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COOP Tables of Contents: 020408101214

Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems
Editors:Myriam Lewkowicz; Parina Hassanaly; Markus Rohde; Volker Wulf
Location:Aix-en-Provence, France
Dates:2010-May-18 to 2010-May-21
Standard No:ISBN: SBN 978-1-84996-210-0; hcibib: COOP10
Links:Online Proceedings
Trends in Scholarly Collaboration BIBAPDF 1-2
  Gary M. Olson
Researchers in science and engineering have a long tradition of collaboration, and increasingly carry out these collaborations across geographical distance. Similar trends exist in industry, where virtual teams are increasing in frequency. While we know that such dispersed collaborations are difficult, there is growing evidence of success. The physical and biological sciences have led the way, though more recently social and behavioral scientists have also adopted these new modes of working. Most recently of all, there is growing evidence of collaborative scholarship in the humanities, including some of it carried out under conditions of geographical dispersion. I will review these trends, and in particular comment on whether the factors that distinguish success from failure in such collaborations are the same across these diverse domains.
Distributed Design and Distributed Social Awareness: Exploring Inter-subjective Dimensions of Roles BIBAPDF 3-24
  Flore Barcellini; Françoise Détienne; Jean-Marie Burkhardt
This research deals with the investigation of inter-subjective dimensions of roles and participation in distributed design processes (DDP), as linked to group or social awareness. It is focused on an open-source software community -- the Python programming language community -- as a model of DDP. On the basis of semi-structured interviews, we show that participants agree upon a typology of roles based on evident activities and experiences of participants, and that this knowledge guides their strategic use of archives for maintaining situation awareness. Contextualized interviews on a specific design process helps in understanding how this typology of roles is instantiated in a design situation and how social awareness is distributed among participants.
Faithful to the Earth: Reporting Experiences of Artifact-Centered Design in Healthcare BIBAPDF 25-44
  Federico Cabitza
In this paper we report about two design experiences in the domain of healthcare information technology that shed light on the advantages of getting rid of complex and abstract representations of hospital work and of concentrating on the artifacts that practitioners habitually use in their daily practice. We ground our approach in the recent literature on the often unintended shortcomings exhibited by healthcare information systems and propose a lightweight method to support the phases of requirement elicitation and functional design. We then discuss the main requirements expressed in our recent research activity and provide examples of how to address them in terms of modular and artifact-centered design solutions.
A Reformulation of the Semantic Gap Problem in Content-Based Image Retrieval Scenarios BIBAPDF 45-56
  Tommaso Colombino; Dave Martin; Antonietta Grasso; Luca Marchesotti
This paper considers the notion of the "semantic gap" problem -- i.e. how to enable a machine to recognize the semantic properties of an image -- as it is commonly formulated in the domain of content-based image retrieval. Drawing on ethnographic studies of design professionals who routinely engage in image search tasks we seek to demonstrate the means by which aesthetic and affective concepts become associated with images and elements of images within a cooperative design process of selection, discussion and refinement and how these often do not correspond to the unused semantic tags provided in image libraries. We discuss how we believe the problem of the semantic gap is misconstrued and discuss some of the technology implications of this.
Design of a Collaborative Disaster Response Process Management System BIBAPDF 57-78
  Jörn Franke; François Charoy
We describe in this article a framework for disaster response process management. This framework can be used to develop information systems supporting those processes. It is grounded in several research approaches: literature research, case studies, end user interviews and workshops. We compare disaster response process management with business process management and argue why it is substantial different to it. Another main result of this comparison is that business process management technology, such as flexible workflow systems, are not suitable for disaster response processes. We propose an information system supporting disaster response processes based on our developed framework. Finally we present validation of the information system design and give outlook on our future research.
Supporting Collaborative Workflows of Digital Multimedia Annotation BIBAPDF 79-100
  Cristian Hofmann; Dieter W. Fellner
Collaborative annotation techniques for digital multimedia contents have found their way into a vast amount of areas of daily use as well as professional fields. Attendant research has issued a large number of research projects that can be assigned to different specific subareas of annotation. These projects focus on one or only few aspects of digital annotation. However, the whole annotation process as a operative unit has not sufficiently been taken into consideration, especially for the case of collaborative settings. In order to attend to that lack of research, we present a framework that supports multiple collaborative workflows related to digital multimedia annotation. In that context, we introduce an process-based architecture model, a formalized specification of collaborative annotation processes, and a concept for personalized workflow visualization and user assistance.
