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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Mosaic of Creativity
Location:Denver, Colorado
Dates:1995-May-07 to 1995-May-11
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-755-3 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608952; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI95-2
Papers:238
Pages:486
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2
    1. Organization Overviews
    2. Organization Overviews: Cognitive Modeling
    3. Organization Overviews: HCI Consulting
    4. Panels
    5. Plenary Session: Opening
    6. Plenary Session: Closing
    7. Short Papers: Information Visualization
    8. Short Papers: Audio Interfaces
    9. Short Papers: Agents and Anthropomorphism
    10. Short Papers: UI Specification and Programming
    11. Short Papers: Pens and Touchpads
    12. Short Papers: Workplaces and Classrooms
    13. Short Papers: Behavioral Issues and Studies
    14. Short Papers: Usability Evaluation
    15. Short Papers: Drawing, Painting and Sketching
    16. Short Papers: Multimodal Interfaces
    17. Short Papers: Web Browsing

CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2

Organization Overviews

What You See, Some of What's in the Future, And How We Go About Doing It: HI at Apple Computer, Inc. BIBAKHTML 155
  Don Norman; Jim Miller; Austin Henderson
In this organizational overview we cover some of the critical aspects of human interface research and application at Apple or, as we prefer to call it, the "User Experience." We cover what we do, where we are going (as much as we are permitted to say in public), and how we are organized. Some of our innovations in the product process and in the transfer of research from the laboratories to product should be of special interest to the HCI community.
Keywords: Organizational overview, Organizational structure, Technology transfer
Usability at Eastman Kodak Company: A Study in Group Collaboration BIBAKHTML 156-157
  Elizabeth Rosenzweig; Cay Lodine
This presentation describes the Kodak Boston Development Center Usability Laboratory and its collaborative work within the larger Eastman Kodak Company corporate environment. The unique product development process, resultant user interface guidelines and subsequent products are discussed. In addition, a description of the collaborative work within the larger corporation is described.
Keywords: Interaction, Research organizations, User testing, Design guidelines, Collaborative development, Organizational context, Development tools and methods
Interface Evaluation, Design and Research at Intel BIBAKHTML 158-159
  Jean Scholtz; Paul Sorenson
At Intel, usability engineers are currently seen as vital contributors to our goal of making the PC appear everywhere! Intel has in the past been predominately a hardware company. However, the scope at Intel is being broadened to software in order to illustrate the usefulness of new hardware technology. As more leading edge software is being produced, usability has become an important process at Intel.
Keywords: Usability, Interface design, Usability research

Organization Overviews: Cognitive Modeling

FRIEND21 Project: Two-Tiered Architecture for 21st-Century Human Interfaces BIBAKHTML 160-161
  Hajime Nonagaki; Hirotada Ueda
The FRIEND21 Project, which ended on March 31, 1994, is briefly described and its final results are presented. The FRIEND21 Project conducted research into human interfaces having two-tiered architecture consisting of "metaware" and "agency model." This approach attempts to deal with human-interface issues from the very top layer of a symbolic and cognitive environment constructed between the user and the machine to the bottom layer of machine functions organized into the agency model.
Keywords: Symbolic environment, Symbolic context, Two-tiered HI architecture, Metaware, Agency model
HCI at New Mexico State University BIBAKHTML 162-163
  Douglas J. Gillan
HCI at New Mexico State University has a dual focus -- the development of cognitive theory in a real-world context and the application of cognitive principles and methods to interface design. Graduate training exhibits that dual focus, with general training in experimental psychology and statistical methods, as well as specialized training in HCI design, prototyping, and evaluation. Faculty research centers around the development of cognitive models of computer users, with particular emphasis on multivariate methods for modeling user knowledge, such as Pathfinder networks.
Keywords: Organization overview, University, Cognitive models

Organization Overviews: HCI Consulting

Interaction Design at IDEO Product Development BIBAKHTML 164-165
  Peter Spreenberg; Gitta Salomon; Phillip Joe
IDEO Product Development is a multidisciplinary consultancy with offices worldwide. This overview describes how interaction design personnel within the San Francisco and London offices work with other disciplines such as human factors and industrial design to apply a five step, user-centered approach to product development. Three broad areas of interaction design work and the IDEO design process are described.
Keywords: Interaction design, Information design, Multimedia, Human factors, User interface, Prototyping, Hardware integration, User-centered design
User Interface Engineering: Fostering Creative Product Development BIBAKHTML 166-167
  Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder; Will Schroeder
User Interface Engineering is a seven-year old company researching and consulting on what makes products usable. Our mission is to encourage and foster creative product development teams that build applications users will use and value. We do this not only by demonstrating the technology used in building better product interfaces, but also through the processes which produce that technology.
   We accomplish this through research, training, consulting, and publication. Training, consulting and publication serve to transfer the techniques and technologies developed in our research. Our work emphasizes innovative applications of usability to the challenges facing today's product developers.
Keywords: Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Contextual inquiry, Modeling, Practical techniques, Group dynamics
Integrated Software Usability Services BIBAKHTML 168-169
  Christel Dehaes; Kris Vanstappen
The Human Interface Group is a consulting firm specialising in software usability. Their services cover the complete software development cycle. The integration of user interface design (from conceptual design to usability testing) and user documentation (from documentation plan to localisation, DTP and packaging) makes them excellent partners for large international companies that develop software.
Keywords: HCI services, User interface design, User documentation

