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COOP Tables of Contents: 020408101214

Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems
Editors:Chiara Rossitto; Luigina Ciolfi; David Martin; Bernard Conein
Location:Nice, France
Dates:2014-May-27 to 2014-May-30
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-06498-7; ISBN: 978-3-319-06497-0 (print), 978-3-319-06498-7 (online); hcibib: COOP14
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
People, Plans and Place: Understanding and Supporting Responses to Rural Public Transport Disruption BIBAFull-Text 1-15
  Konstantinos Papangelis; Alan Chamberlain; Nagendra Velaga; David Corsar; Somayajulu Sripada; John Nelson; Mark Beecroft
Public transport information provision in rural areas is often fragmented and of poor quality at best and non-existent at worst. This can have a significant impact on the everyday life of the inhabitants of rural areas, particularly in terms of limiting their travel choices and thereby their opportunities to access goods, service and social networks. Inadequate information provision also poses significant challenges during times of transport disruption. In this paper we examine the responses from a series of interviews (69) and focus groups (9) in which we explored the rural passengers' experience during disruption, their coping strategies, and their behavioural responses to disruption. We identify that each passenger experiences disruption uniquely, and that the behavioral adaptation of the passenger relates to the severity and impact of the disruption. Furthermore, we identify that the most prevalent ways of mitigating the impacts of disruption is through time buffering and the use of kinship networks. Based on these findings and six co-design sessions with rural passengers we were able co-design and develop a prototype passenger information system to support the passenger during disruption. The results of this work aim to advance understandings of the interplay of technology, information provision, and passenger experience under disruption.
Visualizing Targeted Audiences BIBAKFull-Text 17-34
  Saiph Savage; Angus Forbes; Carlos Toxtli; Grant McKenzie; Shloka Desai; Tobias Höllerer
Users of social networks can be passionate about sharing their political convictions, art projects, or business ventures. They often want to direct their social interactions to certain people in order to start collaborations or to raise awareness about issues they support. However, users generally have scattered, unstructured information about the characteristics of their audiences, making it difficult for them to deliver the right messages or interactions to the right people. Existing audience-targeting tools allow people to select potential candidates based on predefined lists, but the tools provide few insights about whether or not these people would be appropriate for a specific type of communication. We introduce an online tool, Hax, to explore instead the idea of using interactive data visualizations to help people dynamically identify audiences for their different sharing efforts. We provide the results of a preliminary empirical evaluation that shows the strength of the idea and points to areas for future research.
Keywords: Targeted audiences; Targeted sharing; Online audience; Selective sharing; Social networks; Online community; Facebook
Reconsidering the Role of Plans and Planning in the Management of the Unexpected BIBAFull-Text 35-48
  Ilaria Redaelli; Antonella Carassa
Based on an in-depth field study of the planning practices of the Ramp Control tower of an Italian airport, this paper addresses the problem of the role of plans and planning in how organizations deal with contingencies. Research into organizations' management of the unexpected has thus far mostly opposed the ongoing comprehension of emerging factors in the role of plans and planning recognized as useful for the sole management of expected events or even as treating the organization's ability to detect the unexpected. Instead, our study of planning strategies shows that plans and planning play a key role in facing the unexpected and that the focus on the articulation work necessary for the plan set up and change contributes to our understanding of how plans might be designed so as to face uncertainty.
Supporting Team Coordination on the Ground: Requirements from a Mixed Reality Game BIBAFull-Text 49-67
  Joel E. Fischer; Wenchao Jiang; Andruid Kerne; Chris Greenhalgh; Sarvapali D. Ramchurn; Steven Reece; Nadia Pantidi; Tom Rodden
We generate requirements for time-critical distributed team support relevant for domains such as disaster response. We present the Radiation Response Game to investigate socio-technical issues regarding team coordination. Field responders in this mixed-reality game use smartphones to coordinate, via text messaging, GPS, and maps, with headquarters and each other. We conduct interaction analysis to examine field observations and log data, revealing how teams achieve local and remote coordination and maintain situational awareness. We uncover requirements that highlight the role of local coordination, decision-making resources, geospatial referencing and message handling.
