Dynamics and My Phone

Predicting a Community's Flu Dynamics with Mobile Phone Data BIBAFull-Text 1214-1221
  Katayoun Farrahi; Rémi Emonet; Manuel Cebrian
Human interactions that are sensed ubiquitously by mobile phones can improve a significant number of public health problems, particularly helping to track the spread of disease. In this paper, we evaluate multiple avenues for the integration of high-resolution face to face Bluetooth-sensed interaction networks into standard epidemic models. Our goal is to evaluate the capacity of the different avenues of integration to track the spread of seasonal influenza on a real-world community of 72 individuals over a period of 17 weeks. The dataset considered contains real-time tracking of individual flu symptoms over the whole observation period, providing a concrete individualized source for evaluation. We obtain an error of less than 2 infected people on average for predicting the total number of individuals affected by the flu and precision of approximately 30% when predicting exactly which individual will become infected at a given time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study considering mobile phone Bluetooth-sensed interaction data for dynamic infectious disease simulation that is evaluated against real human influenza occurrence. Our remarkable results indicate that high-resolution mobile phone data can increase the predictive power of even the simplest of epidemic models.
Spending Time with Money: From Shared Values to Social Connectivity BIBAFull-Text 1222-1234
  Jennifer Ferreira; Mark Perry; Sriram Subramanian
There is a rapidly growing momentum driving the development of mobile payment systems for co-present interactions, using near-field communication on smartphones and contactless payment systems. The design (and marketing) imperative for this is to enable faster, simpler, effortless and secure transactions, yet our evidence shows that this focus on reducing transactional friction may ignore other important features around making payments. We draw from empirical data to consider user interactions around financial exchanges made on mobile phones. Our findings examine how the practices around making payments support people in making connections, to other people, to their communities, to the places they move through, to their environment, and to what they consume. While these social and community bonds shape the kinds of interactions that become possible, they also shape how users feel about, and act on, the values that they hold with their co-users. We draw implications for future payment systems that make use of community connections, build trust, leverage transactional latency, and generate opportunities for rich social interactions.
NUGU: A Group-based Intervention App for Improving Self-Regulation of Limiting Smartphone Use BIBAFull-Text 1235-1245
  Minsam Ko; Subin Yang; Joonwon Lee; Christian Heizmann; Jinyoung Jeong; Uichin Lee; Daehee Shin; Koji Yatani; Junehwa Song; Kyong-Mee Chung
Our preliminary study reveals that individuals use various management strategies for limiting smartphone use, ranging from keeping smartphones out of reach to removing apps. However, we also found that users often had difficulties in maintaining their chosen management strategies due to lack of self-regulation. In this paper, we present NUGU, a group-based intervention app for improving self-regulation of limiting smartphone use through leveraging social support: groups of people limit their use together by sharing their limiting information. NUGU is designed based on social cognitive theory, and it has been developed iteratively through two pilot tests. Our three-week user study (n = 62) demonstrated that compared with its non-social counterpart, the NUGU users' usage amount significantly decreased and their perceived level of managing disturbances improved. Furthermore, our exit interview confirmed that NUGU's design elements are effective for achieving limiting goals.

Recommender Systems

Studying and Modeling the Connection between People's Preferences and Content Sharing BIBAFull-Text 1246-1257
  Amit Sharma; Dan Cosley
People regularly share items using online social media. However, people's decisions around sharing -- who shares what to whom and why -- are not well understood. We present a user study involving 87 pairs of Facebook users to understand how people make their sharing decisions. We find that even when sharing to a specific individual, people's own preference for an item (individuation) dominates over the recipient's preferences (altruism). People's open-ended responses about how they share, however, indicate that they do try to personalize shares based on the recipient. To explain these contrasting results, we propose a novel process model of sharing that takes into account people's preferences and the salience of an item. We also present encouraging results for a sharing prediction model that incorporates both the senders' and the recipients' preferences. These results suggest improvements to both algorithms that support sharing in social media and to information diffusion models.
Using Groups of Items to Bootstrap New Users in Recommender Systems BIBAFull-Text 1258-1269
  Shuo Chang; F. Maxwell Harper; Loren Terveen
To achieve high quality initial personalization, recommender systems must provide an efficient and effective process for new users to express their preferences. We propose that this goal is best served not by the classical method where users begin by expressing preferences for individual items -- this process is an inefficient way to convert a user's effort into improved personalization. Rather, we propose that new users can begin by expressing their preferences for groups of items. We test this idea by designing and evaluating an interactive process where users express preferences across groups of items that are automatically generated by clustering algorithms. We contribute a strategy for recommending items based on these preferences that is generalizable to any collaborative filtering-based system. We evaluate our process with both offline simulation methods and an online user experiment. We find that, as compared with a baseline rate-15-items interface, (a) users are able to complete the preference elicitation process in less than half the time, and (b) users are more satisfied with the resulting recommended items. Our evaluation reveals several advantages and other trade-offs involved in moving from item-based preference elicitation to group-based preference elicitation.
Understanding Online Reviews: Funny, Cool or Useful? BIBAFull-Text 1270-1276
  Saeideh Bakhshi; Partha Kanuparthy; David A. Shamma
Increasingly online reviews are relied upon to make choices about the purchases and services we use daily. Businesses, on the other hand, depend on online review sites to find new customers and understand people's perception of them. In order for an online review community to be effective to both users and businesses, it is important to understand what constitutes a high quality review as perceived by people, and how to maximize quality of reviews in the community. In this paper, we study Yelp to answer these questions. We analyze about 230,000 reviews and member interaction ("votes") with these reviews. We find that active and regular members are the highest contributors to good quality reviews and longer reviews have higher chances of being popular in the community. We find that reviews voted "useful" tend to be the early ones for a specific business. Our findings have implications on enabling high quality member contributions and community effectiveness. We discuss the implications to design of social systems with diverse feedback signals.

Systems in Support of Health & Wellness

Shared Calendars for Home Health Management BIBAFull-Text 1277-1288
  Jordan Eschler; Logan Kendall; Kathleen O'Leary; Lisa M. Vizer; Paula Lozano; Jennifer B. McClure; Wanda Pratt; James D. Ralston
What is the role of shared calendars for home health management? Utilizing a maximum variation sampling method, we interviewed 20 adult individuals with diabetes and 20 mothers of children with asthma to understand calendar use in the context of chronic disease home health management. In comparing the experiences of these two groups, we explore participants' use of tools for organizing tasks and appointments, their strategies for capturing health and non-health events in the family calendar system, the ecology of artifacts that intersect with their scheduling tools, and the failures they experienced while managing their calendar systems. Through this work, we offer a context-specific perspective of schedule management strategies for individuals and families who must integrate their handling of chronic illnesses with everyday living.
Collaboration in-between: The Care Hotel and Designing for Flexible Use BIBAFull-Text 1289-1301
  Claus Bossen; Erik Grönvall
In this paper, we analyse the challenges of working between organizations and established information infrastructures. The Care Hotel is a municipal healthcare facility where persons, typically following a hospital stay, undergo rehabilitation to enable them to live independently at home. Admission, stay, and discharge from the Care Hotel entail numerous coordination activities with a variety of frequent and sporadic, heterogeneous, external collaborators, including general practitioners, relatives, and hospitals, some of which are already part of large information infrastructures, whereas others are too small or shifting to allow for stable arrangements. Hence, work at the Care Hotel may be characterized as "collaboration in-between". We propose a design solution for flexible use to further stimulate reflection on design implications, and how to meet the challenges of collaboration in-between. As large infrastructures continue to develop, we posit that many "in-between settings" will encounter similar challenges to collaboration. Healthcare providers in contexts of fragmented healthcare are also likely to face such challenges.
The Modern Day Baby Book: Enacting Good Mothering and Stewarding Privacy on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 1302-1312
  Priya Kumar; Sarita Schoenebeck
The practice of sharing family photographs is as old as the camera itself. Many mothers now share baby photos online, yet little is known about what kinds of baby photos they share and their motivations for doing so. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 22 new mothers, we find that they share cute, funny, milestone, and family and friend photos but refrain from sharing crying and naked photos. While some mothers harbor concerns about controlling information, oversharing, and digital footprints, the benefits of receiving validation outweighs their concerns. Sharing baby photos on Facebook helps new mothers enact and receive validation of "good mothering." However, mothers are charged with the responsibility of stewarding their children's privacy and identities online. We introduce the concept of privacy stewardship to describe the responsibility parents take on when deciding what is appropriate to share about their children online and ensuring that family and friends respect and maintain the integrity of those rules. As a result, mothers must exchange benefits of sharing baby photos with risks of creating digital footprints for their child.

Collaborative Counseling

Computer Support for Financial Advisors and Their Clients: Co-creating an Investment Plan BIBAFull-Text 1313-1323
  Susanna Heyman; Henrik Artman
This paper is a workplace study of how financial advisors use their computer systems in advisory meetings with clients, with special focus on the collaborative decision-making. Observations and interviews show that the financial advisors in the study were not much helped by their computer system in visualizing and explaining financial concepts to their clients, and that not all of them trusted the system's decision support feature. Furthermore, client meetings can involve more than one client, which has further implications for the design of financial decision support.
Coercing into Completeness in Financial Advisory Service Encounters BIBAFull-Text 1324-1335
  Mehmet Kilic; Peter Heinrich; Gerhard Schwabe
In this article, we report on design insights found during the evaluation of an innovative IT-artifact to support financial service encounters. Relating to previous work in this field, we carefully designed the artifact to omit any visualization and enforcement of rigid process structures, as those had turned out to be harmful. Our main design element was a mind-map-like content hierarchy to capture the client's situation. Surprisingly, we noticed that both clients and advisors talked about every information item visible on the screen just for the sake of completeness. They also followed a sequential process apparently inferred from the content hierarchy. We call this phenomenon "coercing into completeness". This phenomenon negatively influences the conversation between client and advisor inducing shorter discussion units and sudden, incomprehensible topic shifts. This article contributes an exploration of this phenomenon and its effects on the collaborative setting.
On Becoming a Counsellor: Challenges and Opportunities to Support Interpersonal Skills Training BIBAFull-Text 1336-1347
  Petr Slovák; Anja Thieme; Paul Tennent; Patrick Olivier; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Well-developed interpersonal skills are crucial for all social interactions. However, understanding how interpersonal skills are taught or learned, and how technology can play a part in this, is yet an under-researched area in CSCW and HCI research. To start addressing this gap, our research explores the learning processes of counselling students, for whom developing interpersonal skills forms a fundamental part of their university education. We followed an iterative process to gain an in-depth understanding of a specific counselling program in the UK, combining interviews and low-fidelity technology prompts. Overall, 26 participants comprising tutors, students and expert counsellors took part. Our findings first provide insights into the highly collaborative and social learning process of the students. We highlight the complexity of interpersonal reflection as a crucial process for developing counselling skills, and identify the challenges to learning that students face. Second, we build on this understanding to draw out empirically grounded design considerations around opportunities for technology innovation in this setting.

Community-Based Participatory Research

Strangers at the Gate: Gaining Access, Building Rapport, and Co-Constructing Community-Based Research BIBAFull-Text 1348-1358
  Christopher A. Le Dantec; Sarah Fox
This paper is about the work we do to create productive partnerships in community settings: developing relationships, demonstrating commitments, and overcoming personal and institutional barriers to community-based design research. Through an ethnographic account of the elements of community-based research normally elided from reports of design process, we explore how the impact of institutional histories and personal relationships went beyond simply identifying potential partners, but fundamentally guided the research questions and approach. We examine the different roles researchers play -- researcher, confidant, advocate, interloper, invader, and collaborator -- and how those roles create particular relations in the field. The contribution of this work is the development of a reflective account of the research in order to evaluate knowledge production, rigor, and advance methods for engaging in community-based research.
Increasing the Reach of Snowball Sampling: The Impact of Fixed versus Lottery Incentives BIBAFull-Text 1359-1363
  Aditya Vashistha; Edward Cutrell; William Thies
Though many researchers have studied how to incentivize people to respond to surveys, little is known about how these incentives impact respondents' willingness to recruit others to participate as well. In this paper, we show that the incentives offered for individual survey responses can have a dramatic impact on the overall reach of a survey through a network of peers. In a field experiment in India, we made a survey accessible via mobile phones and offered respondents either a fixed incentive (guaranteed payment of about $0.17) or a lottery incentive (1% chance of winning $17). When asked to choose, a significant fraction of respondents preferred the lottery incentive. However, when encouraged to spread the survey, the fixed incentive spread over 100 times further, reaching about 800 people in a day. We interpret this surprising result and discuss the implications for HCI.
LabintheWild: Conducting Large-Scale Online Experiments With Uncompensated Samples BIBAFull-Text 1364-1378
  Katharina Reinecke; Krzysztof Z. Gajos
Web-based experimentation with uncompensated and unsupervised samples has the potential to support the replication, verification, extension and generation of new results with larger and more diverse sample populations than previously seen. We introduce the experimental online platform LabintheWild, which provides participants with personalized feedback in exchange for participation in behavioral studies. In comparison to conventional in-lab studies, LabintheWild enables the recruitment of participants at larger scale and from more diverse demographic and geographic backgrounds. We analyze Google Analytics data, participants' comments, and tweets to discuss how participants hear about the platform, and why they might choose to participate. Analyzing three example experiments, we additionally show that these experiments replicate previous in-lab study results with comparable data quality.