Panels

Creative Prototyping Tools: What Interaction Designers Really Need to Produce Advanced User Interface Concepts BIBAKHTML 170-171
  Manfred Tscheligi; Stephanie Houde; Raghu Kolli; Aaron Marcus; Michael Muller; Kevin Mullet
Prototyping is an important, well accepted and compelling technique for any person dealing with the design of effective communication between people and technology. We all use some "tool" to enlive our ideas and to tell our stories to all of the other people involved during development of new and alternative user interface concepts. The word "tool" covers all sorts of means to tell these stories. Available prototyping tools run behind the need of interaction designers in particular with the goal to invent new forms of interaction. Do they really deserve the name "prototyping" tool? Based on the experiences of the panelists the panel should discuss the current situation and proclaim thinking in the direction of more designer oriented and flexible prototyping support. Panelists should discuss their vision of an "ideal" prototyping environment useful for designers and not only suited for programmers. The discussion should include support for the whole activity of innovation (from high level conceptual design and idea sketching to detailed design activities) and support for non style guide oriented interaction designs.
   At the beginning of the panel a short introduction to the main issues of the panel is given by the moderator. This will be followed by the initial position presentations of the panelists. The panelists cover the topic by addressing their experiences based on their different backgrounds and fields of experience. Examples will be provided. Time will be reserved for interaction with the audience. At the end of the panel the panelists will be asked to give a personal summary of the discussion and will be particularly asked to address the most important parts of their dreams of an ideal prototyping tool. The panel is closed by a short resume.
Keywords: Prototyping, Interaction design, Visual design, Participatory design, Industrial design, Non standard user interfaces
Retrospective Views on Apple Computer's Interface Design Project BIBAKHTML 172-173
  S. Joy Mountford; Stephanie Houde; Ron Baecker; Sergio Canetti; Yvonne Rogers; Tom Bellman; Robert Girling; Patrick Meehan; Magnus Ramage
This panel will illustrate, through personal anecdotes, first hand experiences of being involved with the Apple Computer Interface Design Project. This project was initiated to better prepare and train students for real world interaction design problems. This was accomplished by sponsoring a specific project within the university curriculum system. All of the panel participants have been directly involved with the Apple Interface Design Project over the last few years, 1991-94. They represent different sides of the partnership. The faculty who constructed courses around the Apple brief and students who designed interaction prototypes as part of the project class. This will be an open discussion between students and faculty about the benefits and problems encountered. We aim to examine future roles that industry could play in shaping project topics to facilitate more real world design problem experiences.
Keywords: Design process, Teaching HCI, Relationship between industry & academia
3D or Not 3d: "More is Better" or "Less is More"? BIBAKHTML 174-175
  Kevin Mullet; Diane J. Schiano; George Robertson; Joel Tesler; Barbara Tversky
The rapid growth in platform-level support for real-time 3D rendering and animation has recently created an explosion of public interest in adding to the dimensionality of the user interface, and the SIGCHI community has been a major source of activity in this area. This panel considers several points of view on the ever-increasing use of 3D visual representations in the user interface itself. We aim to help distinguish between conditions under which "more" truly is better -- from a user-centered perspective -- and those in which a well-designed 2D solution would serve as well or even better. Panelists will offer examples of applications in which 3D is highly essential or completely unnecessary.
Keywords: Visualization, 3D Graphics, User interface design
Discount or Disservice? Discount Usability Analysis -- Evaluation at a Bargain Price or Simply Damaged Merchandise? BIBAKHTML 176-177
  Wayne D. Gray; Michael E. Atwood; Carolanne Fisher; Jakob Nielsen; John M. Carroll; John Long
The panel will focus on Jakob Nielsen's Discount Usability approach and guidelines. Nielsen has single handily restored guidelines to CHI. After being discredited because of the sheer impracticality of using 1000+ guidelines, Nielsen has been working hard to convince practitioners that all they need to know about usability can be summarized in 10 guidelines. This may be a real disservice. While using 10 guidelines may be better than using none, do people who have learned Nielsen's 10 think that they now know all they need to know about usability? The panel proposes a wide-ranging, public discussion of these issues.
Keywords: Discount usability, Guidelines, Analysis and evaluation techniques
Interface Styles: Direct Manipulation versus Social Interactions BIBAKHTML 178
  Lynn Streeter; Sara Kiesler; Clifford Nass; Ben Shneiderman
This panel will debate whether, when, and why interfaces should take on human characteristics, such as assume particular personality styles, interact with user in socially meanful terms, use natural language as a means of communicating, etc. Some will argue that interfaces are enhanced by judicious use of social interactions styles while others argue that that users prefer direct control and manipulation of interfaces to anthropomorphic interaction styles, as seen in talking automobiles or talking automatic teller machines. Some panelists will argue that under appropriate circumstances social characteristics can enhance the interface and make it more likable by the user. Other panelists will argue that data has repeatedly shown that social interaction styles are eshewed by users.
   This debate is particularly timely given the widespread interest ins software agents and how they should be designed. There are several behaviors agents could display (anthropomorphic presentation, adaptive behavior, accept vague goal specification, give the user just what is need, work while the user sleeps or work in places that the user is not physically present). Which of these are important to include or exclude from an interface will be debated.
Keywords: Agents, Personality, Direct manipulation, Social interaction, Social actors
Browsing vs. Search: Can We Find a Synergy? BIBAKHTML 179-180
  Jock D. Mackinlay; Polle T. Zellweger; Mark Chignell; George Furnas; Gerard Salton
This panel seeks a synergy between two common user interface approaches for information access: browsing and search. Panelists from a variety of backgrounds including information retrieval and hypertext will give short presentations suggesting what the synergy might be from their individual perspectives. The panelists and the audience will then jointly discuss how to achieve an overall synergy.
Keywords: Information access, Browsing, Search, Querying, Navigation, Information visualization
The NSF/ARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative: Opportunities for HCI Research BIBAKHTML 181-182
  William Hefley; Ann Bishop; Barbara Buttenfield; Joseph Hanes; Scott Stevens; Nancy Van House; Terry Winograd
In September, 1994, the National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded six research projects a total of $24.4 million to develop new technologies for digital libraries. A joint initiative of NSF, the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the projects' focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, making it available for networked search and retrieval. Exciting opportunities exist for research in human-computer interaction with huge libraries of digital information. Panel members discuss the individual projects and HCI implications.
Keywords: Digital libraries, Multimedia, User interface design
The Anti-Mac: Violating the Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines BIBAKHTML 183-184
  Stuart Card; Don Gentner; Jakob Nielsen; Austin Henderson; Don Norman
Graphical computer interfaces have become the norm. They are based on a number of principles such as metaphor, see-and-point, direct manipulation, user control, and WYSIWIG. The Anti-Mac project explored alternative interfaces that might result from violating the principles behind conventional graphical interfaces. What emerges is a human-computer interface based on language, a richer representation of objects, expert users, skilled agents, and shared control.
Keywords: Computer-human interface, Macintosh human interface, Metaphor, Direct manipulation, User control, WYSIWYG, User interface design, WIMP interface, Language, Computer agents, Objects, Attributes, Futurism
Creativity: Interacting with Computers BIBAKHTML 185-186
  Ernest Edmonds; Gerhard Fischer; S. Joy Mountford; Frieder Nake; Douglas Riecken; Robert Spence
Much traditional HCI research has concentrated on routine, well-defined and stable, tasks or low level computer support for complex tasks, e.g. spell-checking for someone writing a book. Increasingly, however, interest is moving to the support of people involved in creative tasks. This is the topic of the panel. Design and the visual arts will be used as typical examples of creative work and visions of computer futures and their cultural and social implications are explored.
Keywords: Creativity, Interaction, Design, Art, Emergence, Distribution, Concurrency
From Our Past to Our Future: User Interfaces Over the Lifespan BIBAHTML 187-188
  Maddy D. Brouwer-Janse; Jane Fulton Suri; Roger Coleman; Sandra Edwards; James L. Fozard; David V. Keyson
The design of user interfaces for consumer products and services for different generations of users presents problems which have been rarely addressed by the HCI community. How can designers meet the needs of senior citizens, the "elderboom" of the 2000's, if they themselves are of the computer game and "edutainment" generation? Or, how do we design for children, having passed childhood long ago, and with guidelines that are lagging behind technological development? The panel will address user interface design issues that concern the lifespan of people and products as they relate to the rapid change in our population distribution.
Mapping the Design Process: Visualizing What We Don't See BIBAKHTML 189-190
  Daniel Boyarski; Virginia Howlett; Scott Mathis; David Peters
The process of developing and designing software varies widely across projects and development teams. There are short-term projects and endless ones; small teams and large ones; clearly defined objectives and goals defined on the fly. What is common to most of these efforts is that they are not simple and easy endeavors, developed in linear fashion with predictable results. They are also rarely documented in visual terms, say as process maps with artifacts as exemplars, that can later be studied and improved upon. Within the HCI community, we tend to focus on parts of the process -- such as user models or evaluation methods -- and less often consider the life and shape of the process as a whole.
   Because of time constraints, development teams are rarely afforded the time to reflect on a completed project, or even a particular phase of a project. How did it turn out? Did we achieve what we set out to do? What worked well and what didn't? What would we do differently next time? Time to reflect on the process employed ends up being time well spent, as such reflection informs future projects, benefitting everyone by saving time and resources.
   The idea behind this panel is to make the design process explicit. We will do this by showing how three interface design projects progressed from start to finish. Mapping each project's process makes visual a seemingly abstract process. By graphically representing a complex procedure, we are able to see the parts and how they relate to each other within the whole. These are three very different projects from three very different companies; in fact, the situations and constraints could not be more varied. This affords us the chance to compare and contrast design process maps.
Keywords: Development and design process, Interdisciplinary teamwork, Problem solving, Visualization
Dealing with Complexity: Uniting Agents and Direct Manipulation BIB 191-192
  Doug Riecken; Pattie Maes; Ben Shneiderman; David Canfield Smith
CHI Conference User Feedback Session BIBAKHTML 193-194
  Kevin M. Schofield; Gene Lynch; Michael Tauber; Bill Curtis; Rodney Fuller; Terry Roberts
One can think of the annual CHI conference as the HCI community's own piece of "groupware". Since we as a community advocate user participation in the design process, it is fitting that we should devote time during the conference to soliciting feedback from our users. This session will provide an opportunity for conference attendees to critique the conference and to provide suggestions for improving the conference in the future. Panelists will also raise broader issues about the long-term direction of our field and how the conference can best serve that evolution.
Keywords: User feedback, CHI conference, Conference design

