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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Common Ground
Location:Vancouver, Canada
Dates:1996-Apr-14 to 1996-Apr-18
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-832-0; ACM Order Number 608963; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI96-2
Pages:462
Links:Conference Home Page | Online Proceedings
  1. CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2
    1. DEMONSTRATIONS: Prototyping
    2. DEMONSTRATIONS: Very Personal Computing
    3. DEMONSTRATIONS: Education: Modeling and Tutoring
    4. DEMONSTRATIONS: Video: Authoring and Indexing
    5. DEMONSTRATIONS: Visualization
    6. DEMONSTRATIONS: Tools for UI Analysis
    7. Doctoral Consortium
    8. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: CHI in Space
    9. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Designing and Evaluating Interfaces and Systems
    10. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Education
    11. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Gender and Skill
    12. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Remote Communication
    13. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Structuring and Finding Information
    14. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Video and Television
    15. INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Social Action
    16. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Innovative User Interfaces
    17. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Introducing HCI in Industry
    18. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: User Interface Design
    19. ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Multidisciplinary HCI Research
    20. Panels
    21. Plenary Session

CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2

DEMONSTRATIONS: Prototyping

KAP -- A Prototyper for Technical Device Interfaces BIBAKHTML 3-4
  Klaus Kespohl; Gerd Szwillus
We present the tool KAP (Kespohl's Automaton Prototyper) for prototyping user interfaces of technical devices, such as VCRs, CD players, alarm clocks, answering machines, etc. The work is based on a formal specification language, DSN/2. KAP supports this notation -- as an editor, for adding interactive elements, and as an animation tool. The system was found suitable for performing user tests on several software models, including a CD player with realistic functionality; the results were verified against user testing on the real device.
Keywords: Prototyping, Formal specification, Design techniques, Development tools, Usability testing, Evaluation
Demonstrating the Electronic Cocktail Napkin: A Paper-Like Interface for Early Design BIBAKHTML 5-6
  Mark D. Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
We demonstrate the Electronic Cocktail Napkin, a pen based interface for conceptual design. The project goal is to support design by recognizing, interpreting, and managing drawings, and to serve as an interface for knowledge-based critiquing, simulation, and information retrieval. We demonstrate the Napkin's facilities for end-user programmable recognition and interpretation, drawing management, and multi-user collaboration. We show applications of the Napkin: (1) indexing visual databases and (2) a front end to a local area network design program.
Keywords: Pen based systems, Design environments, Constraint-based graphics

DEMONSTRATIONS: Very Personal Computing

SHK: Single Hand Key Card for Mobile Devices BIBAKHTML 7-8
  Masakatsu Sugimoto; Kimiyo Takahashi
A new input unit for mobile devices is discussed. High speed text input through touch typing and mouse data input is possible through an SHK: Single Hand Key card, "castanets operation", an ambiguity resolution logic applied word by word, and the other support software.
Keywords: Single hand keyboard, Mobile device, Input device, Input unit, Touch typing, Ambiguity resolution
Inhabited Digital Spaces BIBAKHTML 9-10
  Bruce Damer; Christina Kekenes; Terrel Hoffman
The emergence of standards such as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) has made shared, three dimensional virtual spaces available to the greater Internet community. When these spaces become inhabited by representations of people, often referred to as digital actors or avatars, a whole spectrum of social behavior will emerge. Prototypes of inhabited digital spaces have been hosted on the Internet since early 1995. Enough experience has been gained with these systems to produce an initial benchmark of their effectiveness from a user interface standpoint. Observation of social interaction in these spaces has also provided some interesting insights. A key finding is that there is a need for interdisciplinary collaboration between the technologists building digital worlds and specialists in community and social behavior.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Social computing, Electronic community

DEMONSTRATIONS: Education: Modeling and Tutoring

StarLogo: An Environment for Decentralized Modeling and Decentralized Thinking BIBAKHTML 11-12
  Mitchel Resnick
StarLogo is programmable modeling environment designed to help nonexpert users (in particular, precollege students) model and explore decentralized systems, such as ant colonies and market economies. People often have difficulty understanding the workings of such systems. By using StarLogo, people can move beyond the "centralized mindset" -- that is, they begin to understand how patterns can arise through decentralized interactions, not from the dictates of a centralized authority.
Keywords: Educational applications, End-user programming, Modeling
Design Concepts for an Instructional Tool: Teaching Abductive Reasoning in Antibody Identification BIBAKHTML 13-14
  Jodi Heintz Obradovich; Philip J. Smith; Stephanie Guerlain; Jack W., Jr. Smith; Sally Rudmann; Larry Sachs; John Svirbley; Melanie Kennedy; Patricia L. Strohm
We have conducted a series of studies aimed at understanding how to design a tutoring system that will support students in expanding their knowledge of immunohematology and in developing their problem-solving skills in a problem-based learning environment [3]. Results from these studies have led to the development of an expert model of problem solving, the identification of common errors and misconceptions in solving such problems, and the development of a model of expert tutoring in this domain.
   Based on the results of these studies, we designed the Transfusion Medicine Tutor and evaluated its effectiveness in teaching medical technology students to solve antibody identification cases. In our initial evaluation of TMT, the students who used a version of the system with all tutoring functions turned on and with instructor assistance went from 0% correct on a pre-test case to 87%-93% correct on post-test cases. This compares with an improvement rate of 20% by students who used a passive version of the system with the intelligent tutoring functions turned off. The behavioral protocols collected as part of this study provide further evidence regarding the contribution of the task environment, the interface design, and the use of expert systems technology to detect and remediate errors (in cooperation with a human teacher) to the student's learning.
Keywords: Computer-aided instruction, Intelligent tutoring systems, Expert systems, Problem-based learning, Abduction, Medical diagnosis

DEMONSTRATIONS: Video: Authoring and Indexing

MMVIS: A Multimedia Visual Information Seeking Environment for Video Analysis BIBAKHTML 15-16
  Stacie Hibino; Elke A. Rundensteiner
Our MultiMedia Visual Information Seeking (MMVIS) environment is designed to support an exploratory approach to video analysis. Specialized subset, temporal, spatial, and motion dynamic query filters are tightly coupled with dynamic, user-customizable relationship visualizations to aid users in the discovery of data trends. Users can select two subsets (e.g., a subset of person P1 talking events) and then browse various relationships between them (e.g., browsing for temporal relationships such as whether events of type A frequently start at the same time as events of type B). The visualization highlights the frequencies of both the subsets and the relationships between them. This allows users to discover various relationships and trends without having to explicitly pre-code them. In this demonstration, we will focus on temporal analysis aspects of the system, presenting our temporal visual query language, temporal visualization, and an application to real CSCW data.
Keywords: Video analysis, Dynamic queries, Temporal query filters, Interactive visualizations, Trend discovery
MAD: A Movie Authoring and Design System BIBAKHTML 17-18
  Naomi Friedlander; Ronald Baecker; Alan J. Rosenthal; Eric Smith
MAD (Movie Authoring and Design) is a novel design and authoring system that facilitates the process of creating dynamic visual presentations. MAD aids this process by simultaneously allowing easy structure creation or modification of motion pictures and visualization of the result of those modifications. The principles behind MAD include hierarchical multimedia document representation, the flexible inclusion and combination of words, images, sounds, and video sequences, and real-time playback of a rough version of the final film at any time in the process.
   MAD represents a paradigm shift both from traditional methods of authoring and producing motion pictures and from modern multimedia authoring tools. Its development therefore required in-depth observation of a variety of users working on a variety of film-making projects. This demonstration will present the key concepts underlying MAD, demonstrate the current, second-generation prototype software, and review how we have worked with users in an iterative design process and how studies of the work of these users have informed key design issues.
Keywords: Iterative design, User-centred design, Multimedia systems, Multimedia documents, Authoring tools, Interactive graphics systems

