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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)

Fullname:CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)
Note:Making the Impossible Possible
Editors:Clare-Marie Karat; Arnold Lund
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:1998-Apr-18 to 1998-Apr-23
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-028-7 ACM Order Number 608985; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI98-2
Pages:396
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2
    1. Late Breaking Results: Support for Design: Experiments and Cybertools
    2. Late Breaking Results: See How You Feel: New Input Techniques and Modalities
    3. Late Breaking Results: The Raw and the Cooked: Experiments and Applications of Speech Interaction
    4. Late Breaking Results: Ubiquitous Usability Engineering
    5. Late Breaking Results: Suite: The Real and the Virtual: Integrating Architectural and Information Spaces
    6. Late Breaking Results: So Far Yet So Close: Intimacy and Awareness in CSCW
    7. Late Breaking Results: Great E-Scapes: Electronic Landscapes and Soundscapes
    8. Late Breaking Results: Look and Learn: Visualization and Education Too
    9. Late Breaking Results: Humble and Terrific -- CHI-Lot's Web
    10. Late Breaking Results: 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139

CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2

Late Breaking Results: Support for Design: Experiments and Cybertools

Humor in Task-Oriented Computer-Mediated Communication and Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 215-216
  John Morkes; Hadyn K. Kernal; Clifford Nass
Two experiments examined the effects of humor in task-oriented computer-mediated communication (CMC) and human-computer interaction (HCI). Compared to control-group participants, participants who had received jokes: rated the "person" or computer they worked with as more likable and competent; reported greater cooperation; joked back more often; responded in a more sociable (i.e., polite and friendly) manner; and smiled and laughed more. Compared to CMC participants, however, HCI participants were less sociable and smiled and laughed less. Theoretical and design implications are discussed.
Keywords: HCI, CMC, Human-computer interaction, Computer-mediated communication, Humor, Interaction design, Social responses to communication technologies
Evaluating the Use of Pictographical Representations for TV Menus BIBAKPDF 217-218
  J. H. D. M. Westerink; M. van der Korst; G. Roberts
We address the use of pictographic representations in an entertainment-type, domestic situation of use. In a small-scale experiment 20 subjects worked with two versions of a TV-guide simulation: one mainly pictographically-based, one mainly text-based. They were asked for their impressions as well as requested to fulfil a series of tasks covering the entire functionality of the TV-guide. Conclusions underline the necessity of some form of personalization in the user interface, and the importance of efficiency and effectiveness despite the enhanced attractiveness through enhanced graphics.
Keywords: Entertainment, Graphics, User interface, Pictures, Visual indices, User evaluations
To Click or Not To Click: A Comparison of Two Target-Selection Methods for HCI BIBAKPDF 219-220
  Michael Bohan; Alex Chaparro
This paper reports a preliminary investigation of different methods for target selection on a computer screen using a mouse. Specifically, an experiment compared the standard point-and-click method to a mouse-over method, whereby the target was automatically selected after the cursor and target were superpositioned for 200 ms. Results indicated that the mouse-over method resulted in a significant reduction in target-acquisition time across a range of target widths. The implication of these findings to task optimization are then considered.
Keywords: Computer mouse, Target selection, Mouse-over
PatchWork: A Software Tool for Early Design BIBAKPDF 221-222
  Maarten van de Kant; Stephanie Wilson; Mathilde Bekker; Hilary Johnson; Peter Johnson
In this paper we describe the design and motivation for a novel prototyping tool to support the exploration of early design ideas. This software tool, PatchWork, allows the designer to rapidly create rough looking, runnable prototypes using simple building blocks which we call patches. Patches are arbitrary-shaped digital images, typically of low-tech design materials or domain objects. Prototypes are constructed through the specification of storyboards.
Keywords: Prototyping, Design representations, Interface construction tools, User involvement, Early design exploration
Linking Between Multiple Points in Design Documents BIBAKPDF 223-224
  Steven Clarke; Gilbert Cockton
Several software engineering (SE) tools provide hypertext style navigation and cross referencing between design and implementation descriptions. Such tools may increase developers' understanding of a design by making explicit the dependencies between its components. Currently however, no such tool support exists which covers contextual information. In this paper we report on an investigation into the benefits that explicit relationships between descriptions of context and descriptions of designs may bring. We built a prototype development system and used it to uncover some of the issues involved in creating and maintaining a set of explicit relationships. One of the issues to emerge concerned the ability to link between several aspects of context and/or design in a single link. Our experiences with multi-point links in our LD tool are briefly summarised.
Keywords: Context, Hypertext, Case tools
A Study of Commenting Agents as Design Support BIBAKPDF 225-226
  Mikael Ericsson; Magnus Bauren; Jonas Lowgren; Yvonne Wærn
Sixteen subjects were observed using a simulated (Wizard-of-Oz) commenting agent in a design support system. Different commenting behavior was tested, and the overall usefulness evaluated. The interaction was logged and recorded on video, and the subjects rated the agent with respect to usefulness, understandability, system competence, disturbance and perceived stress. Perceived mental workload was measured using RTLX. The results show that a commenting tool is seen as disturbing but useful, that the comments from an active tool risk being overlooked, and that comments pointing out ways of overcoming identified design problems are the easiest to understand.
Keywords: Design support, Commenting system, Wizard-of-Oz