Collaborative Software Development

Social Barriers Faced by Newcomers Placing Their First Contribution in Open Source Software Projects BIBAFull-Text 1379-1392
  Igor Steinmacher; Tayana Conte; Marco Aurélio Gerosa; David Redmiles
Newcomers' seamless onboarding is important for online communities that depend upon leveraging the contribution of outsiders. Previous studies investigated aspects of the joining process and motivation in open collaboration communities, but few have focused on identifying and understanding the critical barriers newcomers face when placing their first contribution, a period that frequently leads to dropout. This is important for Open Source Software (OSS) projects, which receive contributions from many one-time contributors. Focusing on OSS, our study qualitatively analyzed social barriers that hindered newcomers' first contributions. We defined a conceptual model composed of 58 barriers including 13 social barriers. The barriers were identified from a qualitative data analysis considering different sources: a systematic literature review; open question responses gathered from OSS projects' contributors; students contributing to OSS projects; and semi-structured interviews with 36 developers from 14 different projects. This paper focuses on social barriers and its contributions include gathering empirical evidence of the barriers faced by newcomers, organizing and better understanding these barriers, surveying the literature from the perspective of the barriers, and identifying new potential research streams.
Mudslinging and Manners: Unpacking Conflict in Free and Open Source Software BIBAFull-Text 1393-1403
  Anna Filippova; Hichang Cho
As the nature of virtual work changes, so must our understanding of important processes such as conflict. The present study examines conflict in ongoing virtual teams by situating itself in the context of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) development. A series of semi-structured interviews with diverse representatives of the FOSS community highlight differences in the way conflict occurs. Specifically, a transformation of conflict types is observed together with a form of conflict previously unidentified in work on virtual teams. Findings suggest that the changing structure of ongoing virtual teams has important consequences for team processes like conflict.

Influence and the Social Network

Towards Understanding Relational Orientation: Attachment Theory and Facebook Activities BIBAFull-Text 1404-1415
  Bumsoo Kang; Sujin Lee; Alice Oh; Seungwoo Kang; Inseok Hwang; Junehwa Song
Knowing individuals' relational orientation is imperative for effective offline, as well as online, interactions and collaborations. We use attachment theory to examine the link between Facebook users' relational orientation (in terms of attachment styles: anxiety and avoidance) and their relational activities. Our research examines whether and how the two key relational processes identified in offline social relationships (self-expression and responsiveness) are manifested on online social networks and related to attachment styles. We describe our dataset of 640 Facebook users, their attachment scale survey results, and their 525,334 posts. We define four features that map onto relational activities on Facebook: status updates and status updates with emotional words (self-expression); comments and likes (responsiveness). We find significant relationships between the users' attachment styles and their self-expression and responsiveness activities on Facebook. A key takeaway of our research is that without relying on self-reported surveys, a computational analysis of a Facebook user's self-expressing and responding activities alone can reveal the user's underlying relational orientation (i.e., attachment style).
The Role of Social Influence in Security Feature Adoption BIBAFull-Text 1416-1426
  Sauvik Das; Adam D. I. Kramer; Laura A. Dabbish; Jason I. Hong
Social influence is key in technology adoption, but its role in security-feature adoption is unique and remains unclear. Here, we analyzed how three Facebook security features' Login Approvals, Login Notifications, and Trusted Contacts-diffused through the social networks of 1.5 million people. Our results suggest that social influence affects one's likelihood to adopt a security feature, but its effect varies based on the observability of the feature, the current feature adoption rate among a potential adopter's friends, and the number of distinct social circles from which those feature-adopting friends originate. Curiously, there may be a threshold higher than which having more security feature adopting friends predicts for higher adoption likelihood, but below which having more feature-adopting friends predicts for lower adoption likelihood. Furthermore, the magnitude of this threshold is modulated by the attributes of a feature-features that are more noticeable (Login Approvals, Trusted Contacts) have lower thresholds.
Give Social Network Users the Privacy They Want BIBAFull-Text 1427-1441
  Pamela Wisniewski; A. K. M. Najmul Islam; Bart P. Knijnenburg; Sameer Patil
Social Network Sites (SNS) are often characterized as a trade-off where users must give up privacy to gain social benefits. We investigated the alternative viewpoint that users gain the most benefits when SNSs give them the privacy they desire. Applying structural equation modeling to questionnaire data of 303 Facebook users, we examined the complex relationship between privacy and SNS benefits. We found that SNS users whose privacy desires were met reported higher levels of social connectedness (i.e., perceived relational closeness with others) than those who achieved less privacy than they desired. Social connectedness, in turn, played a pivotal role in building social capital (i.e., the benefits derived from relationships with others). These findings suggest that more openness may not always be better; SNSs should aim to achieve 'Privacy Fit' with user needs to enhance user experience and ensure sustained use.

Temporality and Rhythms of Work

Making Time BIBAFull-Text 1442-1452
  Siân E. Lindley
This paper draws on research on time and technology, with a view to examining the notion that technology is implicated in the speeding up of everyday life. We begin by looking at research that shows how the adoption of the clock and of "clock time" was framed by more general shifts in ways of conceptualising and using time. Likewise, we suggest that the ways in which digital technologies are said to shape experiences of time need to be understood in the context of the fractured routines of the modern Western world. We argue that "redesigning" these experiences necessitates a broader way of dealing with the temporal structures of social life. Technology may play various roles here, for instance by shaping temporal infrastructures and highlighting reified temporal patterns. However, complex challenges also need to be addressed, central to which are recent accounts that position time as collective and entangled.
Circumscribed Time and Porous Time: Logics as a Way of Studying Temporality BIBAFull-Text 1453-1464
  Melissa Mazmanian; Ingrid Erickson; Ellie Harmon
In this paper, we introduce the notion of a temporal logic to characterize sets of organizing principles that perpetuate particular orientations to the lived experience of time. We identify a dominant temporal logic, circumscribed time, which has legitimated time as chunkable, single-purpose, linear, and ownable. We juxtapose this logic with the temporal experiences of participants in three ethnographic datasets to identify a set of alternative understandings of time -- that it is also spectral, mosaic, rhythmic, and obligated. We call this understanding porous time. We posit porous time as an expansion of circumscribed time in order to provoke reflection on how temporal logics underpin the ways that people orient to each other, research and design technologies, and normalize visions of success in contemporary life.
Designing for Temporal Awareness: The Role of Temporality in Time-Critical Medical Teamwork BIBAFull-Text 1465-1476
  Diana S. Kusunoki; Aleksandra Sarcevic
This paper describes the role of temporal information in emergency medical teamwork and how time-based features can be designed to support the temporal awareness of clinicians in this fast-paced and dynamic environment. Engagement in iterative design activities with clinicians over the course of two years revealed a strong need for time-based features and mechanisms, including timestamps for tasks based on absolute time and automatic stopclocks measuring time by counting up since task performance. We describe in detail the aspects of temporal awareness central to clinicians' awareness needs and then provide examples of how we addressed these needs through the design of a shared information display. As an outcome of this process, we define four types of time representation techniques to facilitate the design of time-based features: (1) timestamps based on absolute time, (2) timestamps relative to the process start time, (3) time since task performance, and (4) time until the next required task.

Collaborating through Social Media

Friendship Maintenance in the Digital Age: Applying a Relational Lens to Online Social Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1477-1487
  Irina Shklovski; Louise Barkhuus; Nis Bornoe; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye
HCI research has explored mobile technologies to support social activity and to support greater feelings of connectedness. Much of this has focused on different mobile devices, individual preferences and modes of use. Yet social activity and connectedness are about ongoing enactments of relationships across technologies. We propose the relational lens as a way to include a notion of relational tension in addition to individual preferences in the design and analysis of mobile communication technologies. We discuss three strategies people use to manage tensions in their relationships: selection, segmentation and integration. Our data show that use of social technologies can at times destabilize social relations and occasion relational tensions, forcing users to renegotiate how they enact these relationships.
Clinical Questions in Online Health Communities: The Case of "See your doctor" Threads BIBAFull-Text 1488-1499
  Jina Huh
Online health communities are known to provide psychosocial support. However, concerns for misinformation being shared around clinical information persist. An existing practice addressing this concern includes monitoring and, as needed, discouraging asking clinical questions in the community. In this paper, I examine such practice where moderators redirected patients to see their health care providers instead of consulting the community. I observed that, contrary to common beliefs, community members provided constructive tips and persuaded the patients to see doctors rather than attempting to make a diagnosis or give medical advice. Moderators' posts on redirecting patients to see their providers were highly associated with no more follow up replies, potentially hindering active community dynamic. The findings showed what is previously thought of as a solution-quality control through moderation-might not be best and that the community, in coordination with moderators, can provide critical help in addressing clinical questions and building constructive information sharing community environment.
Creating Value Together: The Emerging Design Space of Peer-to-Peer Currency and Exchange BIBAFull-Text 1500-1510
  John M. Carroll; Victoria Bellotti
Paradigms for the collaborative creation of value through trade and exchange have developed over millennia. Thus, coins emerged in response to a set of challenges in barter and gift exchange. The development of paradigms for trade and exchange continues today, and is accelerating due both to crises in the mainstream global economy, and to new possibilities enabled by information technology. In this discussion paper, we consider alternative and complementary currency and exchange innovations, including local/community currencies, timebanks, crypto-currencies, and person-to-person collaborative economy microenterprises, as a technology design space for currency and exchange. We consider the consequences and trajectories of the rapidly evolving currency ecosystem, particularly with respect to research and development opportunities for CSCW.

Managing Chronic Illness through Collaboration

Forum77: An Analysis of an Online Health Forum Dedicated to Addiction Recovery BIBAFull-Text 1511-1526
  Diana MacLean; Sonal Gupta; Anna Lembke; Christopher Manning; Jeffrey Heer
Prescription drug abuse is a pressing public health issue, and people who misuse prescription drugs are turning to online forums for help. Are such forums effective? We analyze the process of opioid withdrawal, recovery and relapse on Forum77, MedHelp.org's online health forum for substance abuse recovery. Applying Prochashka's Transtheoretical Model for behavior change, we develop a taxonomy describing phases of addiction expressed by Forum77 members. We examine activity and linguistic features across the phases USING, WITHDRAWING and RECOVERING. We train statistical classifiers to identify addiction phase, relapse and whether a user was RECOVERING at the time of her last post. Applying our classifiers to 2,848 users, we find that while almost 50% relapse, the prognosis for ending in RECOVERING is favorable. Supplementing our results with users' own accounts of their experiences, we discuss Forum77's efficacy and shortcomings, and implications for future technologies.
"I'm Not Like My Friends": Understanding How Children with a Chronic Illness Use Technology to Maintain Normalcy BIBAFull-Text 1527-1539
  Leslie S. Liu; Kori M. Inkpen; Wanda Pratt
Children diagnosed with a chronic illness, such as cancer, experience a vastly different childhood than their healthy counterparts. They may struggle with accepting that they are no longer seen as "normal". We surveyed 10 children who have a chronic illness and interviewed 15 healthcare professionals and 7 parents of chronically ill children to understand their communication practices and challenges of how these patients stay connected with their peers. We found that due to the nature of their illness and constant hospitalization, pediatric patients often use various communication technologies to stay in touch with friends and try to maintain normalcy in their lives. Some patients also had to create a "new normal" that balanced life before and after being diagnosed. Based on these results, we suggest opportunities for technology to help patients connect to others and retain a sense of normalcy or to encourage them to embrace their "new normal".
Individual and Social Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities in Migraine Management BIBAFull-Text 1540-1551
  Sun Young Park; Yunan Chen
This study investigates how people manage chronic migraine -- an illness characterized by unpredictable, intermittent breakouts in everyday life. Participants in our study must self-identify migraine symptoms, triggers, and effective coping mechanisms while also seeking social recognition and assistance from a social network during migraine attacks. We argue that the challenges in identifying and managing migraine as well as in communicating with clinicians and social networks arise in response to the patients' need to deal with the unpredictability and intermittency of the disease. We suggest technologies that, unlike current chronic care systems, enable patients with migraine and similar diseases to track a wide range of life events across intermittent time stamps and help make sense of subjective information. We argue that technologies should also help patients gain social recognition and assistance during breakouts. This work contributes to the growing body of knowledge in personal informatics and quantified-self research.