Plenary Session: Opening

The Design Challenge -- Creating a Mosaic Out of Chaos BIBAHTML 195-196
  Joan Greenbaum; Morten Kyng
As designers we usually find ourselves -- and our designs -- in complex organizational settings, where diverse and often conflicting interests co-exist. Yet design is often seen as a process where the 'one best solution' is developed instead of allowing the rich mosaic of conflicting perspectives to be brought to light. Sooner or later the official pictures of the foreground are contradicted by current practice and create conflicts that may seriously jeopardize systems built on them. With hindsight we can see how this happened, for example in the 1960's and '70's when mainframe system software was designed to follow the automation-like flow of production work, controlling work process and workers and dividing labour and tasks. In the 1980's, despite the use of new software tools and the emphasis on PC-based applications, designers focused on the tasks and procedures of given work flows instead of embarking on approaches that would have allowed them to learn about how new software might be appropriated, put to use and tailored in an organization.
   We argue that these are not simple mistakes. They are partly due to the failure of our methods and techniques -- and more broadly to the failure of system design practice -- to seriously confront political, social and economic issues, allowing power, politics and perspectives to stay hidden.
   In order to address these issues, some background assumptions about work and users must be challenged, together with ideas about tools and techniques.

Plenary Session: Closing

Learning from Diversity: Interactive TV, Computers, and the Frontier of the Cognitive Sciences BIBA 197
  Scott McDonald
The digital revolution has promoted the convergence of technologies that heretofore have been in separate spheres: television, computers, and telephones. Yet the dynamics of human interaction with these technologies retain some important differences. Indeed, the early testing of interfaces for interactive television indicates that the "conventional wisdom" derived from work in one sphere may not be wholly applicable to the creation of interfaces in the other spheres. Even after the digital data streams feeding all three technologies converge into one irreducible "atomic" substructure of zeroes and ones, the social contexts in which the three technologies are used may limit the transferability of interface design generalizations across the spheres. The current development scene, though unruly, chaotic, and competitive, offers a unique opportunity to use the diversity of approaches not only to develop optimal user interfaces, but also to advance the formulation of more general theories about human cognition and perception. Individual tiles do not automatically make a mosaic; they need to be organized to create some picture or design. As we work on our separate and diverse interfaces, we should not fail to meet this larger challenge of theory development.

Short Papers: Information Visualization

Designing Glyphs to Exploit Patterns in Multidimensional Datasets BIBAK 198-199
  Christopher Joslyn; Clayton Lewis; Brigitta Domik
Designing glyphs for revealing patterns in multidimensional data has been largely a trial-and-error process. We suggest that characteristics of human texture perception can provide useful guidance, allowing more effective glyphs to be designed. Using a combination of empirical study of existing glyphs and analysis of the Bergen and Landy [1] model of texture perception, we developed improved versions of existing glyphs and a new glyph, all effective in revealing certain simple regularities in data.
Keywords: Glyphs, Iconic displays, Multidimensional data, Pattern detection, Visualization, Visual perception
Livemap -- A System for Viewing Multiple Transparent and Time-Varying Planes in Three Dimensional Space BIBAKHTML 200-201
  Robert Silvers
Livemap dynamically combines related components of time-varying data to provide a context-relevant view into an information landscape. Livemap facilitates a display of increased density by layering content that contains transparent elements and provides utility to help abstract areas of interest.
Keywords: Layers, Transparency, Planes, Visualization, Stereo
Automatic Generation of Starfield Displays Using Constraints BIBAKHTML 202-203
  Scott E. Hudson; Ian Smith
In this paper we present an constraint-based approach to the automatic generation of starfield displays for use with dynamic query filters. This approach automatically transforms a specification of the data to be displayed into a dynamic query filter interface whose results are shown to the user in a starfield display. This transformation is accomplished by translating the data specification into a specification for a one-way constraint system and accompanying user interface objects. Both of these are compiled into fast, executable code to create a final program.
Keywords: Starfield displays, Visualization techniques, Constraints, Graphical user interfaces, Dynamic query filters, Automatic generation
Visualising Complex Interacting Systems BIBAKHTML 204-205
  Nick Drew; Bob Hendley
The work described here is concerned with enhancing the visualisation of complex software systems (in particular object-oriented systems [4]). The major concern is to provide a powerful and concrete visual representation of such abstract systems, through which a user can move seamlessly from viewing the architectural structure to considering low level detail. The main approaches are to use virtual reality techniques and self organising systems.
Keywords: VR, Object-orientation, Software visualisation, Complex systems
Issues of Gestural Navigation in Abstract Information Spaces BIBAKHTML 206-207
  David Allport; Earl Rennison; Lisa Strausfeld
Navigating large multidimensional information spaces presents a set of unique problems for user interface design. The key challenge is not to provide fast and accurate object manipulation, but to prevent the user from getting "lost", and to provide an intuitive way to move through the space. We have developed an interface that uses electrostatic field sensing to interpret natural hand gestures as motion controllers. We are investigating the conceptual models that provide intuitive mappings from hand gestures to movements in multidimensional information space.
Keywords: Gestural navigation, Conceptual navigation models, Input devices, Abstract information spaces
Financial Viewpoints: Using Point-of-View to Enable Understanding of Information BIBAKHTML 208-209
  Lisa Strausfeld
This paper presents Financial Viewpoints, an experimental interactive 3D information space that spatially and volumetrically represents a portfolio of seven mutual funds. 3D point-of-view is used to represent context and context shifts in the information and to allow users to view multiple representations of the information in a single, continuous environment. This project is the first in a larger and ongoing research effort to explore the notion of embodied virtual space.
Keywords: Information visualization, 3D interactive graphics, Financial visualization, Point-of-view, Embodied virtual space, User interface metaphors

