HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | CHI Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
CHI Tables of Contents: 94-2d94-2e95-195-2a95-2b95-2c96-196-2a96-2b96-2c97-197-2a97-2b97-2c98-198-2a98-2b98-2c98-2d99-199-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Looking to the Future
Editors:Steven Pemberton
Location:Atlanta, Georgia
Dates:1997-Mar-22 to 1997-Mar-27
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-802-9 ACM Order Number 608971 Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-32229-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI97-1
Links:SIGCHI HTML Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 1
    1. PAPERS: Finding What You Want I
    2. PAPERS: Handy User Interfaces
    3. PAPERS: Collaborative Communities I
    4. PAPERS: Intelligent Support
    5. PAPERS: Cognitive Models and Their Application
    6. PAPERS: Beauty and The Beat
    7. PAPERS: Input & Output in the Future
    8. PAPERS: Extending The HCI Agenda
    9. PAPERS: Bringing Users Into Design
    10. PAPERS: Enhancing, Finding, & Integrating Audio
    11. PAPERS: Collaborative Communities II
    12. PAPERS: Beyond the Desktop
    13. PAPERS: Enhancing The Direct Manipulation Interface
    14. PAPERS: Designing Publishing and Scripting Multimedia Systems
    15. PAPERS: Exploring Input
    16. PAPERS: Papers About Paper
    17. PAPERS: Designing for Learning
    18. PAPERS: Information Structures
    19. PAPERS: Finding What You Want II
    20. PAPERS: Speech, Haptic, & Multimodal Input
    21. DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Simple, Small and Focused: Managing Personal Information
    22. DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Understanding Users
    23. DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Working with Stakeholders: Design Within and Among Organizations
    24. DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Access to Knowledge: Libraries and Data Mining
    25. TECHNICAL NOTES: Collaborative Communities I
    26. TECHNICAL NOTES: Input & Output in the Future
    27. TECHNICAL NOTES: Extending The HCI Agenda
    28. TECHNICAL NOTES: Beyond the Desktop

CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 1

PAPERS: Finding What You Want I

Computational Models of Information Scent-Following in a Very Large Browsable Text Collection BIBAKHTMLPDF 3-10
  Peter Pirolli
An ecological-cognitive framework of analysis and a model-tracing architecture are presented and used in the analysis of data recorded from users browsing a large document collection. The users interacted with the Scatter/Gather browser, which clusters documents into groups of similar content and presents users with summaries of cluster content. Predictions made by a computational model of navigation and information foraging are matched against the observed activity.
Keywords: Information foraging, Information scent, Cognitive modeling, Model-tracing, ACT-R, Scatter/Gather
SenseMaker: An Information-Exploration Interface Supporting the Contextual Evolution of a User's Interests BIBAKHTMLPDF 11-18
  Michelle Q. Wang Baldonado; Terry Winograd
We describe the design, implementation, and pilot study for SenseMaker, an interface for information exploration across heterogeneous sources. We propose supporting the context-driven evolution of a user's interests via: (1) an approximation of the current information context as the current collection of accumulated information references, and (2) a unified set of user-centered actions for examining the current context and for progressing from one context to the next. SenseMaker users examine their current context by experimenting iteratively with different organizing dimensions and levels of granularity for the current collection's display. They progress from one context to another by building upon, taking away from, or replacing the current collection. They can also return to a previous information context and continue exploring from there.
Keywords: Information exploration, Digital libraries, Information seeking, Information retrieval
Accessing Multimedia through Concept Clustering BIBAKHTMLPDF 19-26
  John Kominek; Rick Kazman
Multimedia information retrieval is a challenging problem because multimedia information is not inherently structured. Jabber is an experimental system that attempts to bring some structure to this task. Jabber allows users to retrieve records of videoconferences based upon the concepts discussed. In this paper we introduce ConceptFinder, a sub-system within Jabber, and show how it is able to process the spoken text of a meeting into meeting topics. ConceptFinder can make subtle distinctions among different senses of the same words, and is able to summarize a set of related words, giving a name to each topic. Users can then use this name to query or browse the stored multimedia, through Jabber's user interface. By presenting information that closely matches a user's expectations, the challenge of multimedia retrieval is rendered more tractable.
Keywords: Multimedia indexing, Information retrieval and browsing, Concept clustering

PAPERS: Handy User Interfaces

Cooperative Bimanual Action BIBAKHTMLPDF 27-34
  Ken Hinckley; Randy Pausch; Dennis Proffitt; James Patten; Neal Kassell
We present an experiment on cooperative bimanual action. Right-handed subjects manipulated a pair of physical objects, a tool and a target object, so that the tool would touch a target on the object (fig. 1). For this task, there is a marked specialization of the hands. Performance is best when the left hand orients the target object and the right hand manipulates the tool, but is significantly reduced when these roles are reversed. This suggests that the right hand operates relative to the frame-of-reference of the left hand.
   Furthermore, when physical constraints guide the tool placement, this fundamentally changes the type of motor control required. The task is tremendously simplified for both hands, and reversing roles of the hands is no longer an important factor. Thus, specialization of the roles of the hands is significant only for skilled manipulation.
Keywords: Two-handed interaction, Bimanual asymmetry, Virtual manipulation, Motor control, 3D interaction, Haptics
The Design of a GUI Paradigm Based on Tablets, Two-Hands, and Transparency BIBAKHTMLPDF 35-42
  Gordon Kurtenbach; George Fitzmaurice; Thomas Baudel; Bill Buxton
An experimental GUI paradigm is presented which is based on the design goals of maximizing the amount of screen used for application data, reducing the amount that the UI diverts visual attentions from the application data, and increasing the quality of input. In pursuit of these goals, we integrated the non-standard UI technologies of multi-sensor tablets, toolglass, transparent UI components, and marking menus. We describe a working prototype of our new paradigm, the rationale behind it and our experiences introducing it into an existing application. Finally, we presents some of the lessons learned: prototypes are useful to break the barriers imposed by conventional GUI design and some of their ideas can still be retrofitted seamlessly into products. Furthermore, the added functionality is not measured only in terms of user performance, but also by the quality of interaction, which allows artists to create new graphic vocabularies and graphic styles.
Keywords: Two-handed input, Toolglass, Tablets, Transparency, Marking menus, Task integration, Divided attention
An Empirical Evaluation of Graspable User Interfaces: Towards Specialized, Space-Multiplexed Input BIBAKHTMLPDF 43-50
  George Fitzmaurice; William Buxton
This paper reports on the experimental evaluation of a Graspable User Interface that employs a "space-multiplexing" input scheme in which each function to be controlled has a dedicated physical transducer, each occupying its own space. This input style contrasts the more traditional "time-multiplexing" input scheme which uses one device (such as the mouse) to control different functions at different points in time. A tracking experiment was conducted to compare a traditional GUI design with its time-multiplex input scheme versus a Graspable UI design having a space-multiplex input scheme. We found that the space-multiplex conditions out perform the time-multiplex conditions. In addition, we found that the use of specialized physical form factors for the input devices instead of generic form factors provide a performance advantage. We argue that the specialized devices serve as both visual and tactile functional reminders of the associated tool assignment as well as facilitate manipulation due to the customized form factors.
Keywords: Input devices, Graphical user interfaces, Graspable user interfaces, Haptic input, Two-handed interaction, Augmented reality, Ubiquitous computing

