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CQL Tables of Contents: 90

Proceedings of the Conference on Computers and the Quality of Life

  1. Keynote Address
  2. Human Services 1 -- Human Services Delivery
  3. Computer Science 1 -- Computers and Health Care
  4. Human Services 2 -- Impact of Legislation on Availability and Use of Technology by Individuals with Disabilities
  5. Computer Science 2 -- New Communications Technology
  6. Plenary Panel
  7. Human Services 3 -- Expert Systems and Clinical Practice
  8. Computer Science 3 -- Instruction on Topics of Computers and Society
  9. Computers and Society Instructor's Forum
  10. Plenary Research Forum
  11. Human Services 4 -- Information Systems and Services
  12. Computer Science 4 -- Democratic Participation and Computing
  13. Human Services 5 -- Services for the Aging
  14. Computer Science 5 -- Computer Impacts on Work
  15. Human Services 6 -- Computers and the Physically Handicapped
  16. Computer Science 6 -- Education and Training
  17. Ethics Research Panel
  18. Ethics Teaching Panel
  19. Issues for an Ethical Code

Keynote Address

Human Values and the Future of Technology: A Declaration of Empowerment BIBA 1-6
  Ben Shneiderman
"We must learn to balance the material wonders of technology with the spiritual demands of our human nature." John Naisbitt (1982).
   We can make a difference in shaping the future by ensuring that computers "serve human needs (Mumford, 1934)." By making explicit the enduring values that we hold dear we can guide computer system designers and developers for the next decade, century, and thereafter. After setting our high-level goals we can pursue the components and seek the participatory process for fulfilling them.
   High-level goals might include peace, excellent health care, adequate nutrition, accessible education, communication, freedom of expression, support for creative exploration, safety, and socially constructive entertainment. Computer technology can help attain these high-level goals if we clearly state measurable objectives, obtain participation of professionals, and design effective human-computer interfaces. Design considerations include adequate attention to individual differences among users, support of social and organizational structures, design for reliability and safety, provision of access by the elderly, handicapped, or illiterate, and appropriate user controlled adaptation. With suitable theories and empirical research we can achieve ease of learning, rapid performance, low error rates, and good retention over time, while preserving high subjective satisfaction.
   To raise the consciousness of designers and achieve these goals, we must generate an international debate, stimulate discussions within organizations, and interact with other intellectual communities. This paper calls for a focus on the "you" and "I" in developing improved user interface (UI) research and systems, offers a Declaration of Empowerment, and proposes a Social Impact Statement for major computing projects.

Human Services 1 -- Human Services Delivery

Computer Applications for Child Protective Services BIB 7
  David A. Ladd; Stephan Applelbaum Sandbank
How to Propose Automation for Human Services BIBA 8-12
  William A. Adams; James J. Traglia
Automation in the human services generally lags far behind the level of automation in business and industry. This is not due to lack of need. It is due to the difficulty of conceptualizing the issues surrounding automation of human service delivery, and to lack of money. The two are related: the money is surely available if the automation proposal can articulate the need to the resource controllers in a framework they can believe in. The traditional arguments for automation based on promise of lowered costs are not convincing for human service delivery because costs are not easily quantified. Promises of increase quality of service are hard to substantiate because the service "product" is so intangible. The traditional arguments should not be ignored, but the compelling arguments for automating in the human services are different: the promise of accurate program evaluation, and the promise of high quality information feedback from the field to program managers. Especially in the non-profit domain, the motivation for human service delivery is fundamentally altruistic. The basic concern of the administrators is, "Are we doing anybody any good?" This is the concern that must be addressed by the successful automation proposal. The proposal must be positioned in the context of the strategic service goals of the organization and made to look like the pivot upon which realization of the strategic plan turns. The proposal should promise the information needed by managers to evaluate their own performance and the program's progress towards its service goals.
Putting the Byte on Canadian Social Welfare Agencies BIB 13-19
  C. J. Alexander
Information Structure, Information Technology and the Human Service Organizational Environment BIBA 20
  Jeanette Semke; Paula Nurius
This paper examines current trends in data collection and information use in human service organizations. It describes sources of practitioner resistance to automation as one means to understand issues for managers who are planning information systems. It proposes that conceptual integration of agendas for human service automation, practice evaluation and service effectiveness provides a tool for developing coherent information systems that are more fully useful to all levels of an organization. The paradigm of structure of information is presented as the fundamental, unifying variable for integrating automation, evaluation and service effectiveness agendas. The paradigm is used for thinking about 1) data demands and information use in automation and evaluation, 2) for assessing existing organizations when considering information system innovations, and 3) as an aid for predicting the impact of those innovations on the organization.
H.E.L.P. -- Helpful Electronic Look-Up Program BIBA 21
  Leslie Senner
This paper presents a natural history (1973-1990) of the migration, convergence and development of a number of ideas, and their transformation into material products and social action.
   It is a story about the PEOPLE in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Some of them needed things like a cheap source of day-old bread, or an apartment that was available to THEM, or a rape crisis counselor, or transportation to the library. Some of them found out where to find some of these things. Some of them tried to help each other sort it all out.
   After a while "sorting it all out" became quite cumbersome. Some of the people had heard of wonderful machines that might help. They began learning how to put these machines together, and how to make them do things.
   The people were used to doing things in some PLACE. They found it hard to find a PLACE where information about all these things could be sorted out and yet be available to anyone who needed it, when they needed it.
   Some of the people began putting together a PROCESS for developing, collecting and correcting some of the information people needed. They even found ways for some people to find the information more easily than before.
   Some of the people in Prince Albert wondered if there were people in other parts of the world who would like to trade similar stories ... Stories about how they made it easier to find out things that made the day a little better.

