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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)

Fullname:CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)
Note:Making the Impossible Possible
Editors:Clare-Marie Karat; Arnold Lund
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:1998-Apr-18 to 1998-Apr-23
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-028-7 ACM Order Number 608985; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI98-2
Pages:396
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2
    1. Tutorials
    2. Videos
    3. Workshops

CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2

Tutorials

Human-Computer Interaction: Introduction and Overview BIBAKPDF 105-106
  Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Theory, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
Introduction to Web Design BIBAKPDF 107-108
  Jakob Nielsen
You are up against four million other websites: how do you get users to stay at your site? Only by providing valuable content and a highly usable interface. Cool is getting cold.
Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Design, Hypertext, Usability
Information Visualization Tutorial BIBAKPDF 109-110
  Nahum Gershon; Stuart Card; Stephen G. Eick
Visual representation of information requires merging of data visualization methods, computer graphics, design, and imagination. This course describes the emerging field of information visualization including visualizing retrieved information from large document collections (e.g., digital libraries), the World Wide Web, and databases. The course highlights the process of producing effective visualizations, making sense of information, taking users' needs into account, and illustrating good practical visualization procedures in specific case studies.
Keywords: Information visualization, Visualization, World Wide Web, WWW, Usability
Planning and Implementing User-Centred Design BIBAKPDF 111-112
  Nigel Bevan; Ian Curson
The tutorial presents a structured approach to user centred design, based on the principles of the forthcoming International Standard "Human centred design processes for interactive systems" (ISO DIS 13407) and other associated standards. A core set of practical methods which support the approach are described. These have been selected by the European Usability Support Centres on the basis of their applicability, maturity, availability, and cost-effectiveness. The tutorial gives an overview of each method, and describes criteria which can be used for selecting appropriate methods. The benefits of demonstrating conformance to ISO 13407 are explained.
Keywords: User-centred design, Usability evaluation, Usability engineering, Standards
Product Usability: Survival Techniques BIBAKPDF 113-114
  Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder
Product developers are typically faced with small budgets, tight schedules, and over-committed resources. To deliver high-quality products under these constraints, developers need an understanding of basic design principles, techniques that allow them to work effectively with materials on hand, and a development process that is built around the use of such techniques.
   This workshop explains how low-fidelity prototyping and usability testing can be used in a process of iterative refinement in order to develop more usable products.
Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Paper prototypes, Mockup, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques
Java Based User Interface Design and Development BIBAKPDF 115-116
  Manfred Tscheligi; Verena Giller
The objective of this tutorial is to introduce Java from the user interface design viewpoint rather than from the programmers perspective. It provides an exploration of key issues of Java technology necessary to create novel web technology based application environments. Based on the experience of several Java based user interface projects the specific needs of usability engineers will be addressed. User interface potentials embedded in the Java platform will be uncovered.
Keywords: Java, User interface tools, Class libraries, User interface guidelines, World Wide Web, Corporate guidelines, Metaphors
Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKPDF 117-118
  Thomas T. Hewett
This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user
CSCW, Groupware and Workflow: Experiences, State of Art, and Future Trends BIBAKPDF 119-120
  Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
Technology to support groups is rapidly coming into use and is starting to have an impact on us, our organizations, and society. This course addresses recent experiences, current possibilities, and future trends and shocks. Lecture and video illustrations are accompanied by discussions in which participants organize and present their collective experiences with and interests in groupware and workflow technologies, and CSCW issues and methods. The instructors summarize the current composition of the CSCW community and the state of the art in technology, and organize discussion of fundamental challenges that face us as users (and developers) of these technologies.
Keywords: Groupware, Workflow, Computer-supported cooperative work, Coordination theory, Organizational design, Computer-mediated communication
Network Communities, Community Networks BIBAKPDF 121-122
  John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
A network community is a group of people whose communication and collaboration over networks strengthens and facilitates their shared identity and goals. A community network is a special case of a network community in which a physical community coextends with the network community. This tutorial will survey and analyze network communities and community networks focusing on how they may impact human activities and institutions.
Keywords: Network communities, Community networks
Structured Observation: Practical Methods for Understanding Users and their Work Context BIBAKPDF 123-124
  Susan M. Dray
This tutorial will focus on why and how to do observations of users in their own worksite. It will introduce practitioners how to use ethnographic tools, and how to apply what they find to design.
Keywords: User-centered design, Observation, Ethnography, Contextual inquiry, Qualitative data, User profiles, User data collection, Usability, Tools and techniques
Practical GUI Screen Design: Making It Usable BIBAKPDF 125-126
  Cliff Wilding
There is much more to designing usable GUI screens than making them look good. The way a screen looks should tell the user how to interact with it, and what behavior to expect. Screen design is about visual communication, the bridge between the look and the feel of the user interface. In this full day tutorial you will examine the principles of good screen design, including a detailed examination of screen layout, templates and metaphors.