PAPERS: Collaborative Communities I

AROMA: Abstract Representation of Presence Supporting Mutual Awareness BIBAKHTMLPDF 51-58
  Elin Ronby Pedersen; Tomas Sokoler
The AROMA project is exploring the kind of awareness that people effortless are able to maintain about other beings who are located physically close. We are designing technology that attempts to mediate a similar kind of awareness among people who are geographically dispersed but want to stay better in touch. AROMA technology can be thought of as a stand-alone communication device or -- more likely -- an augmentation of existing technologies such as the telephone or full-blown media spaces. Our approach differs from other recent designs for awareness (a) by choosing pure abstract representations on the display site, (b) by possibly remapping the signal across media between capture and display, and, finally, (c) by explicitly extending the application domain to include more than the working life, to embrace social interaction in general.
   We are building a series of prototypes to learn if abstract representation of activity data does indeed convey a sense of remote presence and does so in a sufficiently subdued manner to allow the user to concentrate on his or her main activity. We have done some initial testing of the technical feasibility of our designs. What still remains is an extensive effort of designing a symbolic language of remote presence, done in parallel with studies of how people will connect and communicate through such a language as they live with the AROMA system.
Keywords: Awareness, Sense of presence, Ubiquitous computing, CSCW, Media spaces, Non-work application, Interaction
Crowded Collaborative Virtual Environments BIBAKHTMLPDF 59-66
  Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; David Lloyd
We introduce a framework for supporting crowds of participants in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs). The framework is realised as an extension to our previous spatial model of interaction and aims to provide greater scaleability and flexibility for communication between the inhabitants of virtual worlds. Our framework introduces an explicit crowd mechanism into CVEs in order to support the formation and activation of different kinds of crowd with different effects on mutual awareness and communication (achieved through the use of aggregation techniques combined with awareness adaptation). We present a demonstration application called the Arena -- a shared space for staging on-line performances in front of a live audience.
Keywords: CSCW, Virtual reality, Crowds

PAPERS: Intelligent Support

Autonomous Interface Agents BIBAKHTMLPDF 67-74
  Henry Lieberman
Two branches of the trend towards "agents" that are gaining currency are interface agents, software that actively assists a user in operating an interactive interface, and autonomous agents, software that takes action without user intervention and operates concurrently, either while the user is idle or taking other actions. These two branches are related, but not identical, and are often lumped together under the single term "agent". Much agent work can be classified as either being an interface agent, but not autonomous, or as an autonomous agent, but not operating directly in the interface. We show why it is important to have agents that are both interface agents and autonomous agents. We explore some design principles for such agents, and illustrate these principles with a description of Letizia, an autonomous interface agent that makes real-time suggestions for Web pages that a user might be interested in browsing.
Keywords: Agents, Interface agents, Autonomous agents, Web, Browsing, Search, Learning
How to Personalize the Web BIBAKHTMLPDF 75-82
  Rob Barrett; Paul P. Maglio; Daniel C. Kellem
Agents can personalize otherwise impersonal computational systems. The World Wide Web presents the same appearance to every user regardless of that user's past activity. Web Browser Intelligence (WBI, pronounced "WEB-ee") is an implemented system that organizes agents on a user's workstation to observe user actions, proactively offer assistance, modify web documents, and perform new functions. WBI can annotate hyperlinks with network speed information, record pages viewed for later access, and provide shortcut links for common paths. In this way, WBI personalizes a user's web experience by joining personal information with global information to effectively tailor what the user sees.
Keywords: Agents, World wide web, User models
The Cognitive Ergonomics of Knowledge-Based Design Support Systems BIBAKHTMLPDF 83-90
  Tamara Sumner; Nathalie Bonnardel; Benedikte Harstad Kallak
Critiquing systems are a type of active, knowledge-based design support system. They propose to positively influence designers' cognitive processes by pointing out potential problems and contentious issues while designers work. To investigate the effects such systems have on the activities of professional designers, a design environment containing a critiquing system was designed, built, and evaluated for a specific area: phone-based interface design. Four professional designers were observed using the environment to solve realistic design tasks. Our protocol analyses indicate that such systems do influence the behaviour of designers, but often indirectly. Designers were observed anticipating the activity of the system and taking preventative steps to avoid it. Differential effects depending on the designers' level of domain experience were also observed. Overall, the system was better suited to the needs of highly experienced designers.
Keywords: Critiquing systems, Cognitive ergonomics, Design, Design environments, Knowledge-based systems, Phone-based interfaces

PAPERS: Cognitive Models and Their Application

From Sufficient to Efficient Usage: An Analysis of Strategic Knowledge BIBAKHTMLPDF 91-98
  Suresh K. Bhavnani; Bonnie E. John
Can good design guarantee the efficient use of computer tools? Can experience guarantee it? We raise these questions to explore why empirical studies of real-world usage show even experienced users under-utilizing the capabilities of computer applications. By analyzing the use of everyday devices and computer applications, as well as reviewing empirical studies, we conclude that neither good design nor experience may be able to guarantee efficient usage. Efficient use requires task decomposition strategies that exploit capabilities offered by computer applications such as the ability to aggregate objects, and to manipulate the aggregates with powerful operators. To understand the effects that strategies can have on performance, we present results from a GOMS analysis of a CAD task. Furthermore, we identify some key aggregation strategies that appear to generalize across applications. Such strategies may provide a framework to enable users to move from a sufficient to a more efficient use of computer tools.
Keywords: Strategies, Task decomposition, CAD, Aggregation
Relationships Between Users' and Interfaces' Task Representations BIBAKHTMLPDF 99-106
  Robert B. Terwilliger; Peter G. Polson
In a previous experiment, we demonstrated that some users seem to significantly transform the instructions for a graph creation task before they even begin to interact with the interface, and furthermore, that this can create considerable difficulty with an interface that does not require the transformation. In this paper, we describe a contrasting experiment, showing that subjects without pre-existing task transformations initially have considerable difficulty with an interface that requires them, but acquire the transformations relatively quickly. Kitajima and Polson's LICAI model explains these effects as resulting from the problem representation being elaborated with task-specific schemata during the instruction comprehension process.
Keywords: Empirical studies, Cognitive models
Cognitive Modeling Reveals Menu Search is Both Random and Systematic BIBAKHTMLPDF 107-114
  Anthony J. Hornof; David E. Kieras
To understand how people search for a known target item in an unordered pull-down menu, this research presents cognitive models that vary serial versus parallel processing of menu items, random versus systematic search, and different numbers of menu items fitting into the fovea simultaneously. Varying these conditions, models were constructed and run using the EPIC cognitive architecture. The selection times predicted by the models are compared with selection times of human subjects performing the same menu task. Comparing the predicted and observed times, the models reveal that 1) people process more than one menu item at a time, and 2) people search menus using both random and systematic search strategies.
Keywords: Cognitive models, Menu selection, Visual search

PAPERS: Beauty and The Beat

Aesthetics and Apparent Usability: Empirically Assessing Cultural and Methodological Issues BIBAKHTMLPDF 115-122
  Noam Tractinsky
Three experiments were conducted to validate and replicate, in a different cultural setting, the results of a study by Kurosu and Kashimura [12] concerning the relationships between users' perceptions of interface aesthetics and usability. The results support the basic findings by Kurosu and Kashimura. Very high correlations were found between perceived aesthetics of the interface and a priori perceived ease of use of the system. Differences of magnitude between correlations obtained in Japan and in Israel suggest the existence of cross-cultural differences, but these were not in the hypothesized direction.
Keywords: Aesthetics, Apparent usability, System acceptability, Cross-cultural HCI, Human-computer interface
A Computer Participant in Musical Improvisation BIBAKHTMLPDF 123-130
  William F. Walker
Musical improvisation is a collaborative activity analogous to conversation. Both are sequences of spontaneous utterances constructed within a collaborative structure that is interactively managed by the participants. Based on results from conversation analysis, I have constructed a computer improvisor that participates in small group improvisation. Using conversation analysis rules for turn-taking, the computer tracks the roles of the other musicians and follows a structural model of the improvisation to determine its own role as the improvisation unfolds. User-centered design was crucial to the successful development and deployment of the system.
Keywords: Musical improvisation, Conversation analysis, CSCW, Object-oriented frameworks for collaboration, User-centered design
WorldBeat: Designing a Baton-Based Interface for an Interactive Music Exhibit BIBAKHTMLPDF 131-138
  Jan O. Borchers
This paper presents the interface design of the WorldBeat system, an interactive exhibit about using computers in musical education, and as musical instruments. The system allows even computer and music novices to create aesthetically pleasing music, using a new, consistent interaction technique: Visitors control the complete exhibit using two infrared batons as pointing device, conductor's baton, and musical instrument interface, making keyboard and mouse unnecessary.
   The paper summarizes special requirements when designing computer-based exhibits, how we used batons as a new type of input device to meet those requirements, and how user feedback iteratively optimized the look and feel of the exhibit to convey its "message" in an understandable and visually appealing way. We show how our results contribute to "Looking to the Future" of HCI, and how they could be of general use to other researchers and practitioners designing user interfaces for interactive exhibits.
Keywords: Interface design, Interactive exhibit, Baton, Music, Education