Computer Science 1 -- Computers and Health Care

Mental Hygiene Practitioners' Attitudes Toward Applying Computers in Health Care BIB 22-26
  Shafer H. Zysman; Gunther R. Geiss
KnoW, An Alternative Approach in Decision Support Systems for Human Services BIBA 27
  Menachem Monnickendam
The Knowledge work station (KnoW) is a visual, flexible and open approach to support the decision making process. Current DSS's are often cumbersome because they derive from the concept that data usage may be defined in advance in a very structured way for one specific decision. This rigidity is at odds with the practitioner's style of work. Practitioners, as part of the decision making process, often browse through the file in order to understand the whole client situation. This is a learning process that utilizes associative, lateral and logical thinking, combines data from multiple types and sources, and jumps between different levels of abstraction. Thus, the conceptual base of a software program that is intended to serve practitioners decision making should cater to these constraints and accordingly has to be much more open and flexible. The KnoW environment is a hypercard application for the Macintosh. It provides the practitioner with the information he/she feels is needed in order to make a decision, in an easy to understand visual format. KnoW effects this through software that integrates data from different media, structures the environment in which the practitioner operates and provides tools to navigate freely, associatively and simply within the data.
   The added value of KnoW is that it provides information that, to the practitioner, is new and relevant. A prototype was developed to aid practitioners in a Child Development Center in establishing a treatment plan which includes selection of the problem area which is considered most amenable to intervention and assessment of clients' level of functioning in that area.
The Social Impact of Computer Technology on Physicians BIBA 28-33
  James G. Anderson; Stephen J. Jay
Rapid advances in computer and information sciences promise to bring about fundamental changes in the structure and function of medical practice. This paper addresses the technological advances that have been made in the application of computers to medicine and how these advances are likely to alter the physician's professional role, the social organization of practice settings, the relation between doctor and patient, and the organization of health care delivery systems. Computer technology provides powerful tools that can be used to overcome many of the limitations of present health care delivery systems. At the same time, computers involve significant threats to the institutional role of the physician. The effective introduction of computers into medical practice requires consideration of these potential social consequences.

