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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Celebrating Interdependence
Editors:Catherine Plaisant
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1994-Apr-24 to 1994-Apr-28
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-651-4 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608941; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI94-2
  1. CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2
    2. VIDEOS: Part I: Browsing Navigation
    3. VIDEOS: Part II -- Techniques for Improved Human-Computer Interaction
    4. VIDEOS: Part III -- Programming and Collaboration

CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2


Introduction and Overview of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 351-352
  Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces BIBAPDF 353-354
  Kevin E. Mullet; Darrell K. Sano
This tutorial describes a number of fundamental techniques applied routinely in communication-oriented visual design. The orientation, process, training, and culture of the visual design disciplines (graphic design, industrial design, interior design, architecture) are essential components of effective interface design. Unfortunately, few software developers or human factors engineers receive any training in these disciplines. This tutorial describes important design rules and techniques internalized by every visual designer through coursework and studio experience. While mastery will indeed require extended practice, the techniques we describe are not difficult to understand and can be immediately applied to real-world problems.
   We draw our background, training, and influence from the rational, functional, information oriented perspective of the Modernist design ethic. Because all graphical user interfaces are communication systems, we believe their design should reflect these same values. Our tutorial is organized not along the traditional subdisciplines of color, typography, or ideation, but along the problems of graphical interface design as experienced in commercial software development. We describe basic design principles (the what and why), common errors, and practical techniques (the how) for each of the six major areas outlined below.
  • Elegance and Simplicity
  • Scale, Contrast, and Proportion
  • Organization and Visual Structure
  • Module and Programme
  • Image and Representation
  • So What About Style?
  • Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware BIBAKPDF 355-356
      Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
    This course describes the origin and composition of work in CSCW and groupware, then discusses eight significant behavioral and social (as contrasted with technical) challenges to successful development. Recent research prototypes and commercial products are covered, focusing on advances in supporting communication, coordination, and collaboration. Finally, we describe several approaches to addressing the behavioral and social obstacles. Video illustrations of systems and issues are used throughout the tutorial.
    Keywords: Computer-mediated communication, Collaborative work, CSCW, Groupware, Electronic mail, Computer-supported meetings, Desktop conferencing, Video conferencing, Coordination, Workflow, Organizational design, Evaluation
    Converting to Graphical User Interfaces: Design Guidelines for Success BIBAKPDF 357-358
      Arlene F. Aucella
    This tutorial reviews published research, guidelines and case studies on ease-of-use for graphical user interfaces. Many text-based user interfaces are being converted into graphical user interface platforms. This tutorial emphasizes using graphical user interface components without undermining good principles of design.
       Course topics include windows, icons, menus, dialogue boxes and input devices. Usability aspects of commercial graphical interfaces such as Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows and OSF Motif are compared and evaluated. In addition, techniques for collecting user feedback and usability data are discussed. A multi-part class exercise gives participants skill in converting a non-graphical menu and forms-based user interface into a pull-down menu and dialogue box interface.
    Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Windows, Scroll bars, Icons, Dialogue boxes, Pull-down menus, Input devices, Usability engineering
    Seductive Interfaces: Satisfying a Mass Audience BIBAKPDF 359-360
      Timothy C. Skelly; Karen Fries; Barry Linnett; Clifford Nass; Byron Reeves
    There are two similar, but equally pressing issues currently facing interface designers -- how to make increasingly complex applications usable and how to design effective interfaces for a broad audience, such as might exist for the coming wave of interactive consumer products. This tutorial questions some assumptions behind current interface design and why conventional interaction techniques are often unsatisfying to users, experienced as well as novice. Also examined are some of the underlying social transactions that occur between human and machine, like those that emerge when voice and moving images are added to the interface. The psychology of media viewing is reviewed for insights that may help bridge the gap between passive viewer and active user.
    Keywords: Human-computer interfaces, User-centered design, Usability testing, Anthropomorphism, Voice, Motion, Speech, Social psychology, Television, Mass-market, Intrinsic motivation
    The Conceptual Model in Graphical User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 361
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    This is a new, advanced level tutorial, intended for the designers and developers of graphical user interface (GUI) applications (e.g., Windows, Motif, Open Look, Macintosh). These GUI platforms, even along with their associated style guides, do not alone ensure usable interfaces. The purpose of this tutorial is to teach concrete principles for designing high quality, consistent user interfaces with the capabilities of these platforms. Principles offered go deeper than simple screen design, and address the design of the underlying conceptual model of an interface. This includes making and following rules for the use of widgets (e.g., radio buttons, list boxes, drop down combo boxes) and rules for the use of window types (e.g., primary windows, dialog boxes, message boxes) and window properties (e.g., modal vs. modeless, resizable vs. non-resizable, movable vs. non-movable, scrollable vs. non-scrollable). It also includes making a good selection of desktop objects (that is, what will be presented as an icon at the desktop level), and good design of the menu bar(s) and pulldowns. Two complete prototype GUIs, based on MS Windows and built with Visual Basic, are used to illustrate and provide examples of the design principles which are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: User interface design, GUI, Conceptual models, Interface components, Windows, Widgets, User objects, Dialog styles, Organization of functionality, Menu bar, Action bar
    Methods for Early Usability Design BIBAKPDF 363-364
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey; Judee Humburg; Anne Seeley
    This tutorial applies human factors research techniques to collecting customer data early and "building usability into" the product definition and design processes. User input contributes to designing the whole product, including the user interface and documentation. After an overview of product development models, we discuss appropriate research questions and methods for the investigation, requirements definition, and early design phases. Participants will have extensive hands-on practice in methods, including designing a new product during the tutorial.
