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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Common Ground
Location:Vancouver, Canada
Dates:1996-Apr-14 to 1996-Apr-18
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-832-0; ACM Order Number 608963; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI96-2
Pages:462
Links:Conference Home Page | Online Proceedings
  1. CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2
    1. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    2. Tutorial 1
    3. Tutorial 2
    4. Tutorial 3
    5. Tutorial 4
    6. Tutorial 5
    7. Tutorial 6
    8. Tutorial 7
    9. Tutorial 8
    10. Tutorial 9
    11. Tutorial 10
    12. Tutorial 11
    13. Tutorial 12
    14. Tutorial 13
    15. Tutorial 14
    16. Tutorial 15
    17. Tutorial 16
    18. Tutorial 17
    19. Tutorial 18
    20. Tutorial 19
    21. Tutorial 20
    22. Tutorial 21
    23. Tutorial 22
    24. Tutorial 23
    25. Tutorial 24
    26. Tutorial 25
    27. Tutorial 26
    28. Tutorial 27
    29. Tutorial 28
    30. Tutorial 29
    31. Tutorial 30
    32. VIDEOS: Visualization
    33. VIDEOS: Design
    34. VIDEOS: New Directions
    35. VIDEOS: World Wide Web
    36. Workshops
    37. Retrospective on Pre-Conference Activities

CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2

Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

Students at CHI BIBAKHTML 315
  Casey Boyd; Jennifer Kay
The Students at CHI SIG provides an open session where all students attending CHI 96 can meet their peers while discussing graduate student issues. The SIG is intended for the participation of graduate students (beginning through senior), recent graduates, undergraduates, and friends.
Keywords: CHI students, Graduate students, Thesis issues
From Technical Writer to Information Engineer: Adapting to a Changing Identity BIBAK 316
  Virginia Allen-Terry
Technical communicators in the computer industry are currently witness to a paradigm shift in their identity. They are being solicited to perform roles, ranging from technical writer, human factors engineer, editor and documentation production specialist to multimedia specialist.
   Their identity however remains ambiguous both within and outside the community. As borders between technical communities disappear with the widespread use of new technologies, writers must now be both engineers and communications specialists.
   This SIG allows us to share our experiences in order to identify the issues, with the ultimate goal of achieving success in this new environment. Part of that success is dependent on finding common ground between ours and other communities, particularly that of development engineers, wherein we can develop our added value.
Keywords: Writing, Technical communications, Information engineering, Professional identity
Worldwide HCI Professional Education BIBAKHTML 317
  Marian G. Williams; Guy Boy
The goals of the SIG are to disseminate information about the SIGCHI working group on HCI professional continuing education and to gather information and ideas to guide the working group in their efforts to improve HCI professional education worldwide.
Keywords: SIGCHI, Education, Continuing education, CHI professional issues
Newcomers' Orientation BIBAK 318
  Bonnie Nardi; Gerrit C. van der Veer
This will be a special session devoted to helping newcomers get the most out of their CHI conference experience. If you are a first time CHI participant, please join us to meet the organization and volunteers responsible for the Conference. The CHI 96 Technical Program Co-Chairs will offer suggestions on how to get the most benefit from attending the conference, and volunteers will be available to answer your questions.
Keywords: CHI conference, SIGCHI, First time attendees
The CHI Tutorial Program: Building on Common Ground BIBAKHTML 319
  Marian G. Williams; Mark W. Altom
The goal of the SIG is to provide a comfortable forum in which interested people, no matter what their relationship to the tutorial program, may contribute ideas for guiding the evolution of the CHI tutorial program.
Keywords: SIGCHI, Tutorials, Education, Continuing education, HCI professional issues
Getting Started with Contextual Techniques BIBAHTML 320
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Contextual techniques, which ensure good system design by taking the designer out into the users' world, are revolutionizing the way organizations approach design. But since the techniques are still new, individuals and teams which want to adopt them must do so with no organizational support. In this SIG, we will use the experience of the organizers and others who have successfully adopted contextual techniques to produce a guide on how to get started. Participants will share their experience and knowledge while producing a guide useful to future practitioners. People wanting to use contextual techniques will have the opportunity to ask questions and raise issues, and will leave with a guide to help them get started. We will use the template below to structure the discussion for the SIG. We will collect participants' ideas and experience for each section, capturing points on-line. Following the session, we will consolidate the discussion into a simple a 2-5 page guide and send it to all participants.
CHI Ten Year View: A Community Discussion BIBAKHTML 321
  Catherine R. Marshall; David G. Novick
In addition to providing a means for communicating the results of the CHI Ten Year View workshop, this SIG will provide an opportunity for a larger set of conference participants to contribute to refining and extending those results. It also will provide an opportunity for interested members of the CHI community to further address the focal issue of common ground as a community.
Keywords: Future, Scenario, Planning, Education, Management, Career, CHI, HCI, Human factors, CHI'06
HCI and Users with Disabilities BIBAKHTML 322
  Alistair D. N. Edwards
If you think of interfaces you have designed or built, how well do users who are blind get on with accessing them? What about people who cannot use keyboards, because of a manual impairment? If you have never asked these questions, perhaps you should. If for no other reason, legislation now exists which requires that suppliers of computer equipment must be able to demonstrate that it can be used by people with disabilities. The purpose of this SIG will be to bring together people asking those sorts of questions with those who have been trying to answer them. CHI has a good record of sponsoring events related to users with disabilities (panels, tutorials, papers); CHI attendees have a bad record for turning up to them. However, it is no longer tenable to assume that the needs of users with disabilities will be catered for by someone else; 'design for all' must be taken literally. CHI '96 is going to be a particularly good opportunity to address these questions since it is being held back-to-back with the ACM Assets Conference on Assistive Technologies. The SIG will foster cross-over between the group.
  • Can designing for users with special needs improve designs for all users?
  • How can interface designers find out about how to make their interfaces more
       accessible to people with disabilities?
  • Are there mainstream techniques and principles which can be applied to
       improve the design of adapted interfaces?
  • How does one convince a commercial company that it should expend resources in
       accommodating a small minority of potential users?
  • What are the implications of legislation, such as the Americans with
       Disabilities Act?
  • Will developments in multi-modal interfaces erect new barriers or provide new
       opportunities?
  • What are the roles of organizations such as ACM and the International
       Federation for Information Processing (IFIP)?
    Keywords: Disability, Design-for-all, Adapted interfaces, Legislation, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBAKHTML 323
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
    User documentation, whether in print or "built in" to the online user interface, is now a vital element of successful computer products. Managers and developers recognize that the common model of documentation as remediation for deficient design must not persist, but they often don't know how to build documentation usability into an ongoing product-development effort.
       Therefore, this meeting -- now in its seventh annual session -- is a forum on human factors in computer documentation. With the growth of online user support and the increasing integration of documentation with the user interface, this SIG provides CHI '95 attendees a specific opportunity to discuss recent developments in documentation usability. Topics include:
  • Addressing documentation usability early in the product design process
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting documentation usability
       data
  • Roles and relationships among documentation specialists, user-interface
       designers, and software developers
  • Cost-justifying documentation usability programs
    Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development
  • Corporate Pioneers -- Lessons Learned: Introducing and Promoting Usability Testing in a Corporate Environment BIBAKHTML 324
      Lora Davenport
    The goal of this SIG is for attendees to leave with ideas and techniques to establish or enhance usability in their own organizations. It is designed for the novice and the advanced usability professional.
       The followings issues are covered during this session:
  • Gaining approval from the top down (executive approval)
  • Gaining approval from the bottom up (development teams)
  • Recruiting and hiring usability professionals
  • Managing usability resources and projects
  • Usability testing process improvements
  • Marketing usability within an organization
  • Processing the data
  • Usability lab equipment and facilities
  • Spreading the word on results
  • Training on usability methods
    Keywords: Usability, Tools, Corporate environment, Testing, Quality
  • Gender and Skill in Human Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 325
      Ellen Balka
    The goals of this SIG are to bring HCI designers together to discuss gender and skill as factors in the design process, to allow HCI designers interested in questions related to gender and skill to share information, successes and failures related to gender and skill in HCI work.
       As HCI designers, we rely on notions of both gender and skill that often are not explicit in our work. When we bring gender and skill to the foreground of our work, several issues emerge, including:
  • How does gender come to bear on the dynamics of system design?
  • Are system users primarily men or women?
  • If system users are women, are there any physical or social factors that come
       to bear on their system use?
  • What are the implicit definitions of skill in use by designers?
  • Are definitions of skill tied to gender stereotypes?
  • If so, how might different conceptions of skill come to bear on system
       design?
    Keywords: Gender, Skill, Design approaches, Design strategies
  • User Requirements Analysis for the Home BIBAKHTML 326
      Jean Scholtz; Michael Mateas; Tony Salvador; Doug Sorensen
    Today many software firms do some form of user-centered design and requirements analysis for their business products. As the computer moves more and more into the home, these software firms are beginning to design products for the home market. However, the home differs significantly from the business world in the type of applications that are desired Some possible differences might include the social nature of computing, amount of time available for computing, reasons for interacting with technology, tolerance for technical glitches etc. Moreover, there is much diversity in the types of users found in the home -- age, computer ability, interests, social awareness etc. Therefore, it seems imperative to do user requirements analysis and user-centered design studies for the home market. There are several issues involved in this. First, the HCI community is still evolving and defining methods for doing requirements analysis and user-centered design work in the more established business market. We think it is fair to say that these methods won't succeed in the home. What are the reasons and what are the options for methodology to elicit this information from the home? Secondly, the business market can often be subdivided into "vertical markets" for the purpose of application definition and design. Do "vertical markets" exist in the home market and if so, what are possibilities for them?
       The purpose of this SIG is to gather HCI professionals who are currently studying the home or are interested in studying the home. The discussion will focus on: the various methods that people have employed, the outcomes in using that particular methodology, issues or models of the home that emerge from these studies, and a discussion of the differences between business and home studies.
    Keywords: Ethnography, User requirements analysis, Design process, User-centered design, Usability, Domain analysis, Home computing
    The Amulet User Interface Development Environment BIBAKHTML 327
      Brad A. Myers
    Important features of Amulet include:
  • A dynamic, prototype-instance object system that makes prototyping easier.
  • Constraints integrated with the object system, so any value of any object can
       be computed by a formula which is automatically re-evaluated whenever
       necessary.
  • A high-level object-oriented output graphics model that handles automatic
       refresh of objects when they change.
  • A high-level input model that makes it easy to add conventional and gestural
       behaviors to objects.
  • Built-in support for undo and help.
  • Flexible widgets, such as buttons, menus, scrollbars, text input fields and
       pull-down menus, implemented using the Amulet intrinsics, which you can
       easily parameterize or even replace with your own.
  • Interactive debugging tools, including an "Inspector."
    Keywords: User interface management systems, Toolkits, User interface development environments, Interface builders, C++
  • Tutorial 1