Short Papers: Audio Interfaces

Audio Augmented Reality: A Prototype Automated Tour Guide BIBAKHTML 210-211
  Benjamin B. Bederson
Large information spaces are often difficult to access efficiently and intuitively with traditional window and icon-based interfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate Pad++, a graphical interface system based on zooming. Objects can be placed in the graphical workspace at any size, and zooming is a basic interaction technique for navigating. The goal is to provide simple methods for visually navigating complex information spaces that ease the burden of locating information while maintaining an intuitive sense of location and of relationships between information objects.
Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Multiscale and zoomable interfaces, Authoring, Information navigation, Hypertext, Information visualization
Speaker Segmentation for Browsing Recorded Audio BIBAKHTML 212-213
  Donald D. Kimber; Lynn D. Wilcox; Francine R. Chen; Thomas P. Moran
Audio recording is an easy way to capture the content of meetings, group discussions, or conversations. However the sequential nature of the media makes good indexing essential to the effective use of the recorded audio. One kind of index is speaker identity. We describe a system which automatically divides a multi-speaker recording into speaker segments and displays this information graphically. The tool allows a user to easily access the parts of a recording where given people are talking.
Keywords: Multi-media, Auditory I/O, Speaker segmentation, Speaker identification, Audio indexing, Browsing
Ear Tracking: Visualizing Auditory Localization Strategies BIBAKHTML 214-215
  William Joseph King; Suzanne J. Weghorst
Auditory displays are an ongoing topic of human computer interaction research and have been shown to be beneficial in human interfaces. Further, binaural spatial acoustic displays are a topic of increasingly active research. As these virtual acoustic displays become more predominant, new methods for measuring user's perceptions and the display's effectiveness become necessary. A novel method for examining virtual acoustic displays, specifically localization strategies within these displays, is presented. This method is analogous to eye tracking in visual displays. Such a method may be useful in the evaluation of virtual acoustic displays and in the design of adaptive acoustic displays.
Keywords: Binaural audio, Virtual acoustic displays, Auditory perception, Position tracking, Adaptive interfaces
A Metaphor for the Visually Impaired: Browsing Information in a 3D Auditory Environment BIBAKHTML 216-217
  Mauricio Lumbreras; Gustavo Rossi
In this paper we propose a conversational metaphor to provide an easy access to an information base in the context of a 3D aural environment. This approach tries to exploit the hearing sense at the outmost. We show that this approach allows us to build or to adapt current hypermedia interfaces so that they can be used by blind people.
   We analyze how to represent the static architecture of a virtual environment in which the user travels, comparing it with existing initiatives for enabling the visually impaired to have access to computer systems. We discuss how a (blind) user navigates through the environment, how he can manage and control the flow of information and how he gets oriented in this aural framework.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Auditory I/O, Aids for the impaired, Metaphors, Virtual reality
AudioStreamer: Exploiting Simultaneity for Listening BIBAHTML 218-219
  Chris Schmandt; Atty Mullins
AudioStreamer exploits peoples' ability to separate the mix of sounds that arrive at our ears into distinct sources to more effectively browse multiple simultaneous channels of real-time or stored audio. AudioStreamer's listener interface enhances our ability to selectively attend to the source of greatest interest by making it acoustically prominent. It also augments our ability to perceive events in the audio channels which are out of focus by auditorially alerting us to salient events on those channels. The main contributions of AudioStreamer are the use of spatial separation and simultaneous listening for audio document retrieval and modeling listener interest to enhance the effectiveness of simultaneous listening.
Musical vs. Real World Feedback Signals BIBAKHTML 220-221
  Cynthia A. Sikora; Linda Roberts; La Tondra Murray
Sound families comprised of either musical sounds (abstract musical signals), communications sounds (based on traditional electronic signals), or real world sounds (based on naturally occurring, nonmusical events) were designed to provide auditory feedback in a graphical user interface. Typical business users mapped the sounds to functions and rated their confidence in the functional mapping. The sounds which mapped well to functions were then tested within the context of a graphical user interface business communications simulation. Users rated the pleasantness and appropriateness of each sound and selected the best sound for each function. In general, real world sounds mapped most reliably to the functions. However, users consistently preferred musical sounds to the real world sounds. Of the eleven feedback signals selected for specific functions four were communications based and seven were musical. None of the real world auditory signals were acceptable.
Keywords: Auditory feedback, Auditory icons, Earcons, Sound

Short Papers: Agents and Anthropomorphism

Visual Annotation of Links in Adaptive Hypermedia BIBAKHTML 222-223
  Peter Brusilovsky; Leonid Pesin
Visual annotation of links is a new technique for adaptive navigation support in adaptive educational hypermedia. This paper explains briefly this technique and reports preliminary experimental results of its evaluation. The results show that adaptive visual annotation is helpful and can reduce user floundering in hyperspace.
Keywords: User models, Adaptive hypermedia, Adaptive navigation support
Conceptually Adapted Hypertext for Learning BIBAKHTML 224-225
  Kelvin Clibbon
Cognitive overload and disorientation limits the effectiveness of hypertext for learning. By cognitively adapting a hypertext system to the user and by providing instructional cues, the effects of these problems might be reduced. A quasi-experimental evaluation study is reported, with a view to testing the efficacy of this theory.
Keywords: Adaptive hypertext, Hypertext based learning, Conceptual modelling, Learning styles
"It's the Computer's Fault" -- Reasoning about Computers as Moral Agents BIBAKHTML 226-227
  Batya Friedman
Typically tool use poses few confusions about who are understand to be the moral agent for a given act. But when the "tool" becomes a computer, do people attribute moral agency and responsibility to the technology ("it's the computer's fault")? Twenty-nine male undergraduate computer science majors were interviewed. Results showed that most students (83%) attributed aspects of agency -- either decision-making and/or intentions -- to computers. In addition, some students (21%) consistently held computers morally responsible for error. Discussion includes implications for computer system design.
Keywords: Computer agents, Computer ethics, Intelligent agents, Social computing, Social impact
Can Computer Personalities be Human Personalities? BIBAKHTML 228-229
  Clifford Nass; Youngme Moon; BJ Fogg; Byron Reeves; Chris Dryer
The present study demonstrates that (1) computer personalities can be easily created using a minimal set of cues, and (2) that people will respond to these personalities in the same way they would respond to similar human personalities. The present study focuses on the similarity-attraction hypothesis, which predicts that people will prefer to interact with others who are similar in personality. In an experiment (N = 48), dominant and submissive subjects were randomly matched with either a dominant or submissive computer. When a computer was endowed with the properties associated with dominance or submissiveness, subjects recognized the computer's personality type along only that dimension. In addition, subjects not only preferred the similar computer, but they were more satisfied with the interaction. The findings demonstrate that personality does not require richly defined agents, sophisticated pictorial representations, natural language processing, or artificial intelligence. Rather, even the most superficial manipulations are sufficient to produce personality, with powerful effects.
Keywords: Agents, Personality, Individual differences, Computers are social actors
A Model of Optimal Exploration and Decision Making in Novel Interfaces BIBAKHTML 230-231
  Bob Rehder; Clayton Lewis; Bob Terwilliger; Peter Polson; John Rieman
Users attempting to interact with an application for the first time are confronted with the problem of determining which command to execute in order to accomplish their goals. A "rational analysis" was conducted in order to determine how users ought to behave when faced with this decision problem. The resulting model is able to account at a qualitative level for a number of behaviors that users actually exhibit when trying to use a new application.
Keywords: User models, Exploratory behavior
The Use of an Automatic "To Do" List to Guide Structured Interaction BIBAHTML 232-233
  Ian Rogers
Knowledge-driven editors can improve productivity by taking care of the low-level details of a design artifact, and by guiding the user through an interaction. Despite this, editors that dictate their knowledge too strongly can actually reduce usability by forbidding a sequence of interactions that the user has planned -- a sequence that may be the most natural to the user.
   This paper introduces the use of an automatically managed "To Do" list as the primary method for the knowledge agent to communicate to the user. The "To Do" list guides the user to a correctly constructed design artifact, without overly constraining the user.