   The tutorial provides a clear understanding of how to take advantage of user knowledge when creating screen designs that work. Examine layout techniques, including colour, fonts and symbols, and learn the principles of creating easy-to-use software and interactive new media productions. The tutorial is very much hands-on with exercises -- you will put the skills you learn into practice.
   Learn valuable tips and techniques for the best ways to use icons, controls, text and graphics in user interfaces.
Keywords: User interface design, Screen design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, User-centred design
The Usability Engineering Lifecycle BIBAKPDF 127-128
  Deborah J. Mayhew
The purpose of this tutorial is to provide a lifecycle of practical usability techniques for structuring the process of designing good user interfaces to either traditional software applications or Web pages and applets. The tutorial presents techniques which can be applied at different points in a typical product development lifecycle. Techniques presented include not only requirements analysis, design and testing techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
Keywords: User interface design, User profile, Task analysis, Usability goals, Style guide, Conceptual model, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Usability organization, Cost-benefit analysis
Note: formerly Managing the Design of the User Interface
Metaphor Design for User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 129-130
  Aaron Marcus
User interface design requires designing metaphors, the essential terms, concepts, and images representing data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Advanced user interfaces require consideration of new metaphors and repurposing of older ones. Awareness of semiotics principles, in particular the use of metaphors, can assist researchers and developers in achieving more efficient, effective ways to communicate to more diverse user communities.
Keywords: Consumers, Culture, Diversity, Graphic design, Icons, Information design, Metaphors, Multi-media, Productivity tools, Rhetoric, Semantics, Semiotics, Symbols, User interfaces, Visible language, Web
Designing Speech User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 131-132
  Nicole Yankelovich; Jennifer Lai
This tutorial focuses on techniques for designing speech interfaces. Topics covered include an introduction to speech input and output, a discussion of speech user interface design issues, and an exploration of ways to involve users in the design process.
Keywords: Speech user interface design, Speech recognition, Speech synthesis
Website Design from the Trenches BIBAKPDF 133-134
  Tom Brinck; Darren Gergle; Scott Wood
Most website design projects involve small to medium-sized sites consisting of between ten and fifty pages. Such projects require designers to operate on a tight schedule and a very limited budget. With tightly constrained resources, how can we maintain a high standard of design and create usable and useful products? This tutorial presents a practical approach to applying usability techniques in website design. Our design process includes techniques for project management, dealing with clients, sketching and comping techniques for quickly producing high-quality alternatives, and a set of website design guidelines.
Keywords: World-Wide Web, WWW, Design process, User-interface guidelines, User testing, Rapid prototyping, Project management
What Children Can Tell Us about Technology: The CHIkids Model of Technology Immersion BIBAKPDF 135-136
  Angela Boltman; Allison Druin; Adrian Miura
This tutorial will introduce the CHIkids model of technology integration, research, and learning. This model illustrates an educational technology immersion experience for kids, a problem-centered approach to teaching for educators, and examples of contextual inquiry and participatory design methodologies for HCI professionals. This introductory-level tutorial will provide an opportunity for tutorial participants to gain hands-on experience with kids and technology as well as to understand the underlying principles behind the CHIkids model of technology immersion.
Keywords: Education application, Children, Cooperative design, Participatory design, Ethnography, Usability testing, User models, Multimedia, Telecommunication, Social issues
Getting Started on a Contextual Project BIBAKPDF 137-138
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to collect the detailed customer data they need for their projects. But when a team wants to apply contextual techniques to their own situation, they are faced with a host of problems. What project should they start with? Is it better to introduce them early or late in the process? Given all the different possible techniques, which will work best for the specific project chosen? How should the customers be chosen and how should visits to them be set up? Who should be on the project? It's no wonder people find it hard to get started with these new techniques in their own organizations.
   This tutorial gets participants over the roadblocks in the way of using contextual techniques in their projects. We walk through the different aspects of a contextual project, describing the issues that need to be resolved, the different approaches that can work, and the principles which guide making a choice. We use exercises to give participants the chance to plan aspects of their own projects, so they can do the thinking process themselves and raise any questions raised by their own situations.
   This tutorial is appropriate to anyone wishing to use field methods to gather customer data for their projects. Some familiarity with these methods is assumed.
Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain BIBAPDF 139-140
  Betty Edwards
Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain is one of the most effective teaching methods for drawing ever developed. In this tutorial, the participant will be introduced to the underlying theory behind the method. The bulk of the session will involve practical hands-on exercises, which demonstrate the participants' ability to learn to draw, and to learn to "see things more clearly."
   In this tutorial you will learn basic strategies for accessing the visual, perceptual mode of thinking. This type of thinking is learned through the acquisition of very basic drawing skills and the acquisition of an understanding of the nature of drawing.