    Introduction and Overview to Human-Computer Interaction BIBAK 328-329
      Keith Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
    The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems

    Tutorial 2

    User Interface Design for the World Wide Web BIBAK 330-331
      Jakob Nielsen; Annette Wagner
    World Wide Web user interfaces need to be very easy to use since users are not going to allow much time to learn a site given the large number of WWW pages on the Internet.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, WWW, Hypertext, Hypermedia, Visual design, Icons, Home page design

    Tutorial 3

    Designing Visual Interfaces: How to Create Communication -- Oriented Solutions BIBA 332-333
      Kevin E. Mullet
    This tutorial describes a number of fundamental techniques applied routinely in communication-oriented visual design. The orientation, process, training, and culture of the visual design disciplines (graphic design, industrial design, interior design, architecture) are essential components of effective interface design. Unfortunately, few software developers or human factors engineers receive any training in these disciplines. This tutorial describes important design rules and techniques internalized by every visual designer through coursework and studio experience. While mastery will indeed require extended practice, the techniques we describe are not difficult to understand and can be immediately applied to real-world problems.
       We draw our background, training, and influence from the rational, functional, information-oriented perspective of the Modernist design ethic. Because all graphical user interfaces are communication systems, we believe their design should reflect these same values. Our tutorial is organized not along the traditional subdisciplines of color, typography, or ideation, but along the problems of graphical interface design as experienced in commercial software development. We describe basic design principles (the what and why), common errors, and practical techniques (the how) for each of the six major areas outlined below.

