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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Mosaic of Creativity
Location:Denver, Colorado
Dates:1995-May-07 to 1995-May-11
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-755-3 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608952; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI95-2
Papers:238
Pages:486
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations: Programming
    2. Demonstrations: Educational Applications
    3. Demonstrations: Multi-Media Applications
    4. Demonstrations: Visualization
    5. Demonstrations: Interface Design Tools
    6. Demonstrations: Information Navigation/Usability
    7. Demonstrations: Tools for Designing Interactive Services
    8. Demonstrations: Accessing Information
    9. Demonstrations: Interfaces for Children
    10. Doctoral Consortium
    11. Interactive Experience
    12. Interactive Posters
    13. Interactive Posters: Social Action

CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2

Demonstrations: Programming

Programming as Driving: Unsafe at Any Speed? BIBAHTML 3-4
  Christopher Fry; Henry Lieberman
Programming is dangerous. As programmers, we are still driving the equivalent of a '57 Chevy: the chrome plated bumpers on our programming environment might look good while it's cruising down the road, but it's not very efficient with [mental] fuel, and it's all too likely to crumple in a crash. No seat belts, no anti-lock brakes, and the rear view mirror is obstructed by the fuzzy dice.
   ZStep 94 is a reversible, WYSIWYG, animated, source code debugger that brings programming into the safety conscious '90s. It provides safety and efficiency options not found on the used car dealer's lot.
Creating Real-Time Animated Interfaces with Stimulus-Response Demonstration BIBAKHTML 5-6
  David Wolber; Edward Janne; Kirk Chen
Pavlov is a programming-by-demonstration (PBD) system that allows non-programmers to create animated interfaces. Based on stimulus-response demonstration, it is the first PBD system to allow real-time animation to be defined, and it is the first animation system that allows the interactive part of a presentation to be designed using PBD.
Keywords: End-user programming, UIMS, Programming-by-demonstration, Animation

Demonstrations: Educational Applications

The ScienceWare Modeler: A Learner-Centered Tool for Students Building Models BIBAKHTML 7-8
  Shari L. Jackson
Constructing and testing models is a complex task, but the process helps scientists develop a better understanding of natural systems. Similarly, we wish to support students building models, and so we have designed the ScienceWare Modeler with special learner-centered support for students to do scientific modeling and simulation. With the Modeler, students can easily construct dynamic models of scientific phenomena, and run simulations based on their models to verify and analyze the results. Students build their models using an easy-to-use object-oriented visual language -- not traditional programming. This allows students to construct models quickly and easily, focusing their attention on the tasks of testing, analyzing, and re-examining their models, and the understanding on which these models are based.
Keywords: Educational applications, Science applications, Modeling, Simulation, Multimedia, Learner-centered software design
Teaching Problem-Solving Through a Cooperative Learning Environment BIBAKHTML 9-10
  Rebecca Denning; Philip J. Smith
The Biology Sleuth was developed to provide a testbed in which the distribution of critical resources could be varied and the consequent effects on group dynamics and individual learning could be studied. The primary teaching goal of The Biology Sleuth is to teach important problem-solving skills (specifically, diagnostic reasoning) to high school students. In order to meet this goal a cooperative learning [3] environment has been developed in which students work in groups, aided by each other, software, and the classroom teacher.
Keywords: Multimedia, Hypermedia, Educational applications, Design rationale

Demonstrations: Multi-Media Applications

Home Health Care Support BIBAKHTML 11-12
  Linda Tetzlaff; Michelle Kim; Robert J. Schloss
We describe an application to interconnect health care providers and their patients in the home. The application includes information services, symptom analysis, guidance in the performance of procedures, emotional support, and communications among the health care providers, patients and caretakers.
Keywords: Medical, Patient, Health, Home systems
Interactive Multimedia Conference Proceedings BIBAKHTML 13-14
  Samuel A. Rebelsky; James Ford; Kenneth Harker; Fillia Makedon; P. Takis Metaxas; Charles Owen
Computer technology has changed the way that conference proceedings can be archived and presented. No longer are researchers limited to printed text; electronic proceedings allow virtual participants in the conference to search the proceedings for ideas, to add and share annotations, and to create paths of related concepts through the proceedings. Proceedings that incorporate nontextual materials, such as audio, video, and slides from conference presentations provide further opportunities for virtual participants.
   In this demonstration of the DAGS interactive multimedia conference proceedings, we present an electronic conference proceedings interface that incorporates both papers and presentations. This interface presents a wide variety of features, admits nonlinear interactions, and suggests new roles for conference proceedings.
Keywords: Electronic conference proceedings, Multimedia interfaces, Hypermedia, Academic/educational applications, User-interface components

Demonstrations: Visualization

IVEE: An Environment for Automatic Creation of Dynamic Queries Applications BIBAKHTML 15-16
  Christopher Ahlberg; Erik Wistrand
The Information Visualization & Exploration Environment (IVEE) is a system for automatic creation of dynamic queries applications. IVEE can take a database relation and create an environment holding visualizations and query widgets. IVEE offers multiple visualizations such as maps, scatterplots, and cluster visualizations, and multiple query widgets, such as sliders, alphasliders, and toggles.
Keywords: Information visualization, Information exploration, Dynamic queries, Database query, Tight coupling
Interactive Data Visualization at AT&T Bell Labs BIBAKHTML 17-18
  Stephen G. Eick; Brian S. Johnson
Visualization is a key technology for understanding large bodies of data. Our approach to visualizing abstract, non-geometric data involves a reduced-representation overview, multiple linked views, filtering and focusing techniques to reduce visual clutter, color, and a highly-interactive user interface. The reduced representations allow users to see the entire data set in one view while still providing immediate access to relevant detail and answers to specific questions in the linked views. We have developed a software infrastructure embodying our design principles for producing novel, high-bandwidth visualizations of corporate datasets. Our approach to abstract data visualization is one the best off-ramps on the information superhighway.
Keywords: Visualization, Graphic interaction, Abstract data visualization, Database visualization, Data mining

Demonstrations: Interface Design Tools

Reno: A Component-Based User Interface BIBAKHTML 19-20
  Randy Kerr; Mike Markley; Martin Sonntag; Tandy Trower
Reno is a proof of concept prototype produced by the Advanced User Interface Group of Microsoft. It illustrates the power and simplicity of object-orientation for the end user when applied completely and uniformly throughout the entire user interface. Its minimalist design is based on a small set of widely applicable object types and commands which are combined into more sophisticated constructions that accommodate the functionality of shells and applications of today, yet with greater integration, consistency, and simplicity.
Keywords: Object-oriented user interface, Direct manipulation, Constraints, Constructionism, User programming, Document-centric user interface
Building Dynamic Graphical Interfaces with Escalante BIBAKHTML 21-22
  Jeffery D. McWhirter
The development of dynamic graphical applications is a difficult and time consuming task. This difficulty stems from the complexity of the applications as well as the lack of adequate development tools. Escalante is an environment that supports the visual specification, rapid prototyping and generation of complex graphical applications. Using Escalante, one can rapidly construct a broad range of highly functional applications with a minimal amount of manual programming.
Keywords: User interface development environments, Visual languages, Graph editors