Developing Collaborative Applications On the World Wide Web BIBAKPDF 141-142
  Andreas Girgensohn; Alison Lee
The World Wide Web is often viewed as the latest and most user friendly way of providing information over the Internet (i.e., server of documents). It is not customarily viewed as a platform for developing and deploying applications. In this tutorial, we introduce, demonstrate, and discuss how Web technologies like CGI scripts, Javascript, and Java can be used in combination with Web browsers to design, create, distribute and execute collaborative applications. We discuss constraints with the Web approach as well as recent extensions that support application development.
Keywords: Collaborative applications, Interactive applications, Forms, HTML, MIME, CGI, HTTP, URL, Java, JavaScript, Web server, Web browsers, Cookies, Proxy servers, Software development, Chat, Desktop video conference, Voting application, Group calendar, Multi-user games
The Psychology of Multimedia: Principles of Perception and Cognition BIBAKPDF 143-144
  Douglas J. Gillan
This tutorial is designed to provide HCI professionals with (1) knowledge about the principles of perception and cognition underlying computer-based multimedia systems and (2) skill at applying those principles. The tutorial covers basic and applied visual perception and cognition, including reading (for text displays); color perception, object perception and recognition, depth perception in two-dimensional displays (for graphics), and the perception of motion (for animation and video). High level auditory perception is also covered, focusing on music and speech perception. The tutorial also addresses issues in the application of the perceptual and cognitive principles for the design of multimedia systems. The final part of the tutorial provides practice in applying the perceptual and cognitive principles to multimedia design.
Keywords: Multimedia, Perception, Cognition
Information Visualization Advanced Interface and Web Design BIBAPDF 145-146
  Ben Shneiderman; Catherine Plaisant
The future of user interfaces is in the direction of larger, higher resolution screens, that present perceptually-rich and information-abundant displays. With such designs, the worrisome flood of information can be turned into a productive river of knowledge. Our experience during the past five years has been that visual query formulation and visual display of results can be combined with the successful strategies of direct manipulation. Human perceptual skills are quite remarkable and largely underutilized in current information and computing systems. Based on this insight, we developed dynamic queries, starfield displays, treemaps, treebrowsers, and a variety of widgets to present, search, browse, filter, and compare rich information spaces.
Web Sites that Work: Designing with Your Eyes Open BIBAKPDF 147-148
  Jared M. Spool; Will Schroeder; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder
Many web sites fail to fulfill their promise because designers are unaware of some of the most important factors that affect a site's success. This tutorial is based on our observations of users struggling with web sites and our consulting work with clients who face the many challenges of web site development. It includes as-yet-unpublished results from our ongoing research. We will show numerous examples of web sites to illustrate real-world successes and failures. Hands-on exercises with live web sites help participants understand and apply the course material. Instead of blindly repeating the mistakes made by others, participants will learn to approach web site design from a fresh perspective that leads to more usable designs.
Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Graphic design, Internet, Task analysis, User studies, Product development, Practical techniques, World Wide Web, Web site design, Web site usability
Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive Systems Design BIBAKPDF 149-150
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem -- how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design. An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it in their own development process.
   In this tutorial we present our latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users in models, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present the process by which we build and use the models and practice key steps. We show how these methods fit into the overall design process, and summarize Contextual Design, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
   The tutorial is appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
   We use shopping as our example of work practice throughout this tutorial, since shopping is simple and understood by everyone. We encourage participants to go grocery shopping shortly before the tutorial, and bring any shopping list they may have used, their store receipt, and a drawing of the store layout and their movement through it.
Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
The Art of the Interface: Visual Ideas, Principles and Inspiration for Interface Designers BIBAKPDF 151-152
  Suzanne Watzman
Though the context is different, George Moore could have been describing our current "information environment". It is a world of non-stop messages and images. Countless decisions are made daily based on what we see and our perception and interpretation of these things. In addition, constant introduction of technology and tools are overwhelming, with seemingly unlimited choices of ways and media to present information, anywhere, anytime, anyhow.
   The problem is that no one has given us a greater ability to use and understand all this new information. The idea that more, better tools are the solution could not be further from the truth. In our rush to go faster, further, louder we have forgotten our goal. In our rush to use these enticing tools, we have forgotten that this is all about communication.
   We need to step back and evaluate this visual chaos. We must understand and re-learn what the basic principles are that create quality communications as well as understand the implications of our visual design choices. Our education has made us verbally literate; now we must educate ourselves to become visually literate.