    Tutorial 4

    Structured Observation: Techniques for Gathering Information about Users in their Own World BIBAK 334-335
      Susan M. Dray
    This tutorial will focus on why and how to do observations of users in their own worksite. It will focus on practical application of techniques which can help systems professionals incorporate user input early in the development process.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Observation, Ethnography, Contextual inquiry, Qualitative data, User profiles, User data collection, Usability, Tools and techniques

    Tutorial 5

    Participatory Activities with Users and Others in the Software Life Cycle BIBAK 336-337
      Michael J. Muller
    This tutorial extends conceptions of theory and practice in participatory design, and in participatory activities more generally. Extensions in breadth cover diversity in using participatory techniques in multiple phases of the software development lifecycle, and diversity in practice within two participatory methods. Extensions in depth consider theoretical and heuristic approaches -- based in part on anthropology, cultural criticism, feminism, and post-modernism -- to working with a mosaic of dissimilar people in terms of mutual value, exchange, and respect. The tutorial's themes are integrated in a closing discussion of participatory methods in the software lifecycle.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Collaborative design, Participatory practices, Usability methods, User centered design, User interface design, Task analysis, Usability assessment, CARD, PICTIVE, Bifocals, Participatory heuristic evaluation, PANDA

    Tutorial 6

    CSCW, Groupware, and Workflow: Experiences, State of Art, and Future Trends BIBAKHTML 338-339
      Jonathan Grudin; Steven Poltrock
    Technology to support groups is rapidly coming into use and is starting to have an impact on us, our organizations, and society. This course addresses recent experiences, current possibilities, and future trends and shocks. Lecture and video illustrations are accompanied by discussions in which participants organize and present their collective experiences with and interests in groupware and workflow technologies, and CSCW issues and methods. The instructors summarize the current composition of the CSCW community and the state of the art in technology, and organize discussion of fundamental challenges that face us as users (and developers) of these technologies.
    Keywords: Groupware, Workflow, Computer-supported cooperative work, Coordination theory, Organizational design, Sociotechnical evolution

    Tutorial 7

    User Interface Issues for Virtual Reality Systems BIBAK 340-341
      Chris Esposito
    This tutorial presents many of the user interface issues a developer must deal with when developing virtual reality (VR) systems, including virtual body definition and control, choosing interaction devices and techniques, system evaluation criteria, and choosing a development environment.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, 3D user interfaces, Stereo displays, Interaction techniques, Tactile I/O, 3D Sound

    Tutorial 8

    Object-Oriented Design from User Scenarios BIBAKHTML 342-343
      Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
    The tutorial leverages HCI professionals' expertise in generating and analyzing user tasks to teach the fundamentals of object-oriented design. Students begin working on design projects immediately, creating object models of user scenarios, and elaborating these models throughout the day to develop a complete design. The students learn methods of responsibility-driven design, as well as how to generalize from individual scenario models to develop class abstractions.
    Keywords: Object-oriented design, Scenarios, Object-oriented programming, Scenario-based design

    Tutorial 9

    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAK 344-345
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a typical, modem project life cycle, and presents usability methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: User interface design, User profile, Task analysis, Usability goals, Style guide, Conceptual model, Walkthroughs, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Usability organization, Cost-benefit analysis

    Tutorial 10

    Spatial Metaphors for User Interfaces BIBAK 346-347
      Werner Kuhn; Brad Blumenthal
    Spatialized user interfaces incorporate spatial metaphors to structure and represent the objects and operations of an application. Examples include desktop or room metaphors and virtual cities or landscapes. Spatialized user interfaces proliferated over the past few years, first popularized by spatialized operating systems and then spreading into virtual reality and multimedia gaming worlds as well as shared work spaces for CSCW. The awareness of the potential benefits of spatialization is growing, but there is a lack of systematic treatments. This one-day tutorial provides a grounding in the concepts of spatialization and spatial metaphors and their application to user interface design.
    Keywords: Spatial metaphors, Spatial cognition, Spatialization, Navigation, Hypertext, Virtual reality, CSCW

    Tutorial 11

    Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKHTML 348-349
      Gary Perlman
    Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include (1) Inspection Methods (e.g., heuristic evaluation), (2) Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud protocols), (3) Program Instrumentation, and (4) Questionnaires. The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: [H.5.2] User interface, Evaluation/methodology, [D.2.2] Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, [H.1.2] Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors

    Tutorial 12

    Design Lessons from the Best of the World Wide Web BIBAK 350-351
      Hagan Heller; David Rivers
    This tutorial is intended to introduce web developers and would-be web developers to techniques and principles that can assist in creating compelling web sites. The presentation will include many examples of well designed and poorly designed web sites based on a set of criteria. Design exercises will reinforce the design principles, and time will be taken to review the exercises to help avoid design pitfalls.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Web design, Hypertext, Graphic design, Design rules

    Tutorial 13

    Interface Issues and Interaction Strategies for Information Retrieval Systems BIBAKHTML 352-353
      Scott Henninger; Nicholas J. Belkin
    The need for effective information retrieval systems becomes increasingly important as computer-based information repositories grow larger and more diverse. In this tutorial, we present the key issues involved in the use and design of effective interfaces to information retrieval systems. The process of satisfying information needs is analyzed as a problem solving activity in which users learn and refine their needs as they interact with a repository. Current systems are analyzed in terms of key interface and interaction techniques such as querying, browsing, and relevance feedback. We discuss the impact of information seeking strategies on the search process and what is needed to more effectively support the search process. Retrieval system evaluation techniques is discussed in terms of its implications for users. We close by outlining some user-centered design strategies for retrieval systems.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, User interfaces, Databases, Information systems, Interaction strategies

    Tutorial 14

    Contextual Inquiry: Grounding Your Design in User's Work BIBAK 354-355
      Dennis Wixon; Alicia Flanders; Minette A. Beabes
    Contextual Inquiry [4] is a synthesis of ethnographic, field research and participatory design [8] methods that provide designers with detailed knowledge of user work which establishes a basis for design. The tutorial provides an understanding of the fundamental principles of Contextual Inquiry and practical experiences with methods for data gathering and analysis.
    Keywords: Contextual inquiry, Participatory design, Ethnographic methods, Qualitative research, Requirements, System design