Distance Still Matters

A Framework for Understanding and Designing Telepresence BIBAFull-Text 1552-1566
  Irene Rae; Gina Venolia; John C. Tang; David Molnar
As a field, telepresence has grown to include a wide range of systems, from multi-view videoconferencing units to humanlike androids. However, the diversity of systems and research makes it difficult to form a holistic understanding of where the field stands. We propose a framework consisting of seven design dimensions for understanding telepresence, iteratively developed from previous literature, a series of three surveys, the construction of two design probes, and a field study. These design dimensions uniquely categorize 17 telepresence scenarios. In this work, we explain our development process, describe our design dimensions -- initiation, physical environment, mobility, vision, social environment, communication, and independence -- as well as our scenarios, and demonstrate the use of our framework as a tool to (1) highlight opportunities for future work, (2) identify generalizable findings from research, and (3) facilitate communication in the telepresence community.
Not Really There: Understanding Embodied Communication Affordances in Team Perception and Participation BIBAFull-Text 1567-1575
  Jacob T. Biehl; Daniel Avrahami; Anthony Dunnigan
We conducted a study that compared basic video conferencing, emergent kinetic video-conferencing techniques, and face-to-face meetings. Remote and co-located participants worked together in groups of three. We show, in agreement with prior literature, the strong adverse impact of being remote on participation levels. We also show that local and remote participants perceived differently their own contributions and others'. Local participants exhibited significantly more overlapping talk with remote participants who used an embodied proxy, than with remote participants in basic-video conferencing (and at a rate similar to overlapping speech for co-located groups). We describe differences in how the technologies were used to follow conversation. Our findings indicate that while the kinetic embodied technology increased local participants' perceived presence of remote teammates, it did not enhance remote participants' own sense of telepresence. We discuss our findings in the context of theories of agency and presence, and discuss how these findings extend our understanding of the promise and limitations of embodied video-conferencing solutions.
Making Decisions From a Distance: The Impact of Technological Mediation on Riskiness and Dehumanization BIBAFull-Text 1576-1589
  Min Kyung Lee; Nathaniel Fruchter; Laura Dabbish
Telepresence means business people can make deals in other countries, doctors can give remote medical advice, and soldiers can rescue someone from thousands of miles away. When interaction is mediated, people are removed from and lack context about the person they are making decisions about. In this paper, we explore the impact of technological mediation on risk and dehumanization in decision-making. We conducted a laboratory experiment involving medical treatment decisions. The results suggest that technological mediation influences decision making, but its influence depends on an individual's self-construal: participants who saw themselves as defined through their relationships (interdependent self-construal) recommended riskier and more painful treatments in video conferencing than when face-to-face. We discuss implications of our results for theory and future research.

The Powers of Co-location

Engaging Around Neighborhood Issues: How Online Communication Affects Offline Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1590-1601
  Sheena L. Erete
This paper describes how online conversations about crime amongst local residents impact offline behavior. We conducted a three-year study in five middle to low-income geographically-bound communities (defined as police beats), where we observed community meetings for two years, interviewed 45 residents, and performed qualitative content analysis on over 7,000 online messages on community-based email lists and web forums. Interviewees reported that community-based online communication influenced how they 1) protect themselves and their property to avoid victimization and 2) participate and engage in local in-person civic engagement initiatives. This paper provides insights into the relationship between online and offline behavior and implications for designing community-based ICTs that effectively address local issues.
The Group Context Framework: An Extensible Toolkit for Opportunistic Grouping and Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1602-1611
  Adrian A. de Freitas; Anind K. Dey
In this paper, we present the Group Context Framework (GCF), a general-purpose toolkit that allows mobile devices to opportunistically share contextual information. GCF provides a standardized way for developers to request contextual data for their applications. The framework then intelligently groups with other devices to satisfy these requirements. Through two prototypes, we demonstrate how GCF can be used to support a broad range of collaborative and cooperative tasks. We then show how our framework's architecture allows devices to opportunistically detect and collaborate with one another, even when running different applications. Finally, we present two real-world domains that show how GCF's ability to form groups increases users' access to relevant and timely information, and discuss possible incentives and safeguards to context sharing from a user standpoint.
Using Multiple Contexts to Detect and Form Opportunistic Groups BIBAFull-Text 1612-1621
  Adrian A. de Freitas; Anind K. Dey
We present a new technique that allows mobile devices to opportunistically group with one another, thus improving their ability to facilitate one-time or spontaneous exchanges of information. In our approach, devices share context with each other, and form groups when these readings are found to be similar to one another. Through a formative study, we examine the limitations of using a single type of context to form groups, and show how leveraging multiple contexts improves our ability to detect and form relevant groupings. We then present DIDJA, a robust software toolkit that automatically collects and analyzes contextual information in order to find and form groups. Through two prototypes, we demonstrate how DIDJA enhances existing user experiences, and show how developers can use our toolkit to easily facilitate frictionless collaborations between users and their environment. We then perform an extended experiment and show how DIDJA is able to accurately form groups under realistic conditions.

Collaborative Design Approaches

From "nobody cares" to "way to go!": A Design Framework for Social Sharing in Personal Informatics BIBAFull-Text 1622-1636
  Daniel A. Epstein; Bradley H. Jacobson; Elizabeth Bales; David W. McDonald; Sean A. Munson
Many research applications and popular commercial applications include features for sharing personally collected data with others in social awareness streams. Prior work has identified several barriers to use as well as discrepancies between designer goals and how these features are used in practice. We develop a framework for designing and evaluating these features based on an extensive review of prior literature. We demonstrate the value of this framework by analyzing physical activity sharing on Twitter, coding 4,771 tweets and their responses and gathering 444 reactions from 97 potential tweet recipients, learning that specific user-generated content leads to more responses and is better received by the post audience. We conclude by extending our findings to other sharing problems and discussing the value of our design framework.
A Classroom Study of Using Crowd Feedback in the Iterative Design Process BIBAFull-Text 1637-1648
  Anbang Xu; Huaming Rao; Steven P. Dow; Brian P. Bailey
Crowd feedback systems offer designers an emerging approach for improving their designs, but there is little empirical evidence of the benefit of these systems. This paper reports the results of a study of using a crowd feedback system to iterate on visual designs. Users in an introductory visual design course created initial designs satisfying a design brief and received crowd feedback on the designs. Users revised the designs and the system was used to generate feedback again. This format enabled us to detect the changes between the initial and revised designs and how the feedback related to those changes. Further, we analyzed the value of crowd feedback by comparing it with expert evaluation and feedback generated via free-form prompts. Results showed that the crowd feedback system prompted deep and cosmetic changes and led to improved designs, the crowd recognized the design improvements, and structured workflows generated more interpretative, diverse and critical feedback than free-form prompts.
From Awareness to Empowerment: Using Design Fiction to Explore Paths towards a Sustainable Energy Future BIBAFull-Text 1649-1658
  Sebastian Prost; Elke Mattheiss; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper presents a novel application of participatory design fiction for sustainable domestic energy consumption. In our study we examine how social practices relate to a newly developed energy management system introduced to households. We explore how design fiction can be used to identify current design limitations and to showcase future design directions to overcome these limitations. In particular, we investigated how energy consumption feedback is leaving users in a state of "helplessness" despite raising awareness of their environmental impact. Through participatory fictional future story-writing workshops we identified five levels of empowerment that design for sustainability practitioners can engage with. Our proposal is to use those levels of empowerment to reframe sustainable design by shifting from behaviour to social practices and from awareness to empowerment.

Collaborating Under Constraints

Paper-Digital Workflows in Global Development Organizations BIBAFull-Text 1659-1669
  Nicola Dell; Trevor Perrier; Neha Kumar; Mitchell Lee; Rachel Powers; Gaetano Borriello
Global development organizations rely on the essential affordances provided by both paper and digital materials to navigate hurdles posed by poor infrastructure, low connectivity, linguistic differences, and other socioeconomic constraints that render communication and collaboration challenging. This paper examines the collaborative practices around paper-digital workflows within global development organizations operating in low-resource environments. We use a mixed methods approach to gather data from 23 organizations in 16 countries. Our findings show the tensions that arise between the ubiquitousness of paper and the desirability of digitized data, and highlight the challenges associated with transitioning information several times between paper and digital materials. We also reveal design opportunities for new tools to bridge the gap between paper-based and digital information in low-resource settings. Finally, we contribute a nuanced understanding of the cross-cultural and infrastructural challenges that influence the paper-digital lifecycle. Our findings will be useful for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding or participating in the workflows that drive global development.
KrishiPustak: A Social Networking System for Low-Literate Farmers BIBAFull-Text 1670-1681
  Indrani Medhi-Thies; Pedro Ferreira; Nakull Gupta; Jacki O'Neill; Edward Cutrell
With the wide penetration of mobile internet, social networking (SN) systems are becoming increasingly popular in the developing world. However, most SN sites are text heavy, and are therefore unusable by low-literate populations. Here we ask what would an SN application for low-literate users look like and how would it be used? We designed and deployed KrishiPustak, an audio-visual SN mobile application for low-literate farming populations in rural India. Over a four month deployment, 306 farmers registered through the phones of eight agricultural mediators making 514 posts and 180 replies. We conducted interviews with farmers and mediators and analyzed the content to understand system usage and to drive iterative design. The context of mediated use and agricultural framing had a powerful impact on system understanding (what it was for) and usage. Overall, KrishiPustak was useful and usable, but none-the-less we identify a number of design recommendations for similar SN systems.
Accessible Crowdwork?: Understanding the Value in and Challenge of Microtask Employment for People with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1682-1693
  Kathryn Zyskowski; Meredith Ringel Morris; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Mary L. Gray; Shaun K. Kane
We present the first formal study of crowdworkers who have disabilities via in-depth open-ended interviews of 17 people (disabled crowdworkers and job coaches for people with disabilities) and a survey of 631 adults with disabilities. Our findings establish that people with a variety of disabilities currently participate in the crowd labor marketplace, despite challenges such as crowdsourcing workflow designs that inadvertently prohibit participation by, and may negatively affect the worker reputations of, people with disabilities. Despite such challenges, we find that crowdwork potentially offers different opportunities for people with disabilities relative to the normative office environment, such as job flexibility and lack of a need to rely on public transit. We close by identifying several ways in which crowd labor platform operators and/or individual task requestors could improve the accessibility of this increasingly important form of employment.

Civic Participation

Illegitimate Civic Participation: Supporting Community Activists on the Ground BIBAFull-Text 1694-1703
  Mariam Asad; Christopher A. Le Dantec
In this paper we examine the way Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) support forms of community activism that operate outside formal political and institutional channels. We have done fieldwork with local housing justice activists in order to gain insight into the way ICTs play a role in complementing forms of civic engagement that challenge, rather than work with, institutional authority. We argue that ICTs are instrumental in supporting and shaping three alternate information practices' situating, codification, and scaffolding? that each serve the goals of direct democratic engagement. We also show how local activist communities engage in these three practices through their varied use of ICTs, including the ways they provide mechanisms for informal but politically significant? and legitimate? civic engagement.
(Infra)structures of Volunteering BIBAFull-Text 1704-1716
  Amy Voida; Zheng Yao; Matthias Korn
We report on the results of a diary study of the everyday volunteering and help giving of individuals in the millennial generation. We describe the breadth of work structures implicated in volunteering, the social structures implicated in volunteering, and the interdependencies between the two. We analyze the roles that technology plays in volunteering with a particular focus on the forms of infrastructure that are constituted through the work and social structures of this philanthropic activity. Finally, we reflect on design opportunities for infrastructures where work and social structures meet to support more everyday, ubiquitous forms of volunteering.
Planning with Crowdsourced Data: Rhetoric and Representation in Transportation Planning BIBAFull-Text 1717-1727
  Christopher A. Le Dantec; Mariam Asad; Aditi Misra; Kari E. Watkins
We are in the midst of a new era of experimentation that blends social and mobile computing in support of digital democracy. These experiments will have potentially long lasting consequences on how the public is invited to participate in governance by elected as well as professional officials. In this paper, we look at how data from a purpose-built smartphone app we deployed were incorporated into a three-day urban planning event. The data collected were meant to help inform design decisions for new cycling infrastructure and to provide an alternate means for participating in the planning process. Through our analysis, we point to three distinct roles the data played at the event -- as authority, as evidence, and as ambivalent. Each role demonstrates the challenge and potential for turning to crowdsourced data as a form of participation and as a resource for urban planning.

Experiencing Social Media

"I LOVE THIS SITE!" vs. "It's a little girly": Perceptions of and Initial User Experience with Pinterest BIBAFull-Text 1728-1740
  Hannah J. Miller; Shuo Chang; Loren G. Terveen
Pinterest is a popular social networking site that lets people discover, collect, and share pictures of items from the Web. Among popular social media sites, Pinterest has by far the most skewed gender distribution: women are four times more likely than men to use it. To better understand this, we examined two factors that generally affect whether people try a social site and whether they continue using it: the external perception of a site (e.g., as conveyed in popular media) and the site's initial user experience. For the latter, we focused on the role of social bootstrapping, importing contacts from one social site to another. We conducted a survey study, finding that: perceptions of Pinterest among users and non-users of the site differed significantly; trying Pinterest led to substantial changes in user perceptions of the site; social bootstrapping affected users' initial impression of Pinterest, generally improving it for women and harming it for men. We present implications of our findings for design and research.
The Diffusion of Support in an Online Social Movement: Evidence from the Adoption of Equal-Sign Profile Pictures BIBAFull-Text 1741-1750
  Bogdan State; Lada Adamic
In March of 2013, 3 million Facebook users changed their profile picture to one of an equals sign to express support of same-sex marriage. We demonstrate that this action shows complex diffusion characteristics congruent with threshold models, with most users observing several of their friends changing their profile picture before taking the action themselves. While the number of friends played a role in the adoption dynamics, so did demographic characteristics and the general propensity of the individual to change their profile picture. We show via simulation that the adoption curve is consistent with a heterogeneous-threshold model, in which the probability of adoption depends on both the number of friends and the susceptibility of the individual.
Do I Need To Follow You?: Examining the Utility of The Pinterest Follow Mechanism BIBAFull-Text 1751-1762
  Bluma Gelley; Ajita John
Pinterest is a Social Network Site (SNS) centered around the curation and sharing of visual content. The site encourages users to form ties with (follow) other users based on mutual interests, and use these ties to discover and share content. In this work, we examine the efficacy and relevance of the Pinterest follow mechanism in driving content discovery and curation. We collect a sample of user activity and find that the vast majority (88%) of the unique users who interact with an average user's content are non-followers. Conversely, only 12.3% of a user's followers interact with any of their pins. Users who discover and repost content from outside their follow network also do not subsequently follow the contributors of that content. Our results strongly suggest that following is neither heavily utilized nor strongly effective for driving content discovery and sharing on Pinterest.