    Keywords: Design methodologies, Product life cycle, Product development cycle, User data collection, Customer data collection, User-centered design, Usability, Documentation usability, Documentation design, Functional specifications
    Product Usability: Survival Techniques BIBAKPDF 365-366
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder
    Product developers are typically faced with small budgets, tight schedules, and over-committed resources. To deliver high-quality products under these constraints, developers need an understanding of basic design principles, techniques that allow them to work effectively with materials on hand, and a development process that is built around the use of such techniques. This tutorial explains how low-fidelity prototyping and usability testing can be used in a process of iterative refinement in order to develop more usable products.
    Keywords: Design principles, Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques, Style guides
    Methods of Perceptual and Cognitive Research Applied to Interface Design and Testing BIBAKPDF 367-368
      Douglas J. Gillan; Nancy J. Cooke
    This tutorial is organized in six modules -- visual psychophysics and perception, motor control, memory, problem-solving, reading, and multivariate methods, such as, Pathfinder, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Each module contains background to help understand the method (an historical introduction to the development of the method and the problems to which researchers originally applied it and a description of one or two famous experiments featuring the method), a description telling how to perform the method, including demonstrations. The description and demonstration will focus on applying the method to user testing. Following the description and demonstration, for selected methods, the class will participate in a practice exercise in which real data will be collected (using class members as test subjects) and analyzed during the session.
    Keywords: User testing, Cognition, Perception
    Groupware for Realtime Collaboration BIBAKPDF 369-370
      Ralph D. Hill; Tom Brinck
    Realtime interaction among synchronous groupware users raises issues of how the users coordinate their actions, how they share information, and how the system architecture supports this human-human interaction. We illustrate and explore these issues with:
  • an overview of different types of synchronous groupware applications,
  • a taxonomy of design issues, with case studies demonstrating alternative
       choices, and
  • a discussion of the implications of architectural choices on these design
       alternatives. We reinforce these lessons with a high-level design exercise that encourages the application of our approach to decomposing the design of synchronous groupware.
    Keywords: CSCW, Synchronous groupware, User interface design, User interface implementation, Group work, Group decision support systems, Electronic meeting rooms
  • GOMS Modeling of User Interfaces using NGOMSL BIBAKPDF 371-372
      David E. Kieras
    This tutorial will present the NGOMSL methodology for constructing and using GOMS models for use in analytical user interface design evaluation. The first half-day will present the basic concepts of GOMS models, the NGOMSL notation, a procedure of conducting the analysis, and obtaining and using usability predictions. The second half-day will be a lab session in which with the help of the instructor, participants will construct and make use of a GOMS model for a suitable subset of a user interface design.
    Keywords: User models, Cognitive models, Interface design, Guidelines
    Global Interface Design BIBAKPDF 373-374
      Tony Fernandes
    Computer software products have become a world-wide commodity. Yet sometimes, little thought is given to how these products should be translated for use in other nations. This is true both in terms of language and culture. This tutorial looks at how this issue might be addressed in a user interface design through language, interaction, visual esthetics, and an understanding of how cultures differ around the world.
    Keywords: International, User interface design, Diversity, Culture; Internationalization, Globalization, Software Localization
    Networking for Collaboration: Video Telephony and Media Conferencing BIBAKPDF 375-376
      Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut
    This tutorial provides a grounding in the fundamentals of video/audio/shared computer application conferencing systems that bring users at a distance into a common media space. It attempts to provide an understanding of both the technologies employed in these systems as well as what is known about their use and utility. An introduction to the concepts and terminology of video, audio, digital compression, transmission networks, and station equipment is provided. What people like and dislike about these systems, and the avenues that are being explored to overcome their shortcomings are discussed. In addition, there is a discussion of how these networks fit within an organizational context and what we know about what occurs in organizations when they are introduced.
    Keywords: Human factors, Computer conferencing and teleconferencing, Multimedia information systems-video, Evaluation/methodology, Synchronous interaction, Collaboration, Groupware, Informal communication, Videophone, Telecommunications networks, ISDN, Digital video compression, Digital audio compression, Hands-free audio, Echo cancellation and suppression, Shared computer applications, Critical mass, Privacy, Media richness
    Introduction to User Interface Systems for HCI Developers and Researchers BIBAKPDF 377-378
      Wilfred J. Hansen
    User interface systems (UIS) combine essential applications for compound documents with a toolkit for building new applications that inter-operate with the others. The essential applications -- word processing, drawing editor, spread sheet, equation editor, image editor, electronic mail management, and so on -- all support embedding of objects to create compound documents and can themselves all be embedded as objects in compound documents. When building new applications, the user draws the screen image with the drawing editor and selects components from among the applications or the objects in the toolkit. The earliest and most complete system at this time is the Andrew User Interface System, which will be used for examples during the tutorial.
