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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Looking to the Future
Editors:Steven Pemberton
Location:Atlanta, Georgia
Dates:1997-Mar-22 to 1997-Mar-27
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-926-2 ACM Order Number 608975; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI97-2
Pages:379
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2
    1. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Browsing
    2. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Collaborative Work
    3. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Information Retrieval
    4. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Interaction Design Strategies
    5. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: The Web
    6. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Usability
    7. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: User Studies
    8. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Visualization
    9. SHORT DEMONSTRATIONS: Design, Techniques and Applications
    10. SHORT TALKS: Usability
    11. SHORT TALKS: Browsing and Navigation
    12. SHORT TALKS: Input Devices
    13. SHORT TALKS: Virtual Communities and Virtual Reality
    14. SHORT TALKS: A Melange
    15. SHORT TALKS: The Web and 3D
    16. SHORT TALKS: Interaction Design
    17. SHORT TALKS: Devices

CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Browsing

CollageMachine: Temporality and Indeterminacy in Media Browsing via Interface Ecology BIBAKHTML 238-239
  Andruid Kerne
CollageMachine synthesizes artistic and computational practices in order to represent media from the World Wide Web (WWW). It functions as a process-based art work, and as a special browser which can be useful for searching. Media elements are pulled from Web pages and composed into a collage which evolves over time. The evolving art work / browsing session can be shaped by the user. The temporal composition of the collage develops with relation to its visual composition and semantic content. The CollageMachine engine combines structured randomness and the user's expression of preferences and interests with design rules and semantic rules to make decisions about the collage's layout, and about which media to retrieve. My approach in blending music composition strategies, visual art aesthetics, and computer science techniques into this interactive environment arises through application of the theory of Interface Ecology.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Temporality, Indeterminacy, Visual design, Entertainment, Interface ecology, Interaction design, Interaction paradigms, Design techniques, Web browsers

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Collaborative Work

The Influences of Communication Media and Decision-Making Technique on Team Decision Outcomes: A Critical Assessment of the Stepladder Approach BIBAKHTML 240-241
  Lori L. Foster; Michael D. Coovert
The stepladder technique is a method for improving face-to-face (FTF) team problem solving. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the stepladder technique benefits computer-mediated (CM) teams of individuals. Hypotheses addressed the effects of communication media and decision making technique on team decision quality, decision variability, time to make a decision, and team member satisfaction. Eighty 4-person teams worked on a decision making task using one of the following group structures: FTF conventional, FTF stepladder, CM conventional, or CM stepladder. The results revealed fundamental differences between FTF and CM teams of decision makers.
Keywords: Team decision making, Computer-mediated decision making, Computer-mediated communication
Criteria for Effective Groupware 2 BIBAKHTML 242-243
  Mioko Ambe; Andrew Monk
The audience of a panel at CHI'96 in Vancouver submitted 61 forms suggesting criteria for the design of effective groupware. The suggestions made were analysed for common themes that are summarised here. The poster also presents an opportunity for participants at CHI'97 to contribute to this discussion.
Keywords: Groupware, Criteria, Design
Integrating Tools into the Classroom BIBAKHTML 244-245
  Roland Hubscher; Sadhana Puntambekar; Mark Guzdial; Janet L. Kolodner
SMILE, a learning environment for collaboration and design, is based on our experience with synchronous and asynchronous collaboration tools in the classroom and sound principles of software and interface design. SMILE provides a more holistic approach to supporting student reasoning and activities rather than the more reductionist tool-based approach we had started with. This more holistic approach focuses on the cognitive processes involved in doing design and learning from that experience, rather than focusing on activities that students are carrying out. This new emphasis has also allowed us to identify ways of integrating scaffolding for metacognitive and reflective reasoning that were not naturally integratable into the previous framework.
Keywords: Science education, Educational technology, Collaborative learning environments, Process-based scaffolding
A Prototype Design Tool for Participants in Graphical Multiuser Environments BIBAK 246-247
  Carol Strohecker; Barbara Barros
Users of this software construction kits can design layouts for virtual spaces. The elements of the software kit are based on Kevin Lynch's elements of the city image: districts, paths, edges, nodes, and landmarks (Lynch, 1960; Banerjee & Southworth, 1990).
Keywords: Design tools, Urban planning, Multi-user domains, Constructionist environments, Visual programming

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Information Retrieval

Synchronized Retrieval of Recorded Multimedia Data BIBAKHTML 248-249
  Yukihiro Kawamata; Kimiya Yamaashi; Masayasu Futakawa
This paper describes techniques for the retrieval of recorded multimedia data for supervisory control systems. Currently these systems operators can only retrieve recorded data individually. We developed new techniques to access all recorded data is synchronization. The techniques enable users to retrieve multimedia data such as sensor data and videos simultaneously, and also enable users to obtain the desired related data, including objects in videos, by "Drag and Drop" operation. All these techniques allow operators to exactly and quickly analyze phenomena in the systems based on the recorded multimedia data.
Keywords: Data retrieval, Multimedia, Video, Drag and drop

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Interaction Design Strategies

Beyond Fitts' Law: Models for Trajectory-Based HCI Tasks BIBAKHTML 250
  Johnny Accot; Shumin Zhai
Trajectory-based interactions, such as navigating through nested-menus, drawing curves, and moving in 3D worlds, are becoming common tasks in modern computer interfaces. Users' performances in these tasks cannot be successfully modeled with Fitts' law as it has been applied to pointing tasks. Therefore we explore the possible existence of robust regularities in trajectory-based tasks. We used "steering through tunnels" as our experimental paradigm to represent such tasks, and found that a simple "steering law" indeed exists. The paper presents the motivation, analysis, a series of four experiments, and the applications of the steering law.
Keywords: Fitts' law, Human performance, Modeling, Movements, Path steering, Task difficulty, Motor control, Input techniques and devices, Trajectory-based interaction