Nothing Free About Free Market BIBAFull-Text 69-85
  Eli Larsen; Gunnar Ellingsen
This section sheds light on the effects of the different strategies that Norwegian authorities have adopted to enroll users and vendors in the task of establishing electronic prescriptions as a new national routine service. The case description highlights how stakeholders responded when the authorities needed integration between the new service and the information systems that physicians use in their daily work, namely the electronic patient record (EPR). The strategy that focused mainly on the vendors made it difficult to mobilize the users and the authorities staged themselves as the "real" customers of the project. An integration unit that the authorities developed was not embedded robustly with the existing infrastructure. The EPR is the most important information system that the health care institution uses and through the years this system has evolved to its improved current standard. In a country like Norway, with very few vendors, the EPR market is a very small and dedicated one. Any influence of this market from a powerful vendor, like the authorities, will affect the market in a significant way. The authorities that play a role in this market should not underestimate the negative effect that might result from a change in the EPRs' functionality, even if the intentions are solely positive for all stakeholders.
Relation Work in Collocated and Distributed Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 87-101
  Lars Rune Christensen; Rasmus Eskild Jensen; Pernille Bjørn
Creating social ties are important for collaborative work; however, in geographically distributed organizations e.g. global software development, making social ties requires extra work: Relation work. We find that characteristics of relation work as based upon shared history and experiences, emergent in personal and often humorous situations. Relation work is intertwined with other activities such as articulation work and it is rhythmic by following the work patterns of the participants. By comparing how relation work is conducted in collocated and geographically distributed settings we in this paper identify basic differences in relation work. Whereas collocated relation work is spontaneous, place-centric, and yet mobile, relation work in a distributed setting is semi-spontaneous, technology-mediated, and requires extra efforts.
Of Corals and Web Portals: Towards a Digital Representation of Risk for the Cold-Water Corals in the Oil and Gas Sector BIBAKFull-Text 103-119
  Elena Parmiggiani
Integrated Operations in the oil and gas industry depend on highly cooperative yet computer-mediated and distributed workflows across complex information infrastructures. In particular, offshore operations rely heavily on digital technologies to gain remote access to subsea oil or natural gas fields, and are at the same time subject to strict requirements by authorities to prevent pollution in the marine environment. Operators are consequently dependent on models and representations to assess and predict environmental risk. However, the heterogeneous disciplines operating a field cannot count on a shared perspective on environmental risk as their activities span across organizational and political boundaries. We present a case study from a Norwegian oil and gas company that is developing a set of tools and methodologies for providing heterogeneous users with awareness of the risk for the cold-water coral reefs off the coasts of Norway. In particular, we focus on the articulation work carried on to let representations and models compensate for the inevitable lack of shared awareness of environmental risk while at the same time fit the existing sociotechnical infrastructure. We discuss actors' strategies to foreground the infrastructure by: (1) bootstrapping the environmental data; (2) mediating with the existing corporate infrastructure; and (3) enacting the subsea context for operators.
Keywords: Environmental risk; Awareness; Articulation work; Information infrastructure; Integrated operations
A Case Study of an Information Infrastructure Supporting Knowledge Work in Oil and Gas Exploration BIBAFull-Text 121-136
  Marius Mikalsen
It is well rehearsed in the fields of CSCW and IS that the relationship between the social and the material is bi-directional and shaped locally. But what happens when knowledge work is stretched across space and time, and the practice of today relies on actions and reflections done elsewhere and at different times? This paper presents an on-going case study of oil and gas exploration that takes steps to shed light on this emerging issue. I argue the relevance of framing the process of generating interpretations in oil and gas exploration in terms of information infrastructures. The case is representative for other cases where practitioners' reflections cannot immediately be confirmed by empirical observation. Through a discussion on the concepts of coordination and accumulation across the dimensions of space and time, I outline how an able information infrastructure in this domain must balance the dualism of the concepts of naturalisation and historification.