Human Services 2 -- Impact of Legislation on Availability and Use of Technology by Individuals with Disabilities

The Impact of Legislation on Availability and Use of Technology by Individuals with Disabilities BIB 34
  R. Dipner

Computer Science 2 -- New Communications Technology

Information Technologies and Rural Economic Development BIB 35
  Sherry Emery
Assessing the Impact of Computers on the Home and Family BIB 36
  Susan H. Gray

Plenary Panel

Expectations & Gender Differences in Computer Use BIB 37
  Charles Huff

Human Services 3 -- Expert Systems and Clinical Practice

EPIC Expert Assistant Calculator: An Expert System to Facilitate Eligibility and Savings Determination for a State Sponsored Drug Insurance Program BIBA 38-44
  A. Nizza; G. Geiss
This article describes the development and piloting of an expert system which provides a preliminary eligibility and savings determination statement for the New York State Elderly Pharmaceutical Insurance Coverage (EPIC) program. EPIC is a drug insurance program for senior citizens with modest financial resources, moderate drug expenses, and no other form of drug insurance coverage. The EPIC Expert Assistant Calculator is an expert system, a type of computer program, designed to support this very specific task or problem solving process.
Use of a Medical Expert System in a Clinical Setting BIB 45
  Loretta Moore; John Snapper
Accelerating the Development of Effective Expertise Through Knowledge-Based Feedback BIBA 46-53
  Raymond W. Carlson
Human services need to improve productivity in relation to the benefits provided to consumers. A key problem appears to be inconsistent use of knowledge as to what is effective in problem resolution. This paper describe how such knowledge evolves naturally through the development of experiential expertise. The challenge for computer support for such services is to facilitate this natural development process. The paper concludes by outlining a computer program being developed to respond to that challenge.
The Case of the Fickle Expert System BIBA 54-59
  Karen E. Wieckert
Expert systems involve components that vary in success during implementation. The expert system package encompasses a theory of knowledge, conventions for representing the objects of study or rationalization, standardized methods of work, and specialized infrastructural computing technology. The dynamics of success and failure of package application are presented through the development of Project Vinny, an expert system for analyzing electrical power requirements. Expectations promoted by the theory of knowledge mask fundamental tensions involved in expert system developments. Expert system success stems from indirect aspects of their development method. As an intervention into on-going work processes, expert systems allow designers, developers and experts negotiation over matches between formal computing requirements and work needs.

Computer Science 3 -- Instruction on Topics of Computers and Society

Computers and the Quality of Life? BIBA 60-66
  Grace C. Hertlein
Part I of the paper examines the focus of this conference, computers and the quality of life. How can computers enhance the quality of life? Are they enhancing life? What does "quality of life" imply?
   Requirements for a humane quality of life are briefly detailed here, cognizant that a nurturing environment for mankind requires an equal examination of the interdependent quality needs of the entire biosphere.
   Part II examines the vast changes that have occurred in high-tech societies during the past decade, focusing on the dominant revolutionary thrusts now visible -- tendencies that will markedly alter our work patterns, where we work, how we work -- if we work at all.
   In order to understand (and achieve) the potential of a quality of life in a high-tech society, people need to be computer literate -- and preferably, computer fluent, to assess the creative, constructive, beneficial applications of computers. That audience is now a broader one: the junior, senior undergraduate -- or the early graduate student from any discipline. That exposure and societal consideration can be achieved by varied ethical, societal impact courses now becoming common at the upper division level.
   The Computer Science Department at CSU, Chico has sponsored societal impact courses for the past eighteen years. The present junior, senior course, "The Societal Impact of Computers" has been modified a dozen times during this period. A review of the present course is briefly detailed here. More definitive ideas and pedagogical examples will be shared in the instructional presentations, along with copies of teaching materials for conference participants.
Experiences in Teaching Computers and Society Courses Over the Last Fifteen Years BIB 67
  John W. Fendrich
Peer Learning and Active Involvement in the "Computers and Society" Course BIBA 68
  Charles Huff
The philosophy of active involvement in learning has shaped my classes in computers and society in a variety of ways. I attempt to get students involved in discussions over electronic media, in role playing of significant conflicts over technology, in the design of technology, and in the setting of computing policy for our institution. I share some of these ideas in the hope that we can improve upon them and perhaps find additional ways to actively involve students.
Teaching Computers and Society in a Virtual Classroom BIBA 69-72
  Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Murray Turoff
A "Virtual Classroom" is a teaching and learning environment located within a computer-mediated communication system. Rather than being built of bricks and boards, it consists of a set of group communication and work "spaces" and facilities which are constructed in software. Participation is "asynchronous," that is, the Virtual Classroom participants can dial in at any time around the clock, and from any location in the world accessible by a reliable telephone system. For the last five years, the Computers and Society course at NJIT has been offered in a "mixed mode," with online communication replacing half of the normal face-to-face meeting time. The objective has been to enhance the quality of teaching and learning by using the technology to support "collaborative learning" and "collaborative teaching" processes. This paper describes the Virtual Classroom, and provides examples of its use in the Computers and Society course.