    Tutorial 15

    Interactive Television: A New Challenge for HCI BIBAK 356
      Barbee E. Teasley; Arnold Lund; Raymond Bennett
    Interactive television (ITV) is a burgeoning new medium with exciting possibilities and challenges for the CHI community. This tutorial provided a basic introduction to the field by delving into three different aspects: the market and scope of ITV, the types of and platforms for ITV, and how HCI relates to designing applications for ITV. While most material was presented in lecture format, the participants also worked on a small design problem which was reviewed by others in the class.
    Keywords: Interactive television, User interface design, Applications, New media

    Tutorial 16

    Network Communities BIBAK 357-358
      John M. Carroll; Stuart Laughton; Mary Beth Rosson
    A network community is a group of people whose communication and collaboration over networks strengthens their shared goals and concerns. Visions and possibilities for network communities are being discussed throughout the computer industry, and throughout society. This tutorial will survey network communities focusing on how they may impact human activities and institutions.
    Keywords: Network communities, Remote collaboration, Internet Relay Chat, World-Wide Web, Listserv, Newsgroups, Electronic bulletin boards, Gopher, Community networks, Multi-user domains, Interactive video

    Tutorial 17

    Rapid Prototyping Using Visual Programming Tools BIBAK 359-360
      Kurt J. Schmucker
    Commercially available visual programming tools offer an easily-learned and efficient means for the production of custom software -- perhaps for a dissertation project, a deployable prototype for user testing, or even just a quick test of a new idea. This CHI tutorial provided an in-depth examination of two of these tools, Novell's AppWare and Pictorius' Prograph CPX, as well as an introduction to the area of visual programming.
    Keywords: Visual programming, Visual languages, Prograph, AppWare, Visual AppBuilder, Prototyping, End-user programming, Authoring tools

    Tutorial 18

    Requirements, Models, and Prototypes for HCI Design BIBAK 361-362
      George Casaday; Cynthia Rainis
    Requirements, Models, Prototypes (RMP) is a structured process for HCI design for industrial software development teams. It consists of an organized collection of ten design deliverables, templates for each, and a set of practices. RMP is derived from the authors' ongoing experience and the HCI literature of research and practice. It was devised to aid experienced designers and to help beginners learn. The tutorial is intended for those already familiar with basic HCI design who desire a more systematic approach.
    Keywords: Design process, Structured design, Usability requirements model, Prototype, Formative evaluation, HCI design

    Tutorial 19

    Practical Interface Design: Getting the Most from Your Development Budget BIBAK 363-364
      Debra Herschmann
    User interface designers are trained to strive for the ultimate interface, one that is usable, effective and engaging. However, in a commercial production environment, there are rarely sufficient resources to achieve the ultimate interface. Tight deadlines, limited budget and staff, shifting priorities and conflicting agendas all affect the final product design. In such a setting, designers must revise their vision of the ultimate interface to provide the best implementable and affordable user interface, one that can be realized with the given resource constraints.
    Keywords: Constraints, Production environment, Cost estimation, Reducing implementation cost

    Tutorial 20

    Smarter Usability Testing: Practical Techniques for Developing Products BIBAK 365-366
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder; Mavis Robinson
    The goal of usability testing is to get timely, useful information, but doing this on a regular basis can be difficult and taxing. Planning and conducting tests takes time, and if the development team doesn't get information in a usable form, they will rightfully ignore the results. This tutorial looks at usability testing from 3 angles -- planning, conducting tests, and summarizing the data -- with an emphasis on practical suggestions for making these activities more efficient while keeping them focused on the users of the test results: the entire development team.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Usability test facilitation, Data analysis, Product development, Practical techniques

    Tutorial 21

    Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKHTML 367-368
      Thomas T. Hewett
    This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
    Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user

    Tutorial 22

    Interface Agents BIBAK 369-370
      Pattie Maes; Alan Wexelblat
    This course covers the basics of material related to the design and implementation of software agents: semi-intelligent programs which assist users with their computer-based tasks and activities.
    Keywords: Agents, Adaptive interface, Machine learning, Personalized software

    Tutorial 23

    Designing Icons and Visual Symbols BIBAHTML 371-372
      William Horton
    With the proliferation of graphical user interfaces, the need for clearly designed icons has become critical. Unfortunately, not all icons are clear and easy to understand. It is my belief that icon design should be more of a science and less of an art.

    Tutorial 24

    Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive Systems Design BIBAKHTML 373-374
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem -- how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design. An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it within their own development process.
       In this tutorial we present the latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users in models, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present the process by which we build and use the models and practice key steps. We show how these methods fit into the overall design process, and summarize Contextual Design, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
       The tutorial is appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Design techniques, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability engineering, Methodology, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling, Software engineering, Task analysis, User models, User studies work analysis

    Tutorial 25

    Participatory GUI Design from Task Models BIBAKHTML 375-376
      Tom Dayton; Joseph Kramer; Al McFarland; Monica Heidelberg
    This tutorial provides practical experience in using an object-oriented (OO) graphical user interface (GUI) design model, participatory OO methods, low-tech materials, and iterative usability testing, to design a GUI that conforms to multiple GUI platform styles. Participants turn user data (a previously done task flow) into a GUI design via the bridge of mapping the task flow into abstract task objects and mapping the task objects into GUI objects such as windows. They fill in the GUI's foundation, such as the menus, by using multiplatform design guidelines.
    Keywords: PD, PANDA, User-centered design, UCD, Usability engineering, Human-computer interaction, HCI, Prototyping

    Tutorial 26

    Dynamics of Color BIBAKHTML 377
      Ati Gropius Johansen; Hal Shubin
    This is a hands-on introduction to the interaction, potential and behavior of color based on the teaching of Josef Albers and the method of Bauhaus foundation courses. Personal discovery rather than theory is emphasized.
    Keywords: Visual design, Graphic design, Color