Late Breaking Results: See How You Feel: New Input Techniques and Modalities

Frustrating the User On Purpose: Using Biosignals in a Pilot Study to Detect the User's Emotional State BIBAKPDF 227-228
  Jocelyn Riseberg; Jonathan Klein; Raul Fernandez; Rosalind W. Picard
Our goal was to develop a computer system trained to sense a user's emotional state via the recognition of physiological signals. In the course of developing an exploratory pilot study toward this end, we encountered and addressed unique and context-dependent interface design and synchronization challenges. We used social science methods to induce a state of frustration in users, collected the physiological data, and developed an effective strategy for coupling these data with real-world events.
Keywords: Affect, Affective computing, User interface, Human-computer interaction, Biosensing, Emotion physiology
Touchpad-Based Remote Control Devices BIBAKPDF 229-230
  Neil R. N. Enns; I. Scott MacKenzie
A new style of remote control device (RCD) that incorporates a touchpad for input is described. Unistrokes created through touch are used to issue commands and select menu items presented on a television screen. The design addresses the drawbacks of traditional RCDs, such as an over-abundance of buttons and the lack of alphanumeric input. We have assembled a prototype using a Windows95-based computer, an infrared card, and a touchpad. Future developments and research plans for the touchpad-based RCD are also discussed.
Keywords: Remote control devices, Touchpads, Television, Unistroke recognition, Input devices, Convergent technologies
Tracking Hands Above Large Interactive Surfaces with a Low-Cost Scanning Laser Rangefinder BIBAKPDF 231-232
  Joshua Strickon; Joseph Paradiso
We have developed an inexpensive scanning laser rangefinder to measure the real-time position of bare hands in a 2-D plane up to distances of several meters. We have used this device to build a precise, multipoint "touchscreen" interface for large video projection systems. In this paper, we describe the concepts and hardware, plus outline an application for an interactive multimedia environment.
Keywords: Laser rangefinder, Hand tracker, Touchscreen, Music interface
Comparing Single- and Two-Handed 3D Input for a 3D Object Assembly Task BIBAKPDF 233-234
  Maarten W. Gribnau; James M. Hennessey
In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of an interface for 3D object assembly that can be operated with either one or two hands. The justification for applying two-handed input is evaluated by studying the results of an experiment in which the performance of single- and two-handed operation are compared. Performance is established using the time needed to complete a 3D object assembly task. Experimental data show that the two-handed interface takes more time to learn but eventually leads to faster completion times within a one hour period. It is therefore concluded that the choice for two-handed input is appropriate.
Keywords: 3-D interfaces, Input devices, Two-handed input
Real Handles, Virtual Images BIBAKPDF 235-236
  Colin Ware; Jeff Rose
There is a large difference between the times reported for rotating virtual objects and the time it takes to rotate real objects. This is a preliminary report of three experiments designed to establish the reasons for this different and to help design interfaces for object positioning.
Keywords: Input devices, Virtual reality, Two handed input
A Kinetic and 3D Image Input Device BIBAKPDF 237-238
  Shunichi Numazaki; Akira Morishita; Naoko Umeki; Minoru Ishikawa; Miwako Doi
Gesture recognition in real time can bridge a gap between humans and computers. Object segmentation from the background is a critical problem in the conventional gesture recognition technology. We have developed a new input device which can detect a kinetic and 3D image of a hand in real time. We call it "Motion Processor".
   The Motion Processor with infrared light sources and an area sensor can detect the refleeted light image of a hand at 30 frames per second. The image resolution is 64 pixels by 64 pixels. It is easy to recognize gestures and motions in real time based on the detected hand images. This gesture recognition bridges a gap between humans and computers.
Keywords: Input device, Gesture, Motion, 3D-shape, Image input device

Late Breaking Results: The Raw and the Cooked: Experiments and Applications of Speech Interaction