Children and Families

Transition and Reflection in the Use of Health Information: The Case of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Caregivers BIBAFull-Text 1763-1774
  Elizabeth Kaziunas; Ayse G. Buyuktur; Jasmine Jones; Sung W. Choi; David A. Hanauer; Mark S. Ackerman
The impact of health information on caregivers is of increasing interest to HCI/CSCW in designing systems to support the social and emotional dimensions of managing health. Drawing on an interview study, as well as corroborating data including a multi-year ethnography, we detail the practices of caregivers (particularly parents) in a bone marrow transplant (BMT) center. We examine the interconnections between information and emotion work performed by caregivers through a liminal lens, highlighting the BMT experience as a time of transition and reflection in which caregivers must quickly adapt to the new social world of the hospital and learn to manage a wide range of patient needs. The transition from parent to 'caregiver' is challenging, placing additional emotional burdens on the intensive information work for managing BMT. As a time of reflection, the BMT experience also provides an occasion for generative thinking and alternative approaches to health management. Our study findings call for health systems that reflect a design paradigm focused on 'transforming lives' rather than 'transferring information.'
Spaceship Launch: Designing a Collaborative Exergame for Families BIBAFull-Text 1776-1787
  Herman Saksono; Ashwini Ranade; Geeta Kamarthi; Carmen Castaneda-Sceppa; Jessica A. Hoffman; Cathy Wirth; Andrea G. Parker
Parents play a critical role in facilitating children's physical activity, as they are an important source of modeling and support. While Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers have explored exergame design for children or adults separately, an important open area of work is identifying design guidelines for family exergames. One question that researchers have increasingly posed is, how can exergames be designed to avoid potential negative consequences of competition? To address these questions we designed Spaceship Launch, an exergame for parents and kids in lower income neighborhoods, where obesity is most prevalent. We describe our iterative design process: the formative study to identify design opportunities, our resulting system, and our field evaluation of the tool. Our findings highlight the impact of SL on physical activity intentions, and how parental preferences for in-game competition were aligned with the psychological needs of relatedness and competence. We conclude with design recommendations for future family-focused exergames.
Making "Safe": Community-Centered Practices in a Virtual World Dedicated to Children with Autism BIBAFull-Text 1788-1800
  Kathryn E. Ringland; Christine T. Wolf; Lynn Dombrowski; Gillian R. Hayes
The use of online games and virtual worlds is becoming increasingly prominent, particularly in children and young adults. Parents have concerns about risks their children might encounter in these online spaces. Parents dynamically manage the boundaries between safe and unsafe spaces online through both explicit and implicit means. In this work, we use empirical data gathered from a digital ethnography of a Minecraft server, Autcraft, to explore how parents of children with autism continually create a "safe" virtual world through both implicit and explicit means. In particular, we demonstrate how their actions in these spaces define and produce "safety," shedding light on our theoretical understanding of child safety in online spaces.

Motivating Crowdwork

The Effects of Pay-to-Quit Incentives on Crowdworker Task Quality BIBAFull-Text 1801-1812
  Christopher G. Harris
Companies such as Zappos.com and Amazon.com provide financial incentives for newer employees to quit. The premise is that workers who will accept this offer are misaligned with their company culture, which will therefore negatively affect quality over time. Could this pay-to-quit incentive scheme align workers in online labor markets? We conduct five empirical experiments evaluating different pay-to-quit incentives with crowdworkers and evaluate their effects on mean task accuracy, retention rate, and improvement in mean task accuracy. We find that the number of times a user is prompted for the inducement, the type and frequency of performance feedback given to participants, the type of incentive, as well as the amount offered can help retain high-performing workers but encourage poor-performing workers to quit early. When we combine the best features from our experiments and examine their aggregate effectiveness, mean task accuracy is improved by 28.3%. Last, we also find that certain demographics contribute to the effectiveness of pay-to-quit incentives.
Motivating Multi-Generational Crowd Workers in Social-Purpose Work BIBAFull-Text 1813-1824
  Masatomo Kobayashi; Shoma Arita; Toshinari Itoko; Shin Saito; Hironobu Takagi
Crowdsourcing for social goals (e.g., supporting public libraries or people with disabilities) is a promising area. However, little is known about how to develop active worker communities for such goals. First, we need reliable metrics for the workers' motivation. Second, the characteristics of senior crowd workers have rarely been studied, even though they often play a primary role in social-purpose work. This work introduces a four-quadrant worker motivation model for social-purpose crowdsourcing and describes a system based on that model. Then we investigate the outcomes from the system's operations for six months, which involved both young and senior workers, seeking better ways to build an active community of crowd workers. We analyzed the workers' activities based on the system logs, conducted a survey, assessed the correlations between the subjective values and actual behaviors, and then discuss the implications.

There's Just Something About Hands

Handheld or Handsfree?: Remote Collaboration via Lightweight Head-Mounted Displays and Handheld Devices BIBAFull-Text 1825-1836
  Steven Johnson; Madeleine Gibson; Bilge Mutlu
Emerging wearable and mobile communication technologies, such as lightweight head-mounted displays (HMDs) and handheld devices, promise support for everyday remote collaboration. Despite their potential for widespread use, their effectiveness as collaborative tools is unknown, particularly in physical tasks involving mobility. To better understand their impact on collaborative behaviors, perceptions, and performance, we conducted a two-by-two (technology type: HMD vs. tablet computer; task setting: static vs. dynamic) between-subjects study where participants (n=66) remotely collaborated as "helper" and "worker" pairs in the construction of a physical object. Our results showed that, in the dynamic task, HMD use enabled helpers to offer more frequent directing commands and more proactive assistance, resulting in marginally faster task completion. In the static task, while tablet use helped convey subtle visual information, helpers and workers had conflicting perceptions of how the two technologies contributed to their success. Our findings offer strong design and research implications, underlining the importance of a consistent view of the shared workspace and the differential support collaborators with different roles receive from technologies.
A User-Powered American Sign Language Dictionary BIBAFull-Text 1837-1848
  Danielle Bragg; Kyle Rector; Richard E. Ladner
Students learning American Sign Language (ASL) have trouble searching for the meaning of unfamiliar signs. ASL signs can be differentiated by a small set of simple features including hand shape, orientation, location, and movement. In a feature-based ASL-to-English dictionary, users search for a sign by providing a query, which is a set of observed features. Because there is natural variability in the way signs are executed, and observations are error-prone, an approach other than exact matching of features is needed. We propose ASL-Search, an ASL-to-English dictionary entirely powered by its users. ASL-Search utilizes Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) on a database of feature-based user queries to account for variability. To demonstrate ASL-Search's viability, we created ASL-Flash, a learning tool that presents online flashcards to ASL students and provides query data. Our simulations on this data serve as a proof of concept, demonstrating that our dictionary's performance improves with use and performs well for users with varied levels of ASL experience.

Games and Virtual Worlds

Enhancing Evaluation of Potential Dates Online Through Paired Collaborative Activities BIBAFull-Text 1849-1859
  Doug Zytko; Guo Freeman; Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Susan C. Herring; Quentin (Gad) Jones
Online dating systems are the most common way people meet their marriage partners online. Nevertheless, online daters struggle to evaluate personality traits of potential partners using profile pages and private messaging in these systems. Meanwhile, Multiplayer Online Games (MOGs) have emerged as a popular way young people find romantic partners for relationships in the physical world. We conducted two interview studies -- one concerning evaluation behavior in online dating systems (n=41) and the other concerning collaborative activities in MOGs (n=35). Insights from these studies reveal the weaknesses in evaluation tools native to online dating and suggest that collaborative activities could potentially address evaluation challenges in online dating. The paper concludes with a discussion of a series of design concepts for online dating in order to improve users' abilities to evaluate their potential romantic partners for in-person meetings.
Games for Crowds: A Crowdsourcing Game Platform for the Enterprise BIBAFull-Text 1860-1871
  Ido Guy; Anat Hashavit; Yaniv Corem
In this paper, we present a crowdsourcing game platform that allows users to play, create, and share simple games that harness the collective intelligence of employees within the enterprise. The platform uses the wizard design pattern to guide users through the process of creating a game. We describe the platform in detail and report our findings from deploying it within a large global organization for a period of three months, in which 34 games were created by 25 employees and played by 339. We combine qualitative and quantitative analysis to understand the characteristics of the different games and their impact on popularity and engagement, to validate our design goals, and to suggest potential enhancements.
Collective Intelligence or Group Think?: Engaging Participation Patterns in World without Oil BIBAFull-Text 1872-1881
  Nassim JafariNaimi; Eric M. Meyers
This article presents an analysis of participation patterns in an Alternate Reality Game, World Without Oil. This game aims to bring people together in an online environment to reflect on how an oil crisis might affect their lives and communities as a way to both counter such a crisis and to build collective intelligence about responding to it. We present a series of participation profiles based on a quantitative analysis of 1554 contributions to the game narrative made by 322 players. We further qualitatively analyze a sample of these contributions. We outline the dominant themes, the majority of which engage the global oil crisis for its effects on commute options and present micro-sustainability solutions in response. We further draw on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of this space to discuss how the design of the game, specifically its framing of the problem, feedback mechanism, and absence of subject-matter expertise, counter its aim of generating collective intelligence, making it conducive to groupthink.

Motivation and Dynamics of the Open Classroom

Understanding Student Motivation, Behaviors and Perceptions in MOOCs BIBAFull-Text 1882-1895
  Saijing Zheng; Mary Beth Rosson; Patrick C. Shih; John M. Carroll
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have recently experienced rapid development and garnered significant attention from various populations. Despite the wide recognition of MOOCs as an important opportunity within educational practices, there are still many questions as to how we might satisfy students' needs, as evidenced by very high dropout rates. Researchers lack a solid understanding of what student needs are being addressed by MOOCs, and how well MOOCs now address (or fail to address) these needs. To help in building such an understanding, we conducted in-depth interviews probing student motivations, learning perceptions and experiences towards MOOCs, paying special attention to the MOOC affordances and experiences that might lead to high drop rates. Our study identified learning motivations, learning patterns, and a number of factors that appear to influence student retention. We proposed that the issue of retention should be addressed from two perspectives: retention as a problem but also retention as an opportunity.
Open Education in the Wild: The Dynamics of Course Production in the Peer 2 Peer University BIBAFull-Text 1896-1905
  June Ahn; Sarah Webster; Brian S. Butler
The Peer 2 Peer University (P2PU) is an online, open education platform where any user can create a course, contribute content, or join an existing course as a learner. P2PU represents an experiment in organizing the production of entirely user-generated, open education. However, the open model of P2PU rests on the critical assumption that members can successfully coordinate and produce a sufficient supply of courses and motivate others to join in. In this paper, we use log data from P2PU to describe the dynamics of organizers -- members who try to produce and launch open courses -- and explore the factors related to their ability to successfully create courses on this open platform. We find that a critical predictor of successful course development is quickly finding like-minded organizers to collaborate with, suggesting that creating new education systems based on open, social computing platforms requires facilitation of key aspects of social coordination beyond providing platform and content resources.
The Emergence of GitHub as a Collaborative Platform for Education BIBAFull-Text 1906-1917
  Alexey Zagalsky; Joseph Feliciano; Margaret-Anne Storey; Yiyun Zhao; Weiliang Wang
The software development community has embraced GitHub as an essential platform for managing their software projects. GitHub has created efficiencies and helped improve the way software professionals work. It not only provides a traceable project repository, but it acts as a social meeting place for interested parties, supporting communities of practice. Recently, educators have seen the potential in GitHub's collaborative features for managing and improving -- perhaps even transforming -- the learning experience. In this study, we examine how GitHub is emerging as a collaborative platform for education. We aim to understand how environments such as GitHub -- environments that provide social and collaborative features in conjunction with distributed version control -- may improve (or possibly hinder) the educational experience for students and teachers. We conduct a qualitative study focusing on how GitHub is being used in education, and the motivations, benefits and challenges it brings.

Closing Keynote

Algorithms in our Midst: Information, Power and Choice when Software is Everywhere BIBAFull-Text 1918
  Zeynep Tufekci
Our personal, financial and civic interactions are increasingly digitally mediated, and more and more objects come embedded with chips and sensors. As a result, a new layer of power has arisen: that of the algorithm. Software-human-constructed, often invisible and progressively pervasive-not only mediates our lives, it is increasingly used to make decisions in a diverse group areas ranging from sociality to employment to health to relationships. While automation's social, political and economic impacts have long been debated, there is now a new layer that requires consideration: algorithms, often aided by big data, now make decisions in subjective realms where there is no right decision, and no anchor with which to judge outcomes. What is good? What is relevant? What is important? Who is right? What is desirable? What is valuable? These questions with philosophical roots that go to beginning of civilization are now turned over to algorithms that bring about a new set of structural biases and issues. This new phase in pervasive computing raises significant questions and challenges, and important areas of research.