       User Interface Systems challenge HCI workers to develop interface conventions that stretch harmoniously across the wide spectrum of applications. However, these same systems aid HCI work by simplifying construction of experimental interfaces and providing tools for evaluation of user behavior across multiple diverse applications.
    Keywords: User interface system, Compound documents, Word processing, Electronic mail, Graphical user interface toolkit, Application builders, User interface management system, Text editing, Andrew user interface system, AUIS, Andrew toolkit, ATK, Evaluation of user behavior, Standards for interactive interfaces, Object linking and embedding, OLE
    Using Metaphor Effectively in User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 379-380
      Adam N. Marx
    What exactly is metaphor, and why is it considered so important in designing a good human-computer interface? This tutorial begins with an overview of the nature of metaphor, from its humble beginnings as a literary device to its current status as a fundamental aspect of human intelligence. Next, we look at why metaphor is considered an important facet of user interface design, and how it assists users in learning and operating a computer system. Finally, we demonstrate techniques for picking appropriate metaphors for given task domains, ensuring that those metaphors are used as effectively as possible in the interface, and indicating when it is advantageous to violate our own interface metaphors.
    Keywords: Metaphor, Analogy, Human-computer interface design, Mental models, Conceptual models, Design methodologies
    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Human Computer Interaction for Persons with Disabilities BIBAKPDF 381-382
      Jon Gunderson
    The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires employers to provide "reasonable accommodation" to workers with disabilities. One of the most important areas for reasonable accommodation is access to general purpose and specialized computer systems used in workplaces and educational institutions. Providing the means for people with disabilities to access computer systems is often described as "electronic curb cuts and ramps" [1]. Curb cuts and ramps have become a standard for people in wheelchairs to gain independent access to city streets and public buildings. This tutorial will discuss the types, availability and steepness of electronic curb cuts and ramps for physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities.
    Keywords: Disabilities, Handicap, Visual impairment, Blindness, Deaf, Hearing impairment, Physical impairment, Human computer interaction, Usability, Performance
    Integrative Multimedia Design BIBAKPDF 383-384
      Linn Marks; Ben Davis
    Integrative multimedia design [1] focuses on designing the media and the interface so that they will enhance one another. It provides an alternative to current conceptions of software design such as iterative design and concurrent design which are, in large part, artifacts of software design and development in non-multimedia contexts. A framework that can facilitate integrative multimedia design involves focusing on the media segments as the user will experience them in the context of the application: specifically, their visual appearance, temporal and spatial dimensions, perspective, and discourse structure.
    Keywords: Integrative design, Design process, Multimedia, Media, User interface
    Minimizing Organizational Risks of Technological Change BIBAKPDF 385-386
      Susan M. Dray
    The focus of this tutorial is the organizational factors which need to be considered in the design and implementation of technology. There are a number of common stumbling blocks which make technology less likely to succeed in an organizational setting. This tutorial focuses on how to identify and avoid these stumbling blocks, with an emphasis on practical steps for the designer to take.
    Keywords: Organizational factors, Risks, Technology change
    Interface Issues and Interaction Strategies for Information Retrieval Systems BIBAKPDF 387-388
      Scott Henninger; Nick Belkin
    The need for effective information retrieval systems becomes increasingly important as computer-based information repositories grow larger and more diverse. In this tutorial, we will present the key issues involved in the use and design of effective interfaces to information retrieval systems. The process of satisfying information needs is analyzed as a problem solving activity in which users learn and refine their needs as they interact with a repository. Current systems are analyzed in terms of key interface and interaction techniques such as querying, browsing, and relevance feedback. We will discuss the impact of information seeking strategies on the search process and what is needed to more effectively support the search process. Retrieval system evaluation techniques will be discussed in terms of their implications for users. We close by outlining some user-centered design strategies for retrieval systems.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, User interfaces, Databases, Information systems, Interaction strategies
    Model-Based Interface Development BIBAKPDF 389-390
      Angel Puerta; Pedro Szekely
    Model-based interface development is a new paradigm for developing interfaces that offers solutions to the main shortcomings of current tools. This paradigm is based on constructing a declarative description of how an interface should look and behave (model), and using the description to control the execution of an interface. This paper briefly summarizes the main shortcomings of interface development tools used today, discusses the main elements of the model-based approach, and closes with a discussion of the state of the art and the challenges that lie ahead.