The Sound of Your Stuff: Designing a Complex Auditory Display for an Interactive Museum Exhibit BIBAKPDF 239-240
  Maribeth Back; Jonathan Cohen
We describe the design and implementation of a complex sonic environment for Portable Effects, a museum exhibit consisting of several interactive stations. The installation employs different types of auditory display in combination, as navigational aids or as auditory representations of actions and processes. Three aspects of the work are discussed: determining appropriate types of sounds and their mappings to particular actions and processes; adjusting sonic content, placement, and balance for maximum effect; and most importantly, integrating the individual stations into a cohesive aural experience.
Keywords: Audio, Auditory icons, Auditory display, Audible interface, Sound design, Exhibit, Museum, Interactive audio, Interactive exhibit, Exploratorium
Synchronization of Speech and Hand Gestures during Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 241-242
  Marie-Luce Bourguet; Akio Ando
In this paper, we describe an experiment that studies temporal synchronization between speech (Japanese) and hand pointing gestures. Gesture (G) is shown to be synchronized with either the nominal or deictic ("this", "that", "here", etc.) expression of a phrase. It is also shown that G is predictable in the [-200 ms, 400 ms] interval around the beginning of its related expression. The use of such a quantitative model of natural speech and gesture integration (in the multimodal interface and the speech recognition system), is also discussed.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Speech recognition, Hand gestures, Synchrony, Predictive model
"Just Speak Naturally": Designing for Naturalness in Automated Spoken Dialogues BIBAKPDF 243-244
  David Williams; Christine Cheepen
This paper describes an experiment carried out in the domain of telephone banking, and investigates the notion of naturalness in human-machine spoken dialogues. The experiment showed that 'denatured' prompts which were stripped of human-like constructs were preferable to callers, and achieved transaction times similar to those resulting from a typical telebanking dialogue.
Keywords: Spoken dialogues, Naturalness, Usability
Speech Recognition, Children, and Reading BIBAKPDF 245-246
  Don Nix; Peter Fairweather; Bill Adams
In this paper we describe a speech recognition system for teaching reading skills to young children, and various research issues and activities necessary to make the system work. A full-scale application is described, which embodies the research. The application interacts with a child to help him or her read, and provides opportunities for the child to show off what he or she has read, and to annotate the reading with audio and video comments. Special focus is given to creating an acoustic model specifically for children, and to designing an interface to deal with complexities of a speech recognition application.
Keywords: Speech recognition, Reading instruction, Children, Education
Play It Again: A Study of the Factors Underlying Speech Browsing Behavior BIBAKPDF 247-248
  Steve Whittaker; Julia Hirschberg; Christine H. Nakatani
Several recent UIs support access to recorded speech archives, but these have not yet been systematically evaluated. We describe a laboratory study of speech archive browsing using a GUI. We evaluate the effects of four factors: task type, familiarity, structure, and play operation duration. We found that while users learnt the overall layout of topics in the archive, they experienced major problems in learning the internal structure of archival topics. Contrary to our expectations, we also discovered that structural information and fixed duration play operations were less useful for browsing than anticipated. We discuss the impact of our results for speech archive UI design, and describe a new UI which supports navigation within topic.
Keywords: Speech archives, Browsing, Search, Retrieval
All Talk and All Action: Strategies for Managing Voicemail Messages BIBAKPDF 249-250
  Steve Whittaker; Julia Hirschberg; Christine H. Nakatani
Voicemail is a pervasive technology, but we know little about how users manage voice messages in executing everyday work. We analyze server logs, user surveys and interviews to identify three problems users experience in managing their voicemail: scanning, information extraction and search. We also isolate three distinct voicemail processing strategies, and discuss the relative merits of each strategy. We make recommendations about how voicemail might be redesigned to better address these problems and support these strategies.
Keywords: Voicemail, Speech archives, Workplace communication