PAPERS: Input & Output in the Future

The Design of a Wearable Computer BIBAKHTMLPDF 139-146
  Len Bass; Chris Kasabach; Richard Martin; Dan Siewiorek; Asim Smailagic; John Stivoric
The design process used to produce an innovative computer system is presented. The computer system that resulted from the process uses a circular motif both for the user interface and the input device. The input device is a dial and the user interface is visually organized around the concept of a circle. The design process itself proceeded in the presence of a great many constraints and we discuss these constraints and how an innovative design was achieved in spite of the constraints.
Keywords: Wearable computers, Input devices, Body worn computers, User center design, Integrated product teams
"Body Coupled FingeRing": Wireless Wearable Keyboard BIBAKHTMLPDF 147-154
  Masaaki Fukumoto; Yoshinobu Tonomura
A really wearable input device "FingeRing" is developed for coming wearable PDAs. By attaching ring shaped sensors on each finger, many commands or characters can be input by finger-tip typing action. "FingeRing" can be used on any typing surface such as a knee or desk, so quick operation is realized in any situation while standing or walking. To improve wearability, a very small, ultra low power wireless transmitter is developed that uses the human body as part of an electric circuit. "Direct Coupling" method enables stable communication even when body contacts any grounded surface. A new symbol coding method that combines order and chord typing is also proposed, and useful typing patterns are chosen by typing speed evaluations. Expert users of musical keyboards can input 52 different symbols at speeds of over 200 symbols per minute by using the combination of FingeRing and the new coding method.
Keywords: Wearable computer, PDA, Interface device, Input device, Keyboard, PAN, BodyNet, FingeRing

PAPERS: Extending The HCI Agenda

Toward an HCI Research and Practice Agenda Based on Human Needs and Social Responsibility BIBAKHTMLPDF 155-161
  Michael J. Muller; Cathleen Wharton; William J., Jr. McIver; Lila Laux
We outline several promising areas for improvements in research and practice in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). These topics show the richness and potential value of HCI work motivated by a combination of a desire to improve practice and research, and a desire to meet human needs in a responsible manner.
Keywords: Future, HCI research and practice, Disability access, Information access, Information retrieval, Agents, World Wide Web, UIMSs, Architectures, Information poverty, Communication poverty, Social issues, Social impact

PAPERS: Bringing Users Into Design

Participatory Analysis: Shared Development of Requirements from Scenarios BIBAKHTMLPDF 162-169
  George, Jr. Chin; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
Participatory design typically focuses on envisionment and evaluation activities. We explored a method for pushing the participatory activities further "upstream" in the design process, to the initial analysis of requirements. We used a variant of the task-artifact framework, carrying out a participatory claims analysis during a design workshop for a project addressing collaborative science education. The analysis used videotaped classroom sessions as source material. The participant-teachers were highly engaged by the analysis process and contributed significantly to the analysis results. We conclude that the method has promise as a technique for evoking self-reflection and analysis in a participatory design setting.
Keywords: Participatory analysis, Participatory design, Scenarios, Task-artifact framework
Maintaining a Focus on User Requirements Throughout the Development of Clinical Workstation Software BIBAKHTMLPDF 170-177
  Janette M. Coble; John Karat; Michael G. Kahn
Establishing user requirements is well recognized as a critical step in the development of useful and usable systems (e.g., [5]). Recent innovations in human-computer interaction design address new methods for effective requirements gathering, such as Participatory Design and Contextual Inquiry (e.g., [7], [9]). However, even when projects use these methods successfully to collect valid requirement descriptions, it remains a challenge to establish a process that makes direct use of those descriptions during software development [11]. Valuable requirements information can be lost as it is reinterpreted during the development of functional specifications and the implementation of the proposed system. We describe the several steps we have taken to keep an ongoing and evolving understanding of user requirements under consideration by system designers and developers as they face the "real" (to them) requirements of adapting function to the constraints of computer platforms, project cost, and delivery schedule. The specific work reported here applies to the design of software for a clinical workstation used to review medical information. However, we believe the lessons we learned, maintaining the influence of user requirements throughout the development process, will apply in other practical system development situations.
Keywords: User requirements, Contextual Inquiry, Software development process
Helping and Hindering User Involvement -- A Tale of Everyday Design BIBAKHTMLPDF 178-185
  Stephanie Wilson; Mathilde Bekker; Peter Johnson; Hilary Johnson
The importance of an early and on-going focus on users in interactive system design is widely accepted. However, in practice, involving users poses many problems and requires designers to balance conflicting demands. Various factors can hinder or ease the involvement of users. This paper reports a case study involving the design of a bespoke application and gives a detailed account of the obstacles and facilitators to user involvement encountered during the design activity. The obstacles and facilitators are presented in terms of issues such as contacting and selecting users, motivating users, facilitating and mediating meetings and offering points of focus for user contributions. We report and contrast the views of various stakeholders in the design process, and supplement these with our own observations as non-participant observers. Finally, we discuss issues raised by the study and draw out a number of lessons for the CHI community.
Keywords: Design study, Design techniques, Obstacles to user involvement, User-centred design

PAPERS: Enhancing, Finding, & Integrating Audio

Dynomite: A Dynamically Organized Ink and Audio Notebook BIBAKHTMLPDF 186-193
  Lynn D. Wilcox; Bill N. Schilit; Nitin "Nick" Sawhney
Dynomite is a portable electronic notebook for the capture and retrieval of handwritten and audio notes. The goal of Dynomite is to merge the organization, search, and data acquisition capabilities of a computer with the benefits of a paper-based notebook. Dynomite provides novel solutions in four key problem areas. First, Dynomite uses a casual, low cognitive overhead interface. Second, for content indexing of notes, Dynomite uses ink properties and keywords. Third, to assist organization, Dynomite's properties and keywords define views, presenting a subset of the notebook content that dynamically changes as users add new information. Finally, to augment handwritten notes with audio on devices with limited storage, Dynomite continuously records audio, but only permanently stores those parts highlighted by the user.
Keywords: Electronic notebook, Note-taking, Audio interfaces, Handwriting, Keyword indexing, Ink properties, Retrieval, Paper-like interfaces, PDA, Pen computing
Dynamic Soundscape: Mapping Time to Space for Audio Browsing BIBAKHTMLPDF 194-201
  Minoru Kobayashi; Chris Schmandt
Browsing audio data is not as easy as browsing printed documents because of the temporal nature of sound. This paper presents a browsing environment that provides a spatial interface for temporal navigation of audio data, taking advantage of human abilities of simultaneous listening and memory of spatial location. Instead of fast-forwarding or rewinding, users browse the audio data by switching their attention between moving sound sources that play multiple portions of a single audio recording. The motion of the sound sources maps temporal position within the audio recording onto spatial location, so that listeners can use their memory of spatial location to find a specific topic. This paper describes the iterative design approach toward the audio browsing system, including the development of user interface devices.
Keywords: Audio browsing, Spatialized audio, Simultaneous listening, Selective listening, Spatial memory
"I'll Get That Off the Audio": A Case Study of Salvaging Multimedia Meeting Records BIBAKHTMLPDF 202-209
  Thomas P. Moran; Leysia Palen; Steve Harrison; Patrick Chiu; Don Kimber; Scott Minneman; William van Melle; Polle Zellweger
We describe a case study of a complex, ongoing, collaborative work process, where the central activity is a series of meetings reviewing a wide range of subtle technical topics. The problem is the accurate reporting of the results of these meetings, which is the responsibility of a single person, who is not well-versed in all the topics. We provided tools to capture the meeting discussions and tools to "salvage" the captured multimedia recordings. Salvaging is a new kind of activity involving replaying, extracting, organizing, and writing. We observed a year of mature salvaging work in the case study. From this we describe the nature of salvage work (the constituent activities, the use of the workspace, the affordances of the audio medium, how practices develop and differentiate, how the content material affects practice). We also demonstrate how this work relates to the larger work processes (the task demands of the setting, the interplay of salvage with capture, the influence on the people being reported on and reported to). Salvaging tools are shown to be valuable for dealing with free-flowing discussions of complex subject matter and for producing high quality documentation.
Keywords: Activity capture, Audio recording, Multimedia, LiveBoard, Meeting support tools, Notetaking, Salvaging, Work process support