    Keywords: Model-based interface development, UIMS, User interface toolkits, Intelligent interfaces
    The Creative Mind and HCI: Innovation Not Duplication! BIBAKPDF 391-392
      Phillip B. Shoemaker; Liam Friedland
    Many professionals are unfamiliar or uncomfortable with the non-linear process of lateral thinking/brainstorming. This tutorial will introduce concepts and processes used by designers for lateral thinking/brainstorming to professionals unfamiliar with these techniques and methodologies. Demonstrate the value of lateral thinking by providing example design cases. Provide an environment in which to try out the techniques through directed exercises in problem solving.
    Keywords: Brainstorming, Development, Scenarios, Idea generation, Role-play, Developers, User interface design, Innovation
    Presenting Information Visually: Visual Design Principles BIBAKPDF 393-394
      Suzanne Watzman
    Today's world is truly a richly visual one, with the advent of highly sophisticated technology, methods and medium to publish... anything, anywhere, at any time. The new tools are available very democratically to vast new audiences. They provide not only an ability to publish but the ability to affect the "packaging" and the presentation of the information. The idea of publishing is familiar, yet the impact of how the messages are presented goes well beyond the initial decisions of font or color or medium. To use the full potential of the medium and its tools, one must understand the impact visual design plays in the effective communication of ideas and information.
       To understand the role of visual design plays for effective communication of ideas and information, one must gain an understanding of both the visual principles and how they work in the context of real-world problems and solutions. Principles and concepts include: graphic and information design, interaction design, typography, visual hierarchy, icons, graphics, illustrations, metaphor, color. In addition, successful solutions include not only the appropriate application of these principles, but a collaborative development process that supports all members of the product design team (visual interaction designers, engineers, managers, HCI specialists, writers, industrial designers, marketing, etc.).
    Keywords: Graphic design, Information design, Visual interaction design, Typography, Information hierarchy, Icons, Graphics, Illustration, Metaphor, Color, Visual interface, User advocate, Consistency, Screen design, Design development process, Visual language, Visual literacy, Visual mapping
    GOMS Analysis for Parallel Activities BIBAKPDF 395-396
      Bonnie E. John; Wayne D. Gray
    GOMS is a family of techniques for analyzing human performance in terms of the Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection rules necessary to perform a task. Traditionally, GOMS has approximated human performance as perceptual, cognitive, and motor activities performed sequentially. However, many tasks require users to perform activities in parallel, e.g., visually searching for information, while listening to a customer, while typing. This tutorial will teach a version of GOMS, CPM-GOMS, that predicts performance on such tasks and saved an industrial organization millions of dollars through the evaluation of alternative system designs.
    Keywords: GOMS, User models, Cognitive models, Analytic methods
    Film Craft in User Interface Design BIBAPDF 397
      Chuck Clanton; Emilie Young
    This tutorial demonstrates how to apply animation and film craft to user interface design. The instructors present the general principles of film craft with particular attention to the practical details that have proven relevant to their user interface designs. Then, these principles are applied to user interface design problems.
       Why should the entertainment industry be looked to, for ideas about user interface design? With mere shadows seen through a narrow window, filmmakers engage us in a world of their making without disturbing our awareness by its technical apparatus. They are masters at using pictures and sounds to communicate, entertain, evoke feelings, and manipulate our sense of space and time. Ninety years of filmmaking and animation have created a rich store of knowledge barely tapped by current computer-human interfaces. Paradoxically, multimedia on graphical workstations whets our appetite for knowledge from a craft that can contribute significantly to the user interface design even of character-based displays.
    Implementing Virtual Reality BIBAKPDF 399-400
      Randy Pausch; Andries van Dam; Steve Bryson; Warren Robinett
    While virtual reality systems seem to hold great promise for facilitating the use of computers, actual virtual reality development is fraught with difficulties. These difficulties include limited hardware, uncertain interface paradigms and the integration of various components and concepts into a high-performance system. This course addresses these and other difficulties. We begin with an introduction to the virtual reality field, both in reference to computer graphics and in terms of the current state of the art. Interface hardware will be surveyed, emphasizing the performance limitations of current products. The human factors impact of the limited interface devices will be discussed on both a theoretical and phenomenological level. After setting this background, the external design of a virtual environment will be discussed from the point of view of how that environment is experienced by the user. The objects that populate a virtual environment will be discussed both in the abstract and through examples. The implications of the interactive user interface on system performance will be a primary focus. The actual implementation of the virtual environment will be addressed, discussing both the software platform and the overall system. The course will end with a discussion of virtual reality development on a budget and lessons learned about how to get a virtual reality project going from start to a useful application.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Computer graphics, Human factors, Immersive environments, Software development environments
    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAKPDF 401-402
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a traditional project life cycle, and presents human factors methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: System design, Implementation and use, Analysis methods, Managing human factors in system development, Cost-benefit analysis, Organization of human factors
    Designing Educational Computer Environments for Children BIBAKPDF 403-404
      Allison Druin; Cynthia Solomon
    This full-day, introductory tutorial will contain lectures and a hands-on design session, for educators and other professionals who are, or would like to be, actively engaged in designing multimedia environments for children. Participants will explore the special challenges and global implications of designing educational computer environments for children. Participants will begin this full-day tutorial with an introduction to past, present, and emerging technologies for children. This will be followed by a hands-on design session where elementary school children will join participants in designing and prototyping a new educational computer environment. Participants will leave this tutorial with a historical perspective on what has been done in this field, as well as actual design experience.