Late Breaking Results: Ubiquitous Usability Engineering

Focus Troupe: Using Drama to Create Common Context for New Product Concept End-User Evaluations BIBAPDF 251-252
  Tony Salvador; Karen Howells
We offer a new technique for eliciting contextually relevant, personally experiential user feedback for products that do not yet exist. Too often customers and users are required to provide input on radically new product concepts with which, by definition, they have no direct experience. While traditional marketing techniques, e.g., focus groups and surveys, appear adequate for evaluating existing products with which customers have direct experience, these existing techniques offer only limited satisfaction for evaluating new product concepts where there is no customer experience. Based on our experiences, we note that one primary reason for this limited utility is the variable use-contexts prevalent among the individual customers due to a product presentation format that cannot offer a common context, e.g., a foil set. Focus Troupe is a technique whereby dramatic vignettes are presented to an audience of potential customers in which the new product concept is featured merely as a prop or even as a dramatic element, but not as an existing piece of technology. The vignette casts familiar or common situations where the particulars differ based on the new invention, thereby contextually highlighting the new concept against a familiar and common background. In our experience, the actual production of a Focus Troupe event is efficient and speedier than that of a more traditional focus group. The engaging presentation, the common background and no need for actual product concepts offers a unique methodology for eliciting relevant comments from otherwise naive customers about products that do not exist.
Remote Usability Evaluation: Can Users Report Their Own Critical Incidents? BIBAKPDF 253-254
  Jose C. Castillo; H. Rex Hartson; Deborah Hix
In this paper, we briefly introduce the user-reported critical incident method (originally called semi-instrumented critical incident gathering [3]) for remote usability evaluation, and describe results and lessons learned in its development and use. Our findings indicate that users can, in fact, identify and report their own critical incidents.
Keywords: Remote usability evaluation, Remote evaluation, Usability evaluation, Critical incidents, User-initiated, Usability data
The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests BIBAKPDF 255-256
  Niels Ebbe Jacobsen; Morten Hertzum; Bonnie E. John
Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 unique problems were detected by all four evaluators and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. Severe problems were detected more often by all four evaluators (41%) and less often by only one evaluator (22%) but a substantial evaluator effect remained.
Keywords: Usability, User testing, Usability test, Evaluator effect
Analytical versus Empirical Evaluation of Spatial Displays BIBAKPDF 257-258
  Mountaz Hascoet
In this paper, we propose a methodology for evaluating spatial display techniques. Our approach is based on two different types of evaluation: analytical experiments and user studies. This approach is important because it uncovers aspects not detected when either technique is used alone. We apply this approach to the comparison of two different layout techniques.
Keywords: Spatial layout algorithms, Analytic versus empirical evaluation, Visualization, Browsing
The Effect of Task Description Detail on Evaluator Performance with Cognitive Walkthroughs BIBAKPDF 259-260
  Andrew Sears; David J. Hess
Inspection-based evaluation techniques are popular because they can be fast, require limited formal training, and can find numerous usability problems. To speed the evaluation process and reduce the need for formal training in cognitive psychology, the cognitive walkthrough process was revised to incorporate detailed step-by-step task descriptions. This paper reports on a study that investigated the influence of this change. The results indicate that providing detailed step-by-step task descriptions significantly changes the types of problems found. These results should influence both future research and how practitioners apply this technique.
Keywords: Cognitive walkthrough, User interface evaluation
Comparison of GOMS Analysis Methods BIBAKPDF 261-262
  Joel D. Baskin; Bonnie E. John
Although members of the same family of techniques, the Keystroke Level Model and CPM-GOMS often predict different execution times for the same task [4]. Our data suggest that KLM describes error-free performance of a skilled user with little practice on a particular task whereas CPM-GOMS describes error-free performance after extensive practice. A participant completed a task 500 times using two different methods. Observed times for the first error-free trial were close to the times predicted by KLM and quickly decreased with practice to more closely match those predicted by CPM-GOMS. The biggest contributor to the change were mental operators, which decreased markedly in both duration and frequency, although the duration of pointing also decreased.
Keywords: GOMS, Cognitive models, User models

Late Breaking Results: Suite: The Real and the Virtual: Integrating Architectural and Information Spaces

Integrated Design of Real Architectural Spaces and Virtual Information Spaces BIBAKPDF 263-264
  Norbert A. Streitz
This paper presents an introduction to the Suite "Integrated design of real architectural spaces and virtual information spaces". It discusses the affordances of architectural spaces serving as information spaces and vice versa. As a consequence, it argues for a two-way augmentation of these two worlds were are living in. It concludes with an overview of the papers of this Suite.
Keywords: Augmented reality, Physical space, Architecture, Virtual space, Ambient information, Workspace design
Shuffle, Throw or Take It! Working Efficiently with an Interactive Wall BIBAKPDF 265-266
  Jorg Geissler
In this paper, we report on interaction techniques for very large displays such as interactive walls. Since display space is a crucial aspect for most visually-oriented tasks, we developed an interactive wall with an active area of 4.5 meters width, 1.1 meters height, and with 3072x768 pixels. At this wall, three users are able to work simultaneously on separate areas using pen, finger, and hand gestures. They can shuffle display objects around, throw them to other users standing at the opposite side of the wall, they can take objects from the wall and put them back at another location without explicit mode changes.
Keywords: Computer-augmented reality, Roomware, Gestures, Pen-based computing, Group interfaces, Interaction techniques
Communication Chairs Examples of Mobile Roomware BIBAKPDF 267-268
  Christian Muller-Tomfelde; Wolfgang Reischl
This paper describes the current state of our work on computer-augmented chairs, designed to be part of team work spaces. These chairs have either a pen-based computer display or a laptop docking facility integrated into their armrest. Equipped with accumulators and an antenna device, the chairs are entirely wireless and easy to move and to rearrange for the needs of different work situations.
Keywords: Computer-augmented reality, Roomware, Pen-based computing, Wireless networking, Mobile computing, Position detection, Computer-supported cooperative work
Water Lamp and Pinwheels: Ambient Projection of Digital Information into Architectural Space BIBAKPDF 269-270
  Andrew Dahley; Craig Wisneski; Hiroshi Ishii
We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will be an interface between humans and online digital information. This paper introduces ambient fixtures called Water Lamp and Pinwheels: a new approach to interfacing people with online digital information. The Water Lamp projects water ripple shadow created by a "rain of bits." The Pinwheels spin in a "bit wind." These ambient fixtures present information within an architectural space through subtle changes in light, sound, and movement, which can be processed in the background of awareness. We describe the design and implementation of the Water Lamp and the Pinwheels, and discuss their potential applications as well as design issues.
Keywords: Ambient media, Tangible bits, Tangible user interface, ambientROOM, Ambient fixtures, Architectural space, Lights
Adding Another Communication Channel to Reality: An Experience with a Chat-Augmented Conference BIBAKPDF 271-272
  Jun Rekimoto; Yuji Ayatsuka; Hirotaka Uoi; Toshifumi Arai
This paper reports our recent experience with a 3-day technical conference, which was fully augmented by a chat system and a telepresence camera. In this trial, the chat acted as a sub-channel to reality; participants both in local and remote conference rooms can freely interchange their thoughts or opinions inspired by presentations through the chat. We observed several interactions between virtual (chat) and real discussions during the conference -- namely, (1) Chat discussions often activated discussions in the real world, while treating tiny questions, (2) Co-authors could provide supplemental information through the chat while the first author was presenting, and (3) Participants who were not familiar with the research topic could get more understanding from the chat. We also observed the effect of anthropomorphic representation by switching the chat system between text- and comic-based.
Keywords: Chat, Computer-supported conferences
Basics of Integrated Information and Physical Spaces: The State of the Art BIBAKPDF 273-274
  Norbert A. Streitz; Daniel M. Russell
This paper presents an overview of selected work relevant to the problem domain of the suite "Integrated design of real architectural spaces and virtual information spaces".
Keywords: Augmented reality, Ubiquitous computing, Tangible bits, Ambient media, Collaborative work spaces, Roomware
The Future of Integrated Design of Ubiquitous Computing in Combined Real & Virtual Worlds BIBAKPDF 275-276
  Daniel M. Russell; Mark Weiser
Building real/virtual information environments relies on a kind of ubiquity. And ubiquitous computing means placing computers everywhere in the user environment, providing ways for them to interconnect, talk and work together. In designing integrated real & virtual worlds, building ubiquity into information services and devices will be a prerequisite goal. Much work has gone into the particulars of display devices and input-output devices, while relatively little has focused on the invisible problem of actually getting all these devices and resources to work together.
   Three important directions for future work in real & virtual ubiquitous computing seem clear: (1) devices work will continue (creating novel kinds of output and input devices in places where people can use them), (2) transparent communication (between devices, information and people must become more functional and standard), and (3) the user experience design (so people can use the constellation of devices and information resources available to them).
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Real worlds, Virtual worlds