PAPERS: Collaborative Communities II

Design for Network Communities BIBAKHTMLPDF 210-217
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Annette Adler; Mizuko Ito; Vicki L. O'Day
Collaboration has long been of considerable interest in the CHI community. This paper proposes and explores the concept of network communities as a crucial part of this discussion. Network communities are a form of technology-mediated environment that foster a sense of community among users. We consider several familiar systems and describe the shared characteristics these systems have developed to deal with critical concerns of collaboration. Based on our own experience as designers and users of a variety of network communities, we extend this initial design space along three dimensions: the articulation of a persistent sense of location, the boundary tensions between real and virtual worlds, and the emergence and evolution of community.
Keywords: Media space, MUDs, Network community, Shared space, Metaphor, Identity, Virtual world
Timewarp: Techniques for Autonomous Collaboration BIBAKHTMLPDF 218-225
  W. Keith Edwards; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
This paper presents a set of techniques for supporting autonomous collaboration -- collaboration where participants work independently for periods, and then join together to integrate their efforts. This paper posits that autonomous collaboration can be well-supported by systems in which the notion of time is made both explicit and editable, so that the parallel but divergent states of a shared artifact are exposed in the interface. We have developed a system, called timewarp, that explores these ideas, and provides support for distribution, awareness, and conflict resolution in an application-independent fashion.
Keywords: Autonomous collaboration, Computer-supported cooperative work, Awareness, Conflict detection and resolution, Timewarp
Building Task-Specific Interfaces to High Volume Conversational Data BIBAKHTMLPDF 226-233
  Loren G. Terveen; William C. Hill; Brian Amento; David McDonald; Josh Creter
As people participate in the thousands of global conversations that comprise Usenet news, one thing they do is post their opinions of web resources. Phoaks is a collaborative filtering system that continuously parses, classifies, abstracts and tallies those opinions. About 3,500 users per day consult Phoaks web pages that reflect the results. Phoaks also features a general architecture for building similar collaborative filtering interfaces to conversational data. We report here on the Phoaks resource recommendation interface, the architecture, and the issues and experience that make up its rationale.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Human interface, Computer-supported cooperative work, Organizational computing, Social filtering, Collaborative filtering, Data mining, Resource discovery, World Wide Web, Usenet, Netnews

PAPERS: Beyond the Desktop

Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms BIBAKHTMLPDF 234-241
  Hiroshi Ishii; Brygg Ullmer
This paper presents our vision of Human Computer Interaction (HCI): "Tangible Bits." Tangible Bits allows users to "grasp & manipulate" bits in the center of users' attention by coupling the bits with everyday physical objects and architectural surfaces. Tangible Bits also enables users to be aware of background bits at the periphery of human perception using ambient display media such as light, sound, airflow, and water movement in an augmented space. The goal of Tangible Bits is to bridge the gaps between both cyberspace and the physical environment, as well as the foreground and background of human activities.
   This paper describes three key concepts of Tangible Bits: interactive surfaces; the coupling of bits with graspable physical objects; and ambient media for background awareness. We illustrate these concepts with three prototype systems -- the metaDESK, transBOARD and ambientROOM -- to identify underlying research issues.
Keywords: Tangible user interface, Ambient media, Graspable user interface, Augmented reality, Ubiquitous computing, Center and periphery, Foreground and background
From Single-User Architectural Design to PAC*: a Generic Software Architecture Model for CSCW BIBAKHTMLPDF 242-249
  Gaelle Calvary; Joelle Coutaz; Laurence Nigay
This article reports our reflection on software architecture modelling for multi-user systems (or groupware). First, we introduce the notion of software architecture and make explicit the design steps that most software designers in HCI tend to blend in a fuzzy way. Building on general concepts and practice from main stream software engineering, we then present a comparative analysis of the most significant architecture models developed for single-and multi-user systems. We close with the presentation of PAC*, a new architectural framework for modelling and designing the software architecture of multi-user systems. PAC* is a motivated combination of existing architectural models selected for the complementarity of their "good properties". These include operational heuristics such as rules for deriving agents in accordance to the task model or criteria for reasoning about replication, as well as properties such as support for style heterogeneity, portability, and reusability.
Keywords: PAC, Interactor, Agent, Architectural style, Software architecture modelling, CSCW, Interactive systems

PAPERS: Enhancing The Direct Manipulation Interface

Elastic Windows: Evaluation of Multi-Window Operations BIBAKHTMLPDF 250-257
  Eser Kandogan; Ben Shneiderman
Most windowing systems follow the independent overlapping windows approach, which emerged as an answer to the needs of the 1980s' technology. Due to advances in computers and display technology, and increased information needs, modern users demand more functionality from window management systems. We proposed Elastic Windows with improved spatial layout and rapid multi-window operations as an alternative to current window management strategies for efficient personal role management [12]. In this approach, multi-window operations are achieved by issuing operations on window groups hierarchically organized in a space-filling tiled layout. This paper describes the Elastic Windows interface briefly and then presents a study comparing user performance with Elastic Windows and traditional window management techniques for 2, 6, and 12 window situations. Elastic Windows users had statistically significantly faster performance for all 6 and 12 window situations, for task environment setup, task environment switching, and task execution. For some tasks there was a ten-fold speed-up in performance. These results suggest promising possibilities for multiple window operations and hierarchical nesting, which can be applied to the next generation of tiled as well as overlapped window managers.
Keywords: Window management, Multi-window operations, Personal role management, Tiled layout, User interfaces, Information access and organization
Does Continuous Visual Feedback Aid Debugging in Direct-Manipulation Programming Systems? BIBAKHTMLPDF 258-265
  E. M. Wilcox; J. W. Atwood; M. M. Burnett; J. J. Cadiz; C. R. Cook
Continuous visual feedback is becoming a common feature in direct-manipulation programming systems of all kinds -- from demonstrational macro builders to spreadsheet packages to visual programming languages featuring direct manipulation. But does continuous visual feedback actually help in the domain of programming? There has been little investigation of this question, and what evidence there is from related domains points in conflicting directions. To advance what is known about this issue, we conducted an empirical study to determine whether the inclusion of continuous visual feedback into a direct-manipulation programming system helps with one particular task: debugging. Our results were that although continuous visual feedback did not significantly help with debugging in general, it did significantly help with debugging in some circumstances. Our results also indicate three factors that may help determine those circumstances.
Keywords: Direct manipulation, Debugging, End-user programming, Spreadsheets, Visual programming languages, Liveness, Empirical study
Making Computers Easier for Older Adults to Use: Area Cursors and Sticky Icons BIBAKHTMLPDF 266-271
  Aileen Worden; Neff Walker; Krishna Bharat; Scott Hudson
The normal effects of aging include some decline in cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities. This can have a negative effect on the performance of a number of tasks, including basic pointing and selection tasks common to today's graphical user interfaces. This paper describes a study of the effectiveness of two interaction techniques: area cursors and sticky icons, in improving the performance of older adults in basic selection tasks. The study described here indicates that when combined, these techniques can decrease target selection times for older adults by as much as 50% when applied to the most difficult cases (smallest selection targets). At the same time these techniques are shown not to impede performance in cases known to be problematical for related techniques (e.g., differentiation between closely spaced targets) and to provide similar but smaller benefits for younger users.
Keywords: Graphical interfaces, User input, Interaction techniques, Pointing and selection tasks, Fitts' Law, Aging