    Keywords: Children, Educational theories, Design process, Prototyping, Historical perspective, Interactive textbook
    Enabling Technology for Users with Special Needs BIBAKPDF 405-406
      Alan Edwards; Alistair D. N. Edwards; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    The field of human-computer interface design profits from understanding potential users and exploring difficult design problems. Addressing the design of enabling technology for users with special needs offers both those advantages. Adapting computer interfaces for access and use by people with various physical and cognitive impairments exposes many basic human-computer interface design issues. Likewise, these efforts will result in computer interfaces which are more attractive and usable by all.
    Keywords: Disability, Human-computer interaction, Rehabilitation engineering, Users with special needs
    Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKPDF 407-408
      Gary Perlman
    Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include (1) Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud protocols), (2) Program Instrumentation, and (3) Questionnaires and Checklists (including interviews and heuristic evaluation). The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: User interface, Evaluation/methodology, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors, Benchmark tasks, Sampling issues, Cost-benefit, Observation, Video protocols, Think-aloud, Program instrumentation, Inspection methods, Checklists, Questionnaires, User interface evaluation, Usability
    Contextual Inquiry: Grounding Your Design in User's Work BIBAKPDF 409-410
      Mary Elizabeth Raven; Dennis Wixon
    Contextual Inquiry is a synthesis of ethnographic field research, and participatory design [8] methods that provide designers with grounded and detailed knowledge of user work as a basis for their design. The tutorial provides an understanding of the fundamental principles behind Contextual Inquiry and practical experiences with methods for data gathering and data analysis.
    Keywords: Contextual inquiry, Participatory design, Ethnographic methods, Qualitative research
    Participatory Design Through Games and Other Group Exercises BIBAKPDF 411-412
      Michael J. Muller; Daniel M. Wildman; Ellen A. White
    The tutorial is intended to teach selected methods in participatory design through applied, hands-on exercises, with lecture material used to introduce and supplement the exercises. A single domain will be used to unify the contents of the exercises. The conception of games will be used to unify the analysis and presentation of group design exercises.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Collaborative design, User centered design, Group design, User interface design, Human factors, Task analysis, Games, Theatre
    Usability Inspection Methods BIBAKPDF 413-414
      Jakob Nielsen
    Usability inspection is the generic name for a set of cost-effective ways of evaluating user interfaces to find usability problems. They are fairly informal methods and easy to use.
    Keywords: Usability engineering, Heuristic evaluation, Cognitive walkthroughs, Pluralistic walkthroughs, Feature inspection, Consistency inspection, Standards inspection
    User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction BIBAKPDF 415-416
      Alfred Kobsa
    User modeling has made considerable progress during its existence now of more than a decade. Particularly in the last few years, the need has been recognized in many application areas for software systems to automatically adapt to their current users. As a result, research on user modeling has extended into many disciplines which are concerned with the development of interactive computer systems that are used by heterogeneous user populations. These fields include Intelligent Interfaces, Active and Passive Help Systems, Guidance Systems, Hypertext Systems, Intelligent Information Retrieval, Natural-Language Systems, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Cooperative Expert Systems. Applications in office machines, consumer electronics and automobiles are also being envisioned. Several recent empirical evaluations provide support for the usefulness of user-adaptation in the investigated application domains.
    Keywords: User adaptation, User modeling, Adaptive interactive software systems
    Breaking the Chains: How to Design Non-Standard Interaction Environments BIBAKPDF 417-418
      Manfred Tscheligi; Sabine Musil
    This tutorial is intended to give attendees an insight into how to face the challenges of designing non-standard interaction environments. Underlined with a lot of examples, the basic characteristics of such an interaction environment will be explained and a video of an actually implemented system will round the picture off. Basics of metaphor theory will help in explaining the step on how to transport a given problem domain into a suitable representation. After solving a problem on their own, attendees will be presented some tools apart from paper and pencil, that assist in the step of getting the idea for a representation into a visual form that can be discussed and shared with other designers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various tools will be discussed and some examples will be given.
    Keywords: Non-standard user interface, User interface design, Metaphor, Prototyping
    Interactive Learning Environments: Where They've Come From & Where They're Going BIBAKPDF 419-420
      Elliot Soloway; Kate Bielaczyc
    A historical survey of the various teaching and training technologies will be given. The architectures of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, simulations, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), microworlds, and interactive learning environments (ILE) will be described. The influence of research in human-computer interaction, education, and cognitive science on teaching and training technologies will be discussed. In addition, the types of learning outcomes and design issues associated with the various technologies will be summarized. Emphasis will be placed on how the 90's computing infrastructure (e.g., high-MIP/GIP computation, high-bandwidth networks) will impact teaching and training and the design of instructional technology, e.g., what is the role of multimedia, computer-aided design systems, ubiquitous access to information, the home information appliance, in learning? Case studies from a wide variety of real instructional systems will be used to illustrate the main points in the tutorial.