Computers and Society Instructor's Forum

Computers and Society: An Integrated Course Model BIBA 73
  William J. Joel
Curriculum '78 recommends that a course examining the social effects of computer technology be included in an undergraduate computer science degree. Such a course allows the student to evaluate material learned in previous courses in light of present day conditions. There have been essentially three ways of examining various segments of society: application model, society type model and major issue model. Though each has its merits, a need has arisen for a method of combining these techniques into a more cohesive whole. The integrated course model begins by incorporates all three simpler models and then moves onto topics that rely upon all three, creating a course that allows the student to easily move from personal experiences to global issues.
Establishing an Undergraduate Liberal Arts Curriculum for the Study of the Social Impact of Computers and Information Technology BIBA 74
  Joseph E. Behar
Today, in the developed democracies of the West, there is considerable dispute concerning the appropriate role of computers in society. Whether computers are a positive or negative force in society is at issue, and determining the social impact of computers is a difficult, confused, and even polarized area of sociological analysis. On one side, critics argue that computers invade privacy, turn information into a commodity, degrade knowledge and the imagination, and create even more opportunities for the oppression of workers. Specifically, in the "dystopian vision", computers are primarily used for the centralization and concentration of information resources and lead to the creation of technical elites, centralized power structures, and increased hierarchical authority in decision making. The more optimistic side points to the ease and expansion of communication through telecommunications networks, the efficiency and labor saving capacities of computers, and the general increase of useful information made available for managing and developing projects. In general, this view of the information technology "revolution" states that computer systems foster increased information availability and this is useful in developing knowledge and decision making abilities. Whether computers are indeed either a de-humanizing threat to freedom or can be harnessed for progressive purposes is not likely to be decided in simplistic terms. This paper reports on the possibilities and importance of educating undergraduate students in relation to the social impacts of computers and information technology. Based on several years experience teaching "The Social Impact of Computers and Information Technology" at a private liberal arts college, the essential values, requirements, rationales, and materials for such a course are reviewed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the critical necessity for the investigation and discussion of these issues in providing a contemporary liberal arts education appropriate to the information age.
Information Systems in Society BIBA 75
  Suzanne Weisband
We often hear that rapid changes in communication and computer technology will revolutionalize our society. Yet the computer and telecommunications technology are flexible and demand that we make choices about their use. This course is about the social and organizational implications of these technologies. Its purpose is to highlight both the (re)definition of problems associated with technology in society and the research approaches for understanding the social aspects of computing. In order to capture the wide significance of the issues and the range of research on the topic of computers in society, the approach of this class is multidisciplinary.

Plenary Research Forum

Information Systems, Social Transformations, and Quality of Life BIBA 76-85
  Rob Kling
Understanding the social consequences of computerization is a central issue for the disciplines of information systems and computer science. All normative questions about how information systems can be effectively designed for use, adopted, implemented, and managed hinge on some way of understanding the consequences of purposive action. Questions about how computerization can alter the quality of people's lives -- at work, in schools, in hospitals, as organizational clients, or at home -- all depend upon answers to questions about how computerization alters the social order. While "computerization" and "revolutionary" seem to go hand and hand, careful empirical studies of computerization and social change do not always show substantial changes attributable to computerization. Further, many key social changes that are linked to computerization are byproducts of other managerial actions that accompany computerization. Also, some organizations computerize in ways which may maintain their ways of organizing work and their relations with clients.