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: The Web

AnchoredDisplays: The Web on Walls BIBAKHTML 251-252
  Manish Tuteja
With the World Wide Web, mountains of information are suddenly within easy reach. Unfortunately, accessing this information still requires a computer screen, a keyboard and a mouse. This paper describes AnchoredDisplays, a new metaphor for exploiting physical location to help display and organize dynamically changing information. AnchoredDisplays are inexpensive battery operated display screens that can be affixed on walls, doors and desks. The displays can be configured to present information such as weather, traffic, stock quotes and sports scores extracted from the web. Once configured, users can place these displays wherever they feel relevant. Suddenly, dynamic information becomes much easier to find and assimilate; a user might place tomorrow's weather near the light switch and sports scores near the phone. Hardware and software implementations of a prototype AnchoredDisplay system are described.
Keywords: Information organization, Displays, World Wide Web
Magazines and Electronic Information Web Channels -- The Reader's Point of View BIBAKHTML 253-254
  Fredrik Carleson; Torbjorn Lundberg; Hans Nassla
One magazine and one electronic information web channel are compared with respect to the reader's attitude. Integrity, personal touch, character and ease of access are found to be the important factors in forming a strong relationship between the reader and the magazine, whether paper-based or electronic.
Keywords: Electronic publishing, Empirical studies, Organizational aspects, Social issues, E-zine, Magazine, Periodical, WWW

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Usability

Usability Testing of System Status Displays for Army Missile Defense BIBAKHTML 255-256
  Michael Perrin; Bobby Ford; Dick Steinberg
Modernizing workstations for Military applications is a challenge: designers must increase performance without affecting safety in any way. Furthermore, interaction efficiency is required to avoid fatigue and minimize error rates which could cost lives. Soldiers are understandably reluctant to use a new interface design on systems where life critical decisions are made. It is paramount to obtain user assessment of Interface Designs early and continually throughout the software development cycle to insure user acceptance and optimize user performance. Statistical based usability tests were performed with soldiers to determine display designs for the U.S. Army's Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Radar Soldier User Interface.
Keywords: Usability testing, Icon testing, Perception

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: User Studies

Comparison of Display Methods in Online Help BIBAKHTML 257-258
  Lori A. Caldwell; Thomas S. Tullis; Ana Pons
This poster describes a study conducted by the Human Interface Design department at Fidelity Investments Systems Company. The purpose of this study was to obtain performance and preference data about various methods of displaying data definitions in online help. The four methods studied were an alphabetical list of data elements with pop-up definitions, a window-ordered list with pop-up definitions, a screen shot of the window with pop-up definitions, and a table listing all data elements and their definitions. Performance and preference data indicated that the alphabetical list was the best.
Keywords: Online help, Information design, Reference topic
Designating Required vs. Optional Input Fields BIBAKHTML 259-260
  Thomas S. Tullis; Ana Pons
This paper describes a study comparing different techniques for visually distinguishing required from optional input fields in a form-filling application. Seven techniques were studied: no indication, bold field labels, chevrons in front of the labels, check marks to the right of the input fields, a different background color, grouping them separately, and a status bar indication. Performance and preference data were collected. In general, we found that the two worst methods were no indication and the status bar. The best method was separate groups.
Keywords: Required fields, Optional fields, Visual design, Data input
Participatory Adaptation BIBAKHTML 261-262
  Elizabeth Sklar Rozier; Richard Alterman
Expert users of programs that handle complicated data management problems develop methods for coping with data overload, multi-user cooperation, and real-time situations. These expert methods incorporate domain and/or user interface knowledge. If such methods were inherent in a system, then novice users could benefit from the expert's experience, the learning curve would be shortened and a more effective system would result. Defining and implementing a complete set of expert methods at design time is a daunting task. Collecting such information from a system's usage, after it has been deployed, should provide a more accurate database of expert methodologies. Current adaptive systems attempt to capture and automate such features during run-time. However, these systems can never evolve very far beyond their original design, since the adaptations occur within the scope of that design. Our method is to offer the expert's usage database as input to the designer, re-introducing the designer in the development cycle after a system has been deployed initially, so that a more effective system can be produced in the next generation.
Keywords: Usage, Expert, Adaptive system, Design

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Visualization

Focus+Context Visualization with Flip Zooming and the Zoom Browser BIBAKHTML 263-264
  Lars Erik Holmquist
Flip zooming is a novel focus+context technique for visualizing large data sets. It offers an overview of the data, and gives users instant access to any part. Originally developed for visualizing large documents, the method might be adapted for different types of information, including web pages, image collections and as a general windowing interface. A first practical demonstration of flip zooming is the Zoom Browser, a World Wide Web-browser that uses flip zooming to present web-pages.
Keywords: Focus+context views, Information visualization, Graphical user interfaces, World Wide Web
Mind Maps and Causal Models: Using Graphical Representations of Field Research Data BIBAKHTML 265-266
  David R. Millen; Audrey Schriefer; Diane Z. Lehder; Susan M. Dray
We recently completed a series of field visits to understand how workers use the Internet in their daily work activities. At each site, the team used traditional field research methods such as work observations, artifact walk-throughs, and contextual inquiry. An innovative debrief process was developed to understand, summarize and document each visit. In addition to a structured debrief questionnaire, the team created graphical summary notes using "mind maps." These mind maps efficiently captured a nonlinear, graphical clustering of key ideas. A "causal loop diagram" was also developed to document the team's understanding of the internal and external driving forces for each organization. Taken together, the debrief questionnaire, the mind maps, and the causal loop diagrams provided a rich multimedia representation of the field data.
Keywords: Research methods, Ethnography, Qualitative data analysis