    Keywords: Teaching & learning, Technology
    User Interface Tools BIBAKPDF 421-422
      Brad A. Myers; Dan R., Jr. Olsen
    A user interface tool is any software that helps user interface designers or programmers design, implement and test user interfaces and user interface software. Whereas five years ago, user interface tools were primarily research projects, today there are literally hundreds of successful commercial user interface tools. In addition, research into new techniques and tools is extremely active, with one or two sessions at each CHI conference, and an entire separate conference (UIST) devoted to this topic every year. This tutorial provides an overview of both the commercial and research segments of this area.
    Keywords: User interface software, Toolkits, Interface builders, Prototypers, User interface management systems, User interface development environments
    Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces BIBAKPDF 423-424
      Mark T. Maybury
    Multimedia communication is ubiquitous in daily life. When we converse with one another, we utilize a wide array of media to interact, including spoken language, gestures, and drawings. We exploit multiple sensory systems or modalities of communication including vision, audition, and taction. Although humans have a natural facility for managing and exploiting multiple input and output media, computers do not. Consequently, providing machines with the ability to interpret multimedia input and generate coordinated multimedia output would be a valuable facility for a number of key application such as information retrieval and analysis, training, and decision support. This tutorial focuses specifically on those intelligent interfaces that exploit multiple media and modes to facilitate human-computer communication.
    Keywords: Intelligent interfaces, Multimedia and multimodal interfaces, Multimedia parsing and generation, Interaction technology and techniques, Interface components and designs
    Graphical Constraints BIBAKPDF 425-426
      Gerd Szwillus
    This tutorial shows the power and relevance of graphical constraints as major concept for the implementation and specification of highly-interactive, graphical user interfaces. This covers implicit and explicit use, definition, solution algorithms, and conceptual issues. The tutorial enables participants to learn about the techniques involved and introduce them into their work of designing and implementing user interfaces.
    Keywords: Graphical constraints, Constraints, Constraint programming languages, User interface specification, User interface development tools, Editing, Drawing, CAD-systems, Graphics
    Computer Supported Meeting Rooms BIBAKPDF 427
      Lisa Neal
    This tutorial presents an overview of computer supported meeting rooms, covering what exists both commercially and in research groups.
    Keywords: Computer supported meeting rooms, CSCW, Groupware, Brainstorming, Voting, Organizational impact
    Evaluating User Interface Tools BIBAKPDF 429-430
      Rick Kazman; Len Bass
    The evaluation and selection of user interface tools is a continuing problem for builders of interactive systems. Tool evaluations found in the literature tend to concentrate on features, without any consideration of the types of interfaces to be constructed or the life cycle of the systems within which these user interfaces operate. In this tutorial, we present a methodology for the evaluation of user interface tools that is based on a knowledge of the types of interfaces being built and the life cycle expectations. The methodology uses two techniques for gaining this understanding of usage characteristics: benchmarking and software architectural analysis.
       Benchmarking is a technique widely used in the evaluation of other types of tools but rarely used in the user interface world. Software architectural analysis is a newly developed technique for the comparison of systems. It involves a discussion of the various elements of software architecture -- structure, functionality and allocation -- and uses these notions to analyze user interface software architecture.
       We demonstrate the methodology through example evaluations of several well-known tools such as Interviews, Tcl/Tk, Interface Architect, TAE+ and so forth. We also evaluate models of user interface software: "monolithic", Seeheim and PAC.
    Keywords: Tools and techniques, Software architecture

    VIDEOS: Part I: Browsing Navigation

    Visual Information Seeking using the FilmFinder BIBAKPDF 433
      Christopher Ahlberg; Ben Shneiderman
    The FilmFinder allow users to explore a large film database. By applying the dynamic queries approach to filtering information, a continuous starfield display of the films, and tight coupling among the components of the display, the FilmFinder environment encourages incremental and exploratory search.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Dynamic queries, Video-on-demand
    Note: Color plates on page 484
    The Attribute Explorer BIBAKPDF 435-436
      Lisa Tweedie; Bob Spence; David Williams; Ravinder Bhogal
    "The Attribute Explorer" video demonstrates a graphical interactive tool for visualising the relationships within multi-attribute data sets. Rather than using 2- or 3-dimensional multiple views of the data, each attribute is mapped to a single dimensional representation (interactive histogram). Sections of an attribute's histogram can be selected by a variety of means: once selected, the items are represented on each of the other attribute histograms as colour coded distributions. Trends in the data and interesting sub-populations can be examined and explored further. Full implementation and evaluation of the tool is planned.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Interactive graphics
    Typographic Space BIBAKPDF 437-438
      David Small; Suguru Ishizaki; Muriel Cooper
    This video presents Typographic Space, the system that explores the use of typography in interactive three-dimensional presentations. Previous studies have shown that three-dimensional presentation is effective in visualizing large and complex information space, which is increasingly available to ordinary workspaces. However, issues in typographic design have not yet been explored in this field although typography have been effectively used as a means of visually clarifying information in traditional two-dimensional graphic design. We have implemented an experimental software tool that helps us to investigate the use of interactive three-dimensional stereo graphics as a medium for typographic communication. This study raises design issues that are unique to three-dimensional presentation.