Short Papers: UI Specification and Programming

Evaluating Program Representation in a Demonstrational Visual Shell BIBAKHTML 234-235
  Francesmary Modugno; Albert Corbett; Brad A. Myers
For Programming by Demonstration (PBD) systems to reach their full potential, a program representation is needed so users can view, edit and share programs. We designed and implemented two equivalent representation languages for a PBD desktop similar to the MacIntosh Finder. One language graphically depicts the program's effects. The other language describes the program's actions. A user study showed that both languages enabled users with no prior programming experience to generate and comprehend programs, and that the first language doubled users' abilities to generate programs.
Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by demonstration, Visual language, Visual shell, Pursuit
Virtual Slots: Increasing Power and Reusability for User Interface Development Languages BIBAKHTML 236-237
  Francisco Saiz; Javier Contreras; Roberto Moriyon
An extension to constraint-based user interface development languages is shown. It permits the abstract representation of constraints which must be applied to objects that are not accessible in the moment of the constraint definition. Using this mechanism, more modularity is achieved, as each part of information is stored where it is needed. Richer libraries of reusable objects can therefore be built in a natural way.
Keywords: Constraints, Reusability, User interface implementation, Libraries
Students' Use of Animations for Algorithm Understanding BIBAKHTML 238-239
  Judith Wilson; Irvin R. Katz; Giorgio Ingargiola; Robert Aiken; Nathan Hoskin
Our goal in this pilot study is to explore students' behavior as they learn about two search algorithms, observing the role of algorithm animations. We find that alternative animations of the same algorithm may provide different information and facilitate different types of reasoning.
Keywords: AI education, Visual reasoning
Abstract Specification of User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 240-241
  Ole Lauridsen
The paper discusses automation of user interface design and proposes a user interface design method that combines the use of formal semantic specification and rapid user interface builders. Based on formalized design rules, a user interface design proposal can be derived from the functionality of an application. The advantages of this method are: Automation of parts of the design process, automatic design evaluation, and automatic mapping to multiple user interface toolkits. The method will ease the transition from the functional design of an application to the user interface design by a semantically driven design of user interfaces.
Keywords: Interface design, Automatic generation of user interface, Design process
Interface Engineering in an Office Information Appliance BIBAKHTML 242-243
  Constance Fleuriot; David Y. Lees; Robert D. Macredie; Peter J. Thomas; John F. Meech
This paper describes Wells, a prototype information appliance that supports communication, information exchange and information management between co-workers. The appliance is particularly targeted on the requirements of the relationship between managers and their assistants. Wells aims to integrate and coordinate a range of information devices such as phones, faxes, and email and incorporate it with diary-based information. In more general terms, Wells provides an opportunity to explore the issues of personal information management and the design of interfaces to appliances to support these activities [1].
Keywords: Information appliances, Metaphors, Intelligent systems, Information management, Time management, Office applications
Building Non-Visual Interaction through the Development of the Rooms Metaphor BIBAKHTML 244-245
  Anthony Savidis; Constantine Stephanidis
Today, there are no tools for supporting non-visual User Interface construction. Computer-based applications accessible by blind users are merely non-visual reproductions [2] of interactive software designed for sighted users. Moreover, the above approaches explicitly employ the Desktop metaphor for non-visual interaction. It is evident that there is a the need for: (i) the design of interaction metaphors appropriate for blind users, and (ii) a software developer's library for building non-visual User Interfaces on the basis of these new metaphors. In this context: (a) a methodology for metaphor development has been constructed, (b) a metaphor called Rooms (not to be confused with other systems) has been designed, and (c) a toolkit for developing Rooms-based non-visual interfaces, called COMONKIT, has been developed.
Keywords: Metaphors, Non-visual interaction, Interface toolkits, Aids for the impaired

Short Papers: Pens and Touchpads

The TrackPad -- A Study on User Comfort and Performance BIBAKHTML 246-247
  Ahmet E. Cakir; Gisela Cakir; Thomas Mller; Pieter Unema
The user study on the TrackPad, a new touch tablet technology input device, was designed to investigate the impact of the use of the device on the biomechanical load and postural comfort of the users. In a one day test, the subjects, experienced Macintosh users, performed tests and worked on tasks, using a portable computer, that were organized to resemble normal office tasks and measure performance. The tasks included intensive use of the keyboard.
   The performance was measured by text editing tasks and eight Fitts's Tests with two levels of difficulty. The biomechanical load was measured and evaluated by means of EMG and postural (motion) analyses. General comfort and postural comfort was evaluated with questionnaires.
   The analyses of the EMG-measurements yielded no indication of progressive fatigue or increased muscular load from one session to the next. On the contrary, the recorded EMG-levels showed a decrease in muscular activity. The postural analyses indicated that undue deviation, extension, or flexion of the hands, which may cause discomfort, generally did not occur. The average values were within the limits given by the physiology of the human arm. However, personal preferences for the arm posture were highly different. When performing the text editing task with the TrackPad, during the training session, the subjects had already achieved a performance equivalent to 65% of mouse performance. A performance of more than 90% was achieved after two hours and 100% in the fifth hour session. This means that the learning period for such tasks will in practice be accomplished within one working day. The average performance achieved with the TrackPad for the eight tasks with Fitts's Test, during the last session, was lower than that with the mouse, but the difference was not statistically significant.
   The results of this study indicate that the TrackPad can be used for everyday tasks without causing postural discomfort or fatigue. In some respects, this device may even be preferable to the mouse, if the users can achieve the same level of performance.
Keywords: Input device, TrackPad, Touchpad, Postural discomfort, EMG
BITS: Browsing in Time and Space BIBAKHTML 248-249
  Antonio Eduardo Dias; Joao Pedro Silva; Antonio S. Camara
Virtual ecosystems are virtual worlds representing real ecosystems. Humans have a limited perception of space and time and are poorly equipped to handle the flow of information generated in such environments. This paper focuses on the creation of an interface, BITS (Browsing In Time and Space), that allows users to browse through such a complex virtual world, interact with its objects and take notes. The pen and note-pad metaphor is used in an intuitive way, replicating a real pen and note-pad. A new concept of the use of this metaphor arises with the use of the space and time sliders.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Pen-based input, Metaphors, User interface components, Virtual ecosystems, Browsing in time and space
Translucent History BIBAKHTML 250-251
  Andreas Genau; Axel Kramer
This paper presents an approach that visualizes object history by using translucent presentations. It extends the typical sequential presentation of an object history by a concurrent presentation of the object contents through time.
   Our goal is to enable the fluid refinement and animation of graphically presented ideas while exposing the changes to objects as a whole and not just in discrete steps.
   Translucency, as a mechanism, works particularly well if the object content is sufficiently spatially distributed.
Keywords: Versioning, History-mechanism, Translucency, Interface metaphor, Pen-based interface
Scribbler: A Tool for Searching Digital Ink BIBAKHTML 252-253
  Alex Poon; Karon Weber; Todd Cass
Scribbler is a tool that enables users to search untranslated digital ink for target patterns such as words, symbols and simple sketches. By matching the raw stroke data instead of performing traditional handwriting recognition, Scribbler allows users to write quickly and naturally without being constrained to a particular writing style or a limited set of dictionary terms. This paper gives a brief description of the current implementation of Scribbler and discusses the results of a controlled experiment run to evaluate the matching engine's effectiveness.
Keywords: Pen-based input, Digital ink, Information retrieval, Handwriting recognition, Handwriting matching
A Virtual Oval Keyboard and a Vector Input Method for Pen-Based Character Input BIBAKHTML 254-255
  Minako Hashimoto; Masatomo Togasi
This paper proposes a virtual oval keyboard whose shape is designed on the basis of the easily pointed area with a pen, and a vector input method where user can input both a vector and its origin with one wedge-shaped stroke. Since the shape of conventional virtual keyboards, a rectangle, is not suitable for rotational movement of a wrist, it forces much strain upon the wrist. And since non-alphabet keys frequently used in typing English texts, such as space, are assigned on the outside of alphabet key area on the conventional virtual keyboards, it is necessary to move the wrist excessively. The virtual oval keyboard fits a natural movement of a wrist, because a reclined oval is obtained as the easily pointed area by our experiment. In our preliminary experiment for evaluation, all subjects input faster with the virtual oval keyboard than with a conventional virtual keyboard. In the vector input method, four kinds of vectors enable users to input space, carriage return, back space and SHIFT at any position without moving a pen out of the alphabet key area.
Keywords: Virtual oval keyboard, Vector input method, Wedge-shaped stroke, Pen-based character input
MEMO-PEN: A New Input Device BIBAKHTML 256-257
  Shinji Nabeshima; Shinichirou Yamamoto; Kiyoshi Agusa; Toshio Taguchi
We have developed a new input device, named MEMO-PEN. The MEMO-PEN is an ordinary ball point pen except for a capability of memorizing what it draws in itself. We can hold the handwriting in computers as it has been, and we can treat it as image data for favorite application. The pen is carrying a small CCD close to its tip to capture a series of not whole but partial snapshots in its memory. This paper presents a brief description of the MEMO-PEN system and an experiment on reconstructing a whole image from the partial snapshots. We also show that we can satisfactorily work out a whole image for 80% of more than 50 examples.
Keywords: Pen-based input, Input device, Pointing device