Change Awareness for Collaborative Video Annotation BIBAPDF 101-118
  Cristian Hofmann; Uwe Boettcher; Dieter W. Fellner
Collaborative Video Annotation is a broad field of research and is widely used in productive environments. While it is easy to follow changes in small systems with few users, keeping in touch with all changes in large environments can easily get overwhelming. The easiest way and a first approach to prevent the users from getting lost is to show them all changes in an appropriate way. This list of changes can also become very large when many contributors add new information to shared data resources. To prevent users from getting lost while having a list of changes, this paper introduces a way to subscribe to parts of the system and only to have the relevant changes shown. To achieve this goal, the framework provides an approach to check the relevance of changes, which is not trivial in three dimensional spaces, and to be accumulated for later reference by the subscribing user. The benefit for users is to need fewer time to be up-to-date and to have more time for applying own changes.
Rethinking Laboratory Notebooks BIBAPDF 119-140
  Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose; Pär Ola Zander
We take digitalization of laboratory work practice as a challenging design domain to explore. There are obvious drawbacks with the use of paper instead of ICT in the collaborative writing that takes place in laboratory notebooks; yet paper persist in being the most common solution. The ultimate aim with our study is to produce design relevant knowledge that can envisage an ICT solution that keeps as many advantages of paper as possible, but with the strength of electronic laboratory notebooks as well. Rather than assuming that users are technophobic and unable to appropriate state of the art software, we explore whether there are something inherent in current ICT infrastructure that invites resistance from the users. The method used is interviews, combined with a modified version of future workshops and the data are analyzed with activity theory. Our results concern issues of configurability, mobility, and the barrier between documentation and control, amongst other things.
Supporting Reflection in Software Development with Everyday Working Tools BIBAPDF 141-162
  Birgit Krogstie; Monica Divitini
Through their day-to-day usage collaboration tools collect data on the work process. These data can be used to aid participants' retrospective reflection on the process. The paper shows how this can be done in software development project work. Through a case study we demonstrate how retrospective reflection was conducted by use of an industry approach to project retrospectives combined with the examination of historical data in Trac, an issue tracker. The data helped the team reconstruct the project trajectory by aiding the recall of significant events, leading to a shift in the team's perspective on the project. The success of the tool-aided retrospective reflection is attributed to its organization as well as the type of historical data examined through the tool and the tool features for navigating the data. These insights can be used to help project teams determine the potential of their tools to aid retrospective reflection.
Collocated Social Practices Surrounding Photo Usage in Archaeology BIBAPDF 163-182
  Marco P. Locatelli; Carla Simone; Viviana Ardesia
A domain where photographs are a necessary part is archaeology: here they are used in different phases of the archaeological work for many purposes, some of which are common to other domains or to home usage (e.g., archiving). We concentrate our attention one of the initial phases of the archaeological process, namely excavation, since the related activities use photographs in a very peculiar way and under the constraints of a very demanding physical setting. Moreover, in this phase the advent of digitalized photographs is recent and their adoption is still interestingly combined with the usage of photographs printed on paper.
   Paper presents the results of a study performed at an archaeological site in the south of Italy: we report the observed collocated collaborative practices surrounding photos and discuss these practices to identify some functionality of a supportive technology.
Direct Deliberative Governance and the Web: The Collaborative Work of Democratic Decision-Making Mediated by an Online Social Environment BIBAPDF 183-202
  Rean van der Merwe; Anthony Meehan
Direct deliberative democracy presents a conceptually attractive model of civic governance -- particularly relevant at local scale. We outline the 'work' of direct deliberative democracy by considering its underlying principles and objectives, and discuss four fundamental challenges that are commonly proposed: the difficulty of coordinating direct participation, the expertise required of participants, the often underestimated dynamics of power in direct action, and that deliberation is not necessarily the sole, ideal mode of participation. At hand of a case study of an online "community of interest", the paper investigates the potential role of social media to facilitate this work, and to mitigate the challenges cited.
How Creative Groups Structure Tasks Through Negotiating Resources BIBAPDF 203-222
  Christopher Paul Middup; Tim Coughlan; Peter Johnson
Creative collaborations are a complex, yet common phenomenon. In this paper we introduce a model that describes the development of a creative outcome by a group, based on its efforts to structure the task through the exploration and adoption of concepts and artefacts. We use our model as a basis to analyse a collaborative filmmaking study. Through this, we show how the model is an effective tool for describing the actions of the group as its members work towards producing an outcome. We conclude that the model could be utilised as a tool for recognising patterns in creative collaborations, for understanding support needs, and for comparing instances of these tasks.