Demonstrations: Information Navigation/Usability

Pad++: A Zooming Graphical Interface System BIBAKHTML 23-24
  Benjamin B. Bederson; James D. Hollan
Large information spaces are often difficult to access efficiently and intuitively. We are exploring Pad++, a graphical interface system based on zooming, as an alternative to traditional window and icon-based approaches. Objects can be placed in the graphical workspace at any size, and zooming is the fundamental navigational technique. The goal is to provide simple methods for visually navigating complex information spaces that ease the burden of locating information while maintaining an intuitive sense of location and of relationship between information objects.
Keywords: Navigation, Interactive interfaces, Multiscale interfaces, Zooming, Authoring, Information navigation, Hypertext, Information visualization, Multimedia, World wide web
PDA-Based Observation Logging BIBAKHTML 25-26
  Monty Hammontree; Paul Weiler; Bob Hendrich
This demonstration will show how using personal digital assistants (PDAs) can facilitate the collection of observer notes during usability testing and expedite the ensuing analysis of those notes once testing is complete. The intent of the demonstration is to provide a forum for the exchange of new ideas regarding the use of PDAs as usability tools. The authors will provide an overview of how PDAs have been employed in their usability testing process and what costs and benefits have been realized as a result of their use.
Keywords: Usability, Tools, Data collection, Laboratory, Testing, Logging, Video, Analysis

Demonstrations: Tools for Designing Interactive Services

NIC: Interaction on the World Wide Web BIBAHTML 27-28
  Dan Olsen; Ken Rodham; Doug Kohlert; Jeff Jensen; Brett Ahlstrom; Mike Bastian; Darren Davis
The NICUI client provides a full functioned interface interpretation facility. Based on this client, interactive services can be created and posted via normal World Wide Web servers. MIME-based tools can launch the client to provide the interactive services. NIC provides authoring tools for creating interactive artifacts. These tools themselves can be accessed via the WWW.
DynaDesigner: A Tool for Rapid Design and Deployment of Device-Independent Interactive Services BIBAKHTML 29-30
  Loren Terveen; Elena Papavero; Mark Tuomenoksa
DynaDesigner is a tool for creating, testing, and deploying interactive services to be delivered on devices such as telephones, TVs, and PCs. A key feature is that it supports device-independent service design -- a service is designed once, independent of any particular device. This eases the design and maintenance task for service providers and makes services easier for consumers to use, since they are consistent across devices. DynaDesigner has been used to design and deploy many services. With DynaDesigner, services can be designed and deployed in hours.
Keywords: Service creation tools, Device-independent design, End user programming, Consumer systems

Demonstrations: Accessing Information

Personalized Galaxies of Information BIBAKHTML 31-32
  Earl Rennison
The Personalized Galaxies of Information demonstration presents a new interface approach for visualizing, navigating and accessing information objects in a large body of unstructured information, such as on-line news stories, photographs and video clips available via Clarinews; electronic mail; and World Wide Web documents. The system provides mechanisms to analyze the relationships between information objects and builds a representation of the underlying structure of the entire body of information. This relational structure is used to construct a visual information space with which the user interacts to explore the contents of the information base. The system also uses a learning algorithm to adaptively customize the presentation of information to a particular user's interests. This dynamic, personalized structuring of information helps users perform directed searches while simultaneously affording general browsing in a fluid and seamless environment.
Keywords: Information visualization, Abstracted information spaces, 3D interactive graphics, User interest models, Reinforcement learning
Hyper-G and Harmony: Towards the Next Generation of Networked Information Technology BIBAKHTML 33-34
  Keith Andrews; Frank Kappe; Hermann Maurer
Current networked information systems on the Internet, whilst extremely successful, run into problems of fragmentation, consistency, scalability, and loss of orientation. The development of "second generation" networked information systems, such as Hyper-G and its Harmony client, can help overcome these limitations. Of particular note are Hyper-G's tightly-coupled structuring, linking, and search facilities, its projection of a seamless information space across server boundaries with respect to each of these facilities, and its support for multiple languages. Harmony utilises two and three-dimensional visualisations of the information space and couples location feedback to search and link browsing operations, in order to reduce the likelihood of disorientation.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Information retrieval, Information visualisation, Graphical interaction, Internet

Demonstrations: Interfaces for Children

KidSim: End User Programming of Simulations BIBAKHTML 35-36
  Allen Cypher; David Canfield Smith
KidSim is an environment that allows children to create their own simulations. They create their own characters, and they create rules that specify how the characters are to behave and interact. KidSim is programmed by demonstration, so that users do not need to learn a conventional programming language or scripting language.
Keywords: End user programming, Simulations, Programming by demonstration, Graphical rewrite rules, Production systems, Programming by example, User programming
Creative Multimedia for Children: Isis Story Builder BIBAKHTML 37-38
  Michelle Y. Kim
Isis is a multimedia authoring tool for children, where videos, photos, drawings, texts, sounds and cartoons are treated as electronic building blocks (time boxes). Adopting a metaphor of simple building blocks, Isis allows children to create complex time-space multimedia stories by stacking and arranging "time boxes" on the screen. The algorithms within Isis are based on symbolic temporal constraints, such as "co-start", "co-end", "co-occur", "meet".
Keywords: Multimedia, Educational applications, Home applications, Entertainment applications, Multimedia authoring