Human Services 4 -- Information Systems and Services

Computerized Ambulance Dispatching Systems BIBA 86
  J. Lin; D. Hill; P. Halliday; C. McIsaac
The goal of an emergency health services system is to retrieve, care for and deliver the patient to appropriate medical care as soon as possible in the best conditions under the circumstances. The efficient dispatching of an ambulance is critical in matters of life and death.
   Like other growing cities, Ottawa is currently under-serviced for hospital beds. With population of over eight hundred thousand, demand for ambulance services is increasing rapidly. This emphasizes the critical nature of a good coordination between the hospital, the dispatcher and the ambulance.
   This paper examines how dispatching is done in the Ottawa area by Ottawa's Central Ambulance Communication Centre (CACC). It addresses and describes how new hybrid of computer and telecommunication technology can increase the effectiveness of ambulance dispatch, while integrating communications, recording, and tracking functions. It is important not just only to dispatch an ambulance to an emergency scene quickly, but also to get the patient to an appropriate facility. For this reason, a computer link with local hospitals is necessary to coordinate much needed information with ambulance dispatch.
   Such increased ease of operation and efficiency may help reduce stress for dispatchers and ambulance crews. Having up-to-date maps in electronic form will help the dispatchers to locate the emergency and identify the closest and most appropriate unit sooner and more easily. An integrated computerized system will increase the efficiency of the dispatching centre to a level unattainable in a manual operation. Such computerized ambulance service will be capable of monitoring all aspects of service performance. It can handle the large volume of data and provide statistical and management information.
   Implementation and social policy issues are also addressed in the paper.
Developing Functional, Affordable, Clinical Information Systems: Meeting a Healthcare Challenge of the '90s BIBA 87-92
  Michael J. Buckley
State and local government-run hospitals and institutions for the mentally-ill and the developmentally-disabled largely have been left out of the "information revolution" of the 1980s. While the demand for institutional information by legislators, planners, regulators, accrediting agencies, agency and institutional managers, and the public has increased, this demand has seldom been met by the additional financial and technological resources needed to respond. Even when funds are made available, most "off the shelf" or "turnkey" hospital information systems are not well-suited to public sector institutions, particularly those providing long-term care, at best offering limited functionality at high cost. Yet, the obvious alternative -- building customized institutional information systems from the ground up -- can be even more costly, and is always fraught with risks. There is a third alternative, however, and that is to adapt to state and local government needs the functionally-rich array of integrated software developed by federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Not only is this software available to state and local governments virtually free of charge, but it offers a host of advantages over most other alternatives: hardware and vendor independence, adaptability to a wide variety of settings, support for clinical as well as administrative and financial functions, conformity to current and emerging standards, etc. Perhaps most important, as a baseline for institutional information this array of public domain software offers public healthcare providers affordable systems that can free treatment staff to spend more of their time on patient/client care, while giving institutional management the tools they need to control costs and make more effective use of available resources.
Increasing the Clinical Relevance of a Mental Health Information System BIBA 93-96
  M. Gorodezky; J. Rusnak
The evolution of mental health mental health information system has produced systems which are oriented towards administrative and fiscal applications. This paper discusses a case example of such a system and considers strategies to improve the clinical relevance of such a system. Current plans for system enhancements are considered including on-line treatment planning, discharge summaries and resource inventories.
On-Line Networking and Conferencing: Improving Human Services BIB 97
  Harry MacKay

Computer Science 4 -- Democratic Participation and Computing

Speculations on the Possible Impact of Computing Technology on Democratic Processes in Communist Countries BIB 98-102
  T. Sterling
Communication Technology and Democratic Participation: "PENners" in Santa Monica BIB 104
  Kendall Guthrie; Joe Schmitz; Daehee Ryu; John Harris; Everett Rogers; William Dutton
Developing Informed Citizens with Computer Software: The Information Revolution Enters Politics BIB 105
  Gerald Smith; Jerry Debenham