DEMONSTRATIONS: Visualization

Visage: Dynamic Information Exploration BIBAKHTML 19-20
  Peter Lucas; Steven F. Roth; Cristina C. Gomberg
Visage is a prototype user interface environment for exploring and analyzing information. It represents an approach to coordinating visualizations and analytical tools in data-intensive domains. Visage is based on an information-centric approach to user interface design which strives to eliminate impediments to direct user access to information objects across applications and visualizations. Visage consists of a set of data manipulation operations, an intelligent system for generating a wide variety of data visualizations and a briefing tool that supports the conversion of visual displays used during exploration into interactive presentation slides.
Keywords: Data visualization, Graphics, Data exploration, User interface environment
Using Animation to Aid Process Flow Visualization BIBAKHTML 21-22
  Brenda J. Burkhart; Marc E. Fusco
Process flows are difficult to communicate to customers effectively, particularly if they are complex or involve multiple systems. We introduce some animation techniques that we rapidly prototyped so that systems engineering or system design proposals or decisions can be effectively communicated to customers.
Keywords: Animation, Visualization, Simulation, Prototyping, Process flow

DEMONSTRATIONS: Tools for UI Analysis

Lotus Notes Database Support for Usability Testing BIBAKHTML 23-24
  Mary Beth Butler; Ericca Lahti
This demonstration will show how we have built a collection of Lotus Notes databases containing usability results and techniques. Because we have these databases available, we can easily research past testing results, share information on common UI artifacts with geographically dispersed development teams, and efficiently develop strategies for testing new products and features. The intent of this demonstration is to show the characteristics of our system of databases that we find most important for supporting our work, and how our workgroup solution helps us accomplish our goals.
Keywords: Usability testing, Lotus Notes, Groupware
QGOMS: A Direct-Manipulation Tool for Simple GOMS Models BIBAK 25-26
  David V. Beard; Dana K. Smith; Kevin M. Denelsbeck
"GOMS models can be practical if the effort required to product them is commensurate with their limited practical accuracy." This demonstration details a direct manipulation tool for quickly building GOMS models. Advanced features allow rapid model construction and analysis.
Keywords: GOMS, Time motion analysis, Medical image display