PAPERS: Designing Publishing and Scripting Multimedia Systems

Designing Effective Multimedia Presentations BIBAKHTMLPDF 272-278
  Peter Faraday; Alistair Sutcliffe
The paper reports four studies concerning attention to and comprehension of Multimedia presentations. The Multimedia sequence used was taken from a commercially produced CD-ROM, 'The Etiology of Cancer'. First, an eye tracking study of the presentation is reported. A second study was then conducted on the recall of the materials used in the eye tracking study. The results of these studies were used to propose design guidelines for Multimedia presentations. The guidelines were applied to produce a re-authored version of the original presentation. A further two studies were then conducted on the re-authored version to assess the impact of the design guidelines.
Keywords: Multimedia, Usability testing, Empirical studies
From Web Press to Web Pressure: Multimedia Representations and Multimedia Publishing BIBAKHTMLPDF 279-286
  Victoria Bellotti; Yvonne Rogers
The growth of multimedia computing, followed by a recent push towards publishing on the World Wide Web, is rapidly changing the publishing industry. Editorial staff, working under pressure in printed and online publications, need to use a growing diversity of representations for planning, creating and reviewing content. We present a study of a number of publishing sites, describing how such representations are critical to ensuring quality in the editorial process. Following this, we discuss design implications for better representational tools.
Keywords: Field study, Collaboration, Multimedia, Publishing, World Wide Web, Representation
Interval Scripts: A Design Paradigm for Story-Based Interactive Systems BIBAKHTMLPDF 287-294
  Claudio S. Pinhanez; Kenji Mase; Aaron Bobick
A system to manage human interaction in immersive environments was designed and implemented. The interaction is defined by an interval script which describes the relationships between the time intervals which command actuators or gather information from sensors. With this formalism, reactive, linear, and tree-like interaction can be equally described, as well as less regular story and interaction patterns. Control of actuators and sensors is accomplished using PNF-restriction, a calculus which propagates the sensed information through the interval script determining which intervals are or should be happening at each moment. The prototype was used in an immersive, story-based interactive environment called SingSong where a user or a performer tries to conduct four computer character singers in spite of the hostility of one of them.
Keywords: Interaction design, Story-based immersive systems, Temporal scripts

PAPERS: Exploring Input

Beyond Fitts' Law: Models for Trajectory-Based HCI Tasks BIBAKHTMLPDF 295-302
  Johnny Accot; Shumin Zhai
Trajectory-based interactions, such as navigating through nested-menus, drawing curves, and moving in 3D worlds, are becoming common tasks in modern computer interfaces. Users' performances in these tasks cannot be successfully modeled with Fitts' law as it has been applied to pointing tasks. Therefore we explore the possible existence of robust regularities in trajectory-based tasks. We used "steering through tunnels" as our experimental paradigm to represent such tasks, and found that a simple "steering law" indeed exists. The paper presents the motivation, analysis, a series of four experiments, and the applications of the steering law.
Keywords: Fitts' Law, Human performance, Modeling, Movements, Path steering, Task difficulty, Motor control, Input techniques and devices, Trajectory-based interaction
Performance Differences in the Fingers, Wrist, and Forearm in Computer Input Control BIBAKHTMLPDF 303-310
  Ravin Balakrishnan; I. Scott MacKenzie
Recent work in computer input control has sought to maximize the use of the fingers in the operation of computer pointing devices. The main rationale is the hypothesis that the muscle groups controlling the fingers have a higher bandwidth than those controlling other segments of the human upper limb. Evidence which supports this, however, is inconclusive. We conducted an experiment to determine the relative bandwidths of the fingers, wrist, and forearm and found that the fingers do not necessarily outperform the other limb segments. Our results indicate that the bandwidth of the unsupported index finger is approximately 3.0 bits/s while the wrist and forearm have bandwidths of about 4.1 bits/s. We also show that the thumb and index finger working together in a pinch grip have an information processing rate of about 4.5 bits/s. Other factors which influence the relative performance of the different limbs in manipulation tasks are considered.
Keywords: Computer pointing devices, Human information processing, Muscle group differences, Hand, Fingers, Arm, Motor control, Fitts' Law
The Rockin' Mouse: Integral 3D Manipulation on a Plane BIBAKHTMLPDF 311-318
  Ravin Balakrishnan; Thomas Baudel; Gordon Kurtenbach; George Fitzmaurice
A novel input device called the Rockin'Mouse is described and evaluated. The Rockin'Mouse is a four degree-of-freedom input device that has the same shape as a regular mouse except that the bottom of the Rockin'Mouse is rounded so that it can be tilted. This tilting can be used to control two extra degrees of freedom, thus making it suitable for manipulation in 3D environments. Like the regular mouse, the Rockin'Mouse can sense planar position and perform all the usual functions. However, in a 3D scene a regular mouse can only operate on 2 dimensions at a time and therefore manipulation in 3D requires a way to switch between dimensions. With the Rockin'Mouse, however, all the dimensions can be simultaneously controlled. In this paper we describe our design rationale behind the Rockin'Mouse, and present an experiment which compares the Rockin'Mouse to the standard mouse in a typical 3D interaction task. Our results indicate that the Rockin'Mouse is 30% faster and is a promising device for both 2D and 3D interaction.
Keywords: 3D interaction, Input devices, Integral motion, Mouse, 3D graphical manipulators

PAPERS: Papers About Paper

Paper as an Analytic Resource for the Design of New Technologies BIBAKHTMLPDF 319-326
  Abigail Sellen; Richard Harper
We report on an examination of work practice in a knowledge-based, document-intensive organisation and describe the role of paper in that work. We show how such an examination can provide a resource for (1) the determination of system design modifications that can be undertaken in the short term; (2) the determination of entirely new systems design requiring longer term research and development; and (3) helping to specify where paper will continue to be used in future document-related work practice.
Keywords: Paper, Ethnography, Knowledge work, Diary study, Collaboration, Design, Organisations, IMF
PaperLink: A Technique for Hyperlinking from Real Paper to Electronic Content BIBAKHTMLPDF 327-334
  Toshifumi Arai; Dietmar Aust; Scott Hudson
Paper is a very convenient medium for presenting information. It is familiar, flexible, portable, inexpensive, user modifiable, and offers better readability properties than existing electronic displays. However, paper displays are static and do not offer capabilities such as dynamic content, and hyperlinking that can be provided with electronic media. PaperLink is a system which augments paper documents with electronic features. PaperLink uses a highlighter pen augmented with a camera, along with simple computer vision and pattern recognition techniques, to allow a user to make marks on paper which can have associations and meaning in an electronic world, and to "pick up" printed material for use as electronic input. This paper will consider the prototype PaperLink hardware and software system, and its application to hyperlinking from paper to electronic content.
Keywords: Augmented reality, Input devices, Hybrid paper electronic interfaces, Computer vision systems, Pattern recognition, Hyperlinking
A Comparison of Reading Paper and On-Line Documents BIBAKHTMLPDF 335-342
  Kenton O'Hara; Abigail Sellen
We report on a laboratory study that compares reading from paper to reading on-line. Critical differences have to do with the major advantages paper offers in supporting annotation while reading, quick navigation, and flexibility of spatial layout. These, in turn, allow readers to deepen their understanding of the text, extract a sense of its structure, create a plan for writing, cross-refer to other documents, and interleave reading and writing. We discuss the design implications of these findings for the development of better reading technologies.
Keywords: Reading, Paper, Documents, Digital document readers, Hypertext, Digital libraries, Design, Web