CSCW 2015-03-14 Volume 2

Demos

Terminal Group Formation with Detection of Relative Position Using Camera Image Recognition BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Kazunori Shiomi; Ryo Nishide; Hideyuki Takada
We present a method to form a co-located group with detection of relative position using camera image, for enabling a user to share digital content instantly. The method uses only incorporated components on a mobile device without using peripheral devices such as RGB-D camera and independent of work environment or arrangement of users. Location of each user is detected based on the value of the on-device accelerometer and gyroscope. This provides a user highly co-located interaction anywhere. We also implement a collaborative Web search tool to which method is applied for supporting collaborative work through Web search.
coDNA: Visualizing Peer Production Processes BIBAFull-Text 5-8
  Ofer Arazy; Henry Brausen; David Turner; Adam Balila; Eleni Stroulia; Joel Lanir
Our demo for CSCW2015 is an information visualization tool designed to illustrate the temporal evolution of the peer production process. We combine comprehensive data extraction methods (automated, manual, machine learning) with user-friendly visualization techniques. Our visualization tool -- coDNA -- supports researchers in the development of grounded theory of peer production and allows practitioners to monitor production processes within their online community.
Harnessing Twitter and Crowdsourcing to Augment Aurora Forecasting BIBAFull-Text 9-12
  Nicolas LaLone; Andrea Tapia; Elizabeth MacDonald; Nathan Case; Michelle Hall; Jessica Clayton; Matthew J. Heavner
The aurora borealis and aurora australis are beautiful space weather driven events whose sighting is typically based on luck given that forecasting is not spatially or temporally precise. To help increase the accuracy and timeliness of auroral forecasting, we have designed a multi-faceted system called Aurorasaurus. This system allows crisis management specialists to test reactions to rare event notifications, space weather scientists to get direct sighting information of auroras (complete with pictures), and science education researchers to evaluate the impact of educational materials about the aurora and the physics surrounding this unique phenomenon. Through manual tweet verification and directly reported aurora borealis or aurora australis sightings, everyday users help make space weather and aurora forecasting more accurate.
Dual Sided Tablet Supporting Doctor-Patient Interaction BIBAFull-Text 13-16
  Ashley Colley; Juho Rantakari; Jonna Häkkilä
The use of handheld tablet computer devices by health care professionals is nowadays ubiquitous. However, when used by the physician in a patient consultation context, the experience perceived by the patient may be less than optimal because the technology and UIs have been designed for the physician's use, not for collaborative patient-physician situations. Typically, the device may create a barrier, reducing eye contact between the two parties, whilst providing no directly perceivable benefits to the patient. We present a functional implementation of a dual sided tablet where the back of the tablet presents constructive information to the patient during the consultation. We describe our initial exploration into the user interface and content that may be applied to such a device and context of use.
Freaky: Collaborative Enactments of Emotion BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  Lucian Leahu; Phoebe Sengers
The field of CSCW is increasingly drawing on theories and approaches from feminist philosophy of science. To date such efforts have focused on understanding users and their practices. We present a research prototype showing that feminist theories can lead to novel design solutions. Freaky is a mobile, interactive system that collaborates with its users in the enactment of emotion. Informed by the feminist literature, the system introduces a novel approach to emotion: designing for human-machine co-production of emotion.
Moodsource: Enabling Perceptual and Emotional Feedback from Crowds BIBAFull-Text 21-24
  David A. Robb; Stefano Padilla; Britta Kalkreuter; Mike J. Chantler
The emotional reaction of an audience to a design can be difficult to assess but valuable to know. Moodsource allows intuitive visual communication between crowds and designers. A crowd responds to a design with selections from image banks. Visual summarization reduces the massed image choices down to a few representative images to be consumed at a glance by designer users. In two studies crowd users reported their ability to express emotions with the Moodsource image browsers and with text. Cognitive styles theories suggest users can be visual or verbal thinkers; crowd users preferring images thought they could express emotions equally well with abstract images as with text. Designer users "reading" the visual feedback reported that it represented the perceived mood from their designs and were inspired to make improvements.
Experiment on Emotional Exchange Method through Phone Stack Game BIBAFull-Text 25-28
  Sanghoo Park; Been Jeon; Jaewon Cho; Byung-Chull Bae; Jun-Dong Cho
The purpose of this study is to identify the degree of direct human communication that is replaced by smartphone-based Social Networking Services (SNSs). To this end, we designed a device for intuitively playing a Phone Stack Game, and performed comparative analysis by examining the conditions before and after installation of the device through videos. Through the analytic results, we confirmed that direct emotional exchange is reduced by more than half when smartphones are used. This study is significant because it confirms that smartphones are replacing an existing emotional exchange method and that their effects are considerable.
I Don't Think We've Met: Encouraging Collaboration via Topic-Based Search BIBAFull-Text 29-32
  Thomas S. Methven; Stefano Padilla; Mike J. Chantler
We present PaperPilot[1] (bit.ly/paperpilot) a new tool which performs smart collaborator search using research concepts automatically extracted from the CSCW domain, as characterized by 5,516 papers taken from four conferences in the area. PaperPilot infers how a paragraph of text (say an abstract or news article) relates to these research concepts and uses this information to retrieve the 100 most similar papers and identify the most relevant topic for each. These topics can be used both to obtain a quick overview of the papers and as an ice breaker for opening conversations with potential collaborators. To ensure the smart collaborator search is relevant to CSCW 2015 attendees, all accepted papers and authors will also be included.
DADS System: Distributed Approach to Digital Affinity Diagram Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 33-36
  William Widjaja; Masayuki Sawamura
Affinity diagrams are a popular method for creating and organizing ideas. While there are many digital solutions for collaborative affinity diagram, they have not been widely adopted due to usability challenges, so may teams still revert back to traditional method of sticky notes for their affinity diagramming activities. We proposed Distributed Affinity Diagram System (DADS) to solve the existing usability problems and present a more usable solution compared with the traditional method. DADS proposes a dual-screen terminal that divides private input screen from common interactive screen in each user's setup. While private input encourages users to create and nurture ideas, common interactive spaces are designed to sync all users' actions across all terminals, allowing users to collaborate interactively through a distributed multi-touch system. The separation of input space and the distributed synchronized interactive space can improve usability, efficiency, and user satisfaction.
Alone Together: A Multiplayer Augmented Reality Online Ball Passing Game BIBAFull-Text 37-40
  Tiffany Y. Tang; Pinata Winoto; Yong Fu Wang
We present Alone Together, an interactive collaborative virtual ball playing environment augmented with three sets of Microsoft Kinect. The play environment attempts to mimic the real world ball-passing exercise (or rehabilitation sessions) except that the players can be miles away from each other, and they interact without a physical ball. Moreover, our system allows each player to see the other two and their physical environment respectively, which is a combination of the physical world where players are situated and the virtual world where they play with each other. Kinect sensors are used to map players' action into a virtual world including the passing of the virtual ball.
Collaboration Map: Visualizing Temporal Dynamics of Small Group Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 41-44
  Seongtaek Lim; Patrick Chiu
Collaboration Map (CoMap) is an interactive visualization tool showing temporal changes of small group collaborations. Because the groups are dynamic entities, their flexible features, such as people involved, areas of work, and timings, change over time. CoMap shows a graph of collaborations during user-adjustable periods, providing overviews of collaborations' dynamic features. We demonstrate CoMap using a co-authorship dataset in DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project) with 587 publications by 29 researchers at a laboratory for 25 years.
KrishiPustak: A Social Networking System for Low-Literate Farmers BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Nakull Gupta; Indrani Medhi-Thies; Pedro Ferreira; Jacki O'Neill; Edward Cutrell
Affordable mobile handsets and easier access to mobile internet has popularized the usage of existing social networking systems (SNSes) in the developing world. Most of these (E.g. Facebook, Twitter etc.) are text-heavy and do not work well for low-literate populations in resource constrained settings. We designed and deployed KrishiPustak, an audio-visual SN mobile application for low-literate farming populations in rural India. KrishiPustak has a text-free design, with all functionality represented by graphical icons. To support poor internet connectivity it also works in an offline mode. In this demo paper we discuss the motivations behind KrishiPustak, the design decisions we took and the development of the actual application. This demo is an abbreviated companion for a separate CSCW paper published in this conference[4].
Getting Things Started in Cooperative Photography BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  James Wen
In cooperative photography, potential strangers collaborate on capturing images of each other using computer support provided by networked mobile devices. However, small mobile displays and network unreliability make the critical element of visual identification between users difficult, particularly within a possibly crowded environment. A human-in-the-loop handshaking protocol can bypass technical limitations but may introduce complexities arising from human errors and inconsistencies. This paper describes a demonstration that showcases the unique capabilities and challenges of cooperative photography. The demonstration will allow users to provide valuable data for creating more effective and efficient systems for collaborating users in mobile CSCW activities.
Scalable Mixed-Focus Collaborative Difficulty Resolution: A Demonstration BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Dayton Ellwanger; Nick Dillon; Tim Wu; Jason Carter; Prasun Dewan
In mixed-focus collaboration, users opportunistically switch between synchronous and asynchronous collaboration. We have developed a special case of this collaboration model in which the switch occurs when users face and overcome difficulty and the level of sharing in the synchronous mode can vary. The model supports multiple forms and degrees of awareness of the remote difficulty, and allows multiple kinds and degrees of sharing. It is scalable in that it allows a single helper to resolve the difficulties of a large number of people in difficulty. It has been implemented for a programming class and motivated by experience using a previous system in such a class. However, in principle, its structure is independent of the activity causing difficulty. A video demonstration of this work is available at http://youtu.be/1-AqMCidx48.
Thesis Writer: A System for Supporting Academic Writing BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Christian Rapp; Otto Kruse; Jennifer Erlemann; Jakob Ott
Learning to write in academic contexts is a challenging task faced by many students, and no less challenging is the instruction and tutoring of student writers. The most demanding paper students have to write is their thesis, which is equally an important part of their learning program as it is for graduation requirements. This new online support system aids thesis writing through a variety of tools and tutorials, guiding students through the writing process from initial idea to completed thesis. Based on an extended version of the well-established IMRD (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) scheme, a flexible structure is provided which fits most academic and scholarly papers. Students are provided with numerous short tutorials which instruct them in choosing a topic and developing a manageable concept for their dissertation project. New tools have been created to facilitate the formulation process by integrating large discipline-specific corpora from which users can derive linguistic support through an integrated open source corpus analysis tool. The system also supports collaborative processes between writers, peers, tutors, and supervisors. The initial version will aid thesis writing in defined degree programs and facilitate communication within these disciplinary communities.
Method of Generating a Drawing by Crowdsourced Microtasks BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Kosuke Sasaki; Akira Hirata; Tomoo Inoue
Illustrations, which attract readers and improve readability of documents, have high demand partly because not everybody can make them in good quality. Conventionally clients request professional creators to draw illustrations and pay rewards. However, there exists potential huge needs for less quality and less expensive illustrations. In this paper, we propose a new method of generating such drawings by crowdsourced microtasks. This paper also describes the Web-based crowdsourcing drawing system for the pilot study, in which various drawings could be successfully generated from the original photos.
FeedVis: A Path for Exploring News Feed Curation Algorithms BIBAFull-Text 65-68
  Motahhare Eslami; Amirhossein Aleyasen; Karrie Karahalios; Kevin Hamilton; Christian Sandvig
Social media feeds, personalized search results and recommendations are examples of algorithmically curated content in our daily digital Life. While the algorithms that curated this content have great power to shape users' experiences, they are mostly hidden behind the interface, leaving users unaware of their presence. Whether it is helpful to give users knowledge of the algorithms' existence and if this knowledge affects interaction behavior are open questions. To assist us in addressing these questions, we developed a system, FeedVis, that exposes Facebook users to comparisons between algorithmically curated and unadulterated News Feeds. We used the tools visualizations as concrete artifacts to study users' perceptions of the algorithms governing their social media feeds.
Using TwitterTrails.com to Investigate Rumor Propagation BIBAFull-Text 69-72
  Panagiotis Takas Metaxas; Samantha Finn; Eni Mustafaraj
Social media have become part of modern news reporting, used by journalists to spread information and find sources, or as a news source by individuals. The quest for prominence and recognition on social media sites like Twitter can sometimes eclipse accuracy and lead to the spread of false information. As a way to study and react to this trend, we demo TWITTERTRAILS, an interactive, web-based tool (twittertrails.com) that allows users to investigate the origin and propagation characteristics of a rumor and its refutation, if any, on Twitter. Visualizations of burst activity, propagation timeline, retweet and co-retweeted networks help its users trace the spread of a story. Within minutes TWITTERTRAILS will collect relevant tweets and automatically answer several important questions regarding a rumor: its originator, burst characteristics, propagators and main actors according to the audience. In addition, it will compute and report the rumor's level of visibility and, as an example of the power of crowdsourcing, the audience's skepticism towards it which correlates with the rumor's credibility. We envision TWITTERTRAILS as valuable tool for individual use, and especially for amateur and professional journalists investigating recent and breaking stories.