SHORT DEMONSTRATIONS: Design, Techniques and Applications

Learning about User-Centered Design: A Multimedia Case Study Tutorial BIBAKHTML 267-268
  T. T. Carey; D. S. Peerenboom; M. N. Lytwyn
This multimedia tutorial provides a learning support system for continuing education in HCI. The system includes an authentic case study of a design project, a guide to user-centred design concepts, active role-playing activities and links to the larger professional community.
Keywords: HCI education, Interactive multimedia, User-centred design
Kinetic Typography: Issues in Time-Based Presentation of Text BIBAK 269-270
  Shannon Ford; Jodi Forlizzi; Suguru Ishizaki
This paper introduces research in kinetic typography, a new method of displaying text that take advantage of the dynamic nature of digital media. We suggest a preliminary set of design issues by which kinetic typography may be understood and used.
Keywords: Kinetic typography, Text display, Communication, Tone of voice, Emotion, Personality
Computer Assisted Foundations -- Interactive Design Problems BIBAK 271-272
  Patricia Nelson; Barbara Giorgio Booher; Loren Mork
Two art professors and a software designer have written computer assisted foundations design curriculum using interactive problems written in Macromedia Director. The problems are designed to produce many solutions, some of which are further developed using traditional artist's materials such as collage and paint. We would like to demonstrate four of these problems.
Keywords: Computer aided design, Art, Foundation design, Design education
CollageMachine: Temporality and Indeterminacy in Media Browsing via Interface Ecology BIBAKHTML 273-274
  Andruid Kerne
CollageMachine synthesizes artistic and computational practices in order to represent media from the World Wide Web (WWW). It functions as a process-based art work, and as a special browser which can be useful for searching. Media elements are pulled from Web pages and composed into a collage which evolves over time. The evolving art work / browsing session can be shaped by the user. The temporal composition of the collage develops with relation to its visual composition and semantic content. The CollageMachine engine combines structured randomness and the user's expression of preferences and interests with design rules and semantic rules to make decisions about the collage's layout, and about which media to retrieve. My approach in blending music composition strategies, visual art aesthetics, and computer science techniques into this interactive environment arises through application of the theory of Interface Ecology.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Temporality, Indeterminacy, Visual design, Entertainment, Interface ecology, Interaction design, Interaction paradigms, Design techniques, Web browsers
The RISE Platform: Supporting Social Interaction for On-Line Education BIBAKHTML 275-276
  Phil Smythe; Michael Gardner
We present RISE (Real-time Interactive Social Environment), a platform supporting data sharing and high quality audio conferencing under control of a Word-Wide Web (WWW) user interface and making extensive use of a database to track and support users. We report the results of our initial educational trial and discuss some more generic uses for the platform.
Keywords: Audio conferencing, Computer telephony integration, On-line education, Databases, Graphical user interfaces
The Magic Carpet: Physical Sensing for Immersive Environments BIBAKHTML 277-278
  Joseph Paradiso; Craig Abler; Kai-yuh Hsiao; Matthew Reynolds
An interactive environment has been developed that uses a pair of Doppler radars to measure upper-body kinematics (velocity, direction of motion, amount of motion) and a grid of piezoelectric wires hidden under a 6 x 10 foot carpet to monitor dynamic foot position and pressure. This system has been used in an audio installation, where users launch and modify complex musical sounds and sequences as they wander about the carpet. This paper describes the floor and radar systems, quantifies their performance, and outlines the musical application.
Keywords: Doppler radar, PVDF, Piezoelectrics, Immersive environment, Musical interfaces, Foot sensing