Doctoral Consortium

Merging Language, Direct Manipulation, and Visualization: A Programmable Research Environment for Diffusion-Limited Aggregation BIBAKHTML 39-40
  Eric Blough
As domain experts with programming expertise, computational scientists require the flexibility of programming languages, yet appreciate the convenience and power of direct-manipulation interfaces and scientific visualization tools. Although traditionally separate, direct-manipulation and programming can support each other in the same application [2]. In such an environment, graphic and textual language elements can be freely intermingled. We are in the process of developing a programmable environment to support research in diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), an area of computational science, as an exploration of the issues surrounding these ideas.
Keywords: Programming environments, End-user programming, User interface components, Scientific visualization, Visual programming, Simulation, Computational science, Programmable applications
Human and Machine Dimensions of 3D Interfaces for Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 41-42
  Casey Boyd
This work explores two categories for evaluating and measuring virtual environment (VE) interfaces. One category concerns characteristics of the interface, such as its complexity and abstractness. The other category concerns the human capacities for understanding and using three-dimensional input/output devices. The results may help us predict the usability of VE interfaces and help us to design interfaces that are well matched to their intended users.
Keywords: Virtual environments, Evaluation, Navigation
AdventurePlayer: An Intelligent Learning Environment BIBAKHTML 43-44
  Thaddeus R., Jr. Crews
Intelligent Learning Environments (ILE) are constructivist systems that attempt to incorporate beneficial aspects of tutoring systems and cognitive tools. ILEs support discovery learning through reflective interaction as well as curriculum-driven learning through scaffolding and coaching. ILEs are concerned with students developing both general and domain specific thinking and problem solving skills. AdventurePlayer is an ILE designed to facilitate constructivist learning in the context of an anchored instruction curriculum.
Keywords: Intelligent learning environments, Anchored instruction, Macrocontext microworlds, Trip planning, Optimal solutions, Heuristic techniques
Wayfinding in Large-Scale Virtual Worlds BIBAKHTML 45-46
  Rudolph P. Darken
The spatial nature of large-scale virtual worlds introduces wayfinding problems which are often overlooked in the design process. In order to design and build useful virtual worlds in which real work can take place, these issues must be addressed. The research described here is a study of human wayfinding in virtual worlds and how real world solutions can be applied to virtual world design. The objective of this work is to develop design principles which will lead to a design methodology for virtual worlds in which wayfinding problems are alleviated.
Keywords: Virtual worlds, Virtual reality, Wayfinding, Navigation, Environmental design, Spatial orientation, Cognitive maps
Evaluating Distributed Environments Based on Communicative Efficacy BIBAKHTML 47-48
  Eckehard Doerry
One of the most rapidly expanding areas of HCI research is centered around supporting the collaborative endeavors of widely distributed participants. Whether the domain is advanced learning environments or desktop conferencing, the underlying goal of such efforts is to provide a maximally robust simulacrum of copresent interaction. The current trend in research is to characterize these computer-mediated communication environments -- and to argue their efficacy -- by focusing on the technical parameters of the environment. This approach places form above function, completely ignoring the communicative difficulties actually encountered by users. The work described here explores a new evaluative technique, based on methodologies originally developed by Conversation Analysts, which characterizes the communicative efficacy of a computer-mediated environment by documenting how well participants are able to maintain intersubjectivity throughout the interaction.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Distributed interaction, Conversation analysis, Evaluation, Simulation, Learning environments
Evaluating Multimedia Presentations for Comprehension BIBAKHTML 49-50
  Peter Faraday
The paper reports the basis for a cognitive walkthrough method to support the formative evaluation of visually based multimedia expository presentations.
Keywords: Multimedia, Evaluation, Presentation
High-End High School Communication: Strategies and Practices of Students in a Networked Environment BIBAKHTML 51-52
  Barry J. Fishman
This paper describes a study of the design of computer-based communication and media space environments that support highly interactive school-based learning communities. The two basic questions posed in this research are: (1) How are media space tools used by students in these classrooms, both in terms of the structure of communications activity and the surrounding physical and temporal constraints of the environment?; and (2) What are possible explanations for student behaviors and attitudes with regard to media space tools? The answers to these questions will provide insight for the design of next-generation media spaces for educational settings.
Keywords: Media spaces, Education, Communication, Design
A System for Application-Independent Time-Critical Rendering BIBAKHTML 53-54
  Rich Gossweiler
I am developing a rendering system which supports automatic, application-independent time-critical rendering for 3D graphics. When the scenes being generated overload the rendering engine, a rendering scheduler employs perception-based techniques to reduce the scene complexity at run-time. Perception-based degradation mechanisms are used because they are based on characteristics of the human, not characteristics of the application. Since the human is the one element guaranteed to exist across all interactive applications, this rendering system is application-independent.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Time-critical rendering, Rendering scheduler, Image degradation, Real-time, Application-independence, Interactive graphics
The Effect of Domain Knowledge on Elementary School Children's Search Behavior on an Information Retrieval System: The Science Library Catalog BIBAKHTML 55-56
  Sandra Goldstein Hirsh
Few information retrieval systems are designed with children's special needs and capabilities in mind. We need to learn more about children's information-seeking behavior in order to provide them with information-based tools which support exploratory learning. This dissertation examines children's search behavior on a hypertext-based automated library catalog designed for elementary school children. The focus of this research is on the effect of domain knowledge on children's search performance, search behavior, and learning as they look for science books on this system. Research has shown that level of domain knowledge influences the way people search for information. Data was collected through one-on-one interviews, direct observation, and online monitoring of search sessions. This dissertation will contribute to our understanding of children's search behavior and the factors which influence their behavior. This research also has implications for information retrieval system evaluation and interface design.
Keywords: Elementary school children, Information retrieval, Search behavior, Science education, Learning, Online catalogs, Domain knowledge, Browsing, Keyword searching, Online monitoring, User interface design
Conflicting Class Structures between the Object Oriented Paradigm and Users Concepts BIBAKHTML 57-58
  Charles M. Hymes
The computer science design goals of the object-oriented paradigm may fundamentally conflict with the goal of modeling an application domain as users see it. I propose a research strategy to explore this question.
Keywords: Object-oriented, Categories, Abstraction, Reuse
STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data BIBAKHTML 59-60
  Jennifer S. Kay
Guiding a remote vehicle when real time image transmission is not possible is an important problem in the field of teleoperation. In such a situation it is impractical for an operator to attempt to directly steer the vehicle using a steering wheel. In semi-autonomous teleoperation, an operator designates the path that the vehicle should follow in an image of the scene transmitted from the vehicle, and the vehicle autonomously follows this path. Previous techniques for semi-autonomous teleoperation require stereo image data, or inaccurately track paths on non-planar terrain. STRIPE (Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral-Earth geometry) is a new method that I am developing for accurate semi-autonomous teleoperation using monocular image data. This paper provides an summary of the work I am doing for my thesis. This includes the development of the STRIPE robotic system, user studies to empirically measure the accuracy of the STRIPE method under various conditions and with different user interfaces, as well as measurement of baseline data for traditional steering wheel based teleoperation under low-bandwidth and high-latency conditions.
Keywords: Remotely operated vehicles, Low-bandwidth teleoperation, Semi-autonomous teleoperation, User-interfaces, Interfaces for novice users, Robotics
Supporting Design Activities in the Written Medium BIBAHTML 61-62
  Axel Kramer
The goal of this thesis is to empower individuals involved in design activities using the written medium. The aim is to preserve positive features of traditional written medium while enhancing them by computational components. Towards this goal, the thesis explores the role of the written medium in the design process, discusses prior art in support of such activities, and presents a framework to integrate computational components into the written medium.
   The central idea of this work is to dissolve the static association between input marks and their interpretation and experiment with a dynamic, yet fluid, user driven association instead.
Interactive Sketching for User Interface Design BIBAKHTML 63-64
  James A. Landay
Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this stage. Most designers prefer to sketch early interface ideas on paper. I am developing an interactive tool called SILK that allows designers to quickly sketch an interface using an electronic pad and stylus. SILK preserves the important properties of pencil and paper: a rough drawing can be produced very quickly and the medium is very flexible. However, unlike a paper sketch, this electronic sketch can easily be edited, exercised, and semi-automatically transformed into a complete, operational interface in a specified look-and-feel.
Keywords: Design, Sketching, Prototyping
Using Psychomotor Models of Movement in the Analysis and Design of Computer Pointing Devices BIBAKHTML 65-66
  Anant Kartik Mithal
Pointing devices have become very important for HCI and their design needs to move beyond iterative engineering approaches towards methods guided by models that describe how pointing devices are used. This thesis aims to extend psychologists' models of manual pointing to pointing devices, as a step towards providing human factors engineers with a basis for pointing device design.
Keywords: Fitts' law, Pointing devices, Mouse, Isometric joystick, Modeling, Design, Psychomotor models
Transforming Graphical Interfaces into Auditory Interfaces BIBKHTML 67-68
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Auditory interfaces, Enabling technology, Mercator
Supporting Collaborative Design with Representations for Mutual Understanding BIBAKHTML 69-70
  Jonathan Ostwald
This paper describes a research effort to investigate cross-cultural collaboration in software development. The work is based on a model of collaborative design that calls for stakeholders (including developers and end-users) to iteratively construct an understanding of design problems and potential solutions through the construction and refinement of design representations. The Evolving Artifact (EVA) software design environment has been implemented to support this process. EVA has been used in a development project in a regional telephone company. A case study of this project will be analyzed to yield guidelines and design principles for constructing representations for mutual understanding.
Keywords: Collaborative design, Workplace cultures, Work-oriented design, Software development, EVA, Functional objects, Prototyping
Conversational Dialogue in Graphical User Interfaces: Interaction Technique Feedback and Dialogue Structure BIBAKHTML 71-72
  Manuel A. Perez
Human conversations have long been considered as a model for interaction with computers [1]. One theory of human conversations, proposed by Clark and Schaefer [2,3], has already been used in other HCI efforts. In the work proposed here, another part of this theory, the states of understanding principles, is used as the basis for a model of feedback for graphical interaction techniques. A formal evaluation of the feedback model will be performed. The feedback model is extended to a multi-threaded dialogue model with which to handle interruption and cancellation requests as negotiated requests. The proposed dialogue model will serve as the requirement specification for the design of a dialogue controller in a user interface management system (UIMS). A prototype of this model will be built and a usability study will be conducted.
Keywords: Human-computer dialogues, Feedback, States of understanding, User interface management systems
Describing Interactive Visualization Artifacts -- DIVA BIBAKHTML 73-74
  Lisa Tweedie; Imperial College
DIVA is a notation for describing interactive visualization artifacts (IVA). This notation forms one part of my thesis work -- the overall aim of this thesis is to find ways to improve the design of IVAs. By describing different IVAs I hope to elicit general principles to aid this process.
Keywords: Visualization, Interactive graphics
Integrating Multiple Cues for Spoken Language Understanding BIBAKHTML 75-76
  Karen Ward
As spoken language interfaces for real-world systems become a practical possibility, it has become apparent that such interfaces will need to draw on a variety of cues from diverse sources to achieve a robustness and naturalness approaching that of human performance [1]. However, our knowledge of how these relationships behave in the aggregate is still tantalizingly sketchy. We lack a strong theoretical basis for predicting which cues will prove useful in practice and for specifying how these cues should be combined to signal or cancel out potential interpretations of the communicative signal. In the research program summarized here, I propose to develop and test an initial theory of cue integration for spoken language interfaces.
Keywords: Spoken language interfaces