Human Services 5 -- Services for the Aging

Using Information System Technology to Coordinate Specialized Services for the Elderly BIBA 106-111
  W. Looman; L. Noelker; G. Deimling
In mid-1988 six of Cuyahoga County's non-profit providers of respite service to caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease began a project (SISTERS: Shared Information System Technology to Evaluate Respite Services) to develop an interagency database. This grew out of an existing PC-based information system at The Benjamin Rose Institute that was designed to improve the operation of its specialized respite program and facilitate its monitoring. The SISTERS project's aims include: improving the design and delivery of community respite services using information system technology; improving the effectiveness of each participating program through standardized forms and documentation via a PC-based system to track clients, monitor service delivery, and provide for quality assurance; and disseminating the design and technology of this system as a model for coordinating and evaluating respite programs.
   The resulting integrated database was comprised of four compatible subsystems: Inquiry/Intake, Assessment, Service Delivery, and Client Satisfaction/Quality Assurance. During the first year of database use, intake data were collected from 477 persons, and assessment and service data from 291 clients across the six agencies.
   This paper describes the development of an integrated interagency information system, details the benefits of this effort for specialized programs serving the elderly, and discusses the use of the system in the participating agencies.
Computer Games for the Elderly BIB 112-115
  G. Robert Whitcomb
Computers and Social Change for Quality Long Living: The Let's Connect! Project BIB 116-117
  Robert V. Gallant

Computer Science 5 -- Computer Impacts on Work

Computer Workers: Career Lines and Professional Identity BIBA 118-123
  Kenneth Fidel; Roberta Garner
Drawing upon survey responses the authors studied the careers and professional identification of computer professionals with masters degrees. Respondents were highly mobile, moved to jobs in larger firms and to firms engaged in EDP. There was little attachment to any of the three traditional bases of work identification -- the company, class based organizations, or professional associations.
The Commoditization of Information: Societal Implications and Analogies to the Commoditization of Labor BIB 124
  David Bellin
The Changing Job Tasks and Environment of Designers Using Computer Graphic Equipment BIB 125
  Lorraine Justice
Groupware and Not-for-Profit Institutions: Cooperative Harmony or Culture Shock? BIB 126
  Jo Ann Oravec; Larry E. Travis

Human Services 6 -- Computers and the Physically Handicapped

A Multidimensional Approach to Introduction of Technology to Aid Disabled Populations BIB 127
  R. Dipner; R. Gattis
High Quality Speech for Laryngectomized Persons BIBA 128-133
  Harina Kapoor
Each year throat cancer causes a large number of individuals to undergo a partial or total laryngectomy resulting in the loss of normal speech. Many of these individuals utilize the Electrolarynx, a battery-operated, hand-held device which, when held to the throat, creates sufficient turbulence to allow the user to produce low quality speech. This paper details the techniques that we use to recognize the speech output produced by laryngectomized persons using a modified Electrolarynx and synthesize high quality speech using a miniaturized version of DECTALK. Our goal is to develop a Portable Real Time Speech System that can be attached to the user's belt which will allow laryngectomized persons to produce high quality speech in real time. The hardware will include a 22 MIPS R3000 RISC microprocessor, and a TMS 320C30 digital signal processing chip.
Multi-Vocality Come to Life: Computer-Mediated Communication in a Diverse Society BIB 134-137
  Trent Batson

Computer Science 6 -- Education and Training

Computers in Schools: Old Habits and Conventional Beliefs, But Also Institutional Constraints BIB 138
  Henry Jay Becker
Educational Computing: Myths versus Methods: Why Computers Haven't Helped and What We Can Do About It BIB 139-146
  Russell L. Shackelford
Addressing Social Issues with Non-Linear Training Programs BIBA 147-151
  Albert R. Haugerud; Patrick O. Chambers
An exciting new dimension in training is emerging with the use of non-linear programs on Macintosh hypercard. Short computer training programs now can be developed readily to meet a variety of needs. These range from supplementing traditional training programs to stand alone individualized training where traditional training is not available.
   This presentation involves a variety of programs and prototype program segments to illustrate the power of this format in addressing social change issues. Programs were developed for social and health services line workers to improve delivery of social services. These include Mexican American Culture, S.E. Asian Cultures, AIDS and Group Problem Solving.
   Traditional instructional design needs to be modified to optimize the use of concepts from expert systems and artificial intelligence in this environment. As more options are built into the software the user assumes greater control. Thus, the designer has a greater responsibility to be more responsive to a wide range of individual needs and styles of learners.
   The use of object oriented programming techniques in hypercard permits the development of learning modules and segments which greatly facilitate the development process using these designs.
   Updating content and program modifications are greatly simplified.
   The flexible and relatively easy use of graphics, sound and movement open new dimensions for involving the learner.
   Using social interaction models with expert system concepts enables learner responses to be used in tailoring interactions to specific users.
   Developing software for gathering information from "experts" to provide a content base for programming contributes to the ease and effectiveness of developing these programs.
   And interactions with other media, including videodisc, are very realistic options.
Leveraging the 80's for Technology in the 90's BIBA 152
  Thomas E. Neudecker
Basic scientific research sponsored by the government and industry during the past decade is now being leveraged into "real world" products to benefit the residents of the 1990's. This paper proposes to review research developments of the past decade in the areas of artificial intelligences, robotics, computer science, and engineering. Based upon this review the author will attempt to discuss how the past work is now being combined to leverage new tools to assist those in need.
   Video examples of vehicles that can autonomously navigate city streets while mapping their path, personal robotic workstations that allow disabled workers to competitively function in an office environment will be presented. Reports on work in progress in the fields of AI systems and cognitive sciences will also be discussed. These programs include systems that can electronically read digital text and produce accurate abstracts of the message, other systems that can translate digital text from one language to another with context and finally a system that can recognize speech without training. Each of these projects are currently running, in a limited but functional state, in university labs. The many faceted combination of these technologies present great opportunities for the human services and the clients they serve.