SHORT TALKS: Usability

Window Navigation With and Without Animation: A Comparison of Scroll Bars, Zoom, and Fisheye View BIBAKHTML 279-280
  Misha Donskoy; Victor Kaptelinin
Each of three window navigation techniques -- scroll bars, zoom, and fisheye view -- were implemented in two versions: with animation (a gradual transition from one state to another was provided) and without animation. A highly significant effect of navigation technique, but not of animation, was found in the experiment reported in the paper.
Keywords: Animation, Window navigation, Scroll bars, Zoom, Fisheye view
From the Flashing 12:00 to a Usable Machine: Applying UbiComp to the VCR BIBAKHTML 281-282
  Jeremy R. Cooperstock
The hype of intelligent appliances and "smart homes" has so far failed to produce consumer electronics technology of mass appeal. It is our contention that common frustration with overly complex user interfaces has been the foremost obstacle preventing society from reaping the benefits promised by such technology. In order to replace the remote controls and command consoles that litter both our work and home environments, we suggest that existing technologies can be combined to enable more appropriate human-computer interaction, and thus, produce truly usable machines.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, VCR, Interface design
Emotional Usability of Customer Interfaces -- Focusing on Cyber Banking System Interfaces BIBAKHTML 283-284
  Jinwoo Kim; Jae Yun Moon
Emotions play a major role in the social interaction process with electronic commerce systems. This paper describes our attempts to design customer interfaces for cyber banking systems that can induce target emotions for cyber banking systems. Four experiments were conducted to identify the important emotive factors and design factors, and to establish and verify causal relations between the factors. Results indicate that it is possible to design customer interfaces that will elicit target emotions for the systems (e.g., trustworthiness).
Keywords: Emotional usability, Customer interface, Trustworthiness
World Wide Web as Usability Tester, Collector, Recruiter BIBAKHTML 285-286
  Christopher (Blade) Kotelly
The usability team at Wildfire Communications Inc. conducted a usability test using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a method to advertise the test, recruit participants and gather data -- all automatically.
   The test was conducted over the course of only 2 days during which we collected useful information from 96 people.
   The usability test was for a speech system using participants recruited by Internet Newsgroups, e-mail lists and the WWW. Using these resources helped us to get a large population to test the system in a short period of time.
Keywords: Usability, World Wide Web (WWW), Testing, Speech, VUI
Creating Organization-Specific Usability Guidelines BIBAKHTML 287-288
  Scott Henninger
Working with a large information technology organization in industry, we have been investigating how a repository of organization-specific usability guidelines can be created and used to produce high quality end-user applications. Our approach is to create tools and methods in which software development organizations can develop and evolve usability guidelines based on the kinds of applications they develop. This information can then be used to match customer requirements to specific interface techniques that have proven effective for similar users and application domains. This is supported through a case-based system that attaches experience cases to guidelines to help find, explain, specialize, and extend usability guidelines.
Keywords: Usability guidelines, Organizational memory, Style guides, Design
Notes on a Pattern Language for Interactive Usability BIBAKHTML 289-290
  George Casaday
This paper explores a way of applying the emerging idea of pattern based design to creation of usable interactive systems. It defines patterns based on traditional usability attributes. It describes examples of three pattern types: simple (one attribute), intrinsic (attribute combinations), and circumstantial (external constraints involved).
Keywords: Interaction, Usability, Pattern, User interface

SHORT TALKS: Browsing and Navigation

Effective Product Selection in Electronic Catalogs BIBAKHTML 291-292
  Patrick Steiger; Markus Stolze
Product catalogs are crucial for electronic commerce on the Internet, but it is still a challenging task for casual users to perform effective product selection. Recently, a promising technique for product selection has been proposed: Incremental restriction on interactive tables. It allows customers to build complex queries with a few mouse clicks, but still to browse the available products at any stage. This paper describes effective and ineffective strategies of users working with this technique. These strategies were identified in a study with casual users.
Keywords: Electronic catalogs, Product selection, User studies
Integration of Browsing, Searching, and Filtering in an Applet for Web Information Access BIBAKHTML 293-294
  Kent Wittenburg; Eric Sigman
Improvements to information access on the World Wide Web has to be considered one of today's strategic challenges. In this paper we present a Java applet called AMIT (Animated Multiscale Interactive TreeViewer) that integrates fisheye tree browsing with search and filtering techniques. Used in combination with a web walker, a search server, and a tree server, it shows promise as a scalable solution to information access in configurable web spaces.
Keywords: Information access, Information visualization, Search, Browsing, Filtering, Animation, Fisheye, World Wide Web
Age Group Differences in World Wide Web Navigation BIBAKHTML 295-296
  Beth Meyer; Richard A. Sit; Victoria A. Spaulding; Sherry E. Mead; Neff Walker
In this study, we examined the effects of age and training on efficiency and preferences in a World Wide Web search activity. Older participants were able to complete most of the tasks, but took more steps to find the information than did younger adults. Factors in this inefficiency were patterns of returning to the home page and revisiting pages that had been seen before during a search. Interactive training improved efficiency and altered preferences. We discuss implications for training and design.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Information navigation, Usability, Aging, Training, Older users
CollageMachine: Temporality and Indeterminacy in Media Browsing via Interface Ecology BIBAKHTML 297-298
  Andruid Kerne
CollageMachine synthesizes artistic and computational practices in order to represent media from the World Wide Web (WWW). It functions as a process-based art work, and as a special browser which can be useful for searching. Media elements are pulled from Web pages and composed into a collage which evolves over time. The evolving art work / browsing session can be shaped by the user. The temporal composition of the collage develops with relation to its visual composition and semantic content. The CollageMachine engine combines structured randomness and the user's expression of preferences and interests with design rules and semantic rules to make decisions about the collage's layout, and about which media to retrieve. My approach in blending music composition strategies, visual art aesthetics, and computer science techniques into this interactive environment arises through application of the theory of Interface Ecology.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Temporality, Indeterminacy, Visual design, Entertainment, Interface ecology, Interaction design, Interaction paradigms, Design techniques, Web browsers
The Neighborhood Viewer: A Paradigm for Exploring Image Databases BIBAKHTML 299-300
  John V. Carlis; Alex Safonov; Douglas Perrin; Joseph A. Konstan
The Brain Neighborhood Viewer is a tool developed to help neuroscientists explore massive databases of brain images. The viewer implements an interface paradigm based on stacks of 2D images that are "yoked together" to provide a common coordinate system. When a user navigates in an image stack, all yoked stacks are updated to display the same location, which we call a brain neighborhood. Experience with the neighborhood suggests that this interface is useful for neuroscience research.
Keywords: Image databases, Browsing, Brain neighborhood viewer, Scientific visualization, Multi-resolution images
Searching and Browsing Text Collections with Large Category Hierarchies BIBAKHTML 301-302
  Marti A. Hearst; Chandu Karandi
A new user interface has been developed that allows users to make use of large category hierarchies for search and browsing of retrieval results for information access. The key insight is the separation of the representation of category labels from documents, which allows the display of multiple categories per document.
Keywords: Information access, Information visualization, Text, Search, Categories