Short Papers: Workplaces and Classrooms

Give and Take: Children Collaborating on One Computer BIBAKHTML 258-259
  Kori Inkpen; Kellogg S. Booth; Steven D. Gribble; Maria Klawe
When two children work together on one computer, it is necessary for them to share the input devices. This study examines the effects of having multiple mice with two different control passing protocols: Give and Take. The results suggest that having two mice instead of a single mouse affects the performance of a pair of children playing on a shared computer. This result was gender dependent in that girls solved the most puzzles in the Give condition while boys solved the most puzzles in the Take condition. Moreover, boys in the Take condition exhibited a larger number of exchanges of control than all other experimental conditions.
Keywords: CSCL, CSCW, Input devices, Interaction styles, Computers in education, Children
Community Help: Discovering Tools and Locating Experts in a Dynamic Environment BIBAKHTML 260-261
  Carlos Maltzahn
In a research community each researcher knows only a small fraction of the vast number of tools offered in the continually changing environment of local computer networks. Since the on-line or off-line documentation for these tools poorly support people in finding the best tool for a given task, users prefer to ask colleagues. However, finding the right person to ask can be time consuming and asking questions can reveal incompetence. In this paper we present an architecture to a community sensitive help system which actively collects information about Unix tools by tapping into accounting information generated by the operating system and by interviewing users that are selected on the basis of collected information. The result is a help system that continually seeks to update itself, that contains information that is entirely based on the community's perspective on tools, and that consequently grows with the community and its dynamic environment.
Keywords: Group work, Help systems, Group memory, Unix, Research environments
Timespace in the Workplace: Dealing with Interruptions BIBAKHTML 262-263
  Brid O'Conaill; David Frohlich
We report findings from an observational study on the nature of interruptions in the workplace. The results show that in most cases, (64%), the recipient received some benefit from the interruption. However in just over 40% of interruptions the recipient did not resume the work they were doing prior to the interruption. Some implications for time management and communication technology are presented.
Keywords: Interruptions, Workplace communication, CSCW, Ethnography
Parallel Design in the Classroom BIBAKHTML 264-265
  Saila Ovaska; Kari-Jouko Raiha
In parallel design the main goal is to produce design ideas worth investigating further. We have used a design problem previously solved by three experts as the term assignment in our HCI class. We discuss the wealth of solutions produced by the students and their relationship to the expert solutions. Together, the students could come up with more interesting ideas than the experts. On the other hand, for choosing one solution for further development the expert solutions stood out.
Keywords: Parallel design, Expert and novice designers, HCI education
Why are Computer Manuals So Bad? BIBAKHTML 266-267
  Charles Woodson
Two experiments examined the utility of restructured help information as an aid to new users learning the UNIX commands trn and tin. In both experiments, the help information was reorganized to reflect the conceptual model or mental organization inferred from users response to questions, rather than the dictionary-like organization favored by programmers. A retention test showed higher scores on questions about the program, and student ratings indicated a higher opinion of the instruction they received, greater self-confidence in their knowledge.
   This paper concludes that the difficulties new users have with most computer manuals is the lack of correspondence between the user's schemata or mental model of the task, and the programmers conceptualization of the task upon which the manual is usually based.
Keywords: Mental models, Computer manuals, Documentation, User training, Online help, Educational applications
Reducing Visual Stress Symptoms of VDT Users with Prescription Eyeglasses BIBAKHTML 268-269
  Erik Nilsen; David Fencsik; Aidan Smith; Linda Solares; Scott Stratton
The use of Video Display Terminals (VDT's) in modern information processing environments is associated with a variety of visual stress symptoms including eye strain, headaches, blurry vision and neck/shoulder pain. This study evaluates a method of prescribing computer specific glasses to improve vision and reduce symptoms. Thirty-seven computer users who suffer from VDT related visual symptoms wore two pairs of prescription eyeglasses for two weeks each in a double blind crossover experiment. The experimental glasses were prescribed using a Gaussian image testing device and the control glasses were prescribed using a standard paper Snellen chart. Data was collected on the frequency and severity of symptoms in their regular work environment as well as in a controlled laboratory setting. Results indicate that the experimental eyeglasses were preferred overall (p<.05). Visual stress symptoms were significantly reduced in frequency and severity for the eyeglasses prescribed using the Gaussian image testing device.
Keywords: VDT, Eye strain, Visual symptoms

Short Papers: Behavioral Issues and Studies

Oh What a Tangled Web We Weave: Metaphor and Mapping in Graphical Interfaces BIBAKHTML 270-271
  William W. Gaver
The relations among graphical representations, computer functionality, and everyday objects are more complex than terms like "the desktop metaphor" may suggest. While metaphors in the everyday world highlight similarities between preexisting entities, interface metaphors create new ones. New computer entities can also be created without metaphor, when existing elements are combined by conceptual structuring. Naming such constructs, however, may involve yet another metaphor, between the functionality suggested graphically and that implied by the name. In sum, interface representations -- which can only be called "metaphors" metaphorically -- are complex and confusing, but this leads to a flexibility and power that may be lost if simpler mappings are used.
Keywords: Mapping, Metaphor, Semiotics
To Influence Time Perception BIBAKHTML 272-273
  Erik Geelhoed; Peter Toft; Suzanne Roberts; Patrick Hyland
Within IT there are no studies on how to reduce waiting time perception. We demonstrate the relevance of this issue within the context of synchronous voice and data communication and conclude that waiting time perception can be reduced.
Keywords: CSCW, Time perception, User interface
A Poor Quality Video Link Affects Speech But Not Gaze BIBAKHTML 274-275
  Andrew F. Monk; Leon Watts
Thirty two members of the general public worked remotely from one another in pairs on some simple joint tasks. All the pairs had high quality audio links and were able to see one another's faces through an on-screen video image. For half the pairs this image was small (40 x 65 mm) and for the other half it was large (103 x 140mm). The conversations were analysed in terms of gaze focus (looking at the video image or elsewhere) and speech (speaking or silent). It is concluded that the small video image results in more formal and less fluent verbal interaction but gaze behaviour is unaltered.
Keywords: Video communication, CSCW, Analysis of conversation
Improved Reasoning with Convince Me BIBAKHTML 276-277
  Patricia Schank; Michael Ranney
This paper describes Convince Me, a tool for generating and analyzing arguments. Results indicate that the system makes people better reasoners while they employ it, and yields transfer to situations unsupported by the software.
Keywords: Connectionism, Reasoning, Instruction
Looking and Lingering as Conversational Cues in Video-Mediated Communication BIBAHTML 278-279
  Herbert L. Colston; Diane J. Schiano
A study is described in which observers rated the difficulty people had in solving problems, based either upon simply how long the person looked at each problem, or also how long his or her gaze lingered on it after being instructed to move on. Initial results show a linear relationship between gaze duration and rated difficulty, with lingering as an added significant factor. These findings are discussed in terms of the role(s) gaze cues play in tracking understanding in conversations, with implications for the design of video-mediated communication (VMC) systems.
Dynamic What-If Analysis: Exploring Computational Dependencies with Slidercells and Micrographs BIBAKHTML 280-281
  Staffan Truve
The use of spreadsheets for what-if analyses can be simplified by allowing cell values to be set by small sliders and displayed as micro-graphs. The sliders define a range in which a cell value will be varied, and the graphs illustrate how other cell values vary when the slider-cell has a value in that range. The resulting mode of operation emphasizes interaction between the system and the user in searching for a desirable value of a cell, and also illustrates the stability of that value by showing the value in a context around it.
Keywords: Spreadsheet, Dynamic queries, What-if analysis