Interactive Experience

Interactive City Planning Using Multimedia Representation Aids BIBAKHTML 77-78
  Michael J. Schiffer
This interactive exhibition demonstrates a method of interacting with city planning analysis tools using direct manipulation graphical interfaces. The technology combines maps, interactive video, text, sound, and other forms of data with analytic tools and an associative information structure using a city map as a central metaphor. This allows immediate navigation amongst chunks of related information during city planning meetings. The technology also makes it possible to link descriptive images, such as digital video and sound, to information that would normally be represented quantitatively.
Keywords: Geographic, Direct manipulation, Noise, Multimedia, Maps, Implementation, Group, Decision
Directed Improvisation with Animated Puppets BIBAKHTML 79-80
  Barbara Hayes-Roth; Erik Sincoff; Lee Brownston; Ruth Huard; Brian Lent
In "directed improvisation," users give computer characters abstract directions that establish a skeletal structure for and other weak constraints on their behavior. The characters improvise a course of behavior that follows the structure, meets the constraints, and achieves other application-specific objectives. Thus, characters perform as directed, but also surprise and engage users with their improvisations along the way. In "Animated Puppets," children (or other users) direct the improvisational behavior of animated characters in a graphical setting to create their own stories.
Keywords: Artistic self-expression, Intelligent systems, Education and entertainment applications, HCI paradigm
A Prototype User Interface for a Mobile Multimedia Terminal BIBAKHTML 81-82
  Allan Christian, Jr. Long; Shankar Narayanaswamy; Andrew Burstein; Richard Han; Ken Lutz; Brian Richards; Samuel Sheng; Robert W. Brodersen; Jan Rabaey
We have shown a prototype user interface for the InfoPad, a portable terminal with multi-modal input and multimedia output. We believe that many of the people who could benefit from inexpensive, portable, networked terminals are not computer experts, and we are therefore designing the InfoPad and its user interface to be more like a notebook than a workstation. The InfoPad's main features are:
  • Portability
  • Continuous network connectivity using a high-bandwidth radio link
  • Pen input with handwriting recognition
  • Audio input with speech recognition
  • Full-motion video playback with synchronized audio The InfoPad's unique input and output characteristics offer challenges and opportunities for user interface design. We are prototyping applications and user interfaces to explore how handwriting and voice recognition may best be used together. We believe that the lessons we will learn can be applied to other multi-modal platforms.
    Keywords: Human computer interaction, Mobile computing, Speech recognition, Handwriting recognition, Pen-based computing, Multimedia, Multi-modal input
  • On Site Wearable Computer System BIBAKHTML 83-84
      Len Bass; Dan Siewiorek; Asim Smailagic; John Stivoric
    A wearable computer system designed for on site, hands free maintenance operations will be demonstrated. This system is the latest completed model in a family of wearable computers developed by Carnegie Mellon University. It is approximately one and a half pounds in weight (including batteries), uses a 386 processor and a Private Eye display device. Also being demonstrated are components for the next iteration of the device. The system is designed to be used in a hands free operating mode by large vehicle maintenance personnel.
    Keywords: Wearable computers, Body worn computers, Task oriented computer systems
    Audio GUIs: Interacting with Graphical Applications in an Auditory World BIBAKHTML 85-86
      Elizabeth D. Mynatt; W. Keith Edwards
    One of the foremost design rules for human-computer interfaces is "Know Thy User." As designers, this rule is difficult to follow if the users are much different than us. The purpose of this interactive experience is to allow people to experience what interacting with graphical interfaces might be like for a blind computer user. In this exhibit, we demonstrate Mercator, a system which transforms X Windows applications into auditory interfaces. The exhibit allows individuals to interact with common graphical applications via an auditory interface. Additional applications of this work for mobile, limited-display devices are also described.
    Keywords: Audio, Human-computer interaction, Auditory interfaces, Interface models, Rehabilitation engineering, Users with special needs, Disability
    DO-IT: Deformable Objects as Input Tools BIBAKHTML 87-88
      Tamostsu Murakami; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Kazuhiro Oikawa; Naomasa Nakajima
    Standard input tools such as the mouse and keyboard do not provide users with a direct and intuitive means of 3-D shape manipulation. This study proposes a new concept of interface system for 3-D shape deformation using a deformable real object as an input tool. By deforming the tool with bare hands with a tactile feedback, users can manipulate a 3-D shape modeled and displayed on a computer screen directly and intuitively. A PC-based prototype system with a cubical input tool made of electrically conductive polyurethane foam demonstrates the effectiveness and promise of the concept.
    Keywords: Human interface, 3-D input tool, Computer graphics, Computer-aided design, Free-form deformation
    Designing a Multimedia Publication: American Center for Design Interact Journal BIBAKHTML 89-90
      Peter Spreenberg
    In August of 1994, the American Center for Design published a journal on Interaction Design containing a CD-ROM edited by IDEO. The editing task included constructing a navigational interface and integrating content supplied by a variety of contributors. Visitors to this exhibit will be able to browse both the paper and interactive CD-ROM versions of the Interact Journal, experiencing for themselves the synergy of information presented in two separate but complimentary media.
    Keywords: Design, Interactive publication, Interaction design, Interface design, Graphic design, Interactive multimedia, Navigational interface