Between Initial Familiarity and Future Use: A Case of Collocated Collaborative Writing BIBAKFull-Text 137-154
  Susanne Bødker; Anna Maria Polli
This paper reports on a design experiment in an art gallery, where we explored visitor practices of commenting on art, and how they were shaped in interaction with a newly designed collocated, collaborative writing technology. In particular we investigate what potentials previous practices carry with them that may affect early use and further development of use. We base our analyses on interviews in the art gallery and on socio-cultural theories of artefact-mediated learning and collaboration. The analyses help identify three forms of collaborative writing, which are placed in the space between future use possibilities and initial familiarity based on everyday practices. These forms met and at times collided in a space where the actual use was shaped. We furthermore look back on initial assumptions made in design regarding a productive collaborative writing style, and confront these with the three above forms of practice. The initial familiarity leads to two different early practices that get in the way of each other, and the collaborative writing idea. They point instead towards a discursive sharing of individual feelings, a different kind of past experiences than anticipated in design.
Keywords: Collocated collaborative installation; Early use; Developmental process of use; Initial familiarity; Future use
Suffering Beyond Negotiation: Towards a Biographic Perspective on Cooperative Design for Therapy BIBAFull-Text 155-171
  Olav W. Bertelsen
In this paper we argue that design in therapeutic domains (in a broad sense) depends on an understanding of the background for the engagement of the various users involved. It is specifically argued that an understanding of the life transforming process, or trajectory as opposed to design process and rational process of therapy has to be understood and that a possible cornerstone in such an understanding is a biographic concept inspired by Strauss' concepts of suffering. "Suffering" is discussed as a frame for enabling a subjective perspective to have a voice in design. That is to put a perspective center stage that is not based in the negotiation between rationalities. The paper draws examples from design based research projects over the last 5 years.
"Through the Glassy Box": Supporting Appropriation in User Communities BIBAFull-Text 173-187
  Federico Cabitza; Carla Simone
Communities present considerable challenges for the design and application of supportive information technology (IT), especially in loosely-integrated and informal contexts, as it is often the case of Communities of Practice (CoP). An approach that actively supports user communities in the process of IT appropriation can help alleviate the impossibility of their members to rely on continuous professional support, and even enable complex forms of cooperative tailoring of their artifacts. The paper discusses the property of the accountability of IT applications as one of the basic enabling conditions for the appropriation of the technologies by their end-users, and for its most mature and sustainable form, that is End-User Development (EUD). We illustrate a framework, called Logic of Bricolage (LOB), proposed to both end-users and interested designers to describe (and make accountable) their EUD environments and systems, and facilitate both local appropriation and the sharing of experiences of IT adoption in CoPs.
Bug Reproduction: A Collaborative Practice Within Software Maintenance Activities BIBAFull-Text 189-207
  Dhaval Vyas; Thomas Fritz; David Shepherd
Software development settings provide a great opportunity for CSCW researchers to study collaborative work. In this paper, we explore a specific work practice called bug reproduction that is a part of the software bug-fixing process. Bug reproduction is a highly collaborative process by which software developers attempt to locally replicate the 'environment' within which a bug was originally encountered. Customers, who encounter bugs in their everyday use of systems, play an important role in bug reproduction as they provide useful information to developers, in the form of steps for reproduction, software screenshots, trace logs, and other ways to describe a problem. Bug reproduction, however, poses major hurdles in software maintenance as it is often challenging to replicate the contextual aspects that are at play at the customers' end. To study the bug reproduction process from a human-centered perspective, we carried out an ethnographic study at a multinational engineering company. Using semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and half-a-day observation of sixteen software developers working on different software maintenance projects, we studied bug reproduction. In this paper, we present a holistic view of bug reproduction practices from a real-world setting and discuss implications for designing tools to address the challenges developers face during bug reproduction.