Late Breaking Results: So Far Yet So Close: Intimacy and Awareness in CSCW

Computer Support for Distance Art Therapy BIBAKPDF 277-278
  Davor Cubranic; Kellogg S. Booth; Kate Collie
We present the results of user testing of a system we developed to support distance art therapy and discuss problems that were identified with refinements to the system to prevent or ameliorate them.
Keywords: Health care applications, Shared workspaces, Art, Therapy
A Room of Your Own: What Would it Take to Help Remote Groups Work as Well as Collocated Groups? BIBAKPDF 279-280
  Judith S. Olson; Lisa Covi; Elena Rocco; William J. Miller; Paul Allie
Remotely located teams have difficulty and today's groupware is not totally successful in helping them. To inform our design of future groupware, we investigated the work habits of teams that have nearly the ideal: they work in dedicated project rooms. We conducted field work that included interviews and observations of teams in 9 U.S. companies who had dedicated project rooms and a 6 week study of one site. We found that the team members reported clear advantages of being collocated: increased learning, motivation, and coordination. Future groupware for remote groups must at least support large, persistent, shared visual displays, awareness of team members' activities, and various signals to others about the importance of the work.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Groupware, Teamwork, Space
Tickertape: Awareness in a Single Line BIBAKPDF 281-282
  Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Sara Parsowith; Bill Segall; Simon Kaplan
This paper describes an awareness tool called Tickertape. Tickertape is a lightweight, highly tailorable tool that provides an interface to a world of transient information via a single-line scrolling message window. We overview Tickertape, describing both its unidirectional and bidirectional message groups and its time-out feature. We then illustrate how it is being used within one organisation.
Keywords: Awareness, CSCW, Groupware, Event notification
People Presence or Room Activity: Supporting Peripheral Awareness over Distance BIBAKPDF 283-284
  Elin Ronby Pedersen
Peripheral awareness is a powerful human resource that has only recently been addressed in media space design. The challenge is to figure out what would be important to convey remotely and to strike a balance between too much and too little. Symbolic representation of remote activity is a powerful way to go, but as it turns out also easy to do wrong. This paper presents some early findings on problems and promises of using symbolic representation: it reports from informal studies of people using the AROMA prototype in regular office and home settings, and it conveys some lessons on designing appropriate and effective symbolic representations.
Keywords: Awareness, Activity, Presence, Symbolic representation
Peripheral Participants in Mediated Communication BIBAKPDF 285-286
  Andrew F. Monk; Leon A. Watts
When more than two people take part in a conversation or work task their involvement may be either as 'primary' or 'peripheral' participants depending on whether or not they are actively involved in the current shared task. This distinction was operationalised in an experiment. An interested peripheral participant listened in to the conversation of two others, one of whom was in the same room and one of whom was remote. Whether one was a primary or peripheral participant had a large effect on ratings of social presence, larger than the effect of whether one was remote or copresent.
Keywords: Video-mediated communication, Overhearing, Participation, Awareness, Presence
When Two Hands Are Better Than One: Enhancing Collaboration Using Single Display Groupware BIBAKPDF 287-288
  Jason Stewart; Elaine M. Raybourn; Ben Bederson; Allison Druin
In this paper, we describe Single Display Groupware, a software model that enables multiple users to work simultaneously at a single computer display. We discuss the collaborative benefits observed during a pilot study of the SDG application, KidPad.
Keywords: CSCW, Children, Single display groupware, Educational application, Input devices, Pad++, KidPad