    Tutorial 27

    Interviewing Customers: Discovering What They Can't Tell You BIBAKHTML 378-379
      Ellen A. Isaacs
    Product designers typically talk to customers in an effort to better understand their needs. However, without interviewing skills and an understanding of the types of information people can provide about themselves, interviewers may collect little useful information or even misleading information. This tutorial provides a practical approach to interviewing customers. It focuses on three areas: (a) the types of information you should (and should not) expect to learn from interviews, (b) good interviewing techniques, and (c) methods for analyzing the large volumes of information collected in interviews. The tutorial makes heavy use of demonstrations and exercises to give the participants hands-on experience with preparing and conducting interviews as well as analyzing information collected.
    Keywords: Interviewing, Customer needs, Requirements gathering

    Tutorial 28

    Multimedia Authoring Tools BIBAK 380-381
      Michael D. Rabin; Michael J. Burns
    This tutorial provides an introduction to multimedia authoring tools. We contrast these tools with presentation packages and with programming languages. We also describe some of the most important features to look for when selecting a multimedia authoring tool for a project -- whether PC-based or Web-based, and we give an overview of the most popular multimedia authoring tools currently on the market. Multimedia authoring concepts and procedures are demonstrated by highlighting two of the more popular authoring tools, Director and Authorware, as well as World Wide Web publishing tools.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Authoring, Programming, World Wide Web, Director, Authorware

    Tutorial 29

    Structural Issues in Multimedia Design BIBAK 382-383
      Linn Marks Collins
    This tutorial addresses the structural issues that emerge in the context of designing and developing a range of interactive multimedia applications, from those with basic navigational structures, such as branching and elaboration, to those with complex discourse structures, such as interactive narratives and interactive essays. Topics include basic interactive structures; complex interactive discourse structures; and the kinds of global representations of content, or conceptual macrostructures [1], that are appropriate for various kinds of content and applications. Concepts are illustrated with examples from the World Wide Web, commercial products, and research prototypes.
    Keywords: Multimedia, Interactivity, Navigational structure, Discourse structure, Content representation, User interface

    Tutorial 30

    Interactive Learning Environments: Where They've Come From and Where They're Going BIBAK 384-385
      Elliot Soloway
    A historical survey of the various teaching and training technologies will be given. The architectures of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, simulations, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), microworlds, and interactive learning environments (ILE) will be described. In addition, the types of learning outcomes that can be expected from the various technologies will also be summarized. Emphasis will be placed on how the 90's computing infrastructure (e.g., high-MIP/GIP computation, high-bandwidth networks) will impact teaching and training, e.g., what is the role of multimedia, computer-aided design systems, ubiquitous access to information, the home information appliance, in learning? What will the impact be as we transition from User-Centered Design to Learner-Centered Design? Case studies from real instructional systems will be used to illustrate the main points in the tutorial.
    Keywords: Education & computers, Interactive learning environments, Intelligent tutoring systems, Constructionism

    VIDEOS: Visualization

    Dynamic Timelines: Visualizing the History of Photography BIBAKHTML 386-387
      Robin L. Kullberg
    This research reinvents the traditional timeline as a dynamic, three-dimensional framework for the interactive presentation of historical information. An experimental visualization of the history of photography uses visual techniques such as infinite zoom, translucency, and animation to present a database of over 200 annotated photographs from the collection of the George Eastman House. Dynamic, interactive design solutions address the communicative goals of allowing seamless micro and macro readings of information at several levels of detail and from multiple points of view.
    Keywords: Three-dimensional visualization, Visual design, Interaction design, Cinema
    Visualizing Large Trees Using the Hyperbolic Browser BIBAKHTML 388-389
      John Lamping; Ramana Rao
    We demonstrate a focus+context (fisheye) scheme for visualizing and manipulating large hierarchies. Our approach is to lay out the hierarchy uniformly on the hyperbolic plane and map this plane onto a circular display region. The projection onto the disk provides a natural mechanism for assigning more space to a portion of the hierarchy while still embedding it in a much larger context. Change of focus is accomplished by translating the structure on the hyperbolic plane, which allows a smooth transition without compromising the presentation of the context.
    Keywords: Hierarchy display, Information visualization, Fisheye display, Focus+context technique
    The Influence Explorer -- a Tool for Design BIBAHTML 390-391
      Lisa Tweedie; Bob Spence; Huw Dawkes; Hua Su
    This video demonstrates the Influence Explorer, an interactive visualisation tool to support engineering design. The video uses a simplified example related to light bulb design to demonstrate the complex multivariate nature of such problems. We then try to show how interactive visualisation allows fluent exploration of this problem and subsequent acquisition of insight.
    LifeLines: Visualizing Personal Histories BIBAKHTML 392-393
      Brett Milash; Catherine Plaisant; Anne Rose
    In our project for the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice we are developing new techniques to visualize youth records. By showing multiple timelines with selectable markers to retrieve detailed information, overviews are always available even for complex records. Data can be zoomed and filtered, and related events can be highlighted. We show how this technique can be used to visualize medical patient records and other personal histories.
    Keywords: Visualization, History, Timeline, Personal record, Justice, Medical record, Screen design, Overview, Screen management
    Visualizing Information Retrieval Results: A Demonstration of the TileBar Interface BIBAKHTML 394-395
      Marti A. Hearst; Jan O. Pedersen
    The TileBars interface is a graphical tool for users of information access systems, that shows the relationship between the terms in a query and the documents that are retrieved in response to that query. TileBars simultaneously and compactly indicate relative document length and query term overlap, frequency and distribution. The patterns in a column of TileBars are meant to help users make fast judgments about the potential relevance of the retrieved documents. An unexpected benefit of the interface is that because it requires users to specify their queries as a list of topics, better rank orderings can be obtained than with standard information retrieval ranking mechanisms.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Information access, Full-length text, Visualization
    Exploring Information with Visage BIBAKHTML 396-397
      Peter Lucas; Steven F. Roth
    The Visage prototype responds to data-intensive work environments where users, exploring and analyzing data, struggle to make useful multiple applications with disparate visualizations of potentially related information. Visage seeks to coordinate the exploration, analyses, and visualizations of information regardless of their source or type. This coordination is accomplished by using an information-centric approach to user interface design to eliminate impediments to direct user access to information objects across applications and visualizations. Visage consists of a set of data manipulation operations, an intelligent system for generating data visualizations and a briefing tool that supports the conversion of visual displays used into interactive presentation slides.
    Keywords: Data visualization, Graphics, Data exploration, User interface environment