SHORT TALKS: Input Devices

A Two-Ball Mouse Affords Three Degrees of Freedom BIBAKHTML 303-304
  I. Scott MacKenzie; R. William Soukoreff; Chris Pal
We describe a prototype two-ball mouse containing the electronics and mechanics of two mice in a single chassis. Unlike a conventional mouse, which senses x-axis and y-axis displacement only, our mouse also senses z-axis angular motion. This is accomplished through simple calculations on the two sets of x-y displacement data. Our mouse looks and feels like a standard mouse, however certain primitive operations are performed with much greater ease. The rotate tool -- common in most drawing programs -- becomes redundant as objects are easily moved with three degrees of freedom. Mechanisms to engage the added degree of freedom and different interaction techniques are discussed.
Keywords: Pointing devices, Multi-degree-of-freedom input, Rotation
Dual Stream Input for Pointing and Scrolling BIBAKHTML 305-306
  Shumin Zhai; Barton A. Smith; Ted Selker
To find ways to improve users' performance of tasks that involve both scrolling and pointing, we studied three dual-stream input methods, with one stream for pointing and one for scrolling. The results showed that a mouse augmented with a tracking wheel did not outperform the conventional single stream mouse. Two other methods, a mouse with an isometric rate-control joystick and a two handed system significantly improved users' performance.
Keywords: Input devices, Scrolling, Dual-stream input, Two-handed input
Easy Tactile Feedback in Bargain Basement Prices BIBAKHTML 307-308
  Naomi Friedlander; Kevin Schlueter; Marilyn M. Mantei
Constructing a tactile feedback device can be expensive and often requires extensive expertise. We have created a simple tactile feedback device which can be built, for under $30, by anyone with a basic understanding of electronics. The results of subjects performing a simple pulse counting task suggest that the feedback generated by it can be used effectively. We therefore believe that the device has potential to enhance user interfaces.
Keywords: Tactile feedback, Cost-efficient, User tests
The Tactile Touchpad BIBAKHTML 309-310
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Aleks Oniszczak
A prototype touchpad with embedded tactile feedback is described. Tactile feedback allows the touchpad to mimic the operation of a mouse for basic transactions such as clicking, double-clicking, and dragging. A button click is achieved by increasing the finger pressure applied to the touchpad, instead of using a lift-and-tap strategy or by pressing separate buttons. The result is more natural and less error prone. Pressure thresholds for the button-down and button-up actions are under software control and include hysteresis to minimise inadvertent selections.
Keywords: Touchpads, Pointing devices, Tactile feedback
Possibilities for the Digital Baton as a General-Purpose Gestural Interface BIBAKHTML 311-312
  Teresa Marrin
This paper describes issues and results from the design and use of the Digital Baton, a new interface for real-time gestural control. Its construction was originally motivated by the need for a new instrument on which to perform computer music, and it was designed to replicate as closely as possible the feel of a traditional conducting baton. However, it has unexpectedly become a model for the design of new interfaces and digital objects, and is currently being used to record data for analysis in gesture-recognition research. Some preliminary results and future research areas are discussed at the end.
Keywords: Gestural input, Hand-held device, Controller, Musical instrument, conducting
Support for Cooperatively Controlled Objects in Multimedia Applications BIBAKHTML 313-314
  Lauren J. Bricker; Marla J. Baker; Steven L. Tanimoto
This paper presents a class of objects that facilitate building software for "close collaboration." A definition is given for "cooperatively controlled objects" and three example activities are described.
Keywords: Computer supported collaboration, Multiple-user interface, Co-presence, Cooperatively controlled objects, Multimedia

