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Proceedings of ACM CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Looking to the Future
Editors:Steven Pemberton
Location:Atlanta, Georgia
Dates:1997-Mar-22 to 1997-Mar-27
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-926-2 ACM Order Number 608975; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI97-2
Pages:379
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2
    1. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    2. Tutorials
    3. Formal Video Program
    4. Workshops

CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2

Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

Evaluation -- Methodology for Telematic Application Systems: Quality for Users and Context BIBKHTML 121
  J. H. Erik Andriessen; Bert Arnold
Keywords: Telematics applications, Evaluation, Design methodology, User requirements, Context of use, Psychological impact, Social impact, Organizational impact
Corporate Pioneers Part II -- Lessons Learned: Introducing and Promoting Usability Testing in a Corporate Environment BIBKHTML 122
  James Geyerman
Keywords: Usability, Tools, Corporate environment, Testing, Quality
The HCI Educator's Open House: Exchanging Resources, Delivery Formats, Learning Strategies and Future Concerns BIBKHTML 123
  Laurie P. Dringus; Maxine S. Cohen
Keywords: HCI education, Professional networking, HCI resources
Visual Interaction Design: Designing the Quality Experience BIBKHTML 124
  Shannon Ford; Dan Boyarski
Keywords: Visual interaction design, Experience, Design criteria, Case studies
Measuring Website Usability BIBKHTML 125
  Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon
Keywords: Web design, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Searching
ACM SIGCHI Information Infrastructure BIBAHTML 126
  Gary Perlman; Keith Instone
We describe recent improvements to the ACM SIGCHI information infrastructure, mainly in the SIGCHI Web site and SIGCHI use of the ACM LISTSERV for mailing lists and aliases, and how they have been applied to provide general information, support committees, publications and conferences, and technical discussions. We then describe some key areas where volunteers are needed to improve SIGCHI information services, particularly in the area of databases.
Managing the Information Technology Infrastructure: HCI Design for Network and System Management Applications BIBKHTML 127
  Thomas M. Graefe; Dennis Wixon
Keywords: HCI design, Network management, Agents, Expert systems, Visualization, Electronic performance support
Visual Interaction Design BIBKHTML 128
  Loretta Staples
Keywords: Design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, Product design, Industrial design, Information design, Special interest group, Special interest area
Captology: The Study of Computers as Persuasive Technologies BIBKHTML 129
  BJ Fogg
Keywords: Psychology of HCI, Persuasion, Influence, Agents, Interaction design
Students at CHI BIBKHTML 130
  Michael Byrne; Stacie Hibino
Keywords: CHI students, Graduate students, Thesis issues
Improving International Communication and Cooperation in SIGCHI BIBKHTML 131
  David G. Novick; John Karat; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
Keywords: SIGCHI, International cooperation, Community
End-User Computing BIBKHTML 132
  Howie Goodell
Keywords: End-user computing, User programming, Machine control, Application-specific languages, Programming by Demonstration
Usability and Requirements: What Role can Usability Professionals Play in Requirements Definition? BIBKHTML 133
  Elizabeth Muncher
Keywords: Requirements, Methodologies, Product development
The Amulet User Interface Development Environment (SIG) BIBKHTML 134
  Brad A. Myers
Keywords: User interface management systems, Toolkits, User interface development environments, Interface builders, C++
Art and Design Student Demos BIBKHTML 135
  Gillian Crampton Smith; Dan Boyarski
Keywords: Education, Design, Interaction design, Artists/designers, Master's programs, Student work
Contextual Techniques: Seeing Design Implications in Data BIBKHTML 136
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies, Work analysis
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBKHTML 137
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Laurie Kantner
Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information design, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development

Tutorials

Human-Computer Interaction: Introduction and Overview BIBAKHTML 138-139
  Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob
The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Theory, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
User Interface Design for the WWW BIBAKHTML 140-141
  Jakob Nielsen
You are up against a million other Web sites: how do you get users to stay at your site? Only by providing valuable content and a highly usable interface. Cool is getting cold.
Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Web, Hypertext, Usability
Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKHTML 142-143
  Thomas T. Hewett
This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user
Developing Collaborative Applications Using the World Wide Web "Shell" BIBAKHTML 144-145
  Alison Lee; Andreas Girgensohn
The World Wide Web is often viewed as the latest and most user friendly way of providing information over the Internet (i.e., server of documents). It is not customarily viewed as a platform for developing and deploying applications. In this tutorial, we introduce and demonstrate how Web technologies can be used in combination with Web browsers to design, create, distribute and execute collaborative applications. We discuss how HTML in combination with CGI scripts, JavaScript, and Java can be used to develop interactive and collaborative applications. We discuss recent extensions and additions that support sophisticated application development as well as the constraints with the WWW 'Shell' approach. The term World Wide Web 'Shell' is used in a manner analogous to the use of the term Expert System Shell. Specifically, the components of the WWW provide basic functionality and services for developing application in much the same way as an expert system shell provides components for developing expert system applications.
Keywords: Collaborative applications, Interactive applications, Forms, HTML, MIME, CGI, HTTP, URL, Java, JavaScript, Web server, Web browsers, Software development
Designing Icons and Visual Symbols BIBAHTML 146-147
  William Horton
Problems with icons are common-especially on Web pages and GUIs designed by amateurs. Most of these problems can be solved with more attention to detail, more input from various viewpoints, and more testing. This checklist will help you with those tasks.
Digital Storytelling and Computer Game Design BIBAKHTML 148-149
  Thom Gillespie
This workshop uses a combination of short lecture and hands on practice to introduce digital storytelling and computer game design and the multitude of skills needed to successfully design digital stories and computer games. Working examples are taken from two current projects at Indiana University: Lost Highways and Rock-Paper-Scissors in Lizard Land.
Keywords: Digital storytelling, Computer game design, Fun, Human-media interaction, HMI
Spoken Dialogue Interfaces BIBAKHTML 150-151
  Susann LuperFoy
This introductory tutorial overviews recent advancements and current efforts in the integration of speech processing with other components of spoken-dialogue systems. It examines important results in designing, constructing, and evaluating complete conversational systems that integrate speech recognition and synthesis with other enabling technologies. Among the disciplines contributing material for the course are, therefore, speech recognition and synthesis, but also natural language processing, user-interface design, machine translation, planning and plan recognition, gesture analysis, computational discourse, and usability evaluation. The full-day course is comprised of four sessions including an introduction to the state of the art, review of existing spoken interface systems, the integration of speech processing with other interaction modalities, and a closing session on evaluation methods, tools for developing spoken dialogue systems, and other issues affecting the spoken interface community.
Keywords: Speech, Dialogue, Conversational interfaces, Natural language
Wizards, Coaches, Advisors, and More: A Performance Support Primer BIBAKHTML 152-153
  Karen L. McGraw; Bruce A. McGraw
Today's business environment is complicated. Downsizing means fewer people doing more. The staff has less time to learn new systems. And while there are more mission-critical systems in the workplace, there are fewer training dollars available to ensure proper operation. The result is a 'performance gap' -- users may not have the skills they need to take full advantage of the systems they must use. In this tutorial we present a definition and objectives of performance support and illustrate how performance support can yield ROI. Next, we review each component and discuss development methodology and design issues. Finally, we address hurdles to successful projects.
Keywords: Performance support, Task-based interface, Coaches, Wizards, Advisors, Help, Documentation, Knowledge base support
Product Usability: Survival Techniques BIBAKHTML 154-155
  Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder
Product developers are typically faced with small budgets, tight schedules, and over-committed resources. To deliver high-quality products under these constraints, developers need an understanding of basic design principles, techniques that allow them to work effectively with materials on hand, and a development process that is built around the use of such techniques. This workshop explains how low-fidelity prototyping and usability testing can be used in a process of iterative refinement in order to develop more usable products.
Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques
Strategic Usability: Introducing Usability into Organisations BIBAKHTML 156-157
  Sarah Bloomer; Rachel Croft; Helen Kieboom
Usability may now be practised by a large number of software developers, but has yet to gain wide acceptance. Communicating the value of usability must happen across multiple levels of an organisation, and requires speaking several "languages". This practical, hands-on tutorial will cover techniques for convincing management or potential clients of the value of usability, in terms each group understands. It will examine what is required to develop a usability strategy for a whole organisation to finding data to convince stakeholders of a single usability activity.
Keywords: Strategic usability, Usability strategies, Cost-justification, Communicating usability data
Activity Theory: Basic Concepts and Applications BIBAKHTML 158-159
  Victor Kaptelinin; Bonnie A. Nardi
This tutorial introduces participants to Activity Theory, a conceptual approach that provides a broad framework for describing the structure, development, and context of computer-supported activities. The tutorial will consist of lectures, discussion and small group exercises. A Web community will be established so attendees will be able to continue to learn about and use activity theory.
Keywords: Activity Theory, Foundations of HCI, Contextual studies
Designing User Interfaces from Analyses of Users' Tasks BIBAKHTML 160-161
  Peter Johnson; Stephanie Wilson; Hilary Johnson
This tutorial provides a detailed introduction to task analysis and task-based design. The focus of task analysis is the description of work tasks, while the focus of task-based design is designing interactive systems from the perspective of users' work. Techniques from psychology, ethnomethodology and sociology are used to analyse and describe users' current work tasks. A framework for modelling work tasks (Task Knowledge Structures) is used to represent relevant task information. Guidelines are provided to help the design team envision and reason about how current tasks might be changed and improved through the design of interactive systems. The envisioned task descriptions provide the focus for the design and development of interactive systems that will support the users' work.
Keywords: Task analysis, Task-based design, Work analysis, Model-based design, Design guidelines, Envisioning design, User interface design
Color and Type in Information Design BIBAHTML 162-163
  Charles A. Poynton; Mary Mooney
Work with color and type in the CHI community is often undertaken with a base of experience and a sense of craftsmanship, but without a firm foundation in the principles of perception, science, and engineering. In this tutorial, you will learn the perceptual, color science, and engineering principles that underlie effective information presentation. You will learn to apply these principles to the design of graphical user interfaces and information displays.
   This tutorial is directed to graphic designers, interface designers, and developers of on-line information. You should have experience in developing user interfaces, experience in creating and manipulating digital imagery, or experience in writing or illustration.
Getting Started on a Contextual Project BIBAKHTML 164-165
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to collect the detailed customer data they need for their projects. But when a team wants to apply contextual techniques to their own situation, they are faced with a host of problems. What project should they start with? Is it better to introduce them early or late in the process? Given all the different possible techniques, which will work best for the specific project chosen? How should the customers be chosen and how should visits to them be set up? Who should be on the project? It's no wonder people find it hard to get started with these new techniques in their own organizations.
   This tutorial gets participants over the roadblocks in the way of using contextual techniques in their projects. We walk through the different aspects of a contextual project, describing the issues that need to be resolved, the different approaches that can work, and the principles which guide making a choice. We use exercises to give participants the chance to plan aspects of their own projects, so they can do the thinking process themselves and raise any questions raised by their own situations.
   This tutorial is appropriate to anyone wishing to use field methods to gather customer data for their projects. Some familiarity with these methods is assumed.
Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
Introduction to Design Ethnography BIBAKHTML 166-167
  Tony Salvador; Michael Mateas
Design Ethnography is a set of data collection and analysis perspectives, assumptions and skills that can be used effectively and efficiently to understand a particular environment, or domain, of people for the express purposes of designing new technology products. Working from the data one forms models of the environment explicitly considering the peoples' relationship to other people, space, time, artifacts, activities and nature. The models, graphically represented, are used explicitly to derive and test product concepts.