Ethics Research Panel

Computer Workers: Professional Identity and Societal Concerns BIBA 153-156
  Roberta Garner; Kenneth Fidel
The authors use a survey method to explore the degree to which computer professionals view information system related practices as currently or potentially problematic for society. The greatest concerns centered on issues of privacy and security, while the issue of unemployment was viewed as not very acute. There was little systematic variation between the views of survey participants.
Ethics and the Computerization of Pharmacy BIBA 157-163
  Robert L. McCarthy; Judith A. Perrolle
The rapid computerization of pharmacy has raised a number of potential new ethical dilemmas. Will the relationships between patient and pharmacist and between physician and pharmacist be altered by computerization? Will the use of computers to fill prescriptions affect confidentiality? Will the existence of these databases encourage unauthorized access of patient records? Will the monitoring of drug therapy by pharmacies and pharmacists be increased? Will artificial intelligence be involved in decision-making regarding drug therapy? Finally, what new legal and ethical conflicts will arise?
   The authors use scenarios to explore the attitudes of pharmacists and pharmacy students towards these emerging ethical issues in pharmacy practice. The results of the study will be used to create an instrument to measure sensitivity to ethical issues arising from the computerization of pharmacy and to make recommendations for improving the teaching of pharmacy ethics in the computer age.

Ethics Teaching Panel

Teaching Computer Ethics BIB 164
  Terrell Ward Bynum
Ethics, Computers and Computer Science Education: What and Why BIBA 165
  Maarten van Swaay; Nichols Hall
The pervasive use of computers in our society has given vast amounts of power to those who understand and manage them. As computer professionals we cannot refuse that power, nor can we ignore the obligations that come with it. We will be expected to respond to important questions for which the answers cannot be captured in law or even in "codes of conduct".
   The reliability of current computer systems has given the public reason to expect and even demand perfection. The behavior of a computer system cannot be defined by mathematical rigor alone; much of the system must be seen as an engineering experiment which must be justified by careful assessment of its potential risks and rewards. We must find ways to distribute both the risks and the rewards between the designers and the users of the system.
   A computer system finally is a tool that may support or hinder human interaction and that thereby directly affects the life we live. We must stand ready to discuss and explain what computers do, what they can do, what they cannot do, and what they should not be made to do. We must also learn to discuss and assess both the risks and the rewards associated with the use of computers, lest those assessments be imposed by persons who may not be qualified to make them, to the detriment of both the public and the profession.
   Current computer science curricula tend to be so ambitious in terms of mathematics, technology and engineering that they leave little if any room for discussion of their proper use. Such curricula can easily produce graduates who may be superbly qualified in technical aspects, but who are unprepared for the task of fitting the technology to its social context.
Recalibrating Our Moral Compass BIBA 166
  Ron Cobbett
Helping mid-career Information Managers and Computer Professionals refine their moral decision-making apparatus.
Lessons from Corporate America Applied to Training in Computer Ethics BIBA 167-173
  Susan J. Harrington; Rebecca L. McCollum
As publicity related to computer abuse becomes commonplace, Information Systems (IS) managers are becoming aware of the vulnerability of computer systems. Much can be learned from established corporate-wide programs which have attempted to integrate ethics into decision-making. By establishing ethics codes, providing mechanisms for reporting problems, and using ethics training, corporations are attempting to alter the ethical climate of their businesses. IS can benefit by utilizing some of the same approaches. This article examines the current state of the objectives, extent, and content of ethics training and applies it to the IS environment.
A Course in Professional Responsibility for Computer Scientists BIBA 174-179
  Batya Friedman
Within the computer science curriculum, the social and ethical aspects of computing can be partially addressed with a specialized course on these issues. This paper discusses one such course, briefly examining its strengths, specific goals, and implementation. A detailed course description is then provided that includes a syllabus and sample student assignments.