    Interactive Posters

    Merging Language, Direct Manipulation, and Visualization: Programmable Research Environments for Computational Scientists BIBAKHTML 91-92
      Eric Blough
    As domain experts with programming expertise, computational scientists require the flexibility of programming languages, yet appreciate the convenience and power of direct-manipulation interfaces and scientific visualization tools. Although traditionally separate, direct-manipulation and programming can support each other in the same application [1]. In such an environment, graphic and textual language elements can be freely intermingled, as can manipulations and textual programming statements. We are in the process of developing a programmable environment to support research in diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), an area of computational science, as an exploration of the issues surrounding these ideas.
    Keywords: Programming environments, End-user programming, User interface components, Scientific visualization, Visual programming, Simulation, Computational science, Programmable applications
    Directing Pictures with Art Pals BIBAKHTML 93-94
      James Ambach
    Creating art can be seen as the creative exploration of a design space defined by the artist and his or her tools. Existing artistic tools such as paint brushes, chisels and erasers are of a passive nature stressing a direct manipulation interaction scheme which leaves the exploration process strictly to the artist. If these tools had the ability to be more autonomous, they could assist in the exploration process, possibly discovering things that the artist was unaware of. This poster describes Art Pals, a drawing application which combines passive drawing tools with active, behavior-based tools in order to create an artistic environment more conducive to creative exploration.
    Keywords: Artistic exploration, Direct manipulation, Delegation
    The Just Noticeable Difference of Speech Recognition Accuracy BIBAKHTML 95
      Ron Van Buskirk; Mary LaLomia
    An important speech recognition issue is how large an improvement do you have to make to the speech recognizor's accuracy rate so that people can detect an improvement. We are exploring the just-noticeable difference (JND) for speech recognition accuracy. Participants dictate pairs of 200-word passages and then report which passage is recognized more accurately. The difference between the accuracy rates of the passages is continually reduced until the subject is unable to reliably report a difference (the method of limits). We used a "Wizard of Oz" methodology to simulate speech recognizors with varied accuracy rates. A second factor under investigation is how error correction affects participants' perception of accuracy and whether the perception of accuracy follows Weber's Law.
    Keywords: Speech recognition, Recognition accuracy, JND
    A Comparison of Speech and Mouse/Keyboard GUI Navigation BIBAKHTML 96
      Ron Van Buskirk; Mary LaLomia
    We compared two speaker-independent, navigation systems (discrete and continuous) on 11 tasks, measuring accuracy, perceived performance, task time, and perceived system usability. Ten IBM and temporary help agency employees with GUI experience participated. Their ages ranged from 25 to 55 years. The participants completed 11 tasks on both systems using voice or keyboard. The participants began the set of tasks on a randomly selected navigator, filled out a questionnaire about the perceived system speed and accuracy, completed the same tasks using the keyboard, then repeated the same procedure on a second system and keyboard. The voice navigator tasks took approximately twice as long as the keyboard tasks. Additionally, the survey results showed that participants' acceptance of the system was quite sensitive to small changes in system response time. The slowest tasks were the ones with precise cursor or window movement, the fastest were ones only requiring brief commands. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations for designing speech into GUIs.
    Keywords: Speech navigation, Continuous speech recognition, Discrete speech recognition
    The TrackPad -- A Study on User Comfort and Performance BIBAKHTML 97-98
      Ahmet E. Cakir; Gisela Cakir; Thomas Miller; Pieter Unema
    The user study on the TrackPad, a new touch tablet technology input device, was designed to investigate the impact of the use of the device on the biomechanical load and postural comfort of the users. In a one day test, the subjects, experienced Macintosh users, performed tests and worked on tasks, using a portable computer, that were organized to resemble normal office tasks and measure performance. The tasks included intensive use of the keyboard.
       The performance was measured by text editing tasks and eight Fitts's Tests with two levels of difficulty. The biomechanical load was measured and evaluated by means of EMG and postural (motion) analyses. General comfort and postural comfort was evaluated with questionnaires.
       The analyses of the EMG-measurements yielded no indication of progressive fatigue or increased muscular load from one session to the next. On the contrary, the recorded EMG-levels showed a decrease in muscular activity. The postural analyses indicated that undue deviation, extension, or flexion of the hands, which may cause discomfort, generally did not occur. The average values were within the limits given by the physiology of the human arm. However, personal preferences for the arm posture were highly different.
       When performing the text editing task with the TrackPad, during the training session, the subjects had already achieved a performance equivalent to 65% of mouse performance. A performance of more than 90% was achieved after two hours and 100% in the fifth hour session. This means that the learning period for such tasks will in practice be accomplished within one working day. The average performance achieved with the TrackPad for the eight tasks with Fitts's Test, during the last session, was lower than that with the mouse, but the difference was not statistically significant.
       The results of this study indicate that the TrackPad can be used for everyday tasks without causing postural discomfort or fatigue. In some respects, this device may even be preferable to the mouse, if the users can achieve the same level of performance.
    Keywords: Input device, TrackPad, Postural discomfort, EMG
    High-End High School Communication: Strategies and Practices of Students in a Networked Environment BIBAKHTML 99-100
      Barry J. Fishman
    This poster describes a dissertation study presented at the CHIs'95 Doctoral Consortium on the design of computer-based communication and media space environments to support highly interactive school-based communities. The two basic questions posed in this research are: (1) How are media space tools used by students in these classrooms, both in terms of the structure of communications activity and the surrounding physical and temporal constraints of the environment?; and (2) What are possible explanations for student behaviors and attitudes with regard to media space tools? The answers to these questions will guide the design of next-generation media spaces for educational settings.
    Keywords: Media spaces, Education, Communication, Design
    Improving Human-Proceedings Interaction: Indexing the CHI Index BIBAKHTML 101-102
      Peter Foltz
    Over the past two years, the CHI conference committee has tried to improve the usability of the conference proceedings through improving the index. Latent Semantic Indexing, a statistically-based retrieval method, was used to analyze the titles and abstracts of papers and suggest additional relevant keywords not provided by the authors. This poster describes the method for generating the indices and shows how it can be used as a general approach for improving access to paper-based documents.
    Keywords: Indexing, Information retrieval, Latent semantic analysis, Keywords, Paper-based documents
    An Example of Formal Usability Inspections in Practice at Hewlett-Packard Company BIBAKHTML 103-104
      Cathy Gunn
    Can usability engineers, not formally educated as human factors engineers, help facilitate improving the ease of use of software products? Can design engineers learn to detect usability defects? The answer to both questions is yes. This is a success story of a partnership between human factors engineers and usability engineers in providing a Formal Usability Methodology that has been accepted and is continuing to be used by product developers since it was introduced two years ago. The usability engineers have added usability practices and facilitation skills to their traditional roles as technical writers and support engineers. Design engineers enjoy using the methodology, and learn how to evaluate their products from the user's viewpoint.
    Keywords: Usability inspections, Human computer interaction, User-centered design, Process redesign
    Rewriting Interaction BIBAKHTML 105-106
      Roland Hubscher