Doctoral Consortium

Providing Explicit Support for Social Constraints: In Search of the Social Computer BIBAKHTML 27-28
  Ben Anderson
This short paper outlines an approach to the design and implementation of systems that explicitly support the use of social, rather than technological, methods of control. This approach draws on recent developments in the social sciences, particularly sociology and anthropology, and builds upon current work in the development of 'Media Spaces' and other CSCW systems.
Keywords: CSCW, System design, Social norms, Videoconferencing
Effects of Field of View on Task Performance with Head-Mounted Displays BIBAKHTML 29-30
  Kevin Arthur
The goal of this research is to quantify the effects of a head-mounted display's field of view (FOV) on human performance of 3D tasks representative of those typically performed in virtual environments.
Keywords: Head-mounted display, Field of view, Task performance, Adaptation, Spatial awareness, Presence, Simulator sickness
A Computational Theory of Working Memory BIBAKHTML 31-32
  Michael D. Byrne
One of the key factors in understanding what interfaces will be easy to use is the limited capacity of the human information-processing system. This work outlines a theory of human working memory which is instantiated as a computational system called SPAN. Working memory and the related construct of short-term memory have a long history in psychology, and in the last decade have been used to explain differences in performance on a wide variety of tasks both at the individual level and between different age groups. The production system SPAN was constructed as an attempt to address working memory issues based on several well-established mechanisms such as decay, interference, and processing speed. One property unique to SPAN is its ability to model the use of external memory. It is this last property, combined with SPAN's explicit acknowledgment of individual differences, which gives it a great deal of promise in applications to HCI domains -- particularly in the prediction of errors.
Keywords: Cognitive models, Individual differences, User models, GOMS, Human memory
Putting Context into Design BIBAKHTML 33-34
  Steven J. Clarke
There are an increasing number of methods for using context in design. Unfortunately these methods are strong on the collection of contextual data but weak on ways to use the data in design. Furthermore, current methods suffer from bias which constrains the type of data collected by designers as well as the ways the data can be put to use. However, rather than eliminate these biases, we propose that designers should exploit them. This paper argues that this can be achieved by facilitating the creation of explicit links between the human context and the design specification and that this requires computer based support. Without such links, the use of context will be unsystematic and, potentially, ineffective.
Keywords: Context, Design notations, Development tools, Design rationale, Activity theory
The Effects of Information Accuracy on User Trust and Compliance BIBAKHTML 35-36
  Jean E. Fox
Designers and manufacturers of new technology must understand the factors that influence consumers' decisions to purchase new high-tech products. One important factor in the decision is how much users trust the technology. Muir [5, 6] developed a theory of how people develop trust in automated systems. Several studies have supported her model. This proposed study will provide additional data to test this theory. The application to be studied is an Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS), which provides route navigation information to automobile drivers. The study will evaluate how inaccurate congestion information affects the users' trust in and compliance with the system's advice. These results will be important to ATIS developers, who need to know how accurate the systems must be to facilitate user acceptance.
Keywords: ATIS, Automated systems, Decision aids, Human-system trust, ITS, User acceptance
Harnessing the Interface for Domain Learning BIBAKHTML 37-38
  David Golightly
Making an interface less direct changes how the user learns about the particular domain they are acting upon. Different interfaces cause the user to interact in different ways. This affects how they build up information about the domain they are working in. The counterintuitive finding is that less easy to use interfaces can be beneficial to the domain learning process. Less direct interfaces cause the user to build a more verbalisable and transferable body of knowledge about the domain. The research outlined here is examining this learning process to draw conclusions about where the effect can be most usefully employed.
Keywords: Direct manipulation, 8-puzzle, Cognitive cost, Learning, Problem-solving
Understanding the Role of Configuration Management Systems in Software Development BIBAKHTML 39-40
  Rebecca E. Grinter
This paper describes a study of how software developers use a technology, software configuration management systems, in their work. The study uses qualitative methods in three case studies to find out how well configuration management systems support the coordination of software development work. Results from this study will help to inform the design of technologies that support group work and provide insights into the complexities of software development.
Keywords: CSCW, Collaborative work, Software engineering, Empirical studies, Development tools, Group work, Configuration management systems
Extending and Evaluating Visual Information Seeking for Video Data BIBAKHTML 41-42
  Stacie Hibino
Extending and adapting the visual information seeking paradigm for video analysis would empower casual users to explore temporal, spatial, and motion relationships between video objects and events. Several extensions are required to accomplish this: extensions to dynamic queries to specify multiple subsets, customized temporal, spatial, and motion query filters, and the design of new spatio-temporal visualizations to highlight these relationships. In my thesis research, I am working on these extensions by combining a new multimedia visual query language with spatio-temporal visualizations into an integrated MultiMedia Visual Information Seeking (MMVIS) environment. This research summary describes my overall approach, research goals, and evaluation plan.
Keywords: Video analysis, Dynamic queries, Temporal query filters, Interactive visualization
Direct Learner Attention with Manipulation Styles BIBAKHTML 43-44
  Shirley J. Holst
This paper investigates what aspects of a pupil's interaction with educational software are determinants of their learning. The work reported here considers whether the computer interface can be designed to encourage people to plan, to think more deeply about relevant information, and hence to learn more successfully. Findings reported here challenge the universal welcome given to graphical user interfaces. A number of pedagogical issues involved in designing educational software are raised. These suggest that designing with considerations other than ease-of-use is paramount.
Keywords: User interface design, Direct manipulation, Problem-solving, Cognitive psychology, Interactive learning
Formal Modelling of Task Interruptions BIBAKHTML 45-46
  Francis Jambon
My doctoral research is concerned with the formal modelling of task interruptions. Although interruptions are significant events in human activities, current models and notations do not support their expression appropriately. My contribution to this problem is two-fold: the ISAU model which makes explicit the general structure of an interruption, and a UAN-based formal notation that would force designers to consider the right questions when developing a system. ISAU will be assessed using a real-world exemplar: the Data-Link system that supports communications between pilots from different aircraft's and air traffic controllers.
Keywords: Interruptions, Interleaving, Formal methods, UAN
Visualizing Patterns in the Execution of Object-Oriented Programs BIBAKHTML 47-48
  Dean F. Jerding
The purpose of this research is to assist with the development and maintenance of object-oriented software by visualizing patterns of behavior in program executions. These patterns are manifested as repeated sequences of messages between objects and recurring instantiation of objects. It is hypothesized that interactive visualizations of the dynamic patterns in object-oriented systems will increase program understanding, allowing programmers to better perform design recovery and reengineering tasks.
Keywords: Software visualization, Information visualization, Object-oriented programming, Design patterns
Supporting Interactive Information Retrieval Through Relevance Feedback BIBAHTML 49-50
  Jurgen Koenemann
I investigated the interactive searching behavior of two groups of subjects using a novel best-match, ranked-output information retrieval (IR) engine to search a large, full-text document collection. The research focuses on the use of relevance feedback, a query reformulation tool. Ten searchers who had a background in IR were observed in the first study; 64 complete novices took part in a second experiment that systematically varied the user knowledge and user control of the feedback mechanism. Behavioral and performance data suggest that user control over relevance feedback benefits retrieval performance and user satisfaction.
Interface Agents for Interacting with Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 51-52
  Britta Lenzmann
The basic rationale of my Ph.D. thesis is to enhance and simplify interaction with an interactive 3D graphical system. To relieve users from technical detail and allow them to communicate with the system in an intuitive and human-like manner, I am investigating three main aspects: adaptation to user preferences, multimodal input, and open and underspecified input. I use agent-based techniques to approach my solutions.
Keywords: Interface agents, Interactive graphical system, User adaptation, Multimodal input, Open input
Towards Organizational Learning: Growing Group Memories in the Workplace BIBAKHTML 53-54
  Stefanie N. Lindstaedt
Designing domain-oriented systems requires knowledge both in system design and in the domain to be supported. Communication between domain experts and system developers is essential to elicit or activate this knowledge. Contextualized information, conveyed in ongoing communication and evaluation, sheds light on problems and solutions that may otherwise remain uncovered. This information is valuable beyond the particular situation in which it originates. Experiences of our L3D research group with industries and universities have shown that the tasks of activating and capturing communication about system design, relating it to prior experiences, and feeding new insights back into a group memory face a number of challenges. I am developing an interactive group memory management system called GIMMe for growing diverse group memories during software design to explore the issues surrounding these challenges.
Keywords: Design, System design, Design rationale, Group memory, Organizational learning, Collaborative work, CSCW, Participatory design
Improving Communication in Programming-by-Demonstration BIBAKHTML 55-56
  Richard G. McDaniel
The range of PBD systems can be significantly expanded by improving the user's expressiveness when communicating with the system. The techniques in my research include a new form of demonstrational interaction called nudges. Complementing nudges is a special form of selection which is used to give the system hints by identifying significant objects. A new deck-of-playing-cards metaphor is also introduced for specifying useful effects such as randomness and sequencing. The final techniques use objects for annotating examples such as behavior icons for manipulating and editing behaviors, and temporal ghosts to allow explicit references to past states. By fostering better communication between the author and the system, these techniques should allow the user with minimal programming expertise to create highly interactive software.
Keywords: User interface software, Application builders, Programming-by-demonstration, Programming-by-example, Inductive learning
Providing Awareness Information to Support Transitions in Remote Computer-Mediated Collaboration BIBAKHTML 57-58
  Susan E. McDaniel
In my dissertation research I am exploring the questions of what comprises adequate information about the presence and activities of collaborators for the purpose of moving from asynchronous to synchronous work situations. The pertinent questions are: (1) What information do collaborators need to have about co-workers in order to coordinate these transitions? (2) Is there an alternative to video for supporting these transitions? (3) Can the important information that people need be distilled and displayed in textual or graphical forms that are low cost, but still lightweight?
Keywords: Awareness, CSCW, HCI
Toolkits for Multimedia Awareness BIBAKHTML 59-60
  Ian Smith
Informal communication and awareness of coworkers is an important factor in the effectiveness of work in office environments. This dissertation focuses on an architecture for the creation of prototype tools which allow distributed workgroups to collaborate more effectively by communicating informally. This architecture supports the investigation of the area of informal communication and awareness by allowing researchers to quickly develop new application prototypes from reusable components.
Keywords: Awareness, Multimedia, CSCW, Distributed work groups, Informal communication
Usability and the Software Production Life Cycle BIBAKHTML 61-62
  Suziah Sulaiman
For many types of systems it is as important that the usability is as good as the functionality. There have been various attempts during the last fifteen years or more to encourage developers to focus on usability during the life cycle. These have had only limited success in that they have affected certain companies without fundamentally changing the overall software development process. The aim of this study is to improve software quality by finding ways to integrate usability with software quality measurements throughout the life cycle and especially at early stages of development.
Keywords: Software quality, Usability, Software production life cycle, Software testing, Usability engineering, Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
Exploring the Information Landscape BIBAKHTML 63-64
  Elaine G. Toms
Exploring or browsing is a process of searching in which the user recognizes the object of the search when they see it a human-driven and unstructured process. To examine this process, three navigational aids are experimentally manipulated: method of access, method of suggesting items to explore and method of navigation. A fourth aid, cues that influence exploration, are also assessed. The object of the study is to characterize browsing, to understand what facilitates browsing in an electronic environment, and to suggest an abstract representation of browsing.
Keywords: Exploring, Browsing, Full-text, Newspapers, Navigation, Menus, Fish-eye views, Similarity measures, Informativeness, Information searching, Experimental study
Multimedia, Mental Models and Complex Tasks BIBAKHTML 65-66
  David Williams
With the emergence of relatively cheap multimedia delivery systems incorporating bitmapped graphics and high fidelity continuous audio and video, there is an increasing need for the user interface designer to be informed in their choice of output media for a particular task. Our research is investigating the affect of different media on the formulation of mental models in the solution of complex tasks. The guiding principle is to understand why one medium has an advantage over another in a given task context. To do this one must examine how these media are utilised by the user. An experiment is outlined which will investigate this.
Keywords: Multimedia, Media selection, Mental models, Expressiveness, Tractability, Complex tasks