Late Breaking Results: Great E-Scapes: Electronic Landscapes and Soundscapes

Experiments in Inhabited TV BIBAPDF 289-290
  Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; Chris Brown; Graham Walker; Tim Regan; Paul Rea; Jason Morphett; John Wyver
Inhabited TV involves the public deployment of collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) so that on-line audiences can participate in TV shows within shared virtual worlds. This extends traditional broadcast TV and more recent interactive TV by enabling social interaction among participants and by offering them new forms of control over narrative structure (e.g., navigation within a virtual world) and greater interaction with content (e.g., direct manipulation of props and sets). Inhabited TV also builds on recent research into CVEs as social environments, including experiments with Internet-based virtual worlds [2] and the development of more scaleable research platforms. This involves more explicitly focusing on issues of production, management, format and participation arising from the staging of events within virtual worlds. The potential size of Inhabited TV audiences also challenges the scaleability of CVEs.
The Lightwork Performance: Algorithmically Mediated Interaction for Virtual Environments BIBAPDF 291-292
  John Bowers; Sten-Olof Hellstrom; Kai-Mikael Jaa-Aro
In this paper, we describe the human-computer interaction concepts we have built into an improvisatory performance art work called Lightwork. This -- a 15 minute long piece combining electroacoustic music with the real-time construction and navigation of back-projected virtual environments (VEs) -- has combined artistic, social and computer science skills, building on our experience and studies of [1,2]. Multi-disciplinary design of this sort is typical of work at the Centre for User-Oriented IT-Design (CID) at the Royal Institute of Technology.
Look Who's Talking: The GAZE Groupware System BIBAKPDF 293-294
  Roel Vertegaal; Harro Vons; Robert Slagter
The GAZE Groupware System is a multiparty mediated system which provides support for gaze awareness in communication and collaboration. The system uses an advanced, desk-mounted eyetracker to metaphorically convey gaze awareness in a 3D virtual meeting room and within shared documents.
Keywords: CSCW, Awareness, Eyetracking, VRML2
Looking for Sound? Selling Perceptual Space in Hierarchically Nested Boxes BIBAKPDF 295-296
  Roel Vertegaal; Barry Eaglestone
ISEE3D is a 3D musical sound browser which uses nested boxes to allow browsing through a hierarchy of perceptually organized sound spaces.
Keywords: Multimedia, Database, Musical sound, 3D, Dataglove
Using Earcons to Improve the Usability of Tool Palettes BIBAPDF 297-298
  Stephen A. Brewster
This paper describes an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of adding sound to tool palettes. Palettes have usability problems because users need to see the information they present but they are often outside the area of visual focus. Non-speech sounds called earcons were used to indicate the current tool and tool changes so that users could tell what tool was in use, wherever they were looking. Experimental results showed a significant reduction in the number of tasks performed with the wrong tool. Users knew what the current tool was and did not try to perform tasks with the wrong one.
Multi-Parameter Controllers for Audio Mixing BIBAKPDF 299-300
  Craig Wisneski; Ed Hammond
This paper describes the design of multi-parameter controllers for sound engineering applications. These devices accept multi-dimensional input to allow simultaneous control of many parameters. We describe two gestural input devices and their application to sound spatialization tasks.
Keywords: Multi-parameter control, Sound mixing, Sound spatialization, Recording consoles, Tangible user interface