Doctoral Consortium

Designing a Micro-Volunteering Platform for Situated Crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 73-76
  Yi-Ching Huang
Situated crowdsourcing has emerged to overcome the limitations of online and mobile crowdsourcing to allow people to perform a task by embedding an interface in a physical space. However, crowdsourcing for non-profits is a challenge in situated crowdsourcing platform. My dissertation investigates whether micro-volunteering can be applied successfully to a situated crowdsourcing platform for contributing problem-solving efforts with high-quality results.
Doctoral Colloquium -- Open-Source Culture: The Production & Politics of Distributed Creative Peer Production BIBAFull-Text 77-80
  Alex Leavitt
My research evaluates how the social, legal, and technical elements of distributed creative peer production intersect to produce successful media franchises. I examine two international case studies -- Hatsune Miku and Minecraft -- using a mixed method (ethnographic and computational social scientific) approach to illustrate the politics and processes behind creator, audience, and co-producer relationships.
Enacting Care Through Collaboration in Communities of Makers BIBAFull-Text 81-84
  Austin Toombs
Communities of makers-including hackerspaces, maker spaces, repair shops, and similar groups-have demonstrated a unique approach to collaboration and community maintenance. The dissertation research I discuss in this paper seeks to analyze this community labor through a care ethics lens in order to unpack both the espoused and the enacted social ethical systems that underlay these communities of making and reproduce these practices. My work then addresses how these particular types of care relate to the broader "maker culture."
Enhancing Community Heritage Empowerment through Wiki Software BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Danilo Giglitto
In recent years, the number of digital projects aimed at documenting and preserving communities' intangible cultural heritage (ICH) has grown considerably. Nevertheless, most of these resources do not allow non-professional people to contribute to them. As a result, professional accounts of cultural heritage might miss out the finer-grained knowledge about communities' customs and traditions. This paper tries to show how the creation of community digital archives allowing an "anyone can edit" approach on wiki software gives a better representation of communities' ICH, as well as representing an affordable and sustainable interactive digital presence for historical communities.
Parsing a Network: Unpacking Counter Normative Actors from Multi-Network Systems BIBAFull-Text 89-92
  Joshua Clark
Online communities help generate a rich set of ties between their members. However, these networks contain individuals who often have drastically different goals and motivations, including those aiming to exploit community norms for their own benefit. My research explores how these counter normative individuals position themselves within a given network and how the community responds in turn. Using a mixed methods approach that draws on social network analysis, data mining, inferential statistics and qualitative analysis, I unpack how communities are exploited and the adaptations made by groups to counter this process.
Adoption and Adaptation of Data Science in Oceanography BIBAFull-Text 93-96
  Katerena Kuksenok
Ocean sciences in the US have had a cultural distinction between modeling and fieldwork: a researcher either wrote MATLAB code, or went on data collection cruises. Large-scale multi-institution collaborations, and adoption of data science tools and skills, are blurring this distinction. CSCW and STS often study data: its production, maintenance, management, and use. In my dissertation, I focus not on the data but oceanographer groups incorporating data science practice into their work. By studying challenges faced by collective actors, this ethnographic research will then lead to developing design and organization implications for supporting data science practice in scientific academic collaborations.
The App in Everyday Life: Research Overview for Doctoral Colloquium BIBAFull-Text 97-100
  Moira McGregor
My PhD focuses on studying mobile apps in everyday life. Taking an ethnomethodological approach, my thesis draws upon findings from three studies of app usage -- moving from the micro through to a macro perspective, using video and interview methods. The first study focuses on how users complete specific information search tasks: map-reading and internet search. Study two describes how app use is interwoven with communication, including through talk with co-present others. In the last study I provide a macro perspective on apps, investigating the economic potential of the Uber "rideshare" taxi app in the management and distribution of labour.
Culture-aware Q&A Environments BIBAFull-Text 101-104
  Nigini Abilio Oliveira
This research project is a cross-culture study on social Q&A users' behavior. We search to understand variations on groups' contribution behavior to propose design alternatives that can promote intercultural collaboration. By studying large Q&A communities through social and anthropological lenses we plan to improve knowledge and techniques that can support designers and community managers to build better knowledge-sharing environments.
Modeling Clinical Workflow in Daily ICU Rounds to Support Task-based Patient Monitoring and Care BIBAFull-Text 105-108
  Preethi Srinivas
Of all the duties performed by the critical care team in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU), a primary duty is the morning attending rounds. During and following the rounds, the ICU team devises a 24-hour plan of action comprised of patient-centered tasks. The aim of this doctoral research is to: (1) design and evaluate a novel task management tool that addresses breakdowns in critical care workflow and (2) introduce a new task management notification tool that mitigates workflow breakdowns by identifying the nature and type of notification/alert sent to the clinical team.
Investigating the Different Characteristics of Group Mirrors BIBAFull-Text 109-112
  Sarah Tausch
Group mirrors are systems that provide feedback to a group about specific aspects of their collaboration. One example is displaying quantitative information such as speaking times to the group members to regulate participation. In this note, I discuss possibilities of providing feedback about qualitative aspects of collaboration, for example the quality of arguments. I want to broaden existing research on group mirrors by evaluating group mirrors with regard to their social implications such as social acceptance of group mirrors.

Panels

CRA-E Panel on Undergraduate Research BIBAFull-Text 113-115
  Nancy M. Amato; Ran Libeskind-Hadas; Panagiotis T. Metaxas
This panel seeks to help faculty and other research mentors engage undergraduates in their research. The panel addresses the benefits of working with undergraduates, funding opportunities, best practices in supervising undergraduate research, and finding additional resources.
Studying the "Sharing Economy": Perspectives to Peer-to-Peer Exchange BIBAFull-Text 117-121
  Airi Lampinen; Victoria Bellotti; Andrés Monroy-Hernández; Coye Cheshire; Alexandra Samuel
A number of technological platforms, that have come to be known as the "sharing economy" or "collaborative consumption," are disrupting established industries with new decentralized peer-to-peer marketplaces. While peer-to-peer exchange and co-use practices are a relatively new research area, they are rapidly developing in both commercial and nonprofit variants. In this session, we bring together people from different disciplines to explore these issues, and to present future directions for research on sharing economies in the CSCW community. Our aim is to widen the "sharing economy" debate in CSCW. In order to better situate this stream of work within CSCW, we will connect "sharing economy" research to broader topical issues and concerns, such as networked coordination of peer-to-peer activities and the future of work and labor.
Facebooking in "Face": Complex Identities Meet Simple Databases BIBAFull-Text 122-125
  Mark J. Handel; Rena Bivens; Jed R. Brubaker; Oliver L. Haimson; Jessa Lingel; Svetlana Yarosh
Online systems often struggle to account for the complicated self-presentation and disclosure needs of those with complex identities or specialized anonymity. Using the lenses of gender, recovery, and performance, our proposed panel explores the tensions that emerge when the richness and complexity of individual personalities and subjectivities run up against design norms that imagine identity as simplistic or one-dimensional. These models of identity not only limit the ways individuals can express their own identities, but also establish norms for other users about what to expect, causing further issues when the inevitable dislocations do occur. We discuss the challenges in translating identity into these systems, and how this is further marred by technical requirements and normative logics that structure cultures and practices of databases, algorithms and computer programming.
Sociomateriality and Design BIBAFull-Text 126-130
  Carsten S. Østerlund; Pernille Bjørn; Paul Dourish; Richard Harper; Daniela K. Rosner
Design research and the literature on sociomateriality emerge out of different academic traditions but share a common interest in the material. A sociomaterial perspective allows us to account for the complex ways people mingle and mangle information systems of all sorts into their social endeavors to accomplish organizational tasks. But, how do we account for these sociomaterial phenomena in all their complexity when faced with the task of designing information systems? The panel brings together prominent researchers bridging the gap between design research and the current debate on sociomateriality. Each presenter addresses the challenges associated with informing grounded design work with insights from a highly abstract intellectual debate.
Online Dating as Pandora's Box: Methodological Issues for the CSCW Community BIBAFull-Text 131-134
  Doug Zytko; Jessa Lingel; Jeremy Birnholtz; Nicole B. Ellison; Jeff Hancock
As a socio-technical phenomenon, online dating has significant appeal to researchers interested in various aspects of human-computer interaction -- presentation of self in online environments; norms of disclosure and deception; and the extent to which technological design informs dynamics of human relationships. With these many facets of socio-technical practice come important and complex methodological questions, where both the sensitivity of the topic and the specific technologies being studied can introduce practical and ethical obstacles. This panel brings together scholars across human computer interaction, communication, information studies, and Internet studies to examine methodological issues that have arisen in their own work on online dating, with the objective of broadening these issues of ethics and methods to the wider CSCW community.
Collective Problem Solving: Features and affordances of creative online communities BIBAFull-Text 135-138
  Jeffrey V. Nickerson; Thomas W. Malone; Gary M. Olson; Kevin Crowston
Panelists will discuss how collective intelligence can be applied to large-scale problems through collaborative online systems. The features and affordances of several such systems will be described, inviting discussion about how such systems can be better designed by the CSCW community.