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: CHI in Space

Touchscreen Usability in Microgravity BIBAKHTML 67-68
  Jurine A. Adolf; Kritina L. Holden
Touchscreen technology is well-suited for extreme environments, for example, microgravity. However, the usability of touchscreens has not been tested in this environment. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center has conducted three evaluations of touchscreen usability both in a simulated weightless environment and on a space shuttle mission. Preliminary findings suggest that touchscreens were preferred for those tasks with larger touch areas, but not for precise positioning. Not anticipated though was the hand fatigue experienced by astronauts. Complete results will be available.
Keywords: Touchscreen, Input devices, Cursor control devices
A Wearable Computer for Use in Microgravity Space and Other Non-Desktop Environments BIBAKHTMLWeb Page 69-70
  Edgar Matias; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
We present one possible design for a "wearable" computer -- a computer that is worn. Our prototype permits text entry without the need of a table or other supporting surface. Typing can be performed while standing or even walking. Possible applications for this device are also discussed.
Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks, Wearable computers, Portable computers, Half-QWERTY, One-handed keyboard, Skill transfer
Efficacy of a Predictive Display, Steering Device, and Vehicle Body Representation in the Operation of a Lunar Vehicle BIBAKHTML 71-72
  Santosh Mathan; Arn Hyndman; Karl Fischer; Jeremiah Blatz; Douglas Brams
Time delayed teleoperation exacts a high toll on human cognitive resources. High error rates and poor performance times are typical consequences of operating a vehicle under such conditions. This paper describes the usability effects of simple enhancements to the interface for a teleoperated lunar vehicle. Experimental results suggest that simple interface elements such as a predictive display, steering wheel, and vehicle body representation can dramatically reduce errors and task performance times during time delayed teleoperation by inexperienced lunar vehicle operators.
Keywords: Predictive display, Teleoperation, Lunar vehicle, Time delay
Common Ground for Critical Shuttle and Space Station User Interfaces: An Independent Verification and Validation Approach BIBAKHTML 73-74
  Mihriban Whitmore; Andrea H. Berman
The Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is in the process of developing an automated software interface checking tool to assess the degree to which space-related critical and high risk software system user interfaces meet objective human factors standards across each NASA program and project. A prototype tool has been identified, and usability testing is underway. Testing compares analysis time and similarity of results for the automated tool and for human-computer interface experts. The results of the evaluation will be included in the poster.
Keywords: Computer-based tool, Usability testing, HCI evaluation

INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Designing and Evaluating Interfaces and Systems

GUI Users Have Trouble Using Graphic Conventions on Novel Tasks BIBAKHTML 75-76
  Catherine A. Ashworth
Twenty-five Macintosh users performed poorly when attempting novel tasks in Macintosh-like applications. The tasks tested subjects' understanding of the meaning of ten different GUI graphic conventions (such as the symbol for a Pop-Up Menu). Subjects who had used more applications had greater accuracy rates. The trials testing Ellipses and the Walking Menu symbol revealed that even when subjects knew the convention, they were also guided by the quality of the semantic match between the command label and the task goal. An analysis of likely reasons why subjects did not know Radio Buttons or X-Boxes suggests users can employ a strategy of "re-exploring" an interface object on each use. These findings have implications for current GUI design guidelines and for theories of GUI learning and use.
Keywords: Graphic user interface, GUI, Display-based computing, Display-based skill, Exploratory learning, User testing, Macintosh
Looking for Usability Problems with the Ergonomic Criteria and with the ISO 9241-10 Dialogue Principles BIBAKHTML 77-78
  J. M. Christian Bastien; Dominique L. Scapin; Corinne Leulier
The relative effectiveness of the Ergonomic Criteria and the ISO/DIS 9241-Part 10 Dialogue Principles in guiding the evaluation of user interfaces was assessed. After a demonstration of a musical database application and a free exploration phase, three groups of participants (Criteria, ISO, Control) were invited to evaluate the interface of the application. Preliminary results indicate that the performance of the Control and ISO groups did not differ statistically in terms of the number of problems uncovered or the percentages on problems uncovered as a function of the size of the aggregates. However, when using the Ergonomic Criteria, participants uncovered statistically more usability problems, and the percentage of problems uncovered with respect to the size of the aggregates was higher. For instance, the aggregation of 3 evaluations in the Control and the ISO group permits to uncover about 48% of the usability problems while it permits to uncover about 63% of the usability problems in the Criteria group.
Keywords: User interface evaluation, Inspection methods, Ergonomic criteria, Standards, Dialogue principles, Usability problems
Examining Basic Items of a Screen Design BIBAK 79-80
  Kenji Ido; Toshiki Yamaoka
We examined basic items of screen design, and we got some results:
  • 1. * reverse video is the best type of highlight. * frame is the second best
        type of highlight * underline is an average type of highlight *
        grey-colour is the poorest type of highlight
  • 2. Horizontal area is faster than vertical area when subjects saw objects on
        CRT.
  • 3. Square and circle are good shape for retrieval.
  • 4. Speed of eye movement from centre to top of the screen is slower than from
        centre to bottom, from centre to left and centre to right.
    Keywords: Reaction time, Highlights, Eye movement, Basic figure
  • Case Based Reasoning Approach to Creating User Interface Components BIBAKHTML 81-82
      Suneela R. Joshi; William W. McMillan
    Software developers can save time and expense by reusing code that implements user interface tools such as windows, menus, icons, dialogues, etc. Case Based Reasoning (CBR), developed for applications in artificial intelligence, is a very effective tool for such an interactive software reuse project. In CBR, a problem is solved by searching a library of previously encountered cases, retrieving similar cases and modifying them if necessary to fit the current problem. The approach taken by this paper goes beyond this usual CBR technique. It helps a developer to select an application menu from a set of menus that are appropriate for the developer's project. It then inserts that menu directly into the developer's project. This paper uses CBR in creating user interface objects to achieve software reuse in a very effective and simple way.
    Keywords: User interface tools, Case based reasoning, Software reuse
    CockpitView: A User Interface Framework for Future Network Terminals BIBAK 83-84
      Georg Michelitsch
    We present a user interface framework for consumer oriented, network terminals that uses a combination of a 3D information landscape and a 2D work space to provide the user with a "focus plus context" environment. A comprehensive direct manipulation paradigm for user interaction with active objects on the screen replaces traditional menus in our system. Finally, with a new communication concept based on shared virtual spaces we can handle both synchronous and asynchronous communication in an integrated fashion for all types of media.
    Keywords: Active objects, Direct manipulation techniques, 3D graphics, Communication models, Network terminals
    Multi-Skill Cooperation in User Interface Design BIBAKHTML 85-86
      I. Lambert; N. Portolan
    The importance of pictures in today's interfaces makes a multi-skill approach between various people necessary: ergonomist, graphic designer, terminologist, psychosociologist. The question of the role of each partner and the integration of the different approaches is dealt with via two design projects.
    Keywords: Design process, Ergonomist, Graphic designer, Terminologist, Telecommunication product
    The Group Elicitation Method for Participatory Design and Usability Testing BIBAKHTML 87-88
      Guy A. Boy
    This short paper presents the Group Elicitation Method (GEM), a brainwriting technique augmented by a decision support system for participatory design and usability testing. GEM has been successfully used in four industrial projects to elicit knowledge from users, management and designers. In particular, in three of them it was used to elicit end-users' knowledge for the design of new user interfaces. This short paper discusses the properties of such a method and the lessons learned.
    Keywords: Knowledge elicitation, Participatory design, Decision support systems, Evaluation, Methodology