Late Breaking Results: Look and Learn: Visualization and Education Too

The Usability of Transparent Overview Layers BIBAKPDF 301-302
  Donald A. Cox; Jasdeep S. Chugh; Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
Viewports into large visual workspaces are sometimes supplemented by a separate window that displays a miniaturized overview of the entire workspace. Instead of this separate window, we have layered a transparent version of the overview atop the viewport. Because the overview fills the display, it becomes the largest size possible. An exploratory study indicates that people can use this unusual system, where they switch between layers when performing a construction task.
Keywords: Transparent interfaces, Overviews, Groupware
MetricViews: Design of Multiple Spreadsheets into a Single Dynamic View BIBAKPDF 303-304
  David Small; Yin Yin Wong; Sergio Canetti
In this paper, we describe MetricViews, a Java applet in which multiple spreadsheet views are presented in a singular dynamic context. Instead of publishing a large number of discrete spreadsheets and graphs, each of which would show a particular subset of information, we designed an interactive display with which users can construct a wide variety of views into the information space. A structured information tool enables users to construct meaningful views and shift between them without losing context. Our approach is to constrain the choices to a set of interrelated views derived from careful analysis of the information. By carefully designing a hierarchy of information and by displaying continuous transitions between views we intend to provide users with a simple yet very effective way of finding and understanding complex data.
Keywords: Spreadsheet, Visualization, Interactive graphics, Information design
Goal-Directed Zoom BIBAKPDF 305-306
  Allison Woodruff; James Landay; Michael Stonebraker
We introduce a novel zoom method, goal-directed zoom. In a goal-directed zoom system, users specify which representation of an object they wish to see. The system automatically zooms to the elevation at which that representation appears at appropriate detail. We have extended a database visualization environment to support end-user construction of visualizations that have goal-directed zoom. We present a sample visualization we have constructed using this environment.
Keywords: Clutter, Information density, Semantic zoom, Visualization
Integrated Multi Scale Text Retrieval Visualization BIBAKPDF 307-308
  Karlis Kaugars
We present a viewer for text retrieval presentation which implements a novel approach to detail + context views of information. The viewer presents multiple documents at any of four different levels of detail without distortion and allows the user to easily compare retrieved documents.
Keywords: Text display, Information presentation, Detail + Context technique
Designing Visualization Tools for Learning BIBAKPDF 309-310
  Brian J. Foley
Computer visualizations can be a powerful tool for teaching students about science. But educational visualizations need to be designed with students in mind so that the interface is not only easy to use, but also helps students understand the science that is being visualized. This study looks at the design of visualization tools for middle school students learning thermodynamics. Educational research suggested that a dot-density representation of temperature would help students understanding. Assessments of the visualizations show a significant effect on students' understanding.
Keywords: Visualization, Education, Science, Representation
Symphony: Exploring User Interface Representations for Learner-Centered Process Scaffolding BIBAKPDF 311-312
  Chris Quintana; Elliot Soloway; Joseph Krajcik; Andrew Carra; Matt Houser; Mike McDonald; Mike Mouradian; Aaron Saarela; Naresh Vyas; Michele Wisnudel
We introduce Symphony, a supportive integrated environment for high-school science students. The process of science inquiry is a complex one that is difficult for novice learners to perform. With Symphony, we are exploring how to provide effective process support for the learner by conceptualizing complex processes in the user interface. We have begun by using flow diagrams and timelines in the interface. As we continue, we will evaluate and characterize these and other representations to see how to best support novice learners in the "doing" of a complex process.
Keywords: Learner-centered tools, Process scaffolding, Supportive integrated environments, Process visualization

Late Breaking Results: Humble and Terrific -- CHI-Lot's Web

The Rise of Personal Web Pages at Work BIBAPDF 313-314
  Sara Bly; Linda Cook; Tim Bickmore; Elizabeth Churchill; Joseph W. Sullivan
A series of 20 interviews in four organizations explores the ways in which employees take advantage of personal web pages to support their work and to reflect who they are. Both interviewee comments and web page examples suggest the importance of individual personalization of information management and dissemination, presentation and perception of personality, and usage from the reader's perspective. These results can inform the development of future web technologies for use in organizations. Furthermore, this self representation on web pages is a way of making individual knowledge more available in the workplace.
Does Every Link Have the Same Usability? An Exploratory Study of the Link Structure of Cyber Malls BIBAKPDF 315-316
  Jinwoo Kim; Byunggon Yoo
Designing an effective link structure is critical for effective navigation in cyber shopping malls. In this study, the usability of three types of add-on links are evaluated through measures of frequency of use, rate of recall, and perceived convenience of navigation. The results indicate that the usage rate is interrelated with both the recall rate and the convenience of navigation, and that not all add-on links increase the convenience of navigation.
Keywords: Link structure, Add-on links, Cyber shopping mall
Polynesian Navigation: Locomotion and Previewing Aspects BIBAKPDF 317-318
  Kent Wittenburg; Wissam Ali-Ahmad; Daniel LaLiberte; Tom Lanning
In investigations of navigation for information spaces we have been inspired by the navigational methods of seagoing peoples of Polynesia and Micronesia (Hutchins 1983). From them we borrow a notion of locomotion in which the traveller remains stationary and the terrain moves relative to the traveller. We discuss two prototypes for navigation tools in Web information spaces in which images are used the primary means for presenting Meta-information about locale (web pages), movement is modelled as a flowstream of information coming to the user, and orientation is visualised through positions in ordered sequences. The goal is to increase navigability by allowing the user to quickly preview many possible moves before the next step is taken.
Keywords: Navigation, Information spaces, Web
A Java-Based Approach to Active Collaborative Filtering BIBAKPDF 319-320
  Christopher Lueg; Christoph Landolt
In this paper, we present a collaborative filtering approach to webpage filtering. The system supports users in exchanging recommendations and exploits the social relation between recommenders and recipients of recommendations instead of computing a degree of interest. In order to help users estimate the potential interestingness of a recommended webpage, the system augments the recommendation object with additional data indicating how previous recipients of the recommendation have dealt with the corresponding webpage. The system has been implemented as a collection of personal user agents exchanging recommendations with a central recommendation server. The user agents are implemented as Java applets and the recommendation server is a Java remote object realized as object factory.
Keywords: Situatedness, Collaborative filtering, WWW, Java
Applying Writing Guidelines to Web Pages BIBAKPDF 321-322
  John Morkes; Jakob Nielsen
Web users generally prefer writing that is concise, easy to scan, and objective (rather than promotional) in style, research has shown. We incorporated these and other attributes into a redesign of Web content. Doing so required trade-offs and some hard decisions, but the results were positive. The rewritten website scored 159% higher than the original in measured usability. Compared with original-site users, users of the rewritten site reported higher subjective satisfaction and performed better in terms of task time, task errors, and memory. Implications for website writing and design are discussed.
Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Writing, Reading, Page design
A Method for Evaluating Web Page Design Concepts BIBAKPDF 323-324
  Thomas S. Tullis
In redesigning the Intranet at Fidelity Investments, we used a paper-based technique for getting user feedback on initial design concepts for the web pages. The technique involved color printouts of "Greeked" versions of five different candidate web page designs. Users had to try to identify nine standard elements that appeared on each page (e.g., owner, last updated). They also rated each on three subjective rating scales (format, attractiveness, color). The technique was successful in helping us to derive a new design.
Keywords: Web design, Intranet, User feedback, Evaluation