Collaborative Work and Its Relationship to Technologically-Mediated Nomadicity BIBAFull-Text 209-224
  Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho
This paper explores the relationship between technologically-mediated nomadicity (Tm-N) and issues of computer supported collaborative work. It presents findings from a four-year research project, which set out to investigate issues of Tm-N in academic settings. The findings herein presented support the argument that Tm-N can be seen as a dynamic and emergent process, which unfolds through the enactment of an ecology of practices and permeates both the work and non-work dimension of the lives of those whose jobs allow or demand some flexibility as to when and where work assignments should be carried out. The main contributions of the paper are: (i) a holistic and in-depth frame to understanding technologically-mediated nomadicity, which provides a more fine-grained and nuanced account of assorted aspects of the notion, and (ii) an analysis on how collaborative activities and computer-mediated remote interactions are related to the spectrum of motivational forces that people draw on to engage in nomadicity.
Orality, Gender and Social Audio in Rural Africa BIBAFull-Text 225-241
  Nicola J. Bidwell; Thomas Reitmaier; Kululwa Jampo
We claim that digital platforms designed for people in low-income, low-literacy rural communities to share locally relevant, voice-based content did not widen dissemination because they were incompatible with the nuances of cooperation. We base this on a long-term study of interactions with prototypes to record, store and share voice files via a portable, communally owned display in South Africa. We discuss how men and women used, appropriated and interacted with the prototypes, and how the prototypes and use contexts supported different genres of orality and nonverbal elements of co-present interactions. Rhythm and mimicry of nonverbal elements participated in cooperation and, we argue, that engaging with such qualities enriches creativity in designing media sharing systems.
Observing the Work Practices of an Inter-professional Home Care Team: Supporting a Dynamic Approach for Quality Home Care Delivery BIBAKFull-Text 243-258
  Khuloud Abou Amsha; Myriam Lewkowicz
We are reporting an observational study conducted as part of a French research project focusing on "domomedecine". The study explores collaborative activities in work practices of inter-professional teams aiming to deliver quality home care. The findings show the use of a variety of dynamic coordination mechanisms depending on patients' conditions. We suggest that future system design process considers the flexibility and the dynamicity of team-based care to support quality home care.
Keywords: Home care; Team collaboration; Teamwork; Observational study
Ethnography in Parallel BIBAKFull-Text 259-275
  Rinku Gajera; Jacki O'Neill
Ethnography has been introduced into technology design lifecycles to help sensitise new technologies to the work practices of their intended users. This paper reports on how ethnography was used in parallel to technology prototyping in the design of a workflow system to improve accuracy and efficiency in banking in India. Unlike previously largely positive reports of how ethnography helps to shape design, the case study presented here highlights the difficulty of conducting ethnography in parallel to prototype development. The tight contingencies of the prototyping cycle meant that only some of the ethnographic findings were incorporated into the design--those that fitted easily with the envisaged prototype. However, the findings from the ethnography suggested more fundamental changes were required. In this case, there was no way to incorporate such changes. We discuss the impact of this on the solution and lessons drawn for future interventions.
Keywords: Ethnography; Concurrent ethnography; Design; Prototyping; Banking; Workflow technology; Ethnomethodology; India
Lessons Learnt Working with Performance Data in Call Centres BIBAKFull-Text 277-292
  Tommaso Colombino; Benjamin Hanrahan; Stefania Castellani
This paper details the treatment of performance data in outsourced call centre operations, as encountered by a team of researchers throughout the course of a project. This project aimed at improving support for performance and motivation management in an outsourced customer care contact centre for a large telecommunications company. In particular, we focus on how the practices of capturing, aggregating, and presenting data reflect the operation's overall concern with "reporting upstream" and accountability. As well as, how the technological and organizational infrastructure of the call centre is shaped accordingly. We then discuss some emergent consequences of this organization of data management, which in particular take the form of some tensions between the emergent needs for data at certain levels of granularity and aggregation within the actual operations of the call centre, and its relative accuracy and availability.