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Education

    ScienceSpace: Lessons for Designing Immersive Virtual Realities BIBAK 89-90
      Marilyn C. Salzman; Chris Dede; Deirdre McGlynn; R. Bowen Loftin
    ScienceSpace is a collection of immersive virtual realities designed to explore the potential utility of physical immersion and multisensory perception to aid in the learning of science. Through the design and evaluation of ScienceSpace, we are learning lessons about the virtual reality interface and the development of immersive virtual worlds for education. This paper describes these lessons.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Educational applications, User interface design and evaluation, and immersion
    Appropriateness of Graphical Program Representations for Training Applications BIBAKHTML 91-92
      Marian G. Williams; Hyxia Villegas; J. Nicholas Buehler
    Recent controversy about the ease of constructing and reading graphical program representations is of interest to us because of our work on graphical programming applications for training. We apply cognitive complexity analysis to graphical and textual programs, and confirm the empirical findings of other researchers. We also apply cognitive complexity analysis to graphical programs from our own work. The analysis suggests that, when optimized for a specific task, both textual and graphical programs can carry the same information with similar cognitive complexity. The selection of graphical and textual representations for comparison in real-world training applications remains problematic.
    Keywords: Graphical programming, Visual programming, Cognitive complexity analysis, Visual labs, Training, Education

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Gender and Skill

    Gender and Skill in Human Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 93-94
      Ellen Balka
    Practitioners working in HCI make implicit assumptions about gender and skill in conducting design work. More frequently than not, assumptions about both the gender of computer system users, and definitions of skill relied on in designing computer systems, remain hidden (exceptions include 1,2,10,16). Here, the importance of addressing gender and skill in HCI activities is addressed through a focus on participatory design (PD) and ergonomics. In the tradition of participatory posters [11] participants are asked to engage in generating knowledge about gender and skill in HCI by providing citations to relevant work, and/or anecdotes from their design experience (by computer entry or video clips).
    Keywords: Gender, Skill, Work, Participatory design, Ergonomics, Design theory, Design practices

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Remote Communication

    Anthropometric Data on Horizontal Head Movements in Videcommunications BIBAKHTML 95-96
      Martin Bocker; Werner Blohm; Lothar Muhlbach
    Head movement data were collected from 128 subjects during an experimental study using four different videoconferencing set-ups (factorial design of monoscopic / stereoscopic set-ups with / without motion parallax). The data include various parameters and are relevant inter alia for terminal and display designers.
    Keywords: Display design, Videocommunications, Motion parallax, Head tracking, 3D
    The Freedom to Work from an Arbitrary Position BIBAK 97-98
      Britt Jonsson; Anna Schomer; Konrad Tollmar
    We have designed two sets of communication tools to enable telepresence in groups who work in different locations. Afterwards we evaluated the tools. Study (A), in the first group, takes place in a big company in a relatively small group, of seven people, while study (B), in the second group, takes place in a larger group of approx. 20 members in an academic research lab. In order to design those two communication systems we argue that a broader perspective of work, living environment, life, friends and relations need to be considered. Insight into this complexity could only be gained using a "multi-domain methodology". We will in, this poster, give an example of these two ongoing research projects where we have used this methodology.
    Keywords: Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Teleworking, Information sharing, Collaborative processes, Shared workspace
    The Effects of Emotional Icons on Remote Communication BIBAKHTML 99-100
      Krisela Rivera; Nancy J. Cooke; Jeff A. Bauhs
    As technology advances, we are shifting from direct face-to-face or voice to voice interactions to computer-mediated communication (CMC). As a result of this shift the nature of communication has changed; in particular the ability to convey emotion is less straight forward. Twenty three subjects participated in a simulated, remote-CMC, group-decision making session. Twelve subjects had emoticons available, although use of these icons was optional. The remaining eleven did not have emoticons available. Dependent measures included user satisfaction, user frustration, conformity, length and focus of message, satisfaction with CMC system, and recall of communication events. The results indicated that subjects with emoticons used them and were more satisfied with the system than those subjects without emoticons. Thus it appears that users respond to emoticons and interpret them as intended.
    Keywords: Computer-mediated communication, Groupware, Computer-supported-cooperative work, Distributed cognition, Icons, Emotions, Emoticons
    Remote Assistance: A View of the Work and a View of the Face? BIBAKHTML 101-102
      Leon Watts; Andrew F. Monk
    Twenty members of the general public worked remotely from one another in pairs. One member of the pair carried out some simple manipulative tasks as instructed by the other, after which they discussed the merit of the object assembled. Sometimes there was a view of the face and sometimes a view of the room. The work was always visible. Contrary to suggestions in the literature that a view of the face has only marginal benefits, subjective ratings and direct measures of gaze behaviour both demonstrate that the view of the manipulators face was of value in this situation.
    Keywords: Video communication, CSCW, Analysis of gaze, Remote assistance

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Structuring and Finding Information