PAPERS: Designing for Learning

Designing For or Designing With? Informant Design for Interactive Learning Environments BIBAKHTMLPDF 343-350
  Michael Scaife; Yvonne Rogers; Frances Aldrich; Matt Davies
The value of involving people as 'users' or 'participants' in the design process is increasingly becoming a point of debate. In this paper we describe a new framework, called 'informant design', which advocates efficiency of input from different people: maximizing the value of contributions from various informants and design team members at different stages of the design process. To illustrate how this can be achieved we describe a project that uses children and teachers as informants at different stages to help us design an interactive learning environment for teaching ecology.
Keywords: Children, Design, Low-tech, Hi-tech, Informant, Interactive learning environments, Prototypes
Degrees of Comprehension: Children's Understanding of a Visual Programming Environment BIBAKHTMLPDF 351-358
  Cyndi Rader; Cathy Brand; Clayton Lewis
A new generation of innovative, highly visual children's programming environments is under development. In this paper, we consider the instructional requirements for children learning to program in a visual environment. Based on our year-long experience using Apple Computer's KidSim/Cocoa prototype [2] and the results of a year-end assessment, we conclude that the children failed to grasp many aspects of the program operation. The children readily mastered drawing and animating characters in imaginary worlds, but struggled to achieve more complex behaviors. Lack of explicit instruction on program functionality hindered these children in their attempts to create more sophisticated science programs. We explore the prospects for more effective instruction and suggest some guidelines for designing visual programming environments.
Keywords: Kids software, Educational application, End-user programming, Simulations, Programming by demonstration, Graphical rewrite rules
The Persona Effect: Affective Impact of Animated Pedagogical Agents BIBAKHTMLPDF 359-366
  James C. Lester; Sharolyn A. Converse; Susan H. Kahler; S. Todd Barlow; Brian A. Stone; Ravinder Bhogal
Animated pedagogical agents that inhabit interactive learning environments can exhibit strikingly lifelike behaviors. In addition to providing problem-solving advice in response to students' activities in the learning environment, these agents may also be able to play a powerful motivational role. To design the most effective agent-based learning environment software, it is essential to understand how students perceive an animated pedagogical agent with regard to affective dimensions such as encouragement, utility, credibility, and clarity. This paper describes a study of the affective impact of animated pedagogical agents on students' learning experiences. One hundred middle school students interacted with animated pedagogical agents to assess their perception of agents' affective characteristics. The study revealed the persona effect, which is that the presence of a lifelike character in an interactive learning environment -- even one that is not expressive -- can have a strong positive effect on student's perception of their learning experience. The study also demonstrates the interesting effect of multiple types of explanatory behaviors on both affective perception and learning performance.
Keywords: Educational applications, Intelligent systems, Children, Agents, Empirical studies

PAPERS: Information Structures

Effective View Navigation BIBAKHTMLPDF 367-374
  George W. Furnas
In view navigation a user moves about an information structure by selecting something in the current view of the structure. This paper explores the implications of rudimentary requirements for effective view navigation, namely that, despite the vastness of an information structure, the views must be small, moving around must not take too many steps and the route to any target be must be discoverable. The analyses help rationalize existing practice, give insight into the difficulties, and suggest strategies for design.
Keywords: Information navigation, Direct Walk, Large information structures, Hypertext, Searching, Browsing
Characterizing Interactive Externalizations BIBAKHTMLPDF 375-382
  Lisa Tweedie
This paper seeks to characterize the space of techniques that exist for interactive externalisations (visualisations). A selection of visualisations are classified with respect to: the types of data represented, the nature of the visible feedback displayed and the forms of interactivity used. Such characterization provides a method for evaluating potential designs and comparing different tools.
Keywords: Visualization, Interactive graphics, Taxonomy
Life, Death, and Lawfulness on the Electronic Frontier BIBAKHTMLPDF 383-390
  James Pitkow; Peter Pirolli
To facilitate users' ability to make sense of large collections of hypertext we present two new techniques for inducing clusters of related documents on the World Wide Web. Users' ability to find relevant information might also be enhanced by finding lawful properties of document behavior and use. We present models and analyses of document use and change for the World Wide Web.
Keywords: Clustering, Categorization, Co-citation analysis, World Wide Web, Hypertext, Survival analysis, Usage models

PAPERS: Finding What You Want II

WebStage: An Active Media Enhanced World Wide Web Browser BIBAKHTMLPDF 391-398
  Tomoharu Yamaguchi; Itaru Hosomi; Toshiaki Miyashita
The World Wide Web provides us with enormous opportunities to obtain global information. However, conventional browsers are time-intensive, requiring many operations with attendant mental concentration, to view the Web pages. This can often discourage people from seeking access to the Web. In this paper, we present an "active" Web browser, named "WebStage". Unlike conventional browsers, it displays Web pages using a television metaphor to encourage "passive" users to access the Web.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Metaphor, Multimedia, Information access, Passive-user support, Media design
Revisitation Patterns in World Wide Web Navigation BIBAKHTMLPDF 399-406
  Linda Tauscher; Saul Greenberg
We report on users' revisitation patterns to World Wide Web pages, and use these to lay an empirical foundation for the design of history mechanisms in web browsers. Through history, a user can return quickly to a previously visited page, possibly reducing the cognitive and physical overhead required to navigate to it from scratch. We analyzed 6 weeks of usage data collected from 23 users of a commercial web browser. We found that 58% of an individual's pages are revisits, and that users continually add new web pages into their repertoire of visited pages. People tend to revisit pages just visited, access only a few pages frequently, browse in very small clusters of related pages, and generate only short sequences of repeated URL paths. We compared different history mechanisms, and found that the stack-based prediction method prevalent in commercial browsers is inferior to the simpler approach of showing the last few recently visited URLs with duplicates removed. Other predictive approaches fare even better. Our results suggest new approaches to managing history in browsers.
Keywords: History mechanisms, WWW, Web, Hypertext, Navigation
Queries? Links? Is there a Difference? BIBAKHTMLPDF 407-414
  Gene Golovchinsky
Hypertext interfaces are considered appropriate for information exploration tasks. The prohibitively expensive link creation effort, however, prevents traditional hypertext interfaces from being used with large coherent collections of text. Such collections typically require query-based interfaces. This paper examines a hybrid approach: the system described here creates anchors dynamically based on users' queries, and uses anchor selection as a query expansion mechanism. An experiment was conducted to compare browsing behavior in query- and link-based interfaces. Results suggest that query-mediated links are as effective as explicit queries, and that strategies adopted by users affect performance. This work has implications for the design of information exploration interfaces; the dynamic link algorithms described here are being incorporated into a Web server.
Keywords: Hypertext, Dynamic links, Browsing, Newspaper metaphor, Information exploration, Information retrieval

PAPERS: Speech, Haptic, & Multimodal Input

Integration and Synchronization of Input Modes during Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTMLPDF 415-422
  Sharon Oviatt; Antonella DeAngeli; Karen Kuhn
Our ability to develop robust multimodal systems will depend on knowledge of the natural integration patterns that typify people's combined use of different input modes. To provide a foundation for theory and design, the present research analyzed multimodal interaction while people spoke and wrote to a simulated dynamic map system. Task analysis revealed that multimodal interaction occurred most frequently during spatial location commands, and with intermediate frequency during selection commands. In addition, microanalysis of input signals identified sequential, simultaneous, point-and-speak, and compound integration patterns, as well as data on the temporal precedence of modes and on inter-modal lags. In synchronizing input streams, the temporal precedence of writing over speech was a major theme, with pen input conveying location information first in a sentence. Linguistic analysis also revealed that the spoken and written modes consistently supplied complementary semantic information, rather than redundant. One long-term goal of this research is the development of predictive models of natural modality integration to guide the design of emerging multimodal architectures.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Integration and synchronization, Speech and pen input, Dynamic interactive maps, Spatial location information, Predictive modeling
Rendering Drawings for Interactive Haptic Perception BIBAKHTMLPDF 423-430
  Martin Kurze
This paper describes a rendering method for generating tangible drawings of spatial real world objects based on a theory of haptic image perception and understanding. The method is based on an analysis of the process of drawing used by blind people and on cognitive considerations. A haptic rendering pipeline has been implemented which uses methods such as folding out or flattening to create 2D images from 3D models. The evaluation currently being carried out is described and the results are discussed in a broader application context.
Keywords: Haptic perception, Tactile drawing, Blind people, Haptic rendering pipeline
MedSpeak: Report Creation with Continuous Speech Recognition BIBAKHTMLPDF 431-438
  Jennifer Lai; John Vergo
MedSpeak/Radiology is a product that allows radiologists to create, edit and manage reports using real-time, continuous speech recognition. Speech is used both to navigate through the application, and to dictate reports. The system is multi-modal, accepting input by either voice, mouse or keyboard. This paper reports on how we addressed the critical user need of high throughput in our interface design, and ways of supporting both error prevention and error correction with continuous speech. User studies suggest that for this task there was low tolerance for accuracy less than 100%, but the additional time required for corrections was considered by many radiologists to be acceptable in view of the overall reduction in report turn around time.
Keywords: Continuous speech recognition, Speech interface design, Radiology, Navigation, Dictation

DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Simple, Small and Focused: Managing Personal Information

Simplified Applications for Network Computers BIBAKHTMLPDF 439-446
  Don Gentner; Frank Ludolph; Chris Ryan
This paper describes the design of HotJava Views, a user environment and suite of applications for a Network Computer. A Network Computer differs from the common Personal Computer in that it has no permanent local storage, but instead obtains its software and data as needed over the network from a central server. We have abandoned some characteristic features of current GUI interfaces, such as the desktop metaphor, file systems, and the distinction between applications and documents. Our design principles are focused on simplicity, efficiency of operation, clarity of the interaction model, and tight integration between applications.
Keywords: Calendar, Email, HotJava Views, Human interface design, Java, Minimalist, Network Computer, NC, Simplicity, Web
Design: No Job too Small BIBAKHTMLPDF 447-454
  Jean C. Scholtz; Tony Salvador; Pete Lockhart; James Newbery
This paper describes the efforts involved in the design of a novel Personal Information Manager (PIM) about the size of a credit card with a touch screen that fit neatly in one's shirt pocket or the PCMCIA slot on a PC. The device had to support both viewing data as well as entering data. This project at Intel offered human factors engineers extraordinary freedom in terms of functional design constraints, including no pre-existing operating system or pre-existing metaphor. However, in terms of practical constraints, such as low power demands, extremely small screen size and low resolution, color and the inexperience of the engineering team working with human factors professionals, this project offered us a unique challenge. In the end, ergonomic concerns, functionality concerns and navigation issues required a novel approach to the design of this hand-held computing appliance. Making decisions was additionally complicated as the novel hardware was being developed simultaneously. During design, we needed to produce innovative tests that would give valid results without using the actual hardware and we needed to explain at each step what we were doing and the input we would have for hardware and/or software decisions.
Keywords: Design, Usability testing, User requirements, Ergonomics, Hand held, Mobile computing
Claris Organizer's Expanding Contact Card BIBAKHTMLPDF 455-462
  Philip D. Haine
This paper describes the design process behind the contact card user interface in Claris Organizer 2.0. This was a situation where traditional UI elements were insufficient to satisfy the design's requirements. High-fidelity prototypes were developed, iterated and tested against competing designs. Standards and guidelines had to be broken to achieve the design's objectives. Despite having more fields and more functionality, the resulting design was smaller, faster, and preferred by users.
Keywords: Contact card, Expanding sections, Dense input area, PIMs

DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Understanding Users

KidPad: A Design Collaboration Between Children, Technologists, and Educators BIBAKHTMLPDF 463-470
  Allison Druin; Jason Stewart; David Proft; Ben Bederson; Jim Hollan
We established an interdisciplinary, intergenerational collaboration in the fall of 1995, between the University of New Mexico's Computer Science Department, the College of Education, and local Albuquerque elementary school children. The goal of this research was to develop an expressive digital medium with an intuitive zooming interface, to support a learning environment for children. In the process of this collaboration, design methodologies that support a child's role in the development of new technologies were explored. What follows is a summary of our iterative design experience, collaboration, and the results of the research to date.
Keywords: Children, Design techniques, Cooperative design, Educational applications, Evaluation, Participatory design, Social issues, Pad++, KidPad
Designing a Graphical User Interface for Healthcare Workers in Rural India BIBAKHTMLPDF 471-478
  Sally Grisedale; Michael Graves; Alexander Grunsteidl
This paper describes the research and development of an interface for a mobile computing device to be used by Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) in rural India. We describe the insights of the team from Apple Research Lab (ARL), who have had the privilege of working in a very different culture from the ones they are used to. We show how our observations of the healthcare workers performing their caring and administrative functions informed the design of the user interface. We illustrate how we developed the graphical language, navigational structure and data entry techniques. We provide a summary of the feedback we received from early field trials and some thoughts on the appropriateness of our approach to design in this environment.
Keywords: Human interface design, Mobile computing, Pen input, Soft keyboard, Newton MessagePad, Rapid prototyping, India, Rajasthan, Ajmer, Auxiliary nurse midwife, Healthcare, Family welfare
Balancing Usability and Learning in an Interface BIBAKHTMLPDF 479-486
  Noel Rappin; Mark Guzdial; Matthew Realff; Pete Ludovice
Creating educational software forces a difficult tradeoff. The software must be easy for the students to use, yet not so simple that the parts that students are to learn from are done for them by the computer. DEVICE (Dynamic Environment for Visualization of Chemical Engineering) is a learning environment aimed at allowing chemical engineering students to model chemical engineering problems, then execute those problems as simulations. In the design of DEVICE, we have attempted to use student tasks to focus attention on the most important parts of the problem without overwhelming students with extraneous detail.
Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Interface design, Learners

DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Working with Stakeholders: Design Within and Among Organizations

Reflections on I/Design: User Interface Design at a Startup BIBAKHTMLPDF 487-493
  Allison L. Hansen
There are many challenges to delivering a state-of-the-art user interface in a startup company, especially when the Product Manager is also the User Interface Designer. This design briefing describes the process of making incremental improvements to an existing product, given very limited time and resources, while also designing a new replacement product. Several well-known design techniques and strategies were used, and the relative success or failure of each approach is discussed. In addition, the design rationale for and evolution of the successful new user interface are presented.
Keywords: User interface design, User-centered design, Design process, Iterative design, Paper prototyping, World-Wide Web, Web measurement, Startup company
Social Trends and Product Opportunities: Philips' Vision of the Future Project BIBAKHTMLPDF 494-501
  Robert Lambourne; Khodi Feiz; Bertrand Rigot
This paper describes a project that was carried out by Philips Corporate Design (PCD) to explore ideas for products and services which could be part of our future in the year 2005. It discusses how a socio-cultural tool was used together with technology forecasts to arrive at the creation of scenarios that describe future products and their contexts. The concepts were then communicated to a wide audience in the form of short film clips. The project involved many people from a wide range of disciplines.
Keywords: Future, Design process, Socio-cultural forecasts, Interaction design, Industrial design, Film making, Scenario
Putting Visualization to Work: ProgramFinder for Youth Placement BIBAKHTMLPDF 502-509
  Jason B. Ellis; Anne Rose; Catherine Plaisant
The Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) and the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) have been working together to design the ProgramFinder, a tool for selecting programs for troubled youths ranging from drug rehabilitation centers to secure residential facilities. The seemingly straightforward journey of the ProgramFinder from an existing user interface technique to a product design required the development of five different prototypes which involved user interface design, prototype implementation, and selecting search attributes. While HCIL's effort focused primarily on design and implementation, DJJ's attribute selection process was the most time consuming and difficult task. We also found that a direct link to DJJ's workflow was needed in the prototypes to generate the necessary "buy-in." This paper analyzes the interaction between the efforts of HCIL and DJJ and the amount of "buy-in" by DJJ staff and management. Lessons learned are presented for designers.
Keywords: Technology transfer, Visualization, Dynamic query, Legal systems, Matching