    Keywords: Typography, Information graphics, Visualization, Graphic design
    Dynamaps: Dynamic Queries on a Health Statistics Atlas BIBAKPDF 439-440
      Catherine Plaisant; Vinit Jain
    Dynamic queries are user-controlled animated displays of visual or textual data. On an application developed for the National Center for Health Statistics and running on their ordinary staff equipment, a thematic map of the United States is animated by moving a time slider to illustrate trends of mortality rates. Other sliders filter parts of the maps interactively according to parameters such as demographics. During the filtering possible correlations can be observed as they create color patterns in the "disappearance" of the states. This application has been received with enthusiasm by the user community and will be distributed with selected new datasets.
    Keywords: Animation, Map, Statistics, Graphic, Query, Correlations, Atlas, Time trend, Health
    Hierarchical Visualization with Treemaps: Making Sense of Pro Basketball Data BIBAKPDF 441-442
      David Turo
    Treemaps support visualization of large hierarchical information spaces. The treemap generation algorithm is straightforward and application prototypes have only minimal hardware requirements. Given primary graphical encodings of area, color and enclosure, treemaps are best suited for the tasks of outlier detection, cause-effect analysis and location of specific nodes -- satisfying user-specified criteria -- in their hierarchical context. Distortion effects extend treemap capabilities by emphasizing node relationships in the diagram.
    Keywords: Visualization, Statistics, Hierarchy, Treemap
    SCREAM: Screen-Based Navigation in Voice Messages BIBAKPDF 443-444
      H. W. Lie; P. E. Dybvik; J. Rygh
    The bitmapped color screens commonly found on desktops provide a powerful visualization medium. The telephone, another common desktop apparatus, is on the other hand not very visual. New services offered through the phone system can benefit from using the visualization power of the computer display. The SCREAM project creates a visual environment for navigating the data space of voice messages. Incoming voice messages are analyzed, certain caller characteristics are extracted (e.g. gender), and the system renders and displays images that each represent a message. By looking at the screen, the user instantly gets an overview of incoming messages, and messages can be played back by selecting the corresponding image.
    Keywords: Interface design, Voice mail, Visual navigation, Computer display, Computer-aided telephony

    VIDEOS: Part II -- Techniques for Improved Human-Computer Interaction

    Toolglass and Magic Lenses: The See-Through Interface BIBAKPDF 445-446
      Eric A. Bier; Maureen C. Stone; Ken Pier; Ken Fishkin; Thomas Baudel; Matt Conway; William Buxton; Tony DeRose
    In current interfaces, users select objects, apply operations, and change viewing parameters in distinct steps that require switching attention among several screen areas. Our See-Through Interface system addresses this problem by locating tools on a transparent sheet that can be moved over applications with one hand using a trackball, while the other hand controls a mouse cursor. The user clicks through a tool onto application objects, simultaneously selecting an operation and an operand. Tools may include graphical filters, called Magic Lens filters, that display a customized view of application objects. Compared to traditional interactors, these tools save steps, require no permanent screen space, reduce temporal modes, and apply to multiple applications. In addition, magic lens filters provide rich context-dependent feedback and the ability to view details and context simultaneously. These tools and filters can be combined by overlapping to form operation and viewing macros.
    Keywords: User interface, Multi-hand, Click-through, Lens, Viewing filter, Button, Menu, Control panel, Transparent, Macro
    Interactive Video Actors BIBAKPDF 447-448
      Christian Breiteneder; Simon Gibbs
    This video demonstrates the use of traditional video processing techniques, such as chroma-keying and layering, to integrate video with the user interface. Currently these forms of video processing are usually performed with studio equipment, however as computer support for digital video becomes more common, video processing is also appearing on the desktop.
    Keywords: Digital video, Video widgets, Video layering, Non-linear video
    Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays BIBAKPDF 449-450
      Akikazu Takeuchi; Katashi Nagao
    The human face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals encoded as facial displays. We are attempting to introduce facial displays into multimodal human computer interaction as a new modality to make computer more communicative and social. As a first step, we developed a multimodal human computer interaction system integrating speech dialogue and facial animation. The video gives an overview of the major research topics involved in this project. They are to understand and manage speech dialogue, to design and animate communicative facial displays, and to combine multiple modalities, that is, speech and facial displays.