Keywords: Visual communication, Visual literacy, Graphic design, Information design, Visual interaction design, Visual hierarchy, Visual interface, Design process, Consistent visual language, Visual diagramming, Visual cues, Design guidelines, Readability, Legibility, Typography, Icons, Graphics, Illustration, Metaphor, Color
Selling Usability to Organisations: Strategies for Convincing People of the Value of Usability BIBAKPDF 153-154
  Sarah Bloomer; Rachel Croft; Susan Wolfe
Usability may now be practised by a large number of software developers, but has yet to gain wide acceptance. The value of usability must be communicated across multiple levels of an organisation, which requires speaking several "languages". This practical, hands-on tutorial will cover techniques for convincing management or potential clients of the value of usability and usability testing, in terms each group understands. It will address issues from how to develop a usability strategy for a whole organisation to how to find data to convince stakeholders of a single usability activity.
Keywords: Strategic usability, Usability strategies, Cost-justification, Communicating usability data
Avoiding Damned Lies: Understanding Statistical Ideas BIBAKPDF 155-156
  Alan Dix
Many researchers and practitioners in HCI will at some time or another need to use or interpret experimental statistics. However, the correct use of statistics involves a combination of mathematics and practical know-how. Often those who have studied an introductory statistics course have learnt how to perform the requisite mathematical manipulation, but not the meaning of the resulting numbers. This tutorial aims to fill in the understanding gap experienced by many who are using statistics, but do not feel 'on top' of it. It will focus on the meaning of a few key concepts and some of the common mistakes and fallacies prevalent in the HCI literature.
Keywords: Randomness, Statistics, Experiments, Significance test
Designing Shared Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 157-158
  Andrew McGrath; Amanda Oldroyd
The purpose of this course is to inform the audience how to design and scope successful shared virtual environments. The emphasis will be on employing good visual design, strong realistic conceptual ideas and proven interaction styles. New application concepts have been emerging within the field of virtual environments that offer exciting application possibilities but suffer from a number of problems which, once known and understood, can be avoided. The course also includes a short workshop where the audience will participate in creating a storyboard for a virtual environment.
Keywords: Interaction design, Visual design, Virtual environments, Shared spaces, VRML, Inhabited TV
Distance Learning BIBAKPDF 159-160
  Lisa Neal
This tutorial covers how to design and deliver a distance learning class. The motivation for distance learning programs is presented, along with the selection, deployment, and use of distance learning technologies. We examine how teaching a distance learning class is different from a face-to-face class and how to evaluate the effectiveness of a distance learning class. Case studies will be used to illustrate the use of distance learning technologies and the broad range of situations and institutions in which distance learning is employed.
Keywords: Education, Training, Collaborative technologies, CSCW
Applying CHI in Health Care: Domain Issues, Resources, and Requirements BIBAKPDF 161-162
  John W. Gosbee
More and more organizations are interested in applying human factors (human-computer interaction -- HCI) to the development of health care information systems. This tutorial is designed to accelerate this movement towards usable and useful health care information systems, which will, in turn, benefit end-users in hospitals, clinics, and other medical settings. Tutorial participants will learn about: 1) macro and micro issues in health care that are important to proper HCI design; 2) disciplines similar to HCI in the health care field and associated interdisciplinary resources; 3) training needed to become a specialist in HCI and health care; and 4) barriers to accomplishing HCI activities in health care, and how to deal with these barriers.
   This tutorial will be useful to any student, practitioner, or academic who would like to find and cultivate opportunities in the area of health care information systems. The tutorial may also entice HCI professionals who do not yet realize how much fun you can have applying your knowledge and skills to the medical domain.
Keywords: Health care, HCI, Medical software, New opportunities
Conceptual Design: From User Requirements to User Interface BIBAKPDF 163-164
  Kathy Potosnak
This half-day tutorial introduces a semi-structured conceptual design framework that helps product teams bridge the gulf between user requirements and detailed user interface design. It covers the background, benefits, process, and hands-on application of the framework to a simple example project.
Keywords: Conceptual design, Cognitive models, Design methods, Design process, Design techniques, Measurable objectives, Product design, Software design, Task analysis, Task model, User requirements, Usability, User interface design, User-centered design
Designing User Interfaces for Television BIBAKPDF 165-166
  Dale Herigstad; Anna Wichansky
In this paper, we describe a tutorial to enable CHI participants to design more effective user interfaces (UIs) for interactive television (ITV) and World Wide Web (WWW) applications used on televisions (TVs).
Keywords: Television, World Wide Web, Internet appliance, Kiosk, Remote control, UI design, Usability evaluation
User Interface Specifications: Techniques for Conveying Design Information BIBAKPDF 167-168
  Paul McInerney
After UI designers conceive of a UI design, they need to clearly communicate it to others who will evaluate or build the user interface. This tutorial presents techniques for better describing a UI design. The tutorial consists of the following segments: 1) Setting the Stage, 2) UI Design Diagramming Techniques, 3) Organizing UI Description Information, and 4) Succeeding with UI Description.