    Interactive visual computer animation is becoming an important tool for science education in grade school. Unfortunately, students and teachers cannot easily create their own animations, because programming these systems tends to be too hard for non-professional programmers. I present an approach that simplifies the description of complex interactions of objects by describing interactions with declarative, temporal constraints. A system that describes animation in terms of the actions of the objects and the interactions between the objects is being built on top of a grid-based, graphical programming environment.
    Keywords: Visual animation, Science education, Visual programming, Rewrite rules, Temporal constraints
    STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data BIBAKHTML 107-108
      Jennifer S. Kay
    Guiding a remote vehicle when real time image transmission is not possible is an important problem in the field of teleoperation. In such a situation it is impractical for an operator to attempt to directly steer the vehicle using a steering wheel. In semi-autonomous teleoperation, an operator designates the path that the vehicle should follow in an image of the scene transmitted from the vehicle, and the vehicle autonomously follows this path. Previous techniques for semi-autonomous teleoperation require stereo image data, or inaccurately track paths on non-planar terrain. STRIPE (Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral-Earth geometry) is a new method that I am developing for accurate semi-autonomous teleoperation using monocular image data. This paper provides an summary of the work I am doing for my thesis. This includes the development of the STRIPE robotic system, user studies to empirically measure the accuracy of the STRIPE method under various conditions and with different user interfaces, as well as measurement of baseline data for traditional steering wheel based teleoperation under low-bandwidth and high-latency conditions.
    Keywords: Remotely operated vehicles, Low-bandwidth teleoperation, Semi-autonomous teleoperation, User-interfaces, Interfaces for novice users, Robotics
    Teachers in Charge: Model-Based Authoring of Educational Software BIBAKHTML 109-110
      Smadar Kedar; Benjamin Bell
    We describe Goal-Based Scenario Builder, a prototype model-based authoring tool for multimedia educational software, intended for teachers and curriculum designers.
    Keywords: Educational software, Multimedia, Authoring tools, Model-based interface tools
    Is Multimedia-Based Training Effective? Yes and No. BIBAKHTML 111-112
      Adrienne Y. Lee; Douglas J. Gillan; Evan E. Upchurch; Jeffrey S. Melton
    Most studies in multimedia have not been controlled and have focused on student satisfaction rather than examining what students have learned. This poster will describe results from current research designed to evaluate the efficacy of multimedia-based training in producing increased learning and retention of factual knowledge and skills.
    Keywords: Education, Multimedia, Evaluation
    Generalized Fitts' Law Model Builder BIBAKHTML 113-114
      R. William Soukoreff; I. Scott MacKenzie
    A tool for designing experiments, capturing data, and building Fitts' law models is described. The software runs on an IBM or compatible computer equipped with an appropriate graphical display and selection device (e.g., mouse, joystick). Features intended for HCI educational purposes or experimental research are included, making this a very powerful utility for research in input techniques or Fitts' law. The software is available via anonymous FTP through the internet.
    Keywords: Fitts' law, Mouse, Input techniques, Human performance modeling, HCI education
    Validating an Extension to Participatory Heuristic Evaluation: Quality of Work and Quality of Work Life BIBAKHTML 115-116
      Michael J. Muller; Anne McClard; Brigham Bell; Scott Dooley; Lori Meiskey; Judith A. Meskill; Randall Sparks; Donna Tellam
    We describe an extension and validation of Nielsen's heuristic evaluation approach, to include "humanistic" aspects of systems. Three additional heuristics addressed quality of work product, quality of work life, and respect for users' skills. In a participatory heuristic evaluation of an intelligent tutoring system, the three new heuristics performed comparably to earlier sets of heuristics.
    Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, Usability, Participatory design, Participatory assessment, Quality of worklife, Skill, Quality
    Remote Exploratoriums: Combining Network Media with Design Environments BIBAKHTML 117-118
      Corrina Perrone; Alexander Repenning
    In an educational context World Wide Web clients such as Mosaic are of limited value because they put learners into the role of information absorbers. Drawing on a museum analogy, learners using Mosaic can be perceived, like museum visitors, to be passive observers of exhibits. Despite the richness of exhibits in terms of the amount of material presented and the use of multimedia, activity is restricted to navigation through real (museum) or hyper (Mosaic) spaces. To be most effective, learning should include constructive activities more engaging than browsing through hyperspaces. Distance education can be facilitated by combining network media with design environments to create highly interactive, engaging environments that we call Remote Exploratoriums. In contrast to classical museums, exploratoriums, such as in San Francisco or numerous children's museums, feature engaged, hands-on learning experiences through interactive exhibits that are not only observed but are actively manipulated. The Agentsheets Remote Exploratorium is a mechanism to facilitate the easy exchange and distribution of educational interactive exhibits through networks. Agentsheets is a programming substrate to create interactive simulation and design environments. In this paper, we discuss the implications of combining a network medium and a design environment to support distance education.
    Keywords: World Wide Web, Mosaic, Learning, Distance education, Design environments
    On Site Maintenance Using a Wearable Computer System BIBAKHTML 119-120
      Bethany Smith; Len Bass; Jane Siegel
    This poster displays a vision of the future of vehicle maintenance. This future includes a wearable computer system that can be operated with the mechanics' hands free. The computer system will provide necessary information to solve maintenance tasks and to communicate with collaborators. The ability to support both solo and collaborative maintenance activity, especially trouble shooting and the ability to effectively deliver light weight, hands free information access will be achieved through improvements in both technology and HCI. The poster displays the current state, a vision of the future and identifies the HCI and technological improvements necessary to achieve this future state of vehicle maintenance.
    Keywords: Wearable computers, Body worn computers, Task oriented computer systems, Hands free maintenance, Help desks, Vehicle maintenance, Help desk collaboration
    3-D Displays for Real-Time Monitoring of Air Traffic BIBAKHTML 121-122
      Dick Steinberg; Charles DePlachett; Kacheshwar Pathak; Dennis Strickland
    Previous research has revealed that three-dimensional (3-D) display formats do not always improve user performance [3]. This report describes an experiment to determine the utility of using a 3-D format for monitoring air traffic of a Department of Defense (DoD) real-time display. An overwhelming quantity of data must be assimilated by personnel monitoring a typical mission. Data from these missions must be monitored and crucial life and death decisions made by personnel within a short period of time. The need for a precise human engineered computer interface resulted in the development and laboratory testing of a 3-D display concept for monitoring a typical DoD air surveillance display. In addition, the 3-D format was augmented using a two-dimensional (2-D) vertical bar graph directly beneath to provide users with additional information (i.e., signal strength) about displayed objects in the 3-D space. The 2-D, 3-D, and 3-D (augmented with vertical bar graph) displays were user tested for accuracy and performance. Results from this analysis revealed that user response times were decreased by 23% with a reduction in errors of 60% using the standard 3-D display. Additional testing is needed to determine the benefit of the vertical bar graph.
    Keywords: Graphical user interface, Real-time, Air space monitoring
    Belvedere: Stimulating Students' Critical Discussion BIBAKHTML 123-124
      Massimo Paolucci; Daniel Suthers; Arlene Weiner
    We describe "Belvedere," a system to support students engaged in critical discussion of science and public policy issues. The design is intended to address cognitive and metacognitive limitations of unpracticed beginners while supporting their practice of this complex skill. The limitations include (1) difficulty in focusing attention given the abstract and complex nature of theories and arguments, (2) lack of domain knowledge, and (3) lack of motivation. Belvedere addresses these limitations by (1) giving arguments a concrete diagrammatic form, and providing tools for focusing on particular problems encountered in the construction and evaluation of complex arguments; (2) providing access to on-line information resources; and (3) supporting students working in small groups to construct documents to be shared with others. Both prior psychological research and formative evaluation studies with users shaped the interface design.