Keywords: Ethnography; Ethnomethodology; Call centre work; Performance data management
User and Group Behavior in Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection in Practice: An Explorative Data Analysis BIBAFull-Text 293-309
  Michael Prilla
Although reflection in groups has been shown to be beneficial for many workplaces, there are little insights on how such collaborative reflection can be supported and how users apply the support in practice. This paper aims to diminish this lack by analyzing usage figures and qualitative information from four cases of using a tool supporting collaborative reflection. From the analysis, it derives means to describe individual user and group behavior as well as implications for the design and application of support for collaborative reflection in practice.
From Crowdsourced Mapping to Community Mapping: The Post-earthquake Work of OpenStreetMap Haiti BIBAFull-Text 311-326
  Robert Soden; Leysia Palen
The earthquake that struck Haiti on January 12, 2010 catalyzed a nascent set of efforts in then-emergent "volunteer technology communities." Among these was the response from OpenStreetMap, a volunteer-driven project that makes geospatial data free and openly available. Following the earthquake, remotely located volunteers rapidly mapped the affected areas to support the aid effort in a remarkable display of crowdsourced work. However, some within that effort believed that the impact and import of open and collaborative mapping techniques could provide much richer value to humanitarian aid work and the long-term development needs of the country. They launched an ambitious project that trialed methods for how to create sustainable and locally-owned community-mapping ecosystems in at-risk regions of the world. This paper describes how an organization that emerged out of the response--the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team--formalized their practices in relation to many different stakeholder needs with the aim for setting a model for how the potential of participatory, community mapping could be realized in Haiti and beyond.
Memory Support Functionality in a Collaborative Space: Experiences from the Industry BIBAFull-Text 327-343
  Mari Ilona Tyllinen; Mika P. Nieminen
This chapter describes the results from industry pilots on a prototype of an interactive collaboration space DiWa, focusing on its memory support functionality i.e. meeting capture and retrieval. The data has been gathered with questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Our findings point out that even though these functionalities are mostly seen as useful by the participants their use was still very limited during the pilot period. This is in large part due to the novel and differing nature of these functionalities compared to prevalent practices of documenting meetings which are still very strong.
Designing Cooperation for Sustainable Mobility: Mobile Methods in Ridesharing Contexts BIBAFull-Text 345-359
  Johanna Meurer; Martin Stein; Volker Wulf
Motivated by rising global energy demands and a growing awareness of the scarcity of natural resources sustainable mobility concepts are more in demand than ever before. One solution is offered by ridesharing concepts, realized with ICT-supported mobile interaction systems. However, current systems mainly address issues of comfort and efficiency and thus refer to mobility widely in functional terms of transport. We argue in this paper for a praxis-based exploration that refers to personal ridesharing experiences embedded in people's daily mobility and life world. We will show that a phenomenological inquiry provides added value in understanding practical challenges in a ridesharing context, and we will identify methods used to address practical challenges that can provide new starting points for design.
Designing for Continuity: Assisting Emergency Planning Practice Through Computer-Supported Collaborative Technologies BIBAFull-Text 361-376
  Sara Tena; David Díez; Ignacio Aedo; Paloma Díaz
Emergency planning is an on-going process in which a group of experts collaborate for ensuring that a community has the necessary resources and procedures for facing an emergency situation. It is a sustaining pattern of analysis and decision, based on the unstable collaboration over time of heterogeneous groups of planners. With the purpose of understanding the challenges of supporting technologically a long-term collaborative activity such as the emergency planning, a two-year descriptive case study in a real work setting has been carried out. The analysis of its results has shown the necessity of providing a sense of continuity both in the reasoning of planners and the history of the practice. The final aim of the work is to identify a set of claims that addresses the design of such computer-based technologies that effectively assist emergency planning.