Keywords: User interface design, Specification, Documentation, Software engineering
Managing Color in Interactive Systems BIBAPDF 169-170
  Mary A. Mooney
Color in the HCI community is often undervalued as to its relationship to the user and product. Aesthetics and cultural preferences are rarely considered adequately when product and interface colors are chosen. Since ninety percent of our knowledge of the world comes to us through sight, how we respond to light is intrinsic to the nature of human interaction. In this tutorial, I will explain the perceptual, physiological, and color management principles that underlie effective visual design with color. You will learn how to apply these principles to the design of graphical user interfaces, information displays, products and virtual environments.
   This tutorial is directed towards interface designers, human factors engineers, usability specialists, and developers of on-line information. This course is also valuable to virtual environment designers and product designers. You should have experience in developing user interfaces, in creating and manipulating digital imagery, or in designing products and virtual environments.
Current Issues in Web Design BIBAKPDF 171-172
  Jakob Nielsen; Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini; Erika Kindlund
The Web keeps changing on "Internet time." We discuss new issues in Web design that go beyond the standard page design and navigation support which we (at least in theory) know how to do.
Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Usability, Web-Based Applications, Java, Applets

Videos

ambientROOM: Integrating Ambient Media with Architectural Space BIBAKPDF 173-174
  Hiroshi Ishii; Craig Wisneski; Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley; Matt Gorbet; Brygg Ullmer; Paul Yarin
We envision that the physical architectural space we inhabit will be a new form of interface between humans and digital information [2]. This paper and video present the design of the ambientROOM, an interface to information for processing in the background of awareness. This information is displayed through various subtle displays of light, sound, and movement. Physical objects are also employed as controls for these "ambient media."
Keywords: Awareness, Attention, Periphery, Ambient media, Graspable media, Physical interface, Tangible interface, Tangible Bits
Digital Ink: A Familiar Idea with Technological Might! BIBAKPDF 175-176
  Chris Kasabach; Chris Pacione; John Stivoric; Francine Gemperle; Dan Siewiorek
Digital Ink is a design research concept. Part design, part critique, it is the integration of current and future technologies into a mobile and socially familiar object. Digital ink is a sophisticated pen that allows people to take notes, sketch, and save the "physical" data they generate, digitally and automatically. It strives to turn mobile computing and interaction on it's head by turning the monitor into a piece of paper and the keyboard and mouse into the pen itself. It's designed so people can do things they normally do with any pen, but also fax, print, plan and correspond with others.
Keywords: Design research, Digital, Pen, Information, Interaction, Hand-drawn interface, Mobile, Future, Concept, Technology
BUILD-IT: A Planning Tool for Construction and Design BIBAKPDF 177-178
  Matthias Rauterberg; Morten Fjeld; Helmut Krueger; Martin Bichsel; Uwe Leonhardt; Markus Meier
It is time to go beyond the established approaches in human-computer interaction. With the Augmented Reality (AR) design strategy humans are able to behave as much as possible in a natural way: behavior of humans in the real world with other humans and/or real world objects. Following the fundamental constraints of natural way of interacting we derive a set of recommendations for the next generation of user interfaces: the Natural User Interface (NUI). The concept of NUI is presented in form of a runnable demonstrator: a computer vision-based interaction technique for a planning tool for construction and design tasks.
Keywords: Augmented reality, Digital desk, Natural user interface, Computer vision-based interaction
The Information Periscope "I-steer" BIBAKPDF 179-180
  Junko Misawa; Junichi Osada
This video demonstrates a prototype of the information periscope "I-steer", which is designed for browsing video information in public spaces. I-steer has an LCD panel which can be moved cylindrically around the user and displays information according to the position of the LCD panel. This system incorporates dynamic interaction technique which encourages users to move themselves according to physically corresponded information space. The cylindrical information space consists of segments of static frames with video clips instead of virtual 3-D space. Therefore, the preparation of content information and the operation by walk-up users are relatively easy.
Keywords: Dynamic interaction, Spatial navigational system, Public space, Mechanical design, Interface design, Product design, Motion
Digital Fukuwarai: New Game Concept Using Live Video BIBAKPDF 181-182
  Hiroshi Matoba
We have developed a new game system called "Digital Fukuwarai" by using high performance video processing technology. It provides a very impressive experience and novel interactivity which has never been achieved by any existing games.