Issues for an Ethical Code

Computer-Related Crime: Ethical Considerations (With Applications for Teaching Computer Literacy Classes) BIB 180-191
  Richard Parker
A Code of Professional Responsibility -- An Ethics Code with Bite BIBA 192
  Joel Rothstein Wolfson
Existing Ethic's Codes are deficient in that they state principles with little practical detail. For example, almost every code states that one must avoid or disclose potential conflicts of interest. They fail to answer the question, "How do I know what is a conflict of interest?" Is it a conflict of interest to represent a company in one contract, and its competitor in another. What if they deal with the same subject? Is it a conflict to recommend software in which your sister owns a 25% share?
   What is needed is a set of rules, admitted arbitrary, but one hopes reasonable, which sets rules of what is acceptable behavior. The Code is based on disciplinary rules (DRs), a violation of which can lead to a sanction against a Computer Professional (CP). The following is only a summary of each DR. The full text of the code and its accompanying commentary can be obtained from the author.
   Principle 1. A CP SHALL NOT INTENTIONALLY OR THROUGH A CONFLICT OF INTEREST HARM A USER.
  • DR-1.1 A CP shall not implant any code whose function, if described, would make
       
        a reasonable user object.
  • DR-1.2 A CP shall not knowingly make a materially false statement with the
       
        intent that another rely on it.
  • DR-1.3 A CP shall not reveal or use private, personal, or business secret
       
        information.
  • DR-1.4 A CP shall not use a computer to obtain private, personal or business
       
        secret information.
  • DR-1.5 Before any recommendation, a CP shall disclose if he or she has received
       
        within a year over $1,000.00 in value from the supplier, or that the CP
       
        or any relative is an director, officer, owner or creditor of the
       
        supplier.
  • DR-1.6 A CP involved in a project which could cause death or serious bodily
       
        injury, should ensure that the computer system: (a) has been properly
       
        designed; (b) is created by those competent; (c) is developed without
       
        neglect; (d) is adequately tested; and (e) is properly installed and
       
        maintained. Principle 2. A CP SHALL NOT INTENTIONALLY CAUSE HARM TO ANY OTHER COMPUTER ENTITY OR PROFESSIONAL.
  • DR-2.1 A CP shall not violate copyright, trademark, or patent rights.
  • DR-2.2 A CP shall not use, or interfere with, any other's use beyond the
       
        authorization granted. Principle 3. A CP SHALL NOT CAUSE HARM TO OTHERS IN THE COURSE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
  • DR-3.1 A CP shall properly attribute authorship. Principle 4. CPs SHALL TRUTHFULLY REPRESENT THEMSELVES.
  • DR-4.1 A CP shall not make any false statement on a computer related
       
        application or examination. Principle 5. A CP SHALL BE AND REMAIN COMPETENT AND QUALIFIED.
  • DR-5.1 A CP shall: (a) be competent to do a job; (b) obtain the competence; or
       
        (c) associate with one competent.
  • DR-5.2 Mere membership in a society does not demonstrate competence.
  • DR-5.3 A CP shall maintain competence through continuing education. Principle 6. A CP SHALL WORK TO FOSTER RESPECT FOR THE PROFESSION.
  • DR-6.1 A CP must not aid a violation of this Code.
  • DR-6.2 A CP shall not act on behalf of a computer society without proper
       
        authorization.
  • DR-6.3 A CP should avoid even the appearance of impropriety.
  • DR-6.4 A CP should actively pursue professional and societal responsibilities.