Late Breaking Results: 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139

The Baby Sense Environment: Enriching and Monitoring Infants' Experiences and Communication BIBAKPDF 325-326
  Gili Weinberg; Rich Fletcher; Seum-Lim Gan
The BabySense Environment is an integrated system designed to enhance an infant's sensory-motor experience, to allow parents and relatives to remotely monitor infant's development, and to enable new types of interactions with other infants. The system also demonstrates alternate peripheral means of displaying information such as lights, sound and a kinetic sculpture.
Keywords: Infants, Sensory-motor, Background monitoring, Foreground monitoring, Interaction, Communication
PingPongPlus: Augmentation and Transformation of Athletic Interpersonal Interaction BIBAKPDF 327-328
  Craig Wisneski; Julian Orbanes; Hiroshi Ishii
PingPongPlus (PP+) is a digitally enhanced version of the classic ping-pong game. We have designed a digital layer of audio/visual augmentation on top of a conventional ping-pong table using a newly developed ball tracking system and video projection. The "reactive table" displays patterns of light and shadow as a game is played, and the rhythm and style of play drives accompanying sound. In the process, this project explores new ways to couple athletic recreation and social interaction with engaging digital enhancements. This paper describes the basic idea, research agenda, several applications, technical implementation, and initial experiences.
Keywords: Augmented reality, Reactive surface, Athletic / kinesthetic interaction, Computer-supported collaborative play, Interactive media art
GroupWear: Nametags that Tell about Relationships BIBAKPDF 329-330
  Richard Borovoy; Fred Martin; Mitchel Resnick; Brian Silverman
We have built a set of computationally-augmented nametags capable of providing information about the relationship between two people engaged in a face-to-face conversation. This paper puts forward criteria useful for the design of such interpersonal augmentation, experiences that inform the principles, and initial evidence of their success.
Keywords: Wearable computing, Augmented reality, Groupware, Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW)
Fabric Computing Interfaces BIBAKPDF 331-332
  Maggie Orth; Rehmi Post; Emily Cooper
This paper presents a series of physical computer interfaces and computational devices that are constructed from electronic fabrics and conducting threads. We introduce two types of textile keyboards, a piecework switch matrix and a capacitive embroidered keypad. We discuss these fabric sensors in a variety of applications. We give examples of computational clothing using this technology. This clothing shows how digital technology can be imbedded into the world around us. We argue that creating computational devices with new and unexpected materials gives designers the creative freedom to radically change the appearance and "feeling" of such devices.
Keywords: Physical interface, Smart materials, Wearable computing, Industrial design
It/I: An Experiment Towards Interactive Theatrical Performances BIBAKPDF 333-334
  Claudio S. Pinhanez; Aaron F. Bobick
"It/I" is a theater play produced at the MIT Media Laboratory where one of the characters is performed autonomously by a computer system. Computerized actors and stages enable performances to be repeated with members of the audience re-enacting the leading roles, having their own, personal view of the universe of the play. In this paper we report the experience, and discuss some of its possible developments.
Keywords: Interactive entertainment, Story-based interaction, Immersive environments
An Interactive Poetic Garden BIBAKPDF 335-336
  Tom White; David Small
The garden is the symbol of man's control over nature. This project attempts to bring the computer into the garden in harmony with stone, water, and plant materials. The computer is used to drive a video projector, creating the illusion of text floating on the surface of the water as it flows through the garden. This relaxing computational environment lends itself well to several open ended active and passive modes of interaction.
Keywords: Garden, Water, Interaction design, Interactive installation, Industrial design