    VIDEOS: Design

    SILK: Sketching Interfaces Like Krazy BIBAKHTML 398-399
      James A. Landay
    Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this stage. Most designers prefer to sketch early interface ideas on paper. I have developed an interactive tool called SILK that allows designers to quickly sketch an interface using an electronic pad and stylus. SILK preserves the important properties of pencil and paper: a rough drawing can be produced very quickly and the medium is very flexible. However, unlike a paper sketch, this electronic sketch is interactive. The designer can illustrate behaviors by sketching storyboards, which specify how the screen should change in response to end-user actions. In addition, it can be semi-automatically transformed into a complete, operational interface in a specified look-and-feel.
    Keywords: Design, Sketching, Prototyping, Gestures, SILK
    TIME: Three-Dimensional Input, Modification and Evaluation BIBAKHTML 400-401
      Maarten Gribnau; Gert Pasman
    Simple intuitive manipulation of three-dimensional objects is needed for the conceptualizing phase of design. Present CAD systems do not allow for the quick and interactive generation and development of objects, which are based more on free-form ideas than on hard numerical input. This video presents a prototype envisionment that uses intuitive 3D sketch input with two hands.
    Keywords: Tactile or gestural I/O, Visualization, Input devices, Two handed input
    NEIMO, a Multiworkstation Usability Lab for Observing and Analyzing Multimodal Interaction BIBAKHTML 402-403
      Joelle Coutaz; Daniel Salber; Eric Carraux; Nathalie Portolan
    NEIMO is a generic and flexible multiworkstation usability lab that supports the observation and analysis of multimodal interaction as well as Wizard of Oz experiments. It captures behavioral data at multiple levels of abstraction from keystroke to high level tasks. In the near future, it will be used to study the relevance of multimodality for telecommunication tasks.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Usability lab, Multimodal interaction, Wizard of Oz usability testing
    Light Switch Exploration Video 25th June 1995 BIBAK 404-405
      Sam Hecht
    The Light Switch Exploration is the first in a series of self-initiated projects undertaken by industrial designers at the San Francisco office of IDEO Product Development. Each project aims to explore the world of a specific product. The benefits of this exploration, beyond those delivered through the individual designs, are to expand both the group's and each designer's range of thinking. The group deliberately chose the humblest of product interfaces for exploration, asking that the test of success be in the using. It was felt strongly that this type of project would indirectly inspire the more complex products IDEO designers usually work on, and which the layman eventually must operate. The approach taken was heavily rooted in both a large vocabulary of materials and the appraisal of a light switch within its environment. The group intends to extend the concept of 'using,' by holding an exhibition where the public can try the switches for themselves.
    Keywords: Industrial design, Interaction design, Light switches, Metaphor, Product design

    VIDEOS: New Directions

    Adaptive User Interfaces with Force Feedback BIBAKHTML 406-407
      Christophe Ramstein; Jean-Francois Arcand; Martin Deveault
    A software and hardware system related to the design of a force feedback assistance service (FAS) for human-computer interfaces is described. FAS is a service which can be applied to human-computer interfaces utilizing a force feedback pointing device. The force feedback device guides the user's hand in order to facilitate direct manipulation tasks either for training or for improving performance and comfort. Artificial neural networks are used to adapt, in real-time, to the user's task. In order to facilitate the design and understanding of the FAS, a Wizard of Oz technique was designed.
    Keywords: Adaptive multimodal user interface, Force feedback, Human-computer interface design, Artificial neural networks
    Temporal Typography: A Proposal to Enrich Written Expression BIBAKHTML 408-409
      Yin Yin Wong
    This paper proposes "temporal typography" as an area of study which incorporates the dynamic visual treatment of text as an extension of written language. Design examples presented in the video show the expressive power of time -- varying typographic form to convey emotion and tones of voice. Several expressive examples are called out in this paper and discussed. As a part of our ongoing research, we have developed a scheme which allows for the description of typographic expressions that change dynamically over time. The examples were constructed using a software tool, exPress, along with a scripting language based on the scheme.
    Keywords: Typography, Temporal, Dynamic text presentation, Graphic design
    Lifestreams: An Alternative to the Desktop Metaphor BIBAKHTML 410-411
      Scott Fertig; Eric Freeman; David Gelernter
    We contend that managing one's own electronic world can be a frustrating task for most computer users, requiring too many separate applications, too many file transfers and format translations, the invention of too many pointless names and the construction of organizational hierarchies that too quickly become obsolete. What is needed is a metaphor and system for organizing the electronic "bits of paper" we all so easily collect, whether we create them ourselves or they come to us in the form of email, downloaded images, web pages, or scheduling reminders. Lifestreams is such a system.
    Keywords: Desktop metaphor, Information retrieval, Filtering, Hierarchical file systems, Reminding, Organization, Information overload
    Improvisational Animation BIBAK 412-413
      Athomas Goldberg; Ken Perlin
    We are developing software tools for authoring real-time applications involving virtual actors. The actors have mood, presence and personality. They follow a script, using body language and gesture to convey an interactive story that has been scripted beforehand by an author. Scripts can contain random elements, so the same story is never told twice.
       As the story unfolds, end-users participate and become part of the story by controlling an actor, by interacting with actors, or by giving instructions to the story telling system. For example, as two actors are embroiled in an argument, a user might instruct his actor to leave the room, or to end the argument by conceding. The virtual actors adapt as changes in the story occur, using guidelines from their scripts to decide how to respond and behave.
       In this video, we present the history of our research in Improvisational Animation and discuss some of the principles involved in creating animated virtual actors who perform autonomously in real time and how this can be applied to the creation of compelling interactive experiences which allow for endless possibilities, yet always conform to the framework established by author and animator.
    Keywords: Agents, Entertainment, Networks, Programming Environments, Virtual reality

    VIDEOS: World Wide Web

    Browsing Anatomical Image Databases: A Case Study of the Visible Human BIBAKHTML 414-415
      Chris North; Flip Korn
    This video demonstrates two user interface prototypes for browsing the National Library of Medicine Visible Human dataset on the internet. The first uses a graphical approach and demonstrates a general interface for exploring volumetric data. The second uses a textual approach for exploring hierarchical information containing inter-relationships.
    Keywords: User interface, Information exploration, Digital library, Medical imaging, Volume visualization, Hierarchical information, Network access
    The WebBook and the Web Forager: Video Use Scenarios for a World-Wide Web Information Workspache BIBAKHTML 416-417
      Stuart K. Card; George G. Robertson; William York
    The World-Wide Web has achieved global connectivity stimulating the transition of computers from knowledge processors to knowledge sources, but the Web and its client software are seriously deficient for supporting user interactive use of this information. In particular, there is no support for the concept of a user workspace. This video presents the Web Forager and the WebBook, an information workspace that enables rapid interaction with materials gleaned from the Web.
    Keywords: 3D graphics, User interfaces, Information access, World-Wide Web, Information workspace, Workspace
    The DeckScape Web Browser BIBAKHTML 418-419
      Marc H. Brown; Robert A. Shillner
    This video shows DeckScape, an experimental World-Wide Web browser. DeckScape uses the metaphor of a deck of playing cards, where each card is a Web page, and each deck is displayed in its own window. As the user traverses links, new pages appear on top of the deck. Users can circulate through the pages in a deck, move and copy pages between decks, and so on. The primary contributions of DeckScape are "away" pages and a general-purpose way to organize Web pages such as hotlists, page expansions, and query results.
    Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Information navigation, Interaction techniques, World-Wide Web, Mosaic

    Workshops

    Manipulation in Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 420
      Christine L. MacKenzie; Kellogg S. Booth
    The goals of this workshop on Manipulation in Virtual Environments are:
  • 1. to identify common ground, common issues, common misconceptions, common
        problems,
  • 2. to provide opportunities for learning from one another, collaboration,
        sharing solutions,
  • 3. to develop the beginnings of a common vocabulary for more effective
        communication, and
  • 4. to identify future directions, for research and application. The workshop will provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to share their issues and insights, and to develop a common vocabulary in this rapidly developing area. The workshop report will update CHI members on the state-of-the-art for manipulation in virtual environments.
    Keywords: Grasping, Grasping space, Grippers, Haptics, Motor control, Opposition space, Orienting, Positioning, Teleoperation, Telemanipulation, Telesurgery, User interfaces, Viewpoint, Virtual arm, Virtual finger, Virtual hand, Virtual objects, Virtual reality, Vision
  • The User Model as a Discipline for Interface Design BIBA 421
      Matt Belge; Kate Ehrlich
    This workshop is for UI design practitioners who consciously work on the set of underlying concepts that users must understand in order to use a given system. This set of concepts we are calling the user model. The workshop seeks to bring practitioners together to exchange information regarding the best techniques to develop user models. Theoreticians who work on formal methods (such as GOMS) with interest in contributing their insights to the practice of developing user models will be welcome.
    The HCI Professional as Consultant BIBK 422
      Lauren Schwartz; Heather Desurvire
    Keywords: Usability, HCI specialists, Consultants, Organizational acceptance
    HCI Issues of the World Wide Web BIBA 423
      Keith Instone; Steven Pemberton
    The goals of this workshop are fourfold:
  • to identify areas with HTTP and HTML where the HCI community can usefully
       contribute to the development of the Web from the user's viewpoint
  • to initiate a plan of action to get the HCI community involved with the
       technical issues of the Web
  • to initiate an analysis of good practice on the Web, with the aim of
       providing an information service to users
  • to continue discussion on the structure and content of information pertaining
       to HCI that we should be making available on the Web.
  • Formal Methods in Computer-Human Interaction: Comparison, Benefits, Open Questions BIBK 424
      Fabio Paterno; Gregory Abowd; Philippe Palanque
    Keywords: Interactive systems, Formal methods, Notations and models, User interface properties
    Educating HCI Practitioners: Evaluating What Industry Needs and What Academia Delivers BIBAK 425
      Mary Czerwinski; Laurie P. Dringus; Andrew Sears; Barbara Bernal Thomas
    GOALS
  • 1. Identify HCI skills and knowledge that industrial representatives must teach
        recent graduates.
  • 2. Identify and discuss techniques academia can use to convey HCI issues to
        students to prepare them for industry work.
    Keywords: Education, Industry, HCI issues, Academic-industrial collaboration
  • Psychological Issues of Virtual Environment Interfaces BIBAKHTML 426
      Casey Boyd; Rudy Darken
    The purpose of this workshop is to provide a common ground for the diverse research into the psychology of virtual environments (VEs). There is a small but growing research community investigating these issues, but there is no research forum devoted to them. Publications on the psychology of VE interaction are scattered across various conferences and journals.
    Keywords: Cognitive psychology, Ecological psychology, Evaluation, Interface design, Perceptual psychology, Usability, Virtual environments
    Towards an International Information Interface BIBAK 427
      Alison Popowicz-Toon; Eviatar Shafrir
    The aim of this two-day workshop is to draw up a set of best practices and guidelines for access to information by an international audience. The workshop will share success-and-horror-story experiences with different information interfaces, and use brainstorming techniques to compile and expand the best-practices and guidelines.
       How can we provide an information solution that satisfies the requirements of a world-wide audience? What do we need to be aware of?
       Information providers who are used to dealing with an English-speaking, local audience are not always aware of the difficulties encountered by the users of their products and services in other countries. The difficulties are not always language or translation problems: they may be caused by servers, systems or support being unavailable outside of USA working hours, or by differences in "standard" paper size, or by disparate cost structures for Internet access.
       In studying several examples of international information interfaces, the workshop participants will share and learn good working practices -- and practices to be avoided.
    Keywords: Localization, Internationalization, Translation, Culture, CD-ROM, WWW, Internet, Usability, Best practices
    Corporate Strategy and Usability Research: A New Partnership BIBAKHTML 428
      Judee Humburg; Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
    Usability research findings can contribute strategically to the definition of a product family during early planning and design. Rather than waiting for user-testing of prototypes, we can learn about user task habits, preferences, and concerns to identify product opportunities and help define a product's business direction and market positioning. Early usability research methods can collect specific user data needed to plan the product scope, a compelling feature set, and early design prototypes.
       This workshop expands on the organizers' previous CHI tutorials to explore how practitioners apply early and iterative usability research as a strategic tool: partnering with other groups in our companies, building cross-functional teams of usability, marketing, development, and support people.
       The workshop brings together practitioners who have:
  • Incorporated iterative usability research into the phases of the product
       planning and development process
  • Evaluated the trade-offs of investing limited usability resources during
       these phases
  • Tried to establish usability research processes and findings as contributors
       to the strategic planning efforts in their organizations
  • Attempted to build cross-functional teams to achieve this vision
    Keywords: Business direction, Cross-functional teams, Customer data collection, Design methodologies, Market positioning, Partnering, Product development cycle, Product life cycle, Strategic planning, Usability, User-centered design, User data collection
  • Transforming User-Centered Analysis into Concrete Design BIBAK 429
      Larry E. Wood; Ron Zeno
    There seems to be little published information available on specific techniques for transforming the results of user work/task analysis into a GUI interface. Therefore, we are organizing a workshop to document how experienced designers use the information from task analysis, principles of interaction design, and interface components to produce preliminary GUI designs.
    Keywords: GUI design, Analysis, Procedures, Requirements
    CHI Ten Year View: Creating and Sustaining Common Ground BIBAKHTML 430
      Catherine R. Marshall; David G. Novick
    The first goal of this workshop is to create and document a set of three scenarios that describe alternative futures based on the following questions:
  • What will be the state of the CHI community in the year 2006?
  • What kind of work will the members of that community be doing?
  • What will they consider to be the key issues and research questions of the
       day?
  • What will be the nature of the social and technological context in which
       their work will occur?
  • What educational preparation and work experience will characterize a
       successful CHI professional?
  • What body of knowledge and set of skills will form the common ground of the
       field? The second goal of the workshop will be to use the scenarios to address further the subject of common ground.
    Keywords: Future, Scenario, Planning, Education, Management, Career, CHI, HCI, Human factors, CHI'06
  • Designing the User Interface for Speech Recognition Applications BIBAK 431
      Amir Mane; Susan Boyce; Demetrios Karis; Nicole Yankelovich
    During the last decade there has been significant progress in the development of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems. As a result of technical advances in speech modeling techniques, recognition search strategies, and other areas, combined with the increased processing power of workstations and PCs, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition is now feasible even under the constraints and demanding conditions imposed by the public switched telephone network. These new technical capabilities, along with advances in Natural Language Processing, have opened up the possibility of new services and applications, and have made it possible to incorporate more natural styles of human-computer verbal interactions. The purpose of this workshop is to bring together a small group of researchers and practitioners to focus discussion on how to design applications and services that rely on speech as the primary medium for communication between the user and the system. Our goal is to increase participants' understanding of the issues that face designers of such systems, exchange ideas and information, and increase communication among the diverse groups involved in speech recognition.
    Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition, Natural Language Processing
    User Centered Design Principles: How Far Have They Been Industrialised? BIBAKHTML 432
      Ian McClelland; Bronwen Taylor; Bill Hefley
    The workshop will examine how far industry has incorporated user-centred design principles into their product and system development processes. Issues to be explored include:
  • - how far are UCD principles recognised as relevant to the business objectives?
  • - how far are UCD practices in need of adaptation as the "usability issue"
       becomes more widely applied to many product areas beyond traditional areas
       of HCI? By working in groups during the workshop we plan to identify:
  • - the key components required for an effective and successful UCD process,
  • - the essential skill bases (established and emerging),
  • - the enablers and constraints associated with managing "quality of use" in
       practice. It is intended that the results of this workshop will be reported in the SIGCHI bulletin and/or Interactions.
    Keywords: User-centred design, Process improvement, Usability engineering, User involvement
  • User Autonomy: Who Should Control What and When? BIBAHTML 433
      Batya Friedman; Helen Nissenbaum
    In this workshop we are concerned with understanding the relationship between user autonomy, the user interface, and computer system design. By autonomy we mean the capability to act on the basis of one's own decisions; to be guided by one's own reasons, desires, and goals. When actions are unduly constrained or restricted then autonomy may be diminished or violated. Evaluating the interface and system design in relation to user autonomy involves uncovering the extent to which systems either enhance or diminish autonomy.
       Workshop goals:
  • To explore with colleagues the meaning and value of user autonomy, the nature
       of the relationship between user autonomy and control of computer systems,
       and the elements of interface and system design that affect user autonomy.
  • To provide a forum (opportunity) for colleagues to discuss issues of user
       autonomy in computer systems that have arisen from their own design
       experiences.
  • To work with colleagues to identify positive designs and abuses of user
       autonomy in computer systems.
  • To work with colleagues to generate design principles for protecting user
       autonomy in the design of future systems.
  • A Future for E-Mail BIBAHTML 434
      Stacey L. Ashlund; Steven Pemberton
    The goal of this workshop is to address these and related problems from a usability point of view, for example:
  • How can we handle the problem of information overload? Is the usefulness of
       agents hindered by issues of reliability and trust? Is the overhead of
       setting them up and maintaining them prohibitive?
  • Will there be a necessary integration of e-mail with related technologies,
       such as groupware and the World Wide Web?
  • Is the lack of standardization of e-mail (front-ends and back-ends) a
       problem?
  • How can large-volume sources of e-mail, such as mailing lists and
       "listservs", be kept manageable? Is there a need to address social issues,
       such as etiquette in e-mail application UI's? Are grassroots evolving
       standards an indication of what's needed?
  • How can the issues pertaining to realistic usability testing e-mail be
       solved, e.g., creating sample "data" (messages, folders, aliases, etc.)?
       Are testing results impaired by using such fake e-mail in testing, due to
       ethnographic observation and privacy issues?
  • What are some possible software and user interface technological solutions to
       these problems?
  • Retrospective on Pre-Conference Activities

    Retrospective on Pre-Conference Activities BIBAK 435
      Bonnie A. Nardi; Gerrit C. van der Veer
    Prior to the CHI 96 conference several activities took place that were attended by relatively small groups. A global overview of the content of this meetings will be of interest to CHI attendees.
    Keywords: Workshops, Doctoral consortium, Basic research symposium, ASSETS