Combining Collaborative Modeling with Collaborative Creativity for Process Design BIBAFull-Text 377-392
  Thomas Herrmann; Alexander Nolte
This paper presents a solution of how systematic design within facilitated walkthrough workshops is combined with phases of non-linear ideation for the purpose of collaborative process modeling. In the context of socio-technically supported co-located meetings, three design cycles were run which led to an evolutionary improvement. The result is a set of features as part of a socio-technical solution allowing to seamlessly intertwine creative phases with walkthrough-oriented inspection and improvement of models. The set of features includes the possibility of simultaneous brainstorming on several topics, variation of prompts per brainstorming topic etc. Additional features are described to support the facilitator.
The Relevance of Annotations Shared by Tourists and Residents on a Geo-Social Network During a Large-Scale Touristic Event: The Case of São João BIBAKFull-Text 393-408
  Aline Morais; Nazareno Andrade
A common type of information in Geo-Social Networks (GSNs) is geolocated annotations with short personal comments about urban sites. Such annotations are deemed useful as tips and recommendations, and can help guide GSN users coming to these sites. During touristic events, GSNs typically acquire a large amount of annotations provided by a high number of tourists in collaboration with the city's residents. It is not clear, however, whether information shared by tourists and residents are equally relevant. Moreover, this relevance can be different both during and after the event, when the annotations are left as a legacy to residents. This work presents a case study about the relevance of GSN annotations shared by tourists and residents during a large-scale touristic event. The event in the case study is the São João, an event which yearly attracts 2 million people to the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. The analysis of content and quantitative measures of relevance shows that in this case study: (a) the relevance of GSN annotations varies significantly for annotations created by tourists and residents during the touristic event, as well as with primary audience of the venue where tip is shared and (b) the residents' annotations are found more relevant than those shared by tourists both during the touristic event and after the event is over. These results suggest that addressing differently tips created by residents in such events may increase the ability of the attendees of the event to find relevant information.
Keywords: Large-scale event; Touristic event; Geo-social network; Relevance
When Medical Expertise Meets Record Expertise: The Practices of Patient Accessible Medical Records in China BIBAFull-Text 409-426
  Yunan Chen; Kathleen Pine
Recent consumer, private sector, and governmental health informatics initiatives outline patient accessible medical records (PAMR) as key for engaging patients and supporting patient-clinician communication. However, many challenges have been encountered in designing usable digital systems for patients to access and use their medical records. Barriers to such systems include social, cultural, and policy constraints in addition to usability problems. In particular, questions of expertise, responsibility, and ownership surrounding medical records are often hotly contested between medical professionals and healthcare organizations. In broaching the design challenge of PAMR, much can be learned from examining existing practices for patient carried and accessible records in contexts where these practices are well established. We examine practices surrounding PAMR in a setting where medical records have long been managed by patients: the Chinese healthcare system. Through close examination of managing medical records and sharing medical health information, we find that these personal record practices in China enable a two-way medical records sharing practice between patients and their providers, which fundamentally reconfigures the patient role in healthcare process, facilitates development of 'record expertise' on the part of patients, and joint responsibility for health management. We use these findings to illuminate the potential benefits of PAMR, and to offer design considerations to optimize future systems design and deployment efforts in other contexts.
The Concept of 'Practice': What's the Point? BIBAFull-Text 427-444
  Kjeld Schmidt
The purpose of the present article is to argue that the point of using the concept of 'practice' in the context of CSCW and related research areas is to overcome the categorial separation of 'thinking' and 'acting' that is part and parcel of the received discourse about 'work' and thus to be able to focus sharply on and express the unity of the activities of work. The article shows that received concept of 'practice' has been developed in the course of centuries precisely as a way to focus on normatively regulated contingent activities.