    Keywords: Collaborative argumentation environment, Educational application, Design rationale
    The Gear Model of HCI Education BIBAKHTML 125-126
      Manfred Tscheligi; Verena Giller
    Gears are used as central metaphor for the philosophy of a coordinated HCI education program. The program consists of six parts distributed over one year. The main emphasis of all parts is on active involvement with a considerable amount of feedback and reflection.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Curriculum, HCI education
    Readability of Fonts in the Windows Environment BIBAKHTML 127-128
      Thomas S. Tullis; Jennifer L. Boynton; Harry Hersh
    The readability of twelve different fonts and sizes in the Microsoft Windows environment was studied. The specific fonts were Arial, MS Sans Serif, MS Serif, and Small Fonts. Their sizes ranged from 6.0 to 9.75 points. These were presented using black text on either a white or gray background and either bold or non-bold style. There were significant differences between the various font/size combinations in terms of reading speed, accuracy, and subjective preferences. There were no consistent differences as a result of background color or boldness. The most preferred fonts were Arial and MS Sans Serif at 9.75. Most of the fonts from 8.25 to 9.75 performed well in terms of reading speed and accuracy, with the exception of MS Serif at 8.25. Arial at 7.5 and both of the Small Fonts (6.0 and 6.75) should generally be avoided.
    Keywords: Font, Text, Readability, Legibility, Windows
    The Influence Explorer BIBAHTML 129-130
      Lisa Tweedie; Bob Spence; Huw Dawkes; Hua Su
    This paper illustrates the benefits, for a wide range of design activities, of Interactive Visualization Artifacts.
    Integrating Multiple Cues for Spoken Language Understanding BIBAKHTML 131-132
      Karen Ward; David G. Novick
    As spoken language interfaces for real-world systems become a practical possibility, it has become apparent that such interfaces will need to draw on a variety of cues from diverse sources to achieve a robustness and naturalness approaching that of human performance [1]. However, our knowledge of how these cues behave in the aggregate is still tantalizingly sketchy. We lack a strong theoretical basis for predicting which cues will prove useful in practice and for specifying how these cues should be combined to signal or cancel out potential interpretations of the communicative signal. In the research program summarized here, we propose to develop and test an initial theory of cue integration for spoken language interfaces. By establishing a principled basis for integrating knowledge sources for such interfaces, we believe that we can develop systems that perform better from a computer-human interaction standpoint.
    Keywords: Spoken language interfaces
    Usability Testing of Posture Video Analysis Tool BIBAKHTML 133-134
      Mihriban Whitmore; Tim McKay
    The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive Macintosh menu and button driven SuperCard prototype for classifying working postures from video footage. Following preliminary evaluations, a usability test was conducted to test interface design and to identify required modifications to the software. Five users participated in the study. Each user completed training (to a preset criterion), test, and a post-test questionnaire. All the sessions were video taped for detailed analysis. Preliminary results indicate that PVAT was acceptable in terms of setup and video monitoring procedures as well as screen layouts. Detailed data reduction and analysis are in progress.
    Keywords: Video analysis, User evaluations
    Human and Machine Dimensions of 3D Interfaces for Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 135-136
      Casey Boyd
    This work explores two categories for evaluating and measuring virtual environment (VE) interfaces. One category concerns characteristics of the interface, such as its complexity and abstractness. The other category concerns the human capacities for understanding and using three-dimensional input/output devices. The results may help us predict the usability of VE interfaces and help us to design interfaces that are well matched to their intended users.
    Keywords: Virtual environments, Evaluation, Navigation
    Editing User-Specific Diagrams by Direct Manipulation BIBAKHTML 137-138
      G. Viehstaedt; M. Minas
    Diagrams, e.g., certain kinds of trees or graphs, are often needed as part of advanced user interfaces, and are frequently specific to a user's application. Editing these diagrams should be possible by direct manipulation. Some examples of direct manipulation in an editor for Nassi-Shneiderman diagrams (NSDs) are described. This sample editor was generated from a specification by DiaGen, our generator for diagram editors.
    Keywords: User interface, Direct manipulation, Diagram, Generator, Syntax-directed editing
    Growing Simplicity: A Task-Based Approach to Containing Complexity BIBAKHTML 139-140
      Jason Cassee; Meghan R. Ede; Todd Kemp
    A feature-based approach to designing information systems software produces results which, although technically correct, are likely deficient in their ease of use. Designing from a task-based perspective significantly enhances interface usability. Our project team made this change in approach based on a consultation with a specialist in human computer interaction. We describe the impact of this consultation and its effect of dramatically simplifying the user interface.
    Keywords: Task-based design, Human computer interaction, Walkthrough, Information system software, User interface
    InteractiveDESK: A Computer-Augmented Desk which Responds to Operations on Real Objects BIBAKHTML 141-142
      Toshifumi Arai; Kimiyoshi Machii; Soshiro Kuzunuki; Hiroshi Shojima
    Office and engineering workers' workloads are reduced with a computer-augmented desk named InteractiveDESK. The desk has a large desktop display with a pen-input facility and an ordinary upright display with a keyboard, thus integrating features of conventional systems and pen-based systems. The desk detects the operations on real objects on its real desk top, and responds to the operations to reduce users' workloads. The prototype of the desk assists users in switching input methods and retrieving electronic files.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Pen-based system, Computer-augmented desk
    Elastic Graphical Interfaces for Precise Data Manipulation BIBAKHTML 143-144
      Toshiyuki Masui; Kouichi Kashiwagi; George R., IV Borden
    We propose an interaction technique for manipulating precise data or selecting one element from a large number of items. Although conventional graphical interaction tools like sliders cannot be used for selecting more items than the pixel size of the slider, we can specify more precise data by using the elastic slider based on the rubber-band metaphor, where a control object can be moved by pulling the object with a rubber-band between the object and the mouse cursor. The same technique can be applied to many graphical interface tools like scroll bars and drawing editors.
    Keywords: Elastic interface, Slider, Scroll bar, Rubber-band interface
    Simulation-Based Dialogue Design for Speech-Controlled Telephone Services BIBAKHTML 145-146
      Ivan Bretan; Anna-Lena Ereback; Catriona MacDermid; Annika Wærn
    A design methodology for speech-controlled telephone services has been developed using Wizard-of-Oz simulations as the principal mechanism for evaluating and getting input for dialogue design. This methodology may enable service developers to support dialogues that are optimal with respect to naturalness, especially on a pragmatic level, given the technical restrictions at hand.
    Keywords: Speech interfaces, Wizard-of-Oz simulations, Telephone services
    Abstract Specification of User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 147-148
      Ole Lauridsen
    The paper discusses automation of user interface design and proposes a user interface design method that combines the use of formal semantic specification and rapid user interface builders. Based on formalized design rules, a user interface design proposal can be derived from the functionality of an application. The advantages of this method are: Automation of parts of the design process, automatic design evaluation, and automatic mapping to multiple user interface toolkits. The method will ease the transition from the functional design of an application to the user interface design by a semantically driven design of user interfaces.
    Keywords: Interface design, Automatic generation of user interface, Design process