The Role of Social Capital and Cooperation Infrastructures Within Microfinance BIBAPDF 223-244
  Simon Plogmann; Muhammad Adeel; Bernhard Nett; Volker Wulf
Microfinance has become a most important instrument for rural development. In regard of its technology, there are two main positions: a static analysis points out that ICT does not play a central role in many of today's microfinance activities and, therefore, will not do so in future, whereas technological determinism assumes the technological path of microfinance to follow the one of established banking in the North. In this paper, in which the well-known Bangladesh Grameen Bank is analyzed as an example, we want to show that both assumptions are wrong. Instead CSCW foci may play a productive role in developing appropriate technology for microfinance.
Computer Enabled Social Movements? Usage of a Collaborative Web Platform within the European Social Forum BIBAPDF 245-264
  Saqib Saeed; Markus Rohde
Networks of social activists traditionally lack financial and human resources, resulting in low interest in employing sophisticated IT. There are not many studies describing the development and use of computer systems for networks of social activists. Especially with regard to web 2.0 applications, it is interesting to analyze how social activists appropriate social web platforms. In this paper we describe the usage of a collaborative platform called "OpenESF" by social activists taking part in the European Social Forum. The results of this study will provide us with an understanding of the needs of social activists for effective computer support and highlight directions for the redesign of OpenESF.
'Keep Up the Good Work!': The Concept of 'Work' in CSCW BIBAPDF 265-286
  Kjeld Schmidt
The scope of CSCW has been a topic of sporadic debate for many years, but in a programmatic article from 2005, three esteemed CSCW researchers -- Andy Crabtree, Tom Rodden, and Steve Benford -- now forcefully argue that CSCW should 'move its focus away from work'. It is thus time to reconsider CSCW, to rethink what it is and why it might be important. This paper focuses on CSCW's scope: the rationale for its focus on ordinary work. It offers an analysis of the concept of 'work' (based on Ryle, Urmson, and Schutz), a critique of prevailing illusions about the realities of work in the contemporary world, and an attempt position CSCW in the context of technological development more broadly.
Appropriation of the Eclipse Ecosystem: Local Integration of Global Network Production BIBAPDF 287-308
  Gunnar Stevens; Sebastian Draxler
Eclipse and Mozilla Firefox represent a new type of open software that can be supplemented by manifold extensions, being implemented by independent software vendors and open source projects. Research on such software ecosystems shows that collaboration patterns in the software industry evolve from value chains to value nets. An often ignored side-effect of this development is a vast extent of integration work that needs to be done by users. Taking a user point of view, this paper presents an empirical study on the practices of appropriating the Eclipse ecosystem as an example of radical tailorability, based on new opportunities given by the surrounding ecosystem. We show the practices users have developed to manage the antagonism of maintaining a stable and productive working environment, while simultaneously innovating it. Based on these results, we outline different opportunities to improve flexible software by supporting cooperation among the diverse actors involved, in a network of production and consumption.
Practices Analysis and Digital Platform Design: An Interdisciplinary Study of Social Support BIBAPDF 309-330
  Matthieu Tixier; Myriam Lewkowicz; Michel Marcoccia; Hassan Atifi; Aurélien Bénel; Gérald Gaglio; Nadia Gauducheau
People are turning increasingly to the Internet to find support and share their experience and feelings when they are undergoing hardships such as medical problems. The aim of our ongoing research project is to design innovative online social support services. In order to pave the way for this complex undertaking, several interdisciplinary studies were conducted in this framework: discourse analysis was carried out on online discussions focusing on social support, observers attended support group meetings attended by family caregivers, and interviews were conducted with these caregivers. The application of our findings to our design project is discussed.
Creative Collective Efficacy in Scientific Communities BIBAPDF 331-352
  Jing Wang; Umer Farooq; John M. Carroll
Studying collective creativity is critical for understanding how groups, organizations, and communities innovate and progress over time. However, analyzing creativity at the collective level remains an open and challenging issue. We adapt Bandura's construct of collective efficacy to understand beliefs about collective capacities for creativity among individual members part of scientific groups, organizations, and communities. We describe our preliminary studies on the development and refinement of a collective efficacy scale for creativity, the factor analyses of the scale items, and the validation of the scale in path models. Our collective efficacy scale for creativity can be adapted for use by researchers interested in investigating the creative capacity of other communities of practice.