    Keywords: User interface design, Multimodal interfaces, Facial expression, Conversational interfaces, Anthropomorphism
    The Chameleon: Spatially Aware Palmtop Computers BIBAKPDF 451-452
      George W. Fitzmaurice; William Buxton
    Using rapid prototyping techniques, the Chameleon system explores a new style of interface concept that combines handheld devices, powerful computation with 3 dimensional graphics and spatial sensing. Our futuristic palmtop acts as an input, output and interaction conduit. It is capable of generating 3D models and views through an understanding of its position and orientation in space. That is, the palmtop is spatially aware. The video demonstrates the Chameleon prototype in action and sample applications. Using the Chameleon system we can investigate how everyday physical objects can be used as the interface to electronic information and computation.
    Keywords: 3 dimensional control and displays, Palmtop computers, Novel interaction techniques
    ICONIC: Speech and Depictive Gestures at the Human-Machine Interface BIBAKPDF 453-454
      David B. Koons; Carlton J. Sparrell
    People often communicate with a complex mixture of speech and gestures. Gestures have many different functions in human communication, some of which have been exploited at the computer interface. A largely ignored function of gestures for communicating with computers is the class of depictive gestures. These gestures are closely associated with the content of speech and complement the user's verbal descriptions. In this class of gestures, the hands describe shape, spatial relations and movements of objects. We have developed Iconic, a prototype interface that allows users to describe the layout of three-dimensional scenes through a free mixture of speech and depictive gestures. Interpretation of this type of gestures requires an integrated approach where a high-level interpreter can simultaneously draw from clues in both the speech and gesture channels. In our system, a user's gestures are not interpreted based on their similarity to some standard form but are only processed to an intermediate feature-based representation. By this approach, gestures can be successfully interpreted in the wider context of information from speech and the graphical domain.
    Keywords: Multi-modal interface, Gestural interface, Depictive gestures

    VIDEOS: Part III -- Programming and Collaboration

    Pursuit: Graphically Representing Programs in a Demonstrational Visual Shell BIBAKPDF 455-456
      Francesmary Modugno; Brad A. Myers
    Pursuit is a programmable direct manipulation interface to a file system that enables users to create programs by demonstration. To construct a program in Pursuit, users execute actions on real data and Pursuit creates a general procedure containing variables, loops and conditionals. During the demonstration, the evolving program is represented in an editable, visual programming language. Unlike other visual programming languages, which explicitly represent operations and leave users to imagine data in their heads, Pursuit's visual language explicitly represents data objects using icons and implicitly represents operations by the changes they cause to data icons. The language also serves as a novel form of feedback between Pursuit and the user.
    Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by demonstration, Visual shell, Visual language
    The Garnet User Interface Development Environment BIBAKPDF 457-458
      Brad A. Myers; Dario Giuse; Andrew Mickish; Brad Vander Zanden; David Kosbie; Richard McDaniel; James Landay; Matthew Goldberg; Rajan Pathasarathy
    The Garnet User Interface Development Environment contains a comprehensive set of tools that make it significantly easier to design and implement highly-interactive, graphical, direct manipulation user interfaces. The toolkit layer of Garnet provides a prototype-instance object system, automatic constraint maintenance, an efficient retained-object graphics output model, a novel input model, two complete widget sets, and complete debugging tools. Garnet also contains a set of interactive user interface editors that aim to make it possible to create the user interface without programming. Instead, the user draws examples of the desired graphics and demonstrates their behaviors. The associated video provides an overview of the entire Garnet system.
    Keywords: User interface management systems, User interface development environments, Toolkits, Interface builders, Demonstrational interfaces
    SASSE: The Collaborative Editor BIBAKPDF 459-460
      Ron Baecker; Geof Glass; Alex Mitchell; Ilona Posner
    Writing is very often a collaborative activity. Despite this, very little is understood about how people write together, and very few systems are available to support this activity. This video presents the results of our studies into collaborative writing, and shows how the results of our work have been applied to the design of SASSE (Synchronous Asynchronous Structured Shared Editor).
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Groupware, Collaborative writing, Synchronous and asynchronous writing


    Software Visualization BIBAKPDF 463
      Marc Brown; John Domingue; Blaine Price; John Stasko
    Writing programs is in many respects becoming a more complex human activity. With the advent of life-cycles and methodologies on the one hand and faster CPUs with larger real and virtual memory on the other, much larger software entities are being created. Added to this are the complexities associated with parallel programs. Although burdened with this ever increasing complexity, programmers seem to have missed out on the benefits accrued by advances made in HCI and bit-mapped graphics workstations.
       Research in software visualization, the visualization and animation of data structures, programs, algorithms, and processes, provides a bright hope in addressing these problems. Software visualization systems help students to learn how programs work, assist professional software engineers to debug and understand their code, and provide researchers with insights on how to analyze and improve algorithms. The goal of SV is to give all programmers access to the latest HCI techniques when understanding and debugging their programs. Achieving this goal will not only make the day-to-day life of programmers that much easier but will also enable them to tackle significantly more ambitious and interesting tasks.
    Keywords: Software visualization, Computer graphics, Programming environments, Computing education, Algorithm animation
    A Taxonomic Model for Developing High Impact