Keywords: Ethnography, Consumer market, Home, Teenagers, Business communication
Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKHTML 168-169
  Gary Perlman
Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include
  • 1. Inspection Methods (e.g., heuristic evaluation),
  • 2. Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud
        protocols),
  • 3. Program Instrumentation, and
  • 4. Questionnaires. The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: [H.5.2] User interface, Evaluation/methodology, [D.2.2] Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, [H.1.2] Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors
  • Designing Usable and Visually Appealing Web Sites BIBHTML 170-171
      Wayne Neale; Cindy McCombe
    Metaphor Design in User Interfaces: How to Manage Expectation, Surprise, Comprehension, and Delight Effectively BIBAKHTML 172-173
      Aaron Marcus
    User interface design requires designing metaphors, the essential terms, concepts, and images representing data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Advanced user interfaces require consideration of new metaphors and repurposing of older ones. Awareness of semiotic principles, in particular the use of metaphors, can assist researchers and developers in achieving more efficient, effective ways to communicate to more diverse user communities.
    Keywords: Consumers, Culture, Diversity, Graphic design, Icons, Information design, Metaphors, Multi-media, Productivity tools, Rhetoric, Semantics, Semiotics, Symbols, User interfaces, Visible language, Web
    Interacting and Designing in Virtual Worlds on the Internet BIBAKHTML 174-175
      Bruce Damer
    Multi-user virtual worlds are proliferating on the Internet. These are two and three dimensional graphical environments inhabited by users represented as digital actors called "avatars". Through this medium, a wide variety of Internet users are participating in a large scale social experiment and collaborating on a variety of projects. The inhabited virtual world is an exciting new medium for HCI professionals including interaction and graphic designers, and educators and researchers focused on distance learning and teleworking. It also appeals to children and ordinary users of the Internet as a vast new digital playground and a venue for personal expression. This tutorial will introduce participants to a variety of inhabited virtual worlds and give them hands-on experience in collaboratively building and interacting with other users in the worlds.
    Keywords: Virtual worlds, Social computing, Avatars, Collaborative workspaces, VRML, Three dimensional interfaces
    Practical User Interface Design: Developing within Real-World Constraints BIBAKHTML 176-177
      Debra Herschmann
    User interface designers are trained to strive for the ultimate interface, one that is usable, effective and engaging. However, in a commercial production environment, there are rarely sufficient resources to achieve the ultimate interface. Tight deadlines, limited budget and staff, shifting priorities and conflicting agendas all affect the final product design. In such a setting, designers must revise their vision of the ultimate interface to provide the best implementable and affordable user interface, one that can be realized with the given resource constraints.
    Keywords: Constraints, Production environment, Cost estimation, Reducing implementation cost
    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAKHTML 178-179
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a typical, modern project life cycle, and presents usability methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: User interface design, User profile, Task analysis, Usability goals, Style guide, Conceptual model, Walkthroughs, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Usability organization, Cost-benefit analysis
    Interviewing Customers: Discovering What They Can't Tell You BIBAKHTML 180-181
      Ellen A. Isaacs
    Product designers typically talk to customers in an effort to better understand their needs. However, without interviewing skills and an understanding of the types of information people can provide about themselves, interviewers may collect little useful information or even misleading information. This tutorial provides a practical approach to interviewing customers. It focuses on three areas: (a) the types of information you should (and should not) expect to learn from interviews, (b) good interviewing techniques, and (c) methods for analyzing the large volumes of information collected in interviews. The tutorial makes heavy use of demonstrations and exercises to give the participants hands-on experience with preparing and conducting interviews as well as analyzing information collected.
    Keywords: Interviewing, Requirements gathering
    Structured Observation: Practical Methods for Understanding Users and Their Work Context BIBAKHTML 182-183
      Susan M. Dray
    This tutorial will focus why and how to do observations of users in their own worksite.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Observation, Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, Qualitative data, User profiles, User data collection, Usability, Tools and techniques
    Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive Systems Design BIBAKHTML 184-185
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem-how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design. An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it in their own development process.