    Interactive Posters: Social Action

    Science-by-Mail BIBAKHTML 149-150
      Ellen A. White; Marc E. Fusco
    Science-by-Mail is a hands-on, experimental science activity program for children in grades 4-9 that is designed to be engaging, educational, and fun! Each participating child is matched with a volunteer pen-pal scientist who provides encouragement and guidance. They receive three "challenge packets" throughout the year containing information and materials related to an issue in science or technology. Communication between students and scientists about the packets forms the core of the interactions. A nationwide program developed by the Museum of Science, Boston, Science-by-Mail currently involves about 25,000 children and 2,500 scientists.
    Keywords: Science-by-Mail, Science, Children, Volunteer, Social action
    A Computer Science Community Service Project BIBAKHTML 151-152
      Saul Jimenez
    Computer science is a rapidly changing field which makes academic and professional education both necessary and problematic. This paper shows, by describing the analysis, design and implementation of relational database for community child care providers, the need for technical service donations to human service organizations. These donations have both an educational use (appropriate for academe or industry) and a beneficial outcome for the sponsoring organization.
    Keywords: Service learning, Curriculum development
    CompuMentor: People Helping Computers Help People BIBAKHTML 153-154
      Melissa Schofield; Daniel Ben-Horin
    California and also, increasingly, on a national scale, whose main purpose is to match skilled computer users (volunteer mentors) with nonprofits and other public service groups that need their skills. In recent years CompuMentor projects have included 1) basic computerization assistance to nonprofits and schools, 2) scholarships programs for agencies with no funds for technical support, 3) computerization and telecommunications-focused consultation and training for nonprofits and public institutions, and 4) a software distribution project specifically for nonprofits and public schools. In addition to our regular work, we are now starting to design a scaleable model of our organization that we hope to share with other groups around the country, with the intent of providing nonprofits in other communities access to the services we've made available in the Bay Area.
    Keywords: Community service, Nonprofits, Not-for-profits, Schools, Volunteers, Computer consulting, Mentoring