Posters

Socio-technical Computation BIBAFull-Text 139-142
  Markus Luczak-Roesch; Ramine Tinati; Kieron O'Hara; Nigel Shadbolt
Motivated by the significant amount of successful collaborative problem solving activity on the Web, we ask: Can the accumulated information propagation behavior on the Web be conceived as a giant machine, and reasoned about accordingly? In this paper we elaborate a thesis about the computational capability embodied in information sharing activities that happen on the Web, which we term socio-technical computation, reflecting not only explicitly conditional activities but also the organic potential residing in information on the Web.
Pro-Active Detection of Content Quality in TurboTax AnswerXchange BIBAFull-Text 143-146
  Igor A. Podgorny; Matthew Cannon; Todd Goodyear
User satisfaction in social question-and-answer (Q&A) systems depends on the quality of answers typically measured by a proxy metrics of user votes on the answers. We show that user votes in TurboTax AnswerXchange (AXC) can be predicted with reasonable accuracy based on the attributes of the question alone. This provides an opportunity for "pro-active" detection of potentially high or low quality content in real time while the question is still being formulated. As a result, undesirable content can be prevented by instructing the user to re-phrase the question. We can also optimize the AXC answer queue or tweak the AXC point system to generate higher quality answers.
Live-Feedback Supported Collaborative Environment for Emergency Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 147-150
  Shah Rukh Humayoun; Artem Avtandilov; Syed Atif Mehdi; Achim Ebert; Karsten Berns
Knowing the up-to-date information about the emergency environment and collaboration between the central Health Service Center (HSC) and the mobile rescue team can be very useful in properly executing the rescue operations, especially in the case of elderly patients. In this paper, we present our live-feedback supported collaborative environment that consists of: autonomous mobile robot on elderly patient's home for knowing up-to-date information about the emergency place, a central communicating system at HSC to manage the overall rescue operation, and a mobile platform that enables the rescue team to collaborate with HSC and the robot at the emergency place in order to know accurately the current emergency situation. This whole setup enables the rescue team to perform the rescue operation more efficiently and effectively.
Shuriken: User Grouping and Data Transfer for Collaborative Shopping and Offline Meetings Based on Inter-Device Relative Positioning BIBAFull-Text 151-154
  Jonathan Chung; Adiyan Mujibiya
We present Shuriken, a method for user grouping and data transfer based on relative position estimates of smart devices that are in close proximity. The relative positions are then used for identifying the recipient of transferred data by performing a swipe on the screen of the sending device towards the physical direction of the recipient. Shuriken is built upon the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) framework and only uses built-in sensors of typical smart devices. Users link their devices by pointing them towards each other to form a group and to create a BLE connection. The received radio signal strength and the digital compass readings are obtained and then distributed to estimate the relative positions of the devices. Additional devices can be included in an existing group by performing the same action with any device in the group. Devices in the group can perform data transfer and the data is passed through linked devices in a multi-hop approach. We envision practical uses of Shuriken in collaborative shopping in a café, data transfer in business meetings and localisation of multiple smart devices that are in close proximity. To the best of our knowledge, Shuriken is the first approach that performs user grouping and data transfer based on the inter-device relative positions calculated from sensor readings available in off-the-shelf smart devices.
"It's Raining Dispersants": Collective Sensemaking of Complex Information in Crisis Contexts BIBAFull-Text 155-158
  Dharma Dailey; Kate Starbird
Addressing crises sometimes requires grappling with sophisticated technical or scientific content. To make sense of the BP DeepWater Horizon Oil Spill people had to grapple with uncertain and sometimes contentious, complex information. This empirical study shows that an emergent, connected crowd interacted to surface, share, question and discuss these complexities. While studies have observed collective sensemaking taking place via social media in other kinds of crises, this study extends our understanding of emergent crowd work as collective sensemaking where members of the public assemble and interpret evidence on complex topics in a crisis context, perhaps performing a kind emergent citizen science.
Strictly by the Facebook: Unobtrusive Method for Differentiating Users BIBAFull-Text 159-162
  Melissa Niiya; Stephanie M. Reich; Yiran Wang; Gloria Mark; Mark Warschauer
A large proportion of Facebook studies are based on self-report data. However, survey measures may not meaningfully differentiate Facebook use. From computer and phone logs and Facebook activity data, we found a simple item -- how important participants rate Facebook -- may be one way to distinguish between Facebook consumers and producers.
When to Break the Ice: Self-disclosure Strategies for Newcomers in Online Communities BIBAFull-Text 163-166
  Di Lu; Rosta Farzan
Online communities have become a prevailing cyberspace for people to communicate, collaborate, share information and experiences. Their high reliance on user-generated content makes their success tied to the continuous flow of newcomers and their subsequent effort. Our previous study suggested that newcomers' introductions positively affect their subsequent effort. In the current work, we identified two different introduction strategies in terms of the presence of initial participation before introduction to the community. Our analysis of these two strategies shows that providing introduction after some initial participation in the community has significant positive associations with newcomers' commitment to the community.
Being Thrifty on a $100K Wage: Austerity in Family Finances BIBAFull-Text 167-170
  Dhaval Vyas; Stephen Snow; Margot Brereton; Uwe Dulleck; Xavier Boyen
Understanding how families manage their finances represents a highly important research agenda given the recent economic climate of debt and uncertainty. To have a better understanding of the economics in domestic settings, it is very important to study the ways money and financial issues are collaboratively handled within families. Using an ethnographic approach, we studied the everyday financial practices of fifteen middle-income families. Our preliminary results show that there is a strong tendency to live frugally; that, people apply various and creative mechanisms to minimize their expenses and save money seemingly irrespectively of their income. To this end we highlight some implications for designing technologies to support household financial practices.
Can Gamification Motivate Voluntary Contributions?: The Case of StackOverflow Q&A Community BIBAFull-Text 171-174
  Huseyin Cavusoglu; Zhuolun Li; Ke-Wei Huang
Online communities heavily rely on voluntary participation and continued engagement from users because these sites can flourish only if there are meaningful contributions from community members. Gamifying the underlying incentive mechanism can be a solution to elicit and sustain the desired user behavior. In this paper, we develop a theory of gamification and study the impact of a hierarchical badges system, a reward mechanism based on gamification principles, on user participation and engagement at Stack Overflow Q&A site. Specifically, we assess the extent to which users are incentivized by earned badges in their contributions to the answering activity. Our initial results present strong empirical evidence that confirms the value of the badges and the effectiveness of gamification in stimulating voluntary participation.
CommunityConnect: An Interactive Display for Educational Residential Settings BIBAFull-Text 175-178
  Erica C. Ostermann; Long Ma; Daniel Sussman; Susan R. Fussell
We examine how a public interactive display in the lobby of an undergraduate residence hall engages residents and contributes to a sense of belonging. The display projects questions onto a wall and users indicate their answer with a body action, which is read by a Kinect. The responses are aggregated and displayed in real-time. We describe our design process and the results of a preliminary field trial examining how the system affects students' perceptions of a shared geographic place and provides the opportunities for them to learn more about their hall's community.
Askalot: Community Question Answering as a Means for Knowledge Sharing in an Educational Organization BIBAFull-Text 179-182
  Ivan Srba; Maria Bielikova
Community Question Answering (CQA) is a well-known example of a knowledge management system for effective knowledge sharing in open online communities. In spite of the increasing research effort in recent years, the beneficial effects of CQA systems have not been fully discovered in organizational and educational environments yet. We present a novel concept of an organization-wide educational CQA system that fills the gap between open and too restricted class communities of learners. In order to evaluate its feasibility, we designed CQA system Askalot. Askalot was experimentally evaluated during a summer term at our university with more than 600 users. The results of the experiment provide an insight into employment of CQA systems as nontraditional learning environments that utilize a diversity of students' knowledge in a whole organization.
Evaluating Groupware Prototypes with Discount Methods BIBAFull-Text 183-186
  Kristin Dew; Anne M. Turner; Loma Desai; Nathalie Martin; Katrin Kirchhoff
Evaluating a prototype is necessary to user-centered software design, but evaluating groupware systems prior to full deployment can be challenging and costly. Existing groupware evaluation methods focus on individual users, expert inspections, or require the system to be rolled out. We describe a method -- based on Gutwin and Greenberg's mechanics of collaboration (MoC) framework -- for evaluating prototype groupware systems that have not yet been deployed with the minimum number of users needed to be truly functional. We believe this is a valuable method for evaluating early prototype groupware.
Alone Together: Multiplayer Online Ball Passing using Kinect -- An Experimental Study BIBAFull-Text 187-190
  Tiffany Y. Tang; Yongfu Wang
We present Alone Together, an interactive online ball playing environment augmented with three sets of Kinects. The play environment attempts to simplify the real world ball-passing exercise (or rehabilitation sessions) except that the players can be miles away from each other, and they interact without a physical ball. Kinects are used to map players' action into a virtual world including the passing of the virtual ball. A small-scale experiment shows inexperienced players' acceptance over such virtual setting compared to the physical ball-passing game within a short playing duration.
Is 'Additional' Effort Always Negative?: Understanding Discretionary Work in Interpersonal Communications BIBAFull-Text 191-194
  Ryan Kelly; Daniel Gooch; Leon Watts
This paper describes a position on the meaning of effort in interaction design, particularly for communication systems. We make use of interview data to illustrate our ongoing research on how people invest discretionary effort when using communication technologies in personal relationships. Discretionary effort refers to work that, while arguably additional to the delivery of a message, is done to convey meaning to the participants in an interaction. We describe early findings that have the potential to extend current knowledge on the value of effort in communications.
The Solicitation Situation: Examining the Language of Team Science in Federally-Funded Research BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Alyson L. Young; Barbara Linam-Church; Wayne G. Lutters
This paper is part of an ongoing research project that investigates the socio-technical infrastructure required for successful team science. A comprehensive analysis of 96 grant solicitations provided a representation of how U.S. federal agencies conceptualize and communicate team science. This research has implications for the management and evaluation of team science projects.
Undergraduates' Team Work Strategies in Writing Research Proposals BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Dan Wu; Wenting Yu
In this research, we explored collaborative behavioral patterns by focusing on undergraduate students' team work strategies when they write their research proposals. A three-hour session with the collaborative search system was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to show that, teams could adopt four strategies in three stages, and labor division was the most popular one. Our results confirm that the keys for successful team work strategies include a team leader, a clear division of labor and active communications among team members. The bookmark, snip and editor functions of the collaborative search system can support collaborative work. Other functions like recommend and annotate need to be improved. Further studies are needed to fully understand these results in other scenarios.
Technology Stewardship, Text Messaging, and Collaboration in Agricultural Work: Preliminary Results from an Action Research Study in Sri Lanka BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  Nuwan Waidyanatha; Gordon A. Gow; Chandana Jayathilake; Timothy Barlott
This poster presents preliminary results from a partnership develop project study to assess a technology stewardship model in promoting the adoption and use of text messaging for agricultural extension work with rural farmers in Sri Lanka. More specifically, the purpose was to better understand influential factors that contribute to collaboration within micro-level inclusive innovation systems.
The Family Board: An Information Sharing System for Family Members BIBAFull-Text 207-210
  Rui Pan; Azadeh Forghani; Carman Neustaedter; Nick Strauss; Ashley Guindon
Family members must communicate on a regular basis to plan and coordinate their everyday activities. They also have to sift through and stay aware of the many pieces of information that come into the home in relation to their everyday happenings. In this paper, we describe our design of the Family Board: a distributed system that provides a mean for family members to message one another and handle the incoming information that they must deal with on a daily basis. The system runs in a web browser and family members can share messages and information to mobile devices as well situated displays in the home. We expect that our system could help users communicate and share information with their family members better.
Improving Coordination of Care Centers for the Elderly through IT Support BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Andreas Kaas Johansen; Frederik Vahr Bjarnø Lauridsen; Vlad Manea; Konstantin Slavin-Borovskij; Troels Mønsted
In Denmark, care of elderly people involves numerous and relatively autonomous care providers, including care centers, activity centers, physiotherapists, doctors, and other specialists. However, due to a poor coordination of activities, many elderly experience a lack of continuity of care, missed appointments, and general discomfort. In this poster we report on preliminary findings from a project aimed at creating improved IT support for coordination of care for the elderly in a Danish municipality. We propose that in order to successfully support heterogeneous collaboration, our system must address the disruptions in the existing routines, minimize the inherent articulation work, and coherently unify their coordination mechanisms.
Understanding Data Providers in a Global Scientific Data Hub BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Yurong He; Jennifer Preece; Jen Hammock; Brian Butler; Daniel Pauw
In the absence of systematic knowledge about the characteristics and practices of data collections, successful data hubs and other platforms that support collaborative data sharing are unlikely to be designed and built. We begin to fill this gap by performing an in depth case study of a global scientific data hub -- the Encyclopedia of Life -- in which we analyzed the organizational-level identities of 259 data providers and developing a typology of the identities, including: Venerable organizations, Repositories, Citizen science initiatives, Social media platforms, Education communities, and Subsidiaries. This study will provide data aggregation and integration technology designers with background information on data collections.
An Analysis of Social Features Associated with Room Sales of Airbnb BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Donghun Lee; Woochang Hyun; Jeongwoo Ryu; Woo Jung Lee; Wonjong Rhee; Bongwon Suh
Lately, collaborative consumption has emerged as an important socio-economic model because of its economic and environmental impacts. Airbnb, an online hospitality rental service provider, is a fast growing company that utilizes rich social communications. In this paper, we aim to quantitatively characterize collaborative consumption behaviors in Airbnb. We collected and analyzed a total of 4,178 room data, and investigated which features are more strongly associated with room sales. Besides the well-recognized room features like price, minimum stay, and amenities, our result shows that social features such as responsiveness of host, count of Wish List, number of reviews, and membership seniority are significantly associated with room sales. On the other hand, some of the conventional social features such as overall rating and number of references turned out to be not so critical for room sales.
neonion: Combining Human and Machine Intelligence BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Claudia Müller-Birn; Tina Klüwer; André Breitenfeld; Alexa Schlegel; Lukas Benedix
The reading of text resources in scholarly settings can take various forms. Each form provides scholars with different insights that complement each other. The first findings from an ongoing series of interviews on scholarly annotation practices suggest that users are aware of the various forms of reading, but they are reluctant to use automatic annotations and still rely on conventional tools. In this paper, we introduce a prototype of annotation software that aims to interrelate different types of reading synergistically by employing a mixed-initiative approach.
Computer-Supported Preference Awareness in Negotiation Teams for Fostering Accurate Joint Priorities BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Daniel Thiemann; Tanja Engelmann
A major problem within a negotiation team is, that its members -- although they form one joint negotiation party -- often have different preferences for an upcoming negotiation. If these are not exchanged and aligned by the team members prior to the negotiation in order to agree on joint priorities, they achieve poorer negotiation results. This experimental study examines, whether computer-supported awareness about the preferences of all team members (i.e. Preference Awareness) can foster accurate joint priorities within a team. 150 participants were randomly assigned to teams of three members with different preferences in either a condition with or without Preference Awareness. The team members had to prepare jointly for an upcoming negotiation via audio conference and afterwards were asked for their priorities for the negotiation. The stated priorities in the condition with preference awareness covered the preferences of all team members significantly better than in the condition without awareness.
Depression-related Imagery on Instagram BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  Nazanin Andalibi; Pinar Ozturk; Andrea Forte
Despite the well-established finding that people share negative emotions less openly than positive ones, a hashtag search for depression-related terms in Instagram yields millions of images. In this study, we examined depression-related images on Instagram along with their accompanying captions. We want to better understand the role of photo sharing in the lives of people who suffer from depression or who frame their experience as such; specifically, whether this practice engages support networks and how social computing systems can be designed to support such interactions. To lay the groundwork for further investigation, we report here on content analysis of depression-related posts.
Motivating Crowds to Volunteer Neighborhood Data BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Nataly Moreno; Saiph Savage; Anamary Leal; Jessica Cornick; Matthew Turk; Tobias Höllerer
Organizations invest resources to gather geographical information about cities or neighborhoods. This can help governments or companies identify needed services or city improvements. However, collecting this information can be difficult and expensive. In this study we investigate ways to motivate local crowds to serve as the world's sensors and provide geographical data about their surroundings. We conduct interviews and a pilot study to understand whether we can motivate people to contribute data about their neighborhoods via games or for the greater social good of helping the neighborhood. Our results provide a glimpse of how people feel about donating neighborhood data given different motivators; they also provide insight into the amount of data people are willing to contribute. We conclude by discussing possible design implications of our findings.
From Community Networks to Hyper-local Social Media BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Claudia López; Rosta Farzan
An increasing number of open data initiatives and hyper-local social media aim to use technology to increase citizens' civic engagement. This poster reviews prior research on technology use in urban communities in order to identify the main trends on goals, technologies, and research focus over time to enrich the understanding of this re-emerging field. The poster particularly highlights key systems, technologies used, and research done in this field.
Pinteresce: Exploring Reminiscence as an Incentive to Digital Reciprocity for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Robin N. Brewer; Jasmine Jones
Sustaining remote communication across generations is a continuing problem, due to the increasing popularity of online communication. Participation in online platforms is advantageous for seniors wishing to connect with younger generations, yet reciprocity on these platforms is a challenge for older adults. Barriers include the cognitive overload of existing mainstream interfaces and a lack of engaging content. In this paper we propose Pinteresce, a tool leveraging family-generated reminiscence prompts to encourage seniors' participation in the online community, Pinterest. The system provides an intuitive interface for communicating across age groups to promote reciprocal engagement with online content.
The Team Multiple Errands Test: A Platform to Evaluate Distributed Teams BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Jamiahus Walton; Desmond Bonner; Kelsey Walker; Samantha Mater; Michael Dorneich; Stephen Gilbert; Rob West
Teams have the ability to achieve goals that are unobtainable by individuals alone. However, there is little agreement on a standard model for researching the performance of distributed teams. Initial pilot results suggest that the Multiple Errands Test (MET), when adapted to a team in a virtual environment, is a platform for evaluating the impact of feedback characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of the Team MET as a platform for future team research in the broader CSCW community, an example study is described in which team members are given feedback in one of four conditions: individual private, team private, individual public, and team public.
The Coaching Companion: Computer-Mediated Instructional Coaching BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Joanna Weidler-Lewis; Sean Fullerton
This poster describes the design and development of the Coaching Companion, a set of online tools to support the collaborative work of instructional coaching for Head Start preschool teachers. While designing the Coaching Companion included key stakeholders, we surfaced and documented specific design and value tensions. Our analysis of interview data reflected some of the key value and design tensions that surfaced during our design process.
tApp: A Tumblr Analytics System BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Serena Hillman; Jason Procyk; Carman Neustaedter
In this paper we present the Tumblr analytics system, tApp. tApp is designed based on findings from a prior study we completed on Tumblr and fandoms [2, 3]. Within, we describe an overview of seven sections of the system, reasoning behind the design, current prototype screen shots, one use case scenario and proposed future work.
Participatory Stoves: Designing Renewable Energy Technologies for the Rural Sector BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Walter Ángel; Saiph Savage; Nataly Moreno
Wood represents a form of renewable energy that is widely available. In rural Mexico it represents the main source of energy. It is used not only for cooking, but also to heat houses, and to provide lighting. Most Mexican villagers use wood via stoves, however these appliances usually bring health hazards and are harmful for the environment. Due to these problems new technologies, such as efficient stoves, have been implemented to bring better combustion, reduce amount of smoke, and overall make the transfer of heat more efficient. However, the social adoption of efficient stoves is non-trivial. Our study shows how making efficient stoves follow the guidelines of appropriate technology, we can: 1) successfully understand the cultural and social aspects of how villagers use renewable energy; 2) design technology that by considering a region's traditions, is used long term.
Effects of a Wikipedia Orientation Game on New User Edits BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Sneha Narayan; Jake Orlowitz; Jonathan T. Morgan; Aaron Shaw
Socializing new users into a community that has a complicated set of norms and practices often presents a large challenge for peer production projects such as Wikipedia. Failure to do so successfully leads to confusion and alienation amongst newcomers. The authors present The Wikipedia Adventure, an interactive game that orients new users on Wikipedia in the basics of editing. We estimate the effect that inviting new users to play this game has on their subsequent contribution levels in Wikipedia, and find that overall, users invited to play The Wikipedia Adventure contributed more edits to talk pages.