SHORT TALKS: Virtual Communities and Virtual Reality

Video Matters! When Communication Ability is Stressed, Video Helps BIBAKHTML 315-316
  Elizabeth S. Veinott; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson; Xiaolan Fu
This study assesses whether remotely located pairs of people working on a collaborative task benefit from using video, looking in particular at people for whom communication is stressed. In this study, we extend the research on video-mediated communication to the domain of non-native speaker interactions. Thirty-six pairs performed a map task using either audio-only or audio-plus-video for communication. Half the pairs were non-native speakers, half were native speakers. As in many studies of video connectivity with native speakers, no benefit from the video was found. However, non-native speakers performed significantly better with a video connection than with audio only.
Keywords: Video-mediated communication, Remote work, Non-native speaker interaction
HyperMirror: A Video-Mediated Communication System BIBAKHTML 317-318
  Osamu Morikawa; Takanori Maesako
'HyperMirror', a video-mediated communication that includes reflected images of users is reported here. The users of this system, present in front of respective local cameras, can communicate with each other. They are not required to wear or operate any equipment. The images taken at the respective local sites are used to create a composite reflected image which represents a virtual room where all users seem to be present. This composite image is outputted to the respective local screens. Results of our experiment participated by users indicate that the system can provide such high reality to the composite image that many users show a tendency to talk to the screen even when the target person is locally present.
Keywords: Video-mediated communication, Virtual direct communication, Awareness, Mirror image
Sensing Activity in Video Images BIBAKHTML 319-320
  Alison Lee; Kevin Schlueter; Andreas Girgensohn
Video-based awareness tools increase familiarity among remote group members and provide pre-communication information. Low-cost iconic indicators provide less but more succinct information than video images while preserving privacy. Observations of and feedback from users of our video awareness tool suggest that an activity sensing feature along with a variety of privacy options combines advantages of both the video images and iconic indicator approaches. We introduced the activity sensing feature in response to user requests. It derives activity information from video images and provides options to control privacy and improves the usability of video-based awareness tools.
Keywords: Activity sensing, Awareness, Differences, Privacy, Usability
Prototyping Supermarket Designs Using Virtual Reality BIBAKHTML 321-322
  Charles van der Mast; Martin van den Berg
An experiment is described to compare the prototyping of store designs using three different media. The first medium is the traditional use of architectural drawings, the second medium is a representation of store designs made using a virtual reality software package, the third is the evaluation of real existing stores. The preliminary results indicate that prototyping with virtual reality improves the spatial/logistics, but not yet the commercial characteristics of the store designs.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Prototyping, Design of supermarkets
LogiMOO: A Multi-User Virtual World with Agents and Natural Language Programming BIBAKHTML 323-324
  Paul Tarau; Veronica Dahl; Stephen Rochefort; Koen de Bosschere
LogiMOO is a BinProlog-based Virtual World running under Netscape or Internet Explorer. It is user extensible and supports distributed group-work over the Internet. Virtual places, virtual objects and agents are programmable through a "controlled English" interface.
Keywords: Groupware, Coordination languages, Agents, Distributed logic programming, Virtual worlds, Internet applications
Does Immersion Make a Virtual Environment More Usable? BIBAKHTML 325-326
  Casey Boyd
Usability tests comparing three different virtual environment (VE) interface designs indicate that an immersive VE is more usable than two non-immersive VEs for a task with search and navigation components. Three interface designs were tried in a counterbalanced within-subjects procedure with ten randomly-ordered trials for each interface design. One of the interface designs used a head-tracked, stereoscopic head-mounted display. The other two interface designs used hand-tracking and were non-immersive -- the visual display appeared on a desktop monitor. Results for sixty participants doing the same task with each interface design show faster task completion times with the immersive design.
Keywords: Virtual environments, Evaluation, User studies, Immersion

SHORT TALKS: A Melange

WANDS: Tools for Designing and Testing Distributed Documents BIBAKHTML 327-328
  Andrew Sears; Michael S. Borella
Designing documents that will be viewed from remote locations via a network requires an understanding of traditional document and interaction design issues, plus an understanding of how network delays will impact document delivery. Unfortunately, being aware of networking issues is not always sufficient since designers usually have no way of viewing their documents as if those documents were being delivered to a remote site. This paper describes a set of tools that allow designers to view documents stored locally while experiencing response time delays as if the documents were delivered from a different location on the network. By using measured network latencies to drive an instrumented World-Wide Web server, we allow designers to view the documents they create from the perspective of someone sitting down the hall, across the country, or across an ocean.
Keywords: Document design, Network delays, Response time, WWW
Interfaces for Advanced Manufacturing Technology BIBAKHTML 329-330
  Michelle Vazquez; Marc L. Resnick
Due to the rapid computerization of advanced manufacturing workplaces, there is an increasing need for interfaces which can support this specific set of applications and users. However, workers in these situations tend to be highly trained in the specific tasks which they must accomplish, but may be relative novices when it comes to using computing systems. This paper describes the design of Easy Assemble, a windows based support system to assist workers in a flexible assembly task. Six subjects used Easy Assemble as real-time instructional support to assemble four products in a simulated manufacturing environment. Subjects assembled products in less than half the time and with variances much lower than the control group which used the traditional method of blueprints. Furthermore, subjects made significantly fewer errors. The system provides a starting point for the development of fully integrated systems for the advanced manufacturing environment.
Keywords: Advanced manufacturing, Novice, Computer-based training
How Users Reciprocate to Computers: An Experiment that Demonstrates Behavior Change BIBAKHTML 331-332
  BJ Fogg; Clifford Nass
We conducted an experiment to investigate if computers could motivate users to change their behavior. By leveraging a social dynamic called the "rule of reciprocity," this experiment demonstrated that users provided more helping behavior to a computer that had helped them previously than to a different computer. Users also worked longer, performed higher quality work, and felt happier. Conversely, the data provide evidence of a retaliation effect.
Keywords: Reciprocity, Retaliation, Agents, Persuasion, Influence, Social dynamics, Computers are social actors, Media equation, Experiments, Empirical studies
LICAI+: A Comprehension-Based Model of Learning for Display-Based Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 333-334
  Muneo Kitajima; Peter G. Polson
This paper describes a model of comprehension-based learning, LICAI+, an extension to the comprehension-based model of display-based HCI, LICAI [5], that simulates a user who performs tasks given as instructions. LICAI+ models users' learning of task performance by incorporating a process for encoding events during the task performance. A simulation of encoding and recalling events is described.
Keywords: Cognitive model, Learning, Display-based human-computer interaction, Construction-integration theory
Leave the Office, Bring Your Colleagues: Design Solutions for Mobile Teamworkers BIBAKHTML 335-336
  Ivan Bretain; Leif Fredin; Walter Frost; Leif-Rune Hedman; Per Kroon; Scott McGlashan; Eva-Lotta Sallnas; Markku Virtanen
One of the keys to successful deployment of mobile multimedia technology among professionals lies in identifying inherently distributed teams working under real-time constraints in dynamic field environments where the need to increase the efficiency of co-ordination, communication and collaboration is apparent. We report on some findings from investigating such non-office/out-of-office user-groups, and discuss the design of a portable environment for supporting the virtual reinforcement of teams, with special emphasis on co-worker status monitoring with respect to process phase, availability, geographical position etc.
Keywords: Mobile multimedia, CSCW, Wearable computing
An Automatic Method for Arranging Symbols and Widgets to Reflect their Internal Relations BIBAKHTML 337-338
  Johan Hagman
The two data visualization techniques cluster analysis and Voronoi tessellation are combined to automatically arrange objects, e.g. the widgets of an interface, so that their positions within a given area reflect their internal relations. The method is illustrated as it arranges three sets of objects.
Keywords: Interface design, Data visualization, Mapping optimization, Multi-dimensionality, Cluster analysis, Voronoi diagram