       In this tutorial we present our latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users in models, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present the process by which we build and use the models and practice key steps. We show how these methods fit into the overall design process, and summarize Contextual Design, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
       The tutorial is appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
       We use shopping as our example of work practice throughout this tutorial, since shopping is simple and understood by everyone. We encourage participants to go grocery shopping shortly before the tutorial, and bring any shopping list they may have used, their store receipt, and a drawing of the store layout and their movement through it.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis
    OVID: Object View and Interaction Design BIBAKHTML 186-187
      Richard Berry; Scott Isensee; Dave Roberts
    Several methods are already available for object oriented program design. These methods do not deal with user interface design. The tutorial teaches OVID, a systematic method for designing Object User Interfaces for use by product design teams. OVID is a major step in changing user interface design from art to science. It emphasizes the production of a complete, accurate model that can be used as input to program design methodologies.
    Keywords: User interface design, Object oriented, Task analysis
    Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain BIBAHTML 188-189
      Betty Edwards
    Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain is one of the most effective teaching methods for drawing ever developed. In this tutorial, the participant will be introduced to the underlying theory behind the method. The bulk of the session will involve practical hands-on exercises, which demonstrate the participants ability to learn to draw, and to learn to "see things more clearly.
       In this tutorial you will learn basic strategies for accessing the visual, perceptual mode of thinking. This type of thinking is learned through the acquisition of very basic drawing skills and the acquisition of an understanding of the nature of drawing.
    Multimedia Visual Interface Design BIBAKHTML 190-191
      Susan E. Metros; John G. Hedberg
    Over the past few years, as graphics and imagery have come to dominate our popular modes of communication, interactive multimedia and WWW developers and users have become keenly aware of the interplay between these visual elements and the cognitive functioning of the interface. This tutorial explores the various facets of this relationship. As a result, participants of this tutorial will gain a better understanding and a working knowledge of how the components of visual interface design work in concert with the cognitive demands of an interface. They will be able to design or direct the design of functional and visually appropriate interfaces for multimedia, websites, courseware and/or training modules.
    Keywords: Cognitive models, Graphic design, Interaction design, Interface design, Multimedia, User models, Visual design, Visualization, World Wide Web
    Social and Natural Interfaces: Theory and Design BIBAKHTML 192-193
      Clifford Nass; Byron Reeves
    This tutorial will cover issues related to the theory and design of social interfaces. The presentation is based on a long-term research project at Stanford University called Social Responses to Communication Technology (SRCT). This research shows that all people expect computers to obey a wide range of social and natural rules. The tutorial will cover 24 different concepts taken from the social science literature (e.g., personality, politeness, emotions), discussing both experimental results and the implications of results for the design of interfaces. The presentation will include an evaluation of current interfaces. The tutorial is for designers, usability specialists, and anyone interested in creating or assessing interfaces that conform with social and natural rules. No knowledge of programming is necessary.
    Keywords: Social responses to communication technology, SRCT, Interface design, Social science methods, Personality
    Software Agents BIBAKHTML 194-195
      Marc Millier
    "Agents" and "Agent technology" have become the new buzzwords in computer software. Much of this 'buzz' is pure hype similar to the AI hype of the 80's. The software agents tutorial is intended to provide the attendee an overview of the software and user interface technologies being applied to autonomous software modules known as "Agents". This overview should allow the student to separate the "wheat from the chaff" and provide pointers for the student's further research into the technology.