Keywords: Video processing, Game, User interface
OLGA -- A Multimodal Interactive Information Assistant BIBAKPDF 183-184
  Olle Sundblad; Yngve Sundblad
This video is a description and use scenario of a functional prototype of an interactive information assistant with both speech and visual direct manipulation interface. The 3D-animated assistant, nicknamed OLGA, is intended to help in situations where people seek information. It is demonstrated with consumer advice about microwave ovens. The demonstrator is modular and distributed, with separate modules from different partners and computers communicating via a server. The OLGA project is highly interdisciplinary, involving researchers from linguistics, speech technology, graphic illustration and computing science. Possible extensions and other uses of the assistant are demonstrated.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Discourse modeling, Speech/voice, Animation, Information assistant, Software architecture
WebTOC: A Tool to Visualize and Quantify Web Sites using a Hierarchical Table of Contents Browser BIBAKPDF 185-186
  David A. Nation
WebTOC is a method for visualizing the contents of a website with a hierarchical table of contents using a java program and applet. WebTOC automatically generates an expand/contract table of contents that provides graphical information indicating the number of elements on branches of the hierarchy as well as elements' individual and cumulative sizes. Colors can be used to represent other attributes such as file type and provide a rich overview of the site for users and managers of the site. Early results from user studies suggest that WebTOC is easily learned and can assist users in navigating websites.
Keywords: Information visualization, Exploratory data analysis, Graphical representations, Hierarchical table of contents, Java applet, World Wide Web, Browsing
Bringing Treasures to the Surface: Previews and Overviews in a Prototype for the Library of Congress National Digital Library BIBAKPDF 187-188
  Catherine Plaisant; Gary Marchionini; Anita Komlodi
We worked with a team from the Library of Congress (LC) to develop interface design components for LC's American Memory collections of historical multimedia materials. Our prototype illustrates the benefits of previews (such as samples, collections of thumbnails, and video previews) and overviews (such as timelines and automatically generated tables of contents) to facilitate the browsing of search results, or of entire unprocessed collections.
Keywords: Digital libraries, World Wide Web, Browsing, Overviews, Multimedia, Metadata, Previews
Using Elastic Windows for World-Wide Web Browsing BIBAKPDF 189-190
  Eser Kandogan; Ben Shneiderman
Current World-Wide Web browsers can be enhanced to support the navigation needs of users. In this video, a new browsing interface is demonstrated with hierarchical page organization and efficient multiple page operations. Users can quickly organize, filter and restructure pages as they reformulate their goals. Overviews can give the user a sense of location as well as provide fast access to a hierarchy of pages.
Keywords: World-Wide Web, Window management, User interfaces, Elastic Windows
Semantic Highlighting BIBAKPDF 191-192
  Ali Hussam; Brian Ford; Jack Hyde; Ali Merayyan; Bill Plummer; Terry Anderson
One method for locating information on the World Wide Web is to use a search engine (SE). Given a set of terms, a SE will return a list of documents containing those terms. Often though, this list of documents is extremely large. Unfortunately, there are currently no tools to assist the information seeker in determining whether these documents contain desired information, or just submitted terms. Two types of SE errors are possible: false positive errors result from the many connotations which words may convey, and false negative errors result from different wordings that express similar meanings. To solve these difficulties, we focus on meaning rather than terms developing a technique called Semantic Highlighting.
Keywords: Semantic, Highlighting, Information retrieval, Visualize
Developing a Community Intranet: Social Practices and Technology Interventions BIBAKPDF 193-194
  Rachel Bellamy; Eileen Genevro; Stephanie Houde; Lori Leahy; Gary Young
How can learning and communication within communities be improved through the use of new technologies and practices? To answer this question, we investigated how members of small communities learn from each other during the course of their normal activities. We discovered that we needed to facilitate casual communication of current information and events without causing a lot of work for community members. To this end, we developed and deployed a working prototype of a community intranet, and evolved associated social practices.
Keywords: Intranet, Learning community, Communication

Workshops

CHI 98 Basic Research Symposium BIBAKPDF 195
  Joseph A. Konstan; Jane Siegel
The CHI Basic Research Symposium is a long-running special event that presents an opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to exchange new developments and insights from their own fields and thereby expand their vision of human-computer interaction. This two-day event is a cross between a mini-conference and a workshop. Participants are selected by a program committee that reviews submitted position papers to bring together a diverse group of researchers with innovative research underway. The symposium itself includes interactive research presentations, group discussions around common themes, and small-group break-out activities.
Keywords: Basic research, New developments and insights, Interdisciplinary interaction
Innovation and Evaluation in Information Exploration Interfaces BIBAPDF 196-197
  Gene Golovchinsky; Nicholas J. Belkin
Information retrieval research traditionally has concerned itself with improving the effectiveness of indexing and retrieval mechanisms. Over the last twenty years, the field has seen data-handling capacity increase by orders of magnitude, and today search engines are close to becoming a commodity. Although much research has been conducted surrounding the use of information retrieval systems, our understanding how people interact with such technology has lagged behind. This workshop addresses user interface aspects of information exploration, the interactive use of information retrieval tools. We take a three-pronged approach by examining innovative interfaces, methods of empirical evaluation, and theoretical accounts.