SHORT TALKS: The Web and 3D

A Method for Graphical Input on the WWW BIBAKHTML 339-340
  Lesley M. Parks; Ernest A. Edmonds
Using the World Wide Web (Web) is rapidly becoming one of the main ways in which people interact with computers. However, although the Web has permitted a rich variety of hypertext output, input has, until recently, been restricted to text or simple menu choices. The advent of languages like Java, which permit interactive programs to be included on a page, clearly changes what is possible. This contribution discusses the requirement for graphical input on the Web and describes an initial implementation which permits graphical objects to be manipulated on a Web page to provide input for subsequent analysis and computation.
Keywords: WWW, Java, Graphical interaction, Constraints, Semantics
How People Use WWW Bookmarks BIBAKHTML 341-342
  David Abrams; Ron Baecker
In this detailed empirical study of WWW browsing and bookmarks we define a personal information space as having five basic properties paralleling those of a larger complex information space. We describe user behavior on the Web and show how a user's bookmark archive is a personal Web information space.
Keywords: WWW, Bookmark, Information space, User study, Survey, Empirical study
Internet Scrapbook: Creating Personalized World Wide Web Pages BIBAKHTML 343-344
  Atsushi Sugiura; Yoshiyuki Koseki
This paper describes an information personalization system, called Internet Scrapbook, which enables users to create a personal page by clipping and merging their necessary data gathered from multiple Web pages. Even when the source Web pages are modified, the system updates the personal page, replacing with the latest data extracted from the source pages. Therefore, once a user creates their personal pages, she can browse her necessary information only.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Web browser, End-user programming, Programming by example, Programming by demonstration
3D Object Recognition with Motion BIBAKHTML 345-346
  Geoffrey S. Hubona; Gregory W. Shirah; David W. Fout
This extended abstract presents preliminary results of an experiment that explores the effects of stereoscopic and monoscopic viewing, and controlled and uncontrolled motion, on the accuracy and speed of visually comparing and matching solid and wire frame cube- and sphere-based objects presented on a computer screen.
Keywords: 3D data visualization, Spatial orientation, Virtual reality
Overlaying Motion, Time and Distance in 3-Space BIBAKHTML 347-348
  Mike Pell
An innovative method for visually and functionally combining the elements of motion, time and distance in a three-dimensional computer animation is presented. At a glance, the elapsed time of the movement, distance traveled, relative velocity, scale and the object orientation can be derived from a single visual representation. Creation and editing of animations can also be simplified through the use of an interrelated set of immersive three-dimensional user interface elements.
Keywords: 3D Animation, 3D interfaces, Interactivity, Visual design
Object Manipulation in Virtual Environments: Human Bias, Consistency and Individual Differences BIBAKHTML 349-350
  Yanqing Wang; Christine L. MacKenzie; Valerie A. Summers
This paper investigates human bias, consistency and individual differences when performing object manipulation in a virtual environment. Eight subjects were asked to manipulate a wooden cube to match a 3-D graphic target cube presented in 3 locations and 2 orientations. There were two visual conditions for the experiment: the subject performed the tasks with or without vision of the hand and the wooden cube. The constant errors of object translation and orientation suggested specific human biases. In terms of the variable errors, visual feedback appeared to be more critical for object transportation than object orientation. It was also found that individual differences were more pronounced in human bias than in consistency during object manipulation. These results suggest tolerance for human bias and variability should be accommodated in human-computer interface design.
Keywords: Interface design, Object manipulation, Virtual environment, Human performance