Short Papers: Usability Evaluation

A Comparison of Four Navigation Techniques in a 2D Browsing Task BIBAKHTML 282-283
  Victor Kaptelinin
Four window navigation techniques were compared in the experiment: scroll bars, dragging, and two modifications of a "bird's eye view." It was found that standard scroll bar navigation was associated with the slowest performance and was rated by the subjects as least preferable. The best performance and the highest preference ranks were observed under the "bird's eye view" conditions. Individual differences between subjects and the potential role of task specificity are discussed.
Keywords: Windows, Navigation techniques
The Effect of Computer Experience on Subjective and Objective Software Usability Measures BIBAHTML 284-285
  George V. Kissel
In the user-centered approach to software design and development, end-users act as evaluators in usability tests at various points during the development life-cycle. Some usability professionals argue that these usability tests simply reflect the preferences of the participants and should not be used in place of objective performance measures. In an attempt to strengthen the validity of the user-centered approach, the present study examined the association between subjective preference measures and objective performance measures in relation to the user's hardware and software use and familiarity. The results suggest that not only do the subjective ratings of end-user evaluators often differ from objective performance measures, but also that this relationship is dependent on the user's past computer experience.
Apple Guide: A Case Study in User-Aided Design of Online Help BIBAKHTML 286-287
  Kevin Knabe
Apple Guide, the new online help system in Macintosh system software, provides a standard human interface to online help on the Macintosh. It is the culmination of extensive study at Apple of how users can work most effectively with online help. This paper summarizes several of the major studies in Apple's research, briefly describing the research methods used, major findings, and how those findings contributed to the design of Apple Guide.
Keywords: Online help, User studies, Instructional design
Why are Geographic Information Systems Hard to Use? BIBAKHTML 288-289
  Carol Traynor; Marian G. Williams
Geographic Information System (GIS) software evolved out of the fields of geography, cartography, and database management. As a result, off-the-shelf GIS software requires the user to have or to acquire considerable knowledge of these fields. Navigation through the interfaces of most off-the-shelf GIS software is difficult because they support a system architecture view, rather than a view of the user's work. These problems are compounded for users with little computing experience. In many workplaces, a single technical user becomes the local GIS expert, and acts as a surrogate for other users who have neither the expertise to use the software nor the resources to acquire that expertise. In this paper, we summarize our analysis of what makes GIS so hard to use, and describe our research directions toward designing effective GIS software for non-specialist users.
Keywords: Geographic information systems, Participatory design, Task analysis
User Action Graphing Effort (UsAGE) BIBAKHTML 290-291
  Dana Uehling; Karl Wolf
This paper describes a prototype usability test tool which will automate detection of serious usability problems. The tool records the actions that a user makes while performing a predefined application task. Currently the tool supports only user interfaces created with TAE Plus.
   Prior to a usability testing session, an "expert" user is recorded performing a task. The recording becomes a performance baseline. Later, during actual usability testing, a "novice" user is recorded performing the same task. The action recordings of the two users are then compared by the tool and the comparison results are shown graphically. The hypothesis is that by graphically comparing the actions of an expert and average novice users, a usability analyst can quickly figure out where usability problems (e.g. confusion with menu choices) arise with the user interface.
Keywords: Usability testing, User interface design, TAE Plus
Apparent Usability vs. Inherent Usability: Experimental Analysis on the Determinants of the Apparent Usability BIBAKHTML 292-293
  Masaaki Kurosu; Kaori Kashimura
Correlational analysis of the evaluation data of the apparent usability with the inherent usability measures revealed that the apparent usability is more strongly affected by the aesthetic aspects than the inherent usability.
Keywords: Usability, Screen layout

Short Papers: Drawing, Painting and Sketching

Diagram Entry Mechanisms in Graphical Environments BIBAHTML 294-295
  Wayne Citrin; Jeffrey D. McWhirter
Although great strides have been made in the last 10-15 years in the development of systems that use graphical representations, very little work has been done in developing systems that help users input and edit diagrams efficiently. This paper describes an ongoing project addressing the design of one such feature of a graphical editor: diagram entry. We show how knowledge of the syntax and semantics of the language being edited allows us to design a more intelligent diagram entry facility.
3D Painting: Paradigms for Painting in a New Dimension BIBAKHTML 296-297
  Julie Daily; Kenneth Kiss
This paper describes the design process of an innovative digital 3D paint program. The system enables industrial designers to paint surface details directly on rough 3D models for the first time. Contextual inquiry into designers' work inspired a real-world metaphor of painting a physical model. This provided the foundation for making 3D tools as natural to use as 2D. Familiar 2D digital painting paradigms, such as brushes, layers, and masks, were extended to 3 dimensions without adding complexity to the interface. Our informal evaluation sessions have shown that with a cursory introduction, designers who have never seen the interface were able to paint 3D models as easily as they could sketch.
Keywords: 3D painting, Contextual inquiry, Direct manipulation, Texture mapping
Some Effects of Angle of Approach on Icon Selection BIBAKHTML 298-299
  Thomas G. Whisenand; Henry H. Emurian
Over the past decade, research related to various aspects of human-computer interactions has become increasingly prominent within the human factors field. In that regard, the speed and accuracy of human motor movements associated with computer input devices has often been modeled by Fitts' law. However, most such analyses have not considered the angle of movement as a factor. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effects of the angle of approach for a mouse as the input device to select icon-like targets presented on a VDT. The angle of approach had a significant effect on movement time.
Keywords: Icon selection, Fitts' Law, Input devices, Human performance modeling
Color Adaptive Graphics: What You See in Your Color Palette Isn't What You Get! BIBAKHTML 300-301
  Suguru Ishizaki
The color you perceive in a typical color palette is always different from the color you perceive when it is used in your color document because of simultaneous color contrast effect -- a phenomenon in which humans perceive the same physical color differently against different background. The effect is particularly problematic in the visual design of information graphics, in terms of its reliability and communicative quality. This paper presents a prototype of a color adaptive graphic system where simultaneous contrast effect is automatically adjusted such that the color perceived in a palette is preserved when it is used against various background colors.
Keywords: Color, Simultaneous contrast, Color palette, Visual communication, Information graphics
Mark Your Calendar! Learning Personalized Annotation from Integrated Sketch and Speech BIBAKHTML 302-303
  Robin L. Kullberg
An intelligent agent learns the user's personal sketch annotations by gathering, integrating, and interpreting sketch and speech input. This agent-assisted, multi-modal interaction affords a natural and adaptable approach to graphical annotation of a personal datebook.
Keywords: Multi-modal interface, Sketch input, Speech input, Interaction design, Intelligent learning agent
Hyperbolic User Interfaces for Computer Aided Architectural Design BIBAKHTML 304-305
  Volkmar Hovestadt; Oliver Gramberg; Oliver Deussen
We present basic ideas and a prototypical implementation of a graphical user interface intended for the architectural design process. The interface integrates CAD-like object manipulation and navigation through large data sets. Navigation and working area are not separated as done in prior work. Geometric transformations produce a deformed but controllable display of the data in the border area of the working window while normal working is possible in the untransformed center. The arrangement allows the user to shift directly from construction tasks to navigation tasks. Data reduction techniques have been implemented in order to reduce the cost of transformation and display.
Keywords: Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), Information visualization, Fisheye technique, Focus+Context technique, Interaction