Incorporating Work, Process and Task Analysis into Commercial and Industrial Object-Oriented Systems Development BIBAPDF 198
  John Artim; Mark van Harmelen
Discussion at last year's workshop, "Object-Oriented Model in User Interface Design," examined the role of object modeling in user interface design. The workshop's majority view concluded that (1) The extraction of a domain model provides us with a description of the users' world that positively facilitates subsequent user interface design activities, (2) System capabilities and many aspects of interaction with a system can be successfully modeled using objects, and (3) Process and task analysis are natural partners and mutual informants for object modeling.
   The workshop participants, during the workshop and while remotely collaborating on a summary paper, created a framework describing user interface design in the software development lifecycle. This framework can be used to represent the various documents and models used throughout the development lifecycle with particular emphasis placed on those descriptions employed in user interface design. The framework also expresses the relationships among these descriptions and between these descriptions and the referents in the user's world. This framework is described in the workshop summary paper published in the October 1997 issue of SIGCHI Bulletin.
Innovative Interface Metaphors for Visual Media BIBAKPDF 199
  Arnd Steinmetz; Frank Nack; Nahum Gershon
The purpose of the workshop is to explore new ideas for representations of visual media and to clarify the nature, scope, limits, and dangers of new interface metaphors for visual media.
Keywords: CHI-98 Workshop, Visual media, Video, User interface
Designing User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems BIBAKPDF 200
  Philippe Palanque; Fabio Paterno; Peter Wright
In the workshop we aim to review the state of art in the field, to give a framework to evaluate current approaches, and to identify promising research lines and the possible results which can be foreseen in the next years.
   We will focus on some specific issues which we feel relevant in this application area:
  • what is usability in a safety critical context and how to evaluate it,
  • how to analyse and prevent human error through system specification and
       implementation; possible classifications of human errors improving their
       understanding;
  • how to guarantee the safety of the possible interactions;
  • how to design for robust co-operation among the users in technologically
       mediated work.
    Keywords: Safety critical systems, User interface design, Usability formal methods, Human-centered design
  • From Task to Dialogue: Task-Based User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 201
      Birgit Bomsdorf; Gerd Szwillus
    Developing user interfaces is no more a mere technical software development task; successful user interface design has to be interdisciplinary, taking into account other aspects, such as psychological, social, organisational, and cognitive aspects. It is generally accepted that the tasks, the user has to fulfill with a system to be developed should play an important role in its design. Knowing the user's tasks enables the designer to construct user interfaces reflecting the tasks' properties, including efficient usage patterns, easy-to-use interaction sequences, and powerful assistance features.
       As a consequence, task modelling becomes a central part of the user interface design process. To accomplish this a systematic transition has to exist from task identification to user interface construction. Hence, a task model of how the user performs his or her tasks with the future system has to be defined. This model contains the task structure, the division of labour between user and system, as well as information about the objects used within tasks, otherwise referred to as object model. From this a dialogue model is constructed, a constructive abstraction of the finally implemented user interface. The dialogue model contains such information as to which objects exist in the user interface, what are their different possible states, which events are triggering state changes, and information about object visibility and activation.
    Keywords: Task model, Object model, Dialogue model, User interface design, Model integration
    Hyped-Media to Hyper-Media: Toward Theoretical Foundations of Design, Use and Evaluation BIBAKPDF 202-203
      N. Hari Narayanan
    The theme of the workshop is emerging theoretical foundations of design, use and evaluation of interactive hypermedia systems. The term hypermedia is used to encompass visualization, multimedia and hypermedia systems.
    Keywords: Hypermedia, Multimedia, Visualizations, Design, Navigation, Evaluation, Theory, Models
    The Toughest Web User Interface Challenges BIBAKPDF 204
      Richard Miller; Keith Rettig
    The mission of the workshop is to provide a forum for experienced designers to solve problems in a collaborative environment, while learning about new methods for understanding the problems (user-centered design methodologies) and for solving the problems (web tools and technologies). The goals are focused on the individual user getting the most out of the workshop. Participants will spend some time reviewing methods for extracting requirements and solving design issues with paper prototyping. Emphasis will also be placed on exploring the bounds of design using various web technologies like JavaScript, Java, HTML, frames, and layers.