SHORT TALKS: Interaction Design

Responsive Graphs: Understanding Engineering Concepts Through Interactive Experience BIBAKHTML 351-352
  Eviatar Shafrir; Lee Smith
Understanding scientific engineering concepts requires learners to correlate between different model representations. Simple engineering models are formulated mathematically, visualized with one or more graphs, and verbally interpreted with engineering terminology. Past [4] and present systems [1] allow learners to modify a limited set of model parameters but not the graph-plot itself. This paper describes a set of interactive learning models consisting of standard interactors together with novel direct-manipulation Responsive Graphs. By setting values with sliders and visually modifying graph-plots, users qualitatively explore and comprehend abstract engineering concepts through interactive experimentation. All model representations are continuously updated in real-time enabling users to compare and move between different model representations. These highly interactive learning experiences are the result of a collaboration between interaction designers seeking direct manipulation of graphics and engineering domain-experts.
Keywords: Interactive learning environment, Interaction design, Mathematical modeling, Java applet
Internet Delay Effects: How Users Perceive Quality, Organization, and Ease of Use of Information BIBAKHTML 353-354
  Andrew Sears; Julie A. Jacko; Michael S. Borella
In this paper we report the results of an investigation designed to determine the effects of Internet delays on users perceptions of ease of locating information, organization of information, quality of information, and navigation problems. The results demonstrated user sensitivity to delays. As expected, for text-and-graphics documents, shorter delays provoked more favorable responses. However, for text-only documents, the shorter the delay, the less favorably a document was viewed. The results indicated that users may prefer multi-media web sites but are unwilling to tolerate the substantial network delays often associated with delivering graphics, video, animation, and audio.
Keywords: Internet, WWW, Delays, Perceived usability
Model-Based Design of Hypermedia Presentations BIBAKHTML 355-356
  N. Hari Narayanan; Mary Hegarty
Users' mental representations and cognitive strategies have a profound influence on how well they comprehend multimodal information that hypermedia systems present. This implies that cognitive models of comprehension ought to drive the design of effective Hypermedia Information Presentation Systems (HIPS). We report on a current research project that applies this principle to the design of hypermedia manuals of complex machines. This paper describes the comprehension model derived from prior empirical and theoretical research, discusses intermediate results, and presents a roadmap of the research project.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Cognitive models, Model-based design
Billow: Networked Hospital Playspace for Children BIBAKHTML 357-358
  Teri Rueb; John Wardzala; Jessica Millstone
Through exploring play as a therapeutic process, we have developed a system called "Billow" which allows children in hospitals, who are quarantined or otherwise isolated, to play in a virtual audio-visual cloudscape using a malleable, egg-shaped input/output device. This prototype was designed in collaboration with child psychologists and art therapists who are advocates for these children in the hospital setting. It is intended to address the children's need for increased human interaction and social development, mastery and control, and comfort and security. Billow addresses these needs by enabling isolated children to play together and communicate in a locally networked, audio-visual play environment.
Keywords: Children, Hospitals, Tactile input device, Virtual community, Audio, Telephony
Rosebud: Technological Toys for Storytelling BIBAKHTML 359-360
  Jennifer W. Glos; Justine Cassell
Rosebud is a user-interface prototype which elicits storytelling by child users though interaction with a computationally-augmented physical artifact. In particular, Rosebud links children's stories to their toys, such that toy and computer augment one another. The toy engages children in a familiar mode of interaction, while the computer makes a previously passive object active. The children are able to write, edit, collaborate, and share their stories, activities which have particular attraction for female users.
Keywords: Storytelling, Children, Gender, Tangible interface, Education
The Pillow: Artist-Designers in the Digital Age BIBAKHTML 361-362
  Anthony Dunne; William W. Gaver
The Pillow is a treated LCD screen which shows changing patterns in response to ambient electromagnetic radiation, challenging viewers to consider our constant invasion by electronic information. It is proposed as a product for mass-production, one that people would purchase for home use. In this paper, we describe how this admittedly impractical value fiction illustrates some of the ways that designers can pursue research.
Keywords: Design, Design centred approaches, Telecommunications

SHORT TALKS: Devices

inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication BIBAKHTML 363-364
  Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley
In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal communication. We present the design of our prototype inTouch system which provides a physical link between users separated by distance.
Keywords: Haptics, Interpersonal communication, Force feedback, Telepresence
BIOculars: A Virtual Ecosystem for Wilderness Parks BIBAKHTML 365-366
  Kiersten Muenchinger; Jon Lindsay; John Morkes; Connie Chiueh; John Russell; Tony Vastola
BIOculars is a concept system that allows visitors to state and national wilderness parks to create virtual animals and observe them in a continually running simulation based on the park's natural environment. Users create fantasy animals with a computer interface that, inverted, transforms into a binocular-like device. When users look through the device, they can see their virtual species 'living in' and interacting with the park's real ecosystem. BIOculars was designed by a Stanford University student team using an iterative design process that emphasized repeated prototyping and user testing.
Keywords: Interaction design, Virtual reality, Children, Education, Entertainment, Simulation
Design of Spatially Aware Graspable Displays BIBAKHTML 367-368
  David Small; Hiroshi Ishii
We propose spatially aware portable displays which use movement in real physical space to control navigation in the digital information space within. This paper describes two interface design studies which use physical models, such as friction and gravity, in relating the movement of the display to the movement of information on the display surface. In combining input and output aspects of the interface into a single object, we can improve control and provide a meaningful relationship between the interface and the body of the user.
Keywords: Interaction design, Industrial design, 3D interfaces, LEGO
The Strategy for Selecting a Minute Target and the Minute Maximum Value on a Pen-Based Computer BIBAKHTML 369-370
  Xizngshi Ren; Shinji Moriya
This study deals with the relations between target-pointing strategies and target sizes. An evaluation experiment was performed in which the experimental system changed each of five kinds of targets (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 dots in diameter respectively, 0.36 mm per dot) and eight directions of pen-movement, while using each of six kinds of strategies of approaching the target on a pen-based computer. Two results were obtained: (1) The "Land-on2" strategy was found to be the best strategy for selecting a minute target among the six strategies, in terms of error rates, selection time and subjective evaluation. (2) This study also clarified a boundary value of target which controlled difficulty of strategy. When a target is less than 5 dots (1.80 mm), it is necessary to pay attention to the determination of the strategy in the software design.
Keywords: Pen input, Target-pointing strategies, Minute targets, The minute maximum value
The Bed: A Medium for Intimate Communication BIBAKHTML 371-372
  Chris Dodge
In this paper, I present "The Bed", an environment providing a new form of abstracted presence for intimate, non-verbal inter-personal communication. This secure and familiar environment is explored for its ability to become a shared virtual space for bridging the distance between two remotely located individuals through aural, visual, and tactile manifestations of subtle emotional qualities. As an example, I describe the application of these tangible interfaces and ambient media into a working prototype.
Keywords: Ambient media, Tangible interfaces, Telepresence, Abstracted presence, Physical avatars