    A Task-Oriented Interface to a Digital Library BIBAKHTML 103-104
      Steve B. Cousins
    In this paper we describe an interface to a heterogeneous digital library. The interface is designed with the following goals in mind: to support user tasks, to smoothly integrate the results of many services, to handle services of widely-varying time scales, to be extensible, and to support sharing and reuse. We discuss each of these goals, and then describe a working prototype interface.
    Keywords: Digital Libraries, Tasks, Direct manipulation
    ESPACE 2: An Experimental HyperAudio Environment BIBAKHTML 105-106
      Nitin "Nick" Sawhney; Arthur Murphy
    Espace 2 is a prototype system for navigation of hyper-linked audio information in an immersive audio-only environment. In this paper, we propose several essential design concepts for audio-only computing environments. We will describe a hyperaudio system based on the prior design principles and discuss an evaluation of the preliminary prototype.
    Keywords: Auditory I/O, Non-speech audio, Hypermedia
    Structuring Voice Records Using Keyword Labels BIBAKHTML 107-108
      Nick Haddock
    The paper proposes an interaction technique which allows some structure and content to be extracted from a voice record, thus making it easier to review the recording and integrate it with other data. Silence detection and speech recognition are employed to pick out intentionally uttered keyword labels, in order to create a form-field view of the voice recording.
    Keywords: Speech as data, Speech recognition, Form-filling, Multi-modal interfaces, Portable computing
    A Study of User Participation in Standards Setting BIBAK 109-110
      Kai Jacobs; Rob Procter; Robin Williams
    This paper explores the views of members of standards setting organisations in the field of electronic communications. It focuses in particular on their experiences of, and attitudes towards, user participation in standards setting.
    Keywords: Standardisation, E-mail, User requirements
    BDDTCL: An Environment for Visualizing and Manipulating Binary Decisions Diagrams BIBAK 111-114
      Kurt E. Partridge
    A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a data structure used in hardware verification to represent boolean expressions. Most BDD implementations provide only textual output and require the user to interact with them using a compiled programming language. BDDTCL provides an interpreted language for manipulating BDDs and a graphical viewer for manipulating and visualizing them. BDDTCL can draw BDDs with over 4,400 nodes; much larger than can be easily drawn by hand. Two users, a hardware design researcher and a student unfamiliar with BDDs, provided feedback about BDDTCL's effectiveness for understanding systems modeled by BDDs. These users also provided feedback for improving BDDTCL.
    Keywords: Data structure visualization, Binary decision diagrams, Hardware verification tools
    Characterization and Assessment of HTML Style Guides BIBAKHTML 115-116
      Julie Ratner; Eric M. Grose; Chris Forsythe
    This paper describes a study in which HTML style guides were characterized, compared to established HCI style guides, and evaluated against findings from HCI reviews of web pages and applications. Findings showed little consistency among the 21 HTML style guides assessed, with 75% of recommendations appearing in only one style guide. While there was some overlap, only 20% of HTML relevant recommendations from established style guides were found in HTML style guides. HTML style guides emphasized common look and feel, information display, and navigation issues with little mention of many issues prominent in established style guides such as help, message boxes and data entry. This difference is reinforced by other results showing that HTML style guides addressed concerns of web information content pages with much greater success than web-based applications. It is concluded that while the WWW represents a unique HCI environment, development of HTML style guides has been less rigorous, with issues associated with web-based applications largely ignored.
    Keywords: HTML, World Wide Web, Style guides, Human computer interface

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Video and Television

    Concurrent Engineering for an Interactive TV Interface BIBAKHTML 117-118
      Ivan Bretan; Per Kroon
    The design of a user environment for a video-on-demand service through an interdisciplinary style of collaboration called "concurrent engineering" is described. The process encompasses pre-prototype behavioural studies, traditional user studies, graphical design of interface objects, industrial design of input devices and interaction design of interface dialogue.
    Keywords: Interdisciplinary design, Interactive TV, Video-on-demand
    Interfaces for Managing Access to a Video Archive BIBAKHTML 119-120
      Andrew Gordon; Smadar Kedar; Eric Domeshek
    We describe Deja Vu, a video retrieval system which capitalizes on our understanding of the content of the video to provide an effective user interface.
    Keywords: Information access, Interface design, Browsing, Search, Indexing, Retrieval, Video archive, Visualization
    The Effect of Frame Rate and Video Information Redundancy on the Perceptual Learning of American Sign Language Gestures BIBAK 121-122
      B. F. Johnson; J. K. Caird
    An experiment is reported that addressed whether reductions of frame rate and information redundancy affected the recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) gestures that were presented in a multimedia format. Frame rate (30, 15, 5, & 1 frames-per-second or fps) primarily affected time needed to learn the gestures to criterion while point light presentation of gestures (versus conventional video) affected recognition rates in a transfer testing condition. Contrary to conventional frame rate rules of thumb (e.g., 10-20 fps), once trained participants were exceptional at recognizing ASL gestures even at rates as low as 5 and 1 fps. Results are discussed as they contribute to computer mediated learning of sign language and frame rate guidelines.
    Keywords: Sign language learning, Gesture recognition, Biological motion perception, Mental representation of movement, Multimedia assisted learning, Frame rate, Signal detection theory

    INTERACTIVE POSTERS: Social Action

    Science-By-Mail BIBAKHTML 123-124
      Marc E. Fusco; Ellen A. White
    Science-by-MailTM is a hands-on, experimental science activity program for children in grades 4-9 that is designed to be engaging, educational, and fun! Each participating child is matched with a volunteer pen-pal scientist who provides encouragement and guidance. They receive three "challenge packets" throughout the year containing information and materials related to an issue in science or technology. Communication between students and scientists about the packets forms the core of the interactions. A nationwide program developed by the Museum of Science, Boston, Science-by-Mail currently involves about 25,000 children and 2,500 scientists.
    Keywords: Science-By-Mail, Science, Children, Volunteer, Social action
    Encouraging Social Responsibility through Collaborative Team Learning BIBAKHTML 125-126
      Jean Gasen
    How do we bring the real world into the classroom? How do we teach students to see and appreciate its complexities without overwhelming them? How do we encourage them to value collaborative teamwork and multi-disciplinary approaches to problems? And how do we instill the importance of addressing larger social issues in their professional future?
       This poster will describe a multi-disciplinary team approach to teaching user-centered interface design. The course focused on the development of multimedia prototypes for the VCU Cancer Center. How the course impacted upon student motivation for learning, group process and interface design will be presented.
    Keywords: HCI education, Multimedia, Collaborative work, Social issues in design
    Community Volunteers -- Getting Involved Locally BIBAKHTML 127-128
      David R. Millen; Patricia A. Young; Perry F. Sennewald
    The promises of emerging technologies, strong financial pressures, and infrastructure demands have created a growing need for technology expertise in local schools, governments and community organizations. It follows that there has never been a better time for technical professionals to help. Assistance can be offered in areas of technology planning, training, system management and support of fundraising activities. An illustrative example of a community-based technology foundation will be described.
    Keywords: Technology advocacy, Social action, Education