Workshops

The Future of Networked Privacy: Challenges and Opportunities BIBAFull-Text 267-272
  Jessica Vitak; Pamela Wisniewski; Xinru Page; Airi Lampinen; Eden Litt; Ralf De Wolf; Patrick Gage Kelley; Manya Sleeper
Building on recent work in privacy management and disclosure in networked spaces, this two-day workshop examines networked privacy challenges from a broader perspective by (1) identifying the most important issues researchers will need to address in the next decade and (2) working to create actionable solutions for these privacy issues. This workshop comes at a critical time for organizations, researchers, and consumers, as content-sharing applications soar in popularity and more privacy and security vulnerabilities emerge. Workshop participants and organizers will work together to develop a guiding framework for the community that highlights the future challenges and opportunities of networked privacy.
Moving Beyond e-Health and the Quantified Self: The Role of CSCW in Collaboration, Community and Practice for Technologically-Supported Proactive Health and Wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 273-276
  Alan Chamberlain; m.c. schraefel; Erika Poole; Sean Munson; Catalina Danis; Elizabeth Churchill
Abstract What is the role of CSCW as methodology and epistemology in the development of interactive technology for Proactive Health? Does CSCW have a particular research contribution to make to the critical and timely development of re-designing our cultures to support health as a social good rather than as a medical condition? This workshop proposes to dedicate its two days to explore these questions, in order to: Produce a draft research agenda for CSCW challenges related to Proactive Health. Develop a near and longer term set of objectives to deliver on this agenda.
Supporting Cities, Neighborhoods, and Local Communities with Information and Communication Technologies BIBAFull-Text 277-281
  Elizabeth Daly; Sheena Erete; Rosta Farzan; Gary Hsieh; Cliff Lampe; Claudia Lopez; Andres Monroy-Hernandez; Daniele Quercia; Raz Schwartz; Amy Voida
Challenges of the local context such as encouraging civic engagement and facilitating collaboration to address local issues have motivated researchers and practitioners to explore the role of technologies in supporting life in cities, neighborhoods, and local communities. The goal of this workshop is to open a discussion on how to design, build and study ICT infrastructures and infrastructuring processes that contributes to this effort. We aim to create a publicly accessible repository of infrastructuring tools and to facilitate the cross-pollination of ideas about technology in local contexts among the researchers, practitioners, and residents interested in this area. At the workshop, participants will collaborate with Vancouver's residents and technology practitioners in order to explore the past, present, and future of research in this space; co-construct an infrastructuring tools repository; discuss key information challenges of local communities; and brainstorm solutions and opportunities to address them. Discussion and ideas generated will be archived online to be available to the larger research community and to local community advocates and activists.
Let's Talk About Sex (Apps), CSCW BIBAFull-Text 283-288
  Jeremy Birnholtz; Irina Shklovski; Mark Handel; Eran Toch
Location-based social network apps for dating have grown significantly over the past few years. Although they have many possible uses, casual and sexual encounters remain an important part of their draw. For CSCW, these apps are interesting to study: they offer a context to explore issues of identity and self-presentation, geography and locality, privacy and security, as well as motivation and usage habits. In this one-day workshop, we invite researchers, students, and practitioners from a diverse range of backgrounds, including CSCW, computer science, sociology, and public health, to discuss these issues and more, as well as to explore the difficulties and challenges inherent in this research. In addition to exploring the issues around apps for sex and dating, participants will also help to bring some of these sensitive, yet important topics into the mainstream of CSCW research.
Ethics for Studying Online Sociotechnical Systems in a Big Data World BIBAFull-Text 289-292
  Casey Fiesler; Alyson Young; Tamara Peyton; Amy S. Bruckman; Mary Gray; Jeff Hancock; Wayne Lutters
The evolution of social technology and research methods present ongoing challenges to studying people online. Recent high-profile cases have prompted discussion among both the research community and the general public about the ethical implications of researching humans, their information, and their activities in large-scale digital contexts. Examples of scientific and market research involving Facebook users and OKCupid clients exemplify the ethical complexities of both studying and manipulating online user behavior. When does data science become human subjects research, and what are our obligations to these subjects as researchers' Drawing from previous work around the ethics of digital research, one goal of this workshop is to work towards a set of guiding principles for CSCW scholars doing research online.
Advancing an Industry/Academic Partnership Model for Open Collaboration Research BIBAFull-Text 293-296
  Jonathan T. Morgan; Aaron Halfaker; Dario Taraborelli; Tim Hwang; Sean Goggins
We propose a full day workshop focused on characterizing areas of research within the domain of Open Collaboration Systems (OCS's) where partnerships between academic and industry researchers can both increase our scientific understanding of OCS's and also support those systems through research. This workshop's purpose is to bring together researchers on both sides of the "data divide" to identify current challenges and opportunities for future research within these research areas, and to develop a preliminary set of requirements for improved resource sharing and collaboration between OC enterprises and academic research institutions.
Doing CSCW Research in Latin America: Differences, Opportunities, Challenges, and Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 297-302
  Rogério de Paula; Cleidson de Souza; David Millen; Marcos Borges; David Randall
The authors of this proposal are members of an informal committee currently planning CSCW 2017 in Brazil. As we get set for this event, it is paramount to enroll a broader number of CSCW researchers in Latin America (LA) in the broader CSCW community. CSCW research in LA has been active since the mid 1990's although largely disconnected from the broader international CSCW. It is critical to acknowledge this history and collectively understand how the CSCW community can learn from CSCW in LA and how LA researchers can be better represented in and integrated into international CSCW. The goal of this workshop is twofold. First, to provide a forum for researchers working in LA to present their work for the international CSCW community, and second, to allow the international CSCW community to understand the issues around doing CSCW research in LA. Senior discussants will be invited to discuss the work of LA researchers and introduce key issues from their regions, therefore facilitating the cross-region conversations among participants.
Feminism and Feminist Approaches in Social Computing BIBAFull-Text 303-308
  Stephanie B. Steinhardt; Amanda Menking; Ingrid Erickson; Andrea Marshall; Asta Zelenkauskaite; Jennifer Rode
Following on the successful CSCW 2014 workshop on Feminism and Social Media, this workshop will bring together a set of CSCW scholars to discuss feminist perspectives in social computing and technology. We will explore theoretical and methodological approaches to the topic and draw on literature and empirical studies to build a set of generative and creative dialogues around the topics of diversity, sexual orientation, cultural attitudes, sociopolitical affiliations, and other emergent themes. Conversations will be directed particularly toward the challenges of using a feminist approach in CSCW scholarship, identifying both productive and problematic research practices. This session promises to open new feminist dialogues about current issues in CSCW from sexuality and identity on social media, labor and technology development, and gender inequality within Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math + Arts and Design (STEAM) collaborative efforts, and other emergent areas of interest.
Collaboration and Social Computing in Emerging Financial Services BIBAFull-Text 309-312
  David R. Millen; Claudio Pinhanez; Jofish Kaye; Silvia Cristina Sardela Bianchi; John Vines
In this workshop we consider new financial services from a CSCW and Social Computing perspective. We will bring together researchers, policy-makers and practitioners who are interested in new financial services such as mobile payments, digital money, microfinance, mobile commerce, and the adoption and use of these new services by special sub-populations. Also of interest in this workshop will be the use of social analytics to understand financial markets and create new services. We also aim to explore the underlying group and network mechanisms that promote trust and enable commerce (e.g., solidarity lending groups). The workshop will contribute to the continued development of a network of researchers and practitioners interested in the intersection of HCI and financial services.
Connecting Collaborative & Crowd Work with Online Education BIBAFull-Text 313-318
  Joseph Jay Williams; Markus Krause; Praveen Paritosh; Jacob Whitehill; Justin Reich; Juho Kim; Piotr Mitros; Neil Heffernan; Brian C. Keegan
Human behavior increasingly involves digital online software, where the activities and resources that support (1) learning, (2) work, and (3) collaboration overlap and are placed in far greater proximity than the physical world -- often just a browser-tab or window away. What scientific and practical gains in 21st century learning, work, and collaboration can be achieved by integrating and contrasting these three areas' relevant technologies, scientific communities, and industry practitioners?
   For example: How can software for collaborative work incorporate learning? Which methods are effective for coordinating diverse experts to iteratively improve online educational resources? How can online learning improve the skill set and labor force for crowd work? What kinds of computational frameworks exist to jointly optimize the learning of skills and the use of these skills to achieve practical goals?
   This workshop tackles such questions by bringing together participants from industry (e.g., platforms similar to Odesk, Amazon Mechanical Turk); education, psychology, and MOOCs (e.g., attendees of AERA, EDM, AIED, Learning at Scale); crowdsourcing and collaborative work (e.g., attendees of CHI, CSCW, NIPS, AAAI's HCOMP).
"Local Remote" Collaboration: Applying Remote Group Awareness Techniques to Co-located Settings BIBAFull-Text 319-324
  Stacey D. Scott; T. C. Nicholas Graham; James R. Wallace; Mark Hancock; Miguel Nacenta
Co-located environments have long been considered ideal for many types of group work, such as planning, decision-making, and design, since they provide a rich communication environment (e.g. delay-free voice communication, face-to-face interaction, eye gaze, and non-verbal communication), as well as promote awareness and coordination through the use of shared artifacts. However, the recent move towards multi-device ecologies in co-located settings, such as the use of multiple personal devices (e.g., laptops, tablets) or multiple personal devices in conjunction with larger, shared displays, such as digital walls or tabletops, can interfere with these common co-located communication and collaboration strategies, as various group members mentally and/or physical shift their focus to their personal devices rather than to their collaborators or to any physically shared artifacts. Group communications and coordination can easily breakdown in these scenarios as the lack of a physically shared group focus of attention can limit awareness of other's activities and task progress. In this workshop, researchers and practitioners will explore design techniques that can be used to address this issue, and improve group awareness in these co-located multi-device ecologies. This will be accomplished through group presentations, brainstorming sessions, and small-group breakout sessions.