    Keywords: Web design, Interface design, Usability, HTML, JavaScript, Java, User-centered design, Team design, GUI objects
    Unpacking Strategic Usability: Corporate Strategy and Usability Research BIBAKPDF 205-206
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judee Humburg; Janice Rohn
    Some of the issues we'll explore include:
  • Impact of organizational profiles (including characteristics such as size,
       culture, organizational structure, products and services, product life
       cycles) on strategic usability
  • Human factors as a bridge between marketing and development; ties between
       market research and usability research
  • Use of consultants as missionaries for usability research, as well as
       usability planners and implementers
  • What customer research activities are central to corporate planning
  • Organizational and educational barriers to implementing strategic usability
  • Management commitments or positioning needed to support strategic usability
    Keywords: Best practices, Business direction, Corporate planning, Corporate strategy, Customer data collection, Customer needs, Market positioning, Strategic planning, Strategic usability, Usability, Usability research, User-centered design
  • Too Much of a Good Thing? Identifying and Resolving Bloat in the User Interface BIBAKPDF 207-208
      Leah Kaufman; Brad Weed
    Software magazines continually point out how interface bloat -- too many features, menus, toolbars, icons, and buttons -- plagues today's software. Yet even in the face of such strong criticism there are still people who prefer big software packages and love to discover an application's many features and tools. Is it time for software to trim down or can we design interfaces that comfortably accommodate a large number of features? Which is better for computer users, a small set of commonly used features or access to hundreds?
       Through examples, discussions, debate, and our shared experience with interface design and use, we will try to reach a clear understanding of bloat and finally, a set of recommendations for addressing it.
    Keywords: Bloat, Features, Interface design
    Web Navigation: Resolving Conflicts Between the Desktop and the Web BIBAKPDF 209
      Hal Shubin; Ron Perkins
    Navigation on the Web is different from navigation on "traditional" platforms like Macintosh and Windows. Users of the new platform find a model of navigation that conflicts with the conceptual model they developed on the older platforms. Rather than finding ways for users to cope on this new platform, how can we design Web applications so people can work more easily, with fewer transfer-learning problems?
       Workshop members will discuss their experiences and ways to overcome the problems. They will walk away with a concrete understanding of the special requirements of navigation on the Web.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Navigation, User model, Conceptual model
    Beyond Internet Business-as-Usual BIBAKPDF 210
      Markus Stolze; Patrick Steiger; Michael Good
    During the workshop, participants discuss their research and experience to:
  • Identify today's central practical problems,
  • Evaluate prototypes, technologies, and frameworks that show ways to transcend
       the current state of the art in Internet commerce and to accommodate growing
       user needs, and
  • Understand the ways in which electronic commerce can co-evolve with new
       shopper needs and new types of products and services.
    Keywords: Internet commerce, Electronic shopping, World Wide Web
  • Learner-Centered Design: Addressing, Finally, the Unique Needs of Learners BIBAPDF 211-212
      Sherry Hsi; Elliot Soloway
    In transitioning from UCD to LCD -- Learner-Centered Design -- we need to deeply appreciate the fact that learners have unique needs that go beyond those of professional users:
  • Growth: Learners change, however, not our current crop of software: the
       interface to our spreadsheet, say, is by and large the same on day 100 as it
       was on day 1. To support growth, then, interfaces must adapt and be
       adaptable.
  • Diversity: By definition, individuals in a profession share a significant
       degree of homogeneity. Software for a professional leverages quite directly
       off this homogeneity. In contrast, heterogeneity is the hallmark of
       learners. For example, in a representative public school classroom there
       will invariably be enormous differences in cognitive and social development,
       cultural background, and learning style.
  • Engagement: By definition, professionals can be counted on to attend and
       persevere; from batch processing to clunky teletypes, from screens upon
       screens of forms to arcane and arbitrary command sequences, professionals
       have repeatedly demonstrated that they will adjust to whatever it takes to
       get the job done. Children, on the other hand, are not so accommodating;
       while we are not advocating gratuitously sweet interfaces, designers must
       realize that helping to focus and engage learners is part of their
       responsibility.
  • Trust and Accountability: Preserving Human Values in Interactional Experience BIBAKPDF 213
      Batya Friedman; Jonathan Grudin
    Workshop Goals:
  • To explore with colleagues the societal value of trust and accountability,
       and the particular nature of trust and accountability in interactional
       experience.
  • To provide a forum (opportunity) for colleagues to discuss issues of trust
       and accountability in computer systems that have arisen from their own
       design experiences.
  • To work with colleagues to identify (1) positive designs and abuses of trust
       and accountability in computer systems, and (2) the elements of interface
       and system design that affect users' perceptions of trust and
       accountability.
  • To work with colleagues to generate design principles for preserving the
       values of trust and accountability in the design of future systems.
    Keywords: Accountability, Computer system design, Design methods, Ethics, Information systems, Social computing, Social impact, Trust, Value-sensitive design
  • User Interfaces for Computer-Based Patient Records BIBAKPDF 214
      Tom Brinck; Gary York
    This one-day workshop is meant to bring together designers, developers, users, and researchers developing or evaluating computer-based patient record (CPR) systems. The participants will discuss a variety of approaches including user interface guidelines, metaphors for design, evaluation of paper-based and CPR systems, design reviews, case studies, and workflow analysis.
    Keywords: Computer-based patient record, Medical record, Healthcare information systems, User interface design