Short Papers: Multimodal Interfaces

An Experimental Evaluation of Video Support for Shared Work-Space Interaction BIBAKHTML 306-307
  Mark Apperley; Masood Masoodian
An experimental evaluation of video support for shared work-space software is described. Groups of two users worked simultaneously and cooperatively on a problem using Aspects on Macintosh computers in one of four scenarios. Each of these scenarios provided a different form of supplementary communication: audio only, reduced frame-rate video, standard video, and full face-to-face communication. Although the audio link had been found to be essential in an earlier pilot study, in this experiment there was no discernible difference in performance between any of the four scenarios. Nevertheless, users indicated that they were more comfortable with the face-to-face situation.
Keywords: CSCW, Video, Evaluation, Shared work-space
Voicefax: A Shared Workspace for Voicemail Partners BIBAKHTML 308-309
  David Frohlich; Owen Daly-Jones
We report a pen-based study in which we provided voicefax facilities for the recording of animated voice, writing and gesture on a document background. The findings reflect some cumulative benefits of combining written and spoken media for asynchronous communication.
Keywords: Multimedia messaging, Asynchronous communication, Workspace, Annotation, Voicemail, Fax, Pen
Exploring Tabla Drumming Using Rhythmic Input BIBAKHTML 310-311
  jae Hun Roh; Lynn Wilcox
We describe a system that enables the use of rhythmic input for exploring Indian tabla drumming. Rhythms drummed by the user on a pair of drum pads are mapped to tabla phrases using a hidden Markov model based recognizer. The recognized tabla phrases are played back to the user, while an animated visual representation of the phrase is displayed.
Keywords: Multi-media, Tactile or gestural I/O, Auditory I/O, Intelligent systems, Educational applications, Music applications
An Empirical Study of Collaborative Wearable Computer Systems BIBAKHTML 312-313
  Jane Siegel; Robert E. Kraut; Bonnie E. John; Kathleen M. Carley
We report an empirical study of aircraft maintenance workers using wearable visual interfaces and collaborative systems to support troubleshooting and repair work. Preliminary results suggest gains in coordination and ease of work when users have shared hypertext, video and audio capability. Study results are being used to inform design and rapid prototyping of wearable systems for use in vehicle maintenance systems.
Keywords: Wearable computers, Empirical studies, Collaborative work, Vehicle maintenance
Pointing on a Computer Display BIBAKHTML 314-315
  Evan Graham; Christine L. MacKenzie
Pointing movements with the hand were used to control directly a cursor to point to targets on a graphical display with different gain settings. A detailed analysis of both the cursor and hand movements showed how features of the movements scale over a wide range of distances and target widths. Cursor movements showed gain effects, while hand movements were relatively unaffected by gain. The results suggest that considering the behaviour of the hand, rather than the cursor, will lead to more effective modelling of human performance with certain types of pointing devices.
Keywords: Human performance modelling, Input devices, Fitts' law, Pointing
Negative Inertia: A Dynamic Pointing Function BIBAKHTML 316-317
  R. C. Barrett; E. J. Selker; J. D. Rutledge; R. S. Olyha
In-keyboard isometric joysticks can give better performance than mice for mixed typing/pointing tasks. The continuing challenge is to improve such devices to the point that they are preferable even for pure pointing tasks. Previous work has improved joystick performance by considering user perception and motor skills. This paper considers the dynamics of the pointing operation. A dynamic transfer function for an isometric joystick is described which amplifies changes in the applied force to increase responsiveness without loss of control. User tests show a 7.8 +/- 3.5% performance improvement over a standard non-dynamic joystick. This feature has been incorporated into the TrackPoint III from IBM.
Keywords: Pointing devices, Isometric joystick, Transfer functions, Index of performance

Short Papers: Web Browsing

The Audible Web: Auditory Enhancements for Mosaic BIBAKHTML 318-319
  Michael C. Albers; Eric Bergman
Interest in the World-Wide Web (WWW), a collection of hypermedia information distributed across the Internet, has exploded with the advent of Mosaic, a graphical user interface for navigating the WWW. In spite of Mosaic's popularity, studies have found usability problems in the original interface, especially with regard to feedback, terminology, and adherence to GUI guidelines [2,4]. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of auditory feedback as one approach to enhancing Mosaic's user interface. The Audible Web is Mosaic embedded with non-speech auditory cues intended to aid user monitoring of data transfer progress, provide feedback for user actions, and to provide content feedback to aid navigation of the WWW.
Keywords: Auditory interface, World-Wide Web, WWW, Mosaic user interface, Mosaic, WWW browsers
A New Paradigm for Browsing the Web BIBAKHTML 320-321
  Marc H. Brown; Robert A. Shillner
This paper introduces DeckScape, a World-Wide Web browser based on a "deck" metaphor. A deck is a collection of Web pages; as the user traverses links, new pages appear on top of the current deck. All retrievals are done using a background thread, so the visible pages in all decks remain active at all times. Users can circulate through the pages in a deck, move and copy pages between decks, and so on. Our primary innovation is the use of decks as a general-purpose way to organize material such as hotlists, query results, and breadth-first expansions.
Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Information navigation, Interaction techniques, World-Wide Web, Mosaic
CyberBELT: Multi-Modal Interaction with a Multi-Threaded Documentary BIBAKHTML 322-323
  Joshua Bers; Sara Elo; Sherry Lassiter; David Tames
CyberBELT allows a viewer to interact with a multi-threaded documentary using a multi-modal interface. The viewer interacts with the documentary by speaking, pointing and looking around the display. The viewer selects the threads of the story to follow or lets the system navigate through the story. Feedback from the viewer evolves the story to present concepts she is interested in. We discuss the suitability of combining multi-modal interaction and multi-threaded narrative.
Keywords: Multi-modal interaction, Interactive documentary, Information exploration, Dynamic story-telling system
VGrep: A Graphical Tool for the Exploration of Textual Documents BIBAKHTML 324-325
  Jeffrey D. McWhirter
Discovering the content and structure of textual files through keyword based search is a common task of computer users. However, the results of such a search is often difficult to understand and to use. This paper describes VGrep, a tool that facilitates keyword based search through large textual documents. VGrep provides the ability to formulate queries and present the results of the queries in an abstract graphical representation.
Keywords: Word search, Visualization
Showing the Context of Nodes in the World-Wide Web BIBAKHTML 326-327
  Sougata Mukherjea; James D. Foley
This paper talks about a method to show the context of nodes in the World-Wide Web. World-Wide Web presents a lot of information to the user. Consequently, it suffers from the famous lost in hyperspace problem. One way to solve the problem is to show the user where they are in the context of the overall information space. Since the overall information space is large, we need to show the node's context with respect to only the important nodes. In this paper we discuss our method of showing the context and show some examples of our implementation.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Visualization, Structural analysis, World-Wide Web
Interaction Design for Shared World-Wide Web Annotations BIBAKHTML 328-329
  Martin Rscheisen; Christian Mogensen; Terry Winograd
We describe the interaction design for a set of facilities that enable users of an augmented version of the NCSA Mosaic browser to read, write, and filter for annotations on arbitrary segments of World-Wide Web documents, and share them with any other such user.
Keywords: Mosaic, World-Wide Web, Group annotation, Collaborative filtering, Seal of approval