DESIGN BRIEFINGS: Access to Knowledge: Libraries and Data Mining

The Multimedia Library: The Center of an Information-Rich Community BIBAKHTMLPDF 510-517
  Gerard Jorna; Mirjam Wouters; Paul Gardien; Hans Kemp; Jack Mama; Irene Mavromati; Ian McClelland; Linda Vodegel Matzen
Due to the rapid development of information and multimedia technology, the information and services available within a Public Library are changing. This design project, executed by Philips Corporate Design in cooperation with the Public Library of Eindhoven, approached the library not as a digital catalogue but as the center of a community, a place to gather, communicate with others, and a place to obtain and exchange information with anybody about anything. Library (non)-users investigations provided information regarding the current state and perception of the library, the catalogue, as well as to desired improvements, services and tools. The design process and the initial designs of these services and tools are presented.
Keywords: Library, Multimedia, Browsing, Information visualization, Information retrieval
Bringing Treasures to the Surface: Iterative Design for the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program BIBAKHTMLPDF 518-525
  Catherine Plaisant; Gary Marchionini; Tom Bruns; Anita Komlodi; Laura Campbell
The Human-Computer Interaction Lab worked with a team for the Library of Congress (LC) to develop and test interface designs for LC's National Digital Library Program. Three iterations are described and illustrate the progression of the project toward a compact design that minimizes scrolling and jumping and anchors users in a screen space that tightly couples search and results. Issues and resolutions are discussed for each iteration and reflect the challenges of incomplete metadata, data visualization, and the rapidly changing web environment.
Keywords: Digital libraries, Web design, Browse, Java, Dynamic query, Preview, Design process, Search
Evolution of a User Interface Design: NCR's Management Discovery Tool BIBAKHTMLPDF 526-533
  James F. Knutson; Tej Anand; Richard L. Henneman
Many companies are developing large data warehouses to understand their customers and business trends better; however, tools to analyze these data typically require significant expertise. Because of this, NCR has developed the Management Discovery Tool (MDT) for the typical manager who wants answers to business questions without having to know SQL or database table and column names. We provide an overview of the user-centered design process used to design one part of the MDT (the "Folders View" dialog) and give rationale for design decisions.
Keywords: User-centered design, Iterative design, Prototypes, Mockups, Data mining, Data analysis, Data retrieval

TECHNICAL NOTES: Collaborative Communities I

Telemedical Consultation: Task Characteristics BIBAKHTMLPDF 534-535
  Leon Watts; Andrew Monk
Three telemedical projects were studied that used ISDN video to link primary care medical centres to hospitals. Specifically, a doctor or nurse practitioner with the patient was able to consult a remote specialist about treatment or diagnosis. Five task characteristics for this particular form of telemedical consultation are identified. These characteristics make clear the need for high quality multi-party sound communication and multiple-view slow-scan video but suggest that full motion video may not be necessary to support this kind of work. Some issues in analysing technologically-mediated collaborative work are briefly discussed.
Keywords: Videoconferencing, Telemedicine, Task analysis
Usability, Help Desk Calls, and Residential Internet Usage BIBAHTMLPDF 536-537
  Sara Kiesler; Robert Kraut; Vicki Lundmark; William Scherlis; Tridas Mukhopadhyay
For the average person, the Internet is still too hard to use. We report evidence from HomeNet, a field trial in Pittsburgh that tries to understand how people use the Internet. Despite our reducing technological and economic barriers to use, families had problems connecting and using the Internet. We show that help calls, however, are not a good indicator of usability, since it is the "enthusiasts" and people with instrumental tasks to accomplish who call.

TECHNICAL NOTES: Input & Output in the Future

An Isometric Tongue Pointing Device BIBAKHTMLPDF 538-539
  Chris Salem; Shumin Zhai
In order to provide alternative computer input, we designed an isometric, tongue operated device: Tonguepoint. The design rationale and a preliminary experiment are presented in this technical note. Results show that, after 30 minutes practice and adjustment, the subjects could use the Tonguepoint at a performance level that was only 5-50% slower than finger isometric pointing. Further improvements are expected.
Keywords: Disability, Tongue, Mouth, Isometric device, Input device, Alternative access
How Effective are 3D Display Modes? BIBAKHTMLPDF 540-541
  Sabine Volbracht; Gitta Domik; Khatoun Shahrbabaki; Gregor Fels
The increasing availability of 3D input and output devices demands a better understanding and comparison of their quality. This report describes an empirical experiment for comparing 3D display modes: traditional perspective viewing, anaglyph stereo and shutter glass stereo. We followed two hypotheses 1. shutter glass stereo viewing allows a faster and more accurate recognition than the anaglyph and the perspective viewing, and 2. subjects experienced with particular 3D representations are faster and more accurate than subjects with out experience. The experiment is based on a true research scenario in organic chemistry. Organic molecules were used as 3D objects. Mean response error and mean response time were calculated for a series of six tasks and 81 subjects.
Keywords: Perspective viewing, Anaglyph stereo, Shutter glass stereo, 3D display mode, Experience, Empirical, Experiment

TECHNICAL NOTES: Extending The HCI Agenda

Communication, Action and History BIBAKHTMLPDF 542-543
  Alan Dix; Roberta Mancini; Stefano Levialdi
At the opening Plenary of CHI 96, Herbert Clark challenged human-computer interface design to emulate some of the graceful repair found in face-to-face conversation. However, the dominant paradigm in recent user-interface design has been one of action, not communication -- direct manipulation, not commands. In day-to-day life we find the transition between the worlds of action and communication problematic, so it is not surprising that we experience similar problems in the computer world. Nowhere is this transition more marked than when using undo -- we are forced to think about what we have just done -- breakdown.
Keywords: Undo, History, Direct manipulation, Breakdown
Translation in HCI: Formal Representations for Work Analysis and Collaboration BIBAKHTMLPDF 544-545
  Michael J. Muller
In a previous paper, I provided a foundation argument for translation as a pivotal activity in analysis work in the fields of HCI, with profound epistemological and ethical consequences. This technical note extends the argument with a formal notation for translation work in HCI, with application to work analysis and collaboration.
Keywords: Task analysis, Systems analysis, Translation, Translator, Ethnocriticism, Ethnocritical heuristics, Positionality
A Factor Analysis of User Cognition and Emotion BIBAKHTMLPDF 546-547
  Judith Ramsay
Fifty two statements of cognition and emotion were gathered from computer users during breakdowns in understanding during interaction. They were reduced by factor analysis to a set of ten themes. The themes show the extent of discomfort experienced during breakdowns. The themes now form the backbone of a checklist of cognition and emotion, short enough in length to be administered during interaction. This work forms a move towards understanding and ultimately alleviating discomfort felt during human-computer interaction.
Keywords: Cognition, Emotion, Factor Analysis, Human-computer interaction
Understanding Movement BIBAKHTMLPDF 548-549
  Leslie Carlson Vaughan
Through abstract movement, we are able to communicate various emotional content to users on the computer screen. This article examines movement in Theatre and Psychology and how connotative values are associated with movement. Through understanding the characteristics of movement and their various effects, the designer may better understand the complexity and relationship between movement and emotion.
Keywords: Movement, Animation, Emotion, Affordance, Theatre

TECHNICAL NOTES: Beyond the Desktop

Supporting Knowledge Workers Beyond the Desktop with Palplates BIBAKHTMLPDF 550-551
  Jennifer Mankoff; Bill N. Schilit
Palplates are a collection of touch-screen terminals placed around the office enabling human-computer interactions at the point of need. Supporting a community of mobile authenticated workers with a small number of stationary devices is an alternative to providing each person with a portable wireless computer. In contrast to the PC's desktop metaphor, Palplates use a place metaphor that reflect the actual rooms, corridors, and buildings that are part of the office place. Users interact graphically with applications supported by a geographic database. The user interface is generated dynamically based on the user's identity, the point-of-access, and the changing collection of physical office equipment, electronic documents and applications present at any given location.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Context-aware computing, Mirror worlds, Mobile computing, Kiosk systems, MUDs
CyberDesk: Automated Integration of Desktop and Network Services BIBAKHTMLPDF 552-553
  Andrew Wood; Anind Dey; Gregory D. Abowd
The CyberDesk project suggests a way to break the prevailing assumption in personal computing that the user must search out ways to integrate behavior between separate services. We present a technique and prototype system for automatic integration of desktop applications and network services that requires no effort by either the designer or the end-user.
Keywords: Adaptive interfaces, Automated integration, Future computing environments, Ubiquitous services