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Innovative User Interfaces

    Research in 3D User Interface Design at Columbia University BIBAKHTML 129-130
      Steven K. Feiner
    The Computer Graphics and User Interfaces Laboratory at Columbia University is pursuing research in the design and development of new user interface metaphors. This overview provides a high-level description of our work and surveys projects that reflect our two key research directions: 3D user interfaces (including virtual environments and augmented reality) and knowledge-based user interfaces.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Knowledge-based graphics, Intelligent user interfaces, Head-mounted displays
    Real{cubed} Communication and Aromatic Group Computing: HCI and CSCW Research at Canon Media Technology Laboratory BIBAHTML 131-132
      Yuichi Bannai; Hideyuki Tamura
    The Media Technology Laboratory is one of Canon Inc.'s corporate research labs. Originally called the Information Systems Research Center, the laboratory changed its name when it started research and development in information media. Now, approximately 70 research scientists and engineers, some of them managers, are in charge of research and development mainly in HCI, CSCW, and other fields. Their range of expertise covers AI, natural language understanding, computer vision and graphics, computer architecture, and system software (OS, database, etc.).
    MIT Media Laboratory: A View after Ten Years BIBA 133-134
      Chris Schmandt
    As the MIT Media Laboratory celebrates its 10th anniversary in 1995, this makes a fitting time to describe it for the CHI audience. A number of current Media Lab faculty and students are active in user interface techniques and technologies, and our work is well represented in the CHI proceedings. Although well known now, the Lab's roots go back much further, to the early 70s.
       The Laboratory's charter is to invent and creatively exploit new media for human well-being and individual satisfaction, without regard to present day constraints. We employ supercomputers and extraordinary input/output devices to experiment with today, with the notion that these will be commonplace tomorrow. The not-so-hidden agenda is to drive technological inventions and break engineering deadlocks with new perspectives and demanding applications. The Lab explores issues in a broad range of new information technologies including: advanced digital television, electronic publishing, portable computing and communication, artificial intelligence, voice interfaces, user interface design, and education-related technologies.

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Introducing HCI in Industry

    HCI at Banc Sabadell BIBAHTML 135-136
      Lynne E. Hall
    The introduction of HCI to Banc Sabadell is described, providing a brief history. Attempts to improve application usability and to encourage a focus on HCI issues are detailed. Several applications are described, identifying the success of the incorporation of HCI at Banc Sabadell.
    The Usability Group at Reuters: Virtually Global BIBAK 137-138
      Greg Garrison; Robin Heath; Allison Jaynes
    In this organization overview we discuss the approach to Customer Centered Design taken by Reuters. We address the virtual team organization of the group and the benefits and challenges that it presents. We then present the globalization of usability and the techniques that Reuters has used to expand usability operations from London throughout the world. We end with a discussion of our performance thus far and a little about the future of The Usability Group at Reuters.
    Keywords: Organization overview, Customer centered design, Usability, Globalization, Virtual team, Usability testing
    The Claris Interface Design Group: A Personal Retrospective BIBAKHTML 139-140
      Tony Fernandes
    The Claris Interface Design Group is an organization built from the ground up to help Claris Corporation define new levels of usability for its Macintosh and Windows products. This overview offers a retrospective of lessons learned through the creation of the organization I created.
    Keywords: Organizations, Usability testing, Human factors, Visual design

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: User Interface Design

    The Hiser Group: Pioneering Usability and User Interface Design in Australia BIBAK 141-142
      Sarah A. Bloomer; Susan J. Wolfe
    When The Hiser Group was formed, usability and user interface design were relatively unknown in Australasian software development market. This organisational overview describes the major activities of The Hiser Group and the implications for pioneering a user-centred development methodology in this environment.
    Keywords: User interface design, Usability engineering, Organisations
    Research on Human-Computer Interaction and Cooperative Hypermedia at GMD-IPSI BIBAKHTML 143-144
      Norbert A. Streitz; Heinz-Dieter Bocker
    This organization overview describes two research divisions of GMD-IPSI in Darmstadt, Germany: User Interfaces for Information Systems and Cooperative Hypermedia Systems. They are in particular addressing HCI work within the overall framework and goals of IPSI.
    Keywords: Organization overview, User-interfaces, 3D visualization, Information retrieval, Electronic publishing, Hypermedia, CSCW, Desktop-based collaboration, Electronic meeting rooms, Shared work spaces, Pen-based interaction
    Taming Complexity at MAYA Design BIBAKHTML 145-146
      Peter Lucas; Susan Salis
    MAYA Design is a full-service product design consultancy offering services at the intersection of computer science, psychology, and visual design. We have developed efficient techniques for facilitating interdisciplinary design and for communicating clearly with our clients.
    Keywords: Interdisciplinary design, Design consulting, Brainstorming, Prototyping, User studies laboratory, Usability, Product design

    ORGANIZATION OVERVIEWS: Multidisciplinary HCI Research

    HCI Group at Computer Research Institute of Montreal BIBAK 147-148
      Frances de Verteuil; Daniel Engelberg
    The Computer Research Institute of Montreal (CRIM) is a non-profit R&D institute in computer science. The HCI group performs both consulting and precompetitive research. Our approach emphasizes multidisciplinary teams, participation of our own software engineering experts on projects, and sensitivity to our clients' business goal and culture. Research focuses on methodologies for designing and evaluating interfaces.
    Keywords: R&D, Multidisciplinary, Software development lifecycle, HCI methodology, Task analysis, Interface evaluation
    The Center for People and Systems Interaction (CPSI) BIBAK 149-150
      Jenny Preece; Judith Ramsay; Richard Jacques; Alessandro Barabesi
    The Center for People and Systems Interaction (CPSI) is a new research center based at South Bank University in London. An inter-disciplinary group is researching two key areas of Human-Computer Interaction: (i) the inter-relationships of psychological, social and technical factors in computer mediated communication (CMC) and (ii) extending the repertoire of usability evaluation methods.
    Keywords: Center for People and Systems Interaction (CPSI), Human-computer interaction, HCI, Computer mediated communication, CMC, Desktop video conferencing, Engagement, Gender, Hypermedia, Usability, Evaluation
    Virginia Tech's Center for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 151-152
      John M. Carroll
    An interdisciplinary effort in HCI formed at Virginia Tech in 1979. The central axis of this collaboration ran between the Department of Computer Science and the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering. This early project studied the human-computer interface as a dialog, asking both whether dialog is a good metaphor for the interface, and how to most appropriately configure that interface.