    Keywords: Software agents, Distributed artificial intelligence, Tutorial
    Information Visualization BIBAKHTML 196-197
      Nahum Gershon; Stuart Card; Stephen G. Eick
    Visual representation of information requires merging of data visualization methods, computer graphics, design, and imagination. This course describes the emerging field of information visualization including visualizing retrieved information from large document collections (e.g., digital libraries), the World Wide Web, and databases. The course highlights the process of producing effective visualizations, making sense of information, taking users' needs into account, and illustrating good practical visualization procedures in specific case studies.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Visualization, World Wide Web, WWW, Usability
    Creating Conversational Interfaces for Interactive Software Agents BIBAKHTML 198-199
      Tandy Trower
    While much research and design has been presented on designing interactive agents and on speech interfaces, little has been said about combining these areas. This tutorial presents recommended guidelines for creating conversational interfaces with agents presented as interactive characters.
    Keywords: Software agents, Interactive characters, Conversational interfaces, Social user interface, Speech interfaces
    Java-Based User Interface Development BIBAKHTML 200-201
      Ian Smith
    This tutorial provide attendees with an understanding of the possibilities provided by the World Wide Web for application development and a more detailed understanding of the issues involved in developing user interfaces for the Web in Java.
    Keywords: Java, Applets, World Wide Web, User interfaces, Development tools

    Formal Video Program

    Query Previews in Networked Information Systems: the Case of EOSDIS BIBKHTML 202-203
      Catherine Plaisant; Tom Bruns; Ben Shneiderman; Khoa Doan
    Keywords: Dynamic query, Query preview, Network information system, Visualization, Direct manipulation, Earth science
    Distributed Applets BIBAKHTML 204-205
      Marc H. Brown; Marc A. Najork
    This video shows several examples of distributed active web content, that is, applets that can communicate with other applets running on different machines.
    Keywords: Active objects, Applets, Distributed applications, Groupware
    WebCard = Email + News + WWW BIBAHTML 206-207
      Marc H. Brown
    This video shows WebCard, a system that provides integrated and uniform access to email, news, and the Web. WebCard's user interface is based on folders, which can contain mail messages, news articles, and also Web pages. The obvious use of folders is for organizing material, as is done in conventional mail and news readers using folders, and in Web browsers using bookmarks or hotlists. In WebCard, however, folders can contain an arbitrary mix of mail messages, news articles, and Web pages. WebCard also uses folders to present the mail messages, news articles, and Web pages returned by commands such as "search" and "auto surf."
    A Tour of Teamrooms BIBAKHTML 208-209
      Mark Roseman; Saul Greenberg
    TeamRooms is a groupware environment based on the metaphor of shared virtual rooms. The system contains user-defined rooms, each with a shared whiteboard, chat tool and customizable groupware applets. The system also supports a number of features to help maintain awareness, as well as a rich persistence mechanism that can act as a group memory.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Shared electronic spaces
    The Collaboratory: a Virtual, Collaborative Learning Environment BIBAKHTML 210-211
      Andy Cargile
    The Collaboratory is the result of a future-oriented project in learning, in which the process of human-centered design was applied to the observed problems and opportunities in learning in high schools [1]. It is a shared virtual space which teaches and facilitates collaboration and project work. This video describes the Collaboratory project and demonstrates the environment and interface as a product of the users and design process which helped develop it.
    Keywords: Collaboration, Project management, Learning, Human-centered design, User interface design, Virtual spaces, Interactive TV, Multimedia, Teleproxy, User observation
    A GUI Paradigm Using Tablets, Two-hands and Transparency BIBAKHTML 212-213
      George Fitzmaurice; Thomas Baudel; Gordon Kurtenbach; Bill Buxton
    An experimental GUI paradigm is presented which is based on the design goals of maximizing the amount of screen used for application data, reducing the amount that the UI diverts visual attentions from the application data, and increasing the quality of input. In pursuit of these goals, we integrated the non-standard UI technologies of multi-sensor tablets, toolglass [1], transparent UI components [4], and marking menus [6]. While our prototypes and efforts focus within the domain of creating digital art, we believe the concepts and lessons learned are generalizable to other domains. The video shows three main segments: (1) motivation by showing an artist using traditional paper-based interactions, (2) a prototype system called T3 and (3) integration of the concepts into StudioPaint, a high end commercial paint application.
    Keywords: Two-handed input, Toolglass, Tablets, Transparency, Marking menus, Task integration, Divided attention
    The Amulet User Interface Development Environment (Video) BIBKHTML 214-215
      Brad A. Myers; Richard G. McDaniel; Robert C. Miller; Alan Ferrency; Ellen Borison; Andrew Faulring; Andy Mickish; Patrick Doane; Alex Klimovitski
    Keywords: Toolkit, User interface development environment, User interface management system, Application framework
    Technology at Home: A Digital Personal Scale BIBAKHTML 216-217
      Sigi Moeslinger
    This project is a conceptual study for the design of a digital personal scale that allows for user personalization and weight data tracking. The study is a demonstration of an integrated hardware/software development process, of an approach to ubiquitous computing and of the inclusion of socio-cultural study into the product development process. It is designed for the home market and special emphasis is given to providing a rich user experience.
    Keywords: Design, Hardware/software integration, Socio-Cultural relevance, Ubiquitous computing, Physical interaction, User experience
    An Animated Direct-Manipulation Interface to Digital Library Services BIBAKHTML 218-219
      Steve B. Cousins; Ken Pier
    The Digital Library Integrated Task Environment (DLITE) is a novel user interface concept for distributed document collections and services. It is an interaction prototype, not a polished graphical user interface, and is a front end to an evolving variety of distributed document services. DLITE is part of the Stanford University Digital Libraries research project. This videotape explains the principles of the DLITE design and shows the current implementation in action.
    Keywords: Digital library, User interface, Direct-manipulation, World Wide Web, Holophrasting

    Workshops

    Basic Research Symposium BIBAHTML 220
      Susanne Jul; Leon Watts
    The Basic Research Symposium is a special event with a five-year history at CHI. It is a hybrid between a mini-conference and a workshop that presents an opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to share their visions through exchanging new developments and insights from their own fields. The goal of the Symposium is to provide an interactive forum to promote and enhance scientific discussions of developing research issues. It is designed to advance understanding and dialogue among fellow researchers as well as to encourage asking of questions and reflection on methods and results. It is a unique opportunity to learn about the variety of perspectives present in the international HCI research community and to apply the often radically different criteria associated with those perspectives to one's own work.
       The goal of the workshop is to draw implications for the design of navigable worlds and navigational aids from a common understanding of navigation, including its relationship to other activities, and its requirements. The workshop provides an opportunity for individuals who are currently separated by discipline and domain to meet and create a shared understanding.
    Ubiquitous Computing: The Impact on Future Interaction Paradigms and HCI Research BIBKHTML 221-222
      Gregory D. Abowd; Bill N. Schilit
    Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Future computing environments, Applications research
    Research Issues in Wearable Computers BIBKHTML 223
      Len Bass; Dan Siewiorek; Steve Mann; Chris Thompson
    Keywords: Wearable computers, Body worn computers, Eyes free operation of computers, Hands free operation of computers, User interface paradigms
    Design Strategies & Methods in Interaction Design: The Past, Present, and Future BIBAKHTML 224-225
      Richard Branham; Alp Tiritoglu
    The complexity of user interface design demands well-chosen strategies and methods to optimize the design process. This two day workshop is designed to provide the understanding and application of design strategies and methods [DS&M] for the development of user interfaces. Participants will identify the past, present and the future of the principles of design thinking, design processes and DS&M. This workshop will try to find answers to what strategies and methods could be effective in the development of interaction design in the future.
    Keywords: Design thinking, Design strategies, Design methods, Design process, User interface design, Design research, Design principles, Interaction, User-centered design, Enabling interfaces, Design representation techniques, Creative methods, Rational methods
    Putting It All Together: Pattern Languages for Interaction Design BIBAHTML 226
      Thomas Erickson; John Thomas
    Interaction design is becoming an increasingly complex and diverse activity. It is becoming more complex because existing technologies are becoming smaller and cheaper and thus more ubiquitous, even as new sensing and effector technologies are entering the scene. This complexity is exacerbated by the task of integrating technologies into workplaces which we are recognizing as complex sociotechnical systems filled with customs and practices which we disrupt at our peril. Simultaneously, interaction design is becoming more diverse, drawing on disciplines ranging from anthropology to visual design, making the domain experts (i.e. end users) a more integral part of the process. The diversification of interaction design is also being driven by customization: as systems become increasingly customizable more design is being done in the workplace by MIS departments, outside consultants, and the end users themselves.
    Usability Testing of World Wide Web Sites BIBKHTMLWeb Page 227
      Michael D. Levi; Frederick G. Conrad
    Keywords: Usability testing, Evaluation, Usability engineering, World Wide Web
    Augmented Conceptual Analysis of the Web BIBKHTML 228
      Wendy A. Kellogg; Jakob Nielsen
    Keywords: World Wide Web, WWW, Evolution of the web, Conceptual analysis of the web
    Cognitive and Software Solutions for Computer-related Anxiety BIBAKHTML 229
      Judith Ramsay; Richard Jacques
    The goal of this workshop is to focus discussion on how to design inexpensive but effective techniques for the management of computer-related anxiety. These techniques may be geared either towards the design of software, or towards the design of training or stress-management techniques.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Computer-related anxiety, Minority groups, Coping techniques
    Navigation in Electronic Worlds BIBAKHTML 230
      George Furnas; Susanne Jul
    The goal of the workshop is to draw implications for the design of navigable worlds and navigational aids from a broader, shared understanding of navigation, including its relationship to other activities, and its requirements. The workshop provides an opportunity for individuals who are currently separated by discipline and domain to meet and create a common understanding.
    Keywords: Navigation, Information access, Electronic worlds
    Entertainment is a Human Factor: Game Design and HCI BIBKHTML 231
      Chuck Clanton; Lynn Cherny; Erik Ostrom
    Keywords: Game design, User interface design, Iterative design, Problem solving
    Object-Oriented Model in User Interface Design BIBAHTML 232
      Mark van Harmelen; Bernard Horan
    Objects have been used as the informal basis for the conceptual design of interactive systems for at least a decade. Given recent advances in the development of object-oriented modeling languages and methodologies, it is now timely to re-evaluate the role of object-modeling during the process of user interface design.
    Interactive Systems for Supporting the Emergence of Concepts and Ideas BIBAKHTML 233
      Ernest A. Edmonds; Thomas P. Moran
    The research question is how interactive systems can aid users in quickly creating and manipulating visual representations and whether they can support the discovery of new relationships, structures, and meanings in the materials. This is clearly an important new direction for the development of computer system design.
    Keywords: Emergence, Discovery, Sketching, Interaction
    HCI Research and Practice Agenda Based on Human Needs and Social Responsibility BIBAHTML 234
      Michael J. Muller; Cathleen Wharton
    The purpose of this workshop is to bring together HCI researchers and practitioners from diverse backgrounds, to explore and define new opportunities in HCI research and practice. We adopt the strategy of motivating our discussion of research and practice goals through a consideration of human needs and social responsibility. The rich diversity of human needs, and the intricate dialogues of socially responsible work, provide dramatic challenges to advance the state of research and practice in our field. The outcome will be new issues and projects of both theoretical and applied value. These issues and challenges will provide opportunities for developments and innovations of primary importance to our field.
    Testing for Power Usability BIBKHTML 235
      Keith S. Karn; Thomas J. Perry; Marc J. Krolczyk
    Keywords: Power user, Usability, Testing, Evaluation, Production systems
    Speech User Interface Design Challenges BIBKHTML 236
      Susan Boyce; Amir Mane; Demetrios Karis; Nicole Yankelovich
    Keywords: Automatic speech recognition, Natural language processing
    Awareness in Collaborative Systems BIBKHTML 237
      Susan E. McDaniel; Tom Brinck
    Keywords: Awareness, Distributed work, CSCW, Telework