    Panels

    Universal Design: Everyone has Special Needs BIBAKHTML 153-154
      Eric Bergman; Earl Johnson; Alistair Edwards; Deborah Kaplan; Greg Lowney; T. V. Raman; Clayton Lewis
    Despite high profile discussions of user-centered design in the CHI community, until recently a substantial population of users has been largely ignored. Users who have restricted or no use of hands, eyes, ears, or voice due to environment, task context, repetitive strain injury, or disability constitute a diverse and significant user population, but these users receive relatively little mention in mainstream HCI conferences or literature. Design considerations for users with vision, hearing, or movement impairments overlap with those for the general population across a variety of tasks and contexts (e.g., high workload tasks, automobile systems, phone interfaces). Following on this theme, the panel will promote discussion of so-called "Universal Design" -- design for the broadest possible range of users.
    Keywords: Accessibility, Disability, Universal design
    Technology Transfer: So Much Research So Few Good Products BIBAHTML 155-156
      Ellen A. Isaacs; John C. Tang; Jim Foley; Jeff Johnson; Allan Kuchinsky; Jean Scholtz; John Bennett
    Since the CHI community involves both researchers and practitioners, we often struggle with the issue of technology transfer. The CHI conference features many innovative research ideas and interesting product designs, but there have been disappointingly few cases in which products were based on research projects. Although many companies have tried to address this problem on their own, the CHI conference offers a unique opportunity to bring together people from different settings to explore common obstacles to technology transfer and to share ideas for overcoming those barriers.
       This panel will cover the following range of perspectives:
  • The Prototype Perspective. The primary goal of research or advanced
       development in a company is to build prototypes that test new ideas, which
       can eventually be transferred to development groups for productization.
  • The Information Transfer Perspective. The main goal of research should be to
       transfer information of many kinds (e.g., the resolution of basic questions
       that are impeding development work, practical experience with a platform's
       ability to support future applications, explanations of why a new product
       direction is technically unfeasible).
  • The Management Perspective. Managers of industrial research need to strike a
       balance between (1) providing a climate for innovation and (2) justifying
       the research investment from a business perspective.
  • The Academic Perspective. Transferring technology from academia to industry
       has its own challenges. Those in universities must develop alliances with
       industry that mutually benefit the academic institution and the commercial
       enterprise.
  • Criteria for Effective Groupware BIBAKHTML 157-158
      Andrew F. Monk; Jean Scholtz; Bill Buxton; Sara Bly; David Frohlich; Steve Whittaker
    The object of this panel is to identify criteria for effective groupware. That is, criteria that can be applied either to guide design or to help a purchaser select from alternative groupware applications. The criteria are expected to be generally applicable and so we take a broad definition of groupware. Panellists have been chosen with expertise in low bandwidth groupware such as email and PDAs as well as higher profile multi-media applications.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Evaluation, Design
    Real Meets Virtual: Blending Real World Artifacts with Computational Media BIBAKHTML 159-160
      Michael Eisenberg; Wendy Mackay; Allison Druin; Sheila Lehman; Mitchel Resnick
    Panelists in this session will defend a variety of distinct visions for integrating "real-world" and computational media. Our aim is to explore the ways in which computers, and computer interfaces, can lend themselves to new and enriched interactions with objects and to new paradigms of handicrafts -- with particular emphasis on the role of crafts and real-world objects in education.
    Keywords: Real-world computation, Physical multimedia, Crafts, Educational computing, Programmable brick
    User Centered Design: Quality or Quackery? BIBAK 161-162
      John Karat; Michael E. Atwood; Susan M. Dray; Martin Rantzer; Dennis R. Wixon
    Clearly User-Centered Design (UCD) is an activity that has entered the collective CHI-consciousness to an extent that should make us confident that usable systems are just around the corner. Of 18 large software producing entities surveyed over the summer of 1995, all reported either to have at least one documented UCD process in use or under development, or not to need one because UCD activities were well understood by the people responsible for carrying them out. However, scratching the surface of this utopian state reveals that the revolution is far from complete. We do not have a clear consensus about the boundaries of UCD (what constitutes a UCD method and what does not). We are not in agreement about how central users should be in the development of usable systems (If users design, what use are designers?). We have not had enough experience with our processes, to tell that they really lead to development of usable systems. This panel explores what we don't yet know, and how we can try to know it.
    Keywords: User centered design, Design
    Visualizing the Internet: Putting the User in the Driver's Seat BIBAK 163-164
      Nahum Gershon; Keith Andrews; Steven G. Eick; Jim Foley; William Ruh
    Dealing with Internet resources, users, quite frequently, feel lost, confused, and overwhelmed. The panel and the audience will discuss how advances in interactive computer graphics and visualization software and hardware could make the information distributed over the Internet more intuitively searchable, accessible, and easier to use by people from all walks of life and interests.
    Keywords: WWW, Internet, Visualization, Usability, World Wide Web, Computer graphics

    Plenary Session

    Arranging to Do Things With Others BIBA 165-167
      Herbert H. Clark
    Much of what we do we do with other people. We conduct business, gossip, play games, and take classes with others, both in person and through computers. Joint activities like these are advanced through sequences of brief joint actions. The problem is this. It takes delicate coordination against the common ground of the participants to initiate such actions. Person A has to arrange for person B (1) to commit to taking part (2) in a particular joint action (3) in a particular role (4) at a particular time and place. I will argue that people have principled ways of solving this problem, and that designers can and should leverage these principles when supporting these activities through computers and other technologies.
    A New Look to the Art of Seeing BIBA 168
      Betty Edwards
    In modern life, we are inundated by ever-growing quantities of data. The trend toward computer-graphic displays of complex data seems to indicate a new area of common ground for verbal, analytic, visual, and perceptual modes of thinking. As computers take over more and more "left-brain" tasks, educators are beginning to recognize the need for training the visual mode of thinking as well as the verbal, analytic mode -- the traditional "3Rs" of schooling. Compared with what we are capable of seeing, perceiving, and envisioning, what we actually see is doubtless very limited. By cultivating perceptual skills, we can increase our ability to derive meaning from complex verbal and numerical information and to accomplish creative leaps of insight.
       The first computers presented data in linear fashion -- strings of numbers, lines of data, largely without a visual component. Some interesting new research indicates that at a certain level of complexity, the linear, analytic mode of the brain just gives up.
       Consequently, computer programmers began to turn more and more toward visual displays of quantitative information. The reason this is working is that visual displays are easily understood.
       They are processed rapidly and globally, allowing for a view of the "big picture," unlike verbal, numerical data which must be expressed in a step-by-step linear fashion. The problem, however, is that visual presentations depend on excellent design. This is the common ground that is occurring. The good, even great designers of visual presentation are now working with the verbal, analytic, numerical information suppliers.
       Out of this common ground emerges a new need, the need for an aesthetic component in the visual display of quantitative information. We need visual displays which are beautiful and satisfying to look at, as well as being useful and informative. This, I believe, is where the experience of the artist can play a great role in bringing knowledge of the aesthetic experience to visual displays.
       The study of aesthetics has traditionally been regarded as a difficult, even murky field. To date, we do not have a completely satisfying definition of the aesthetic response. As designers, computer programmers, and information experts work together with artists, however, we can hope to see the concept of beauty emerging even in business decisions and in business leadership. Researchers interested in a recently developing field, the aesthetics of leadership, are calling for a new look at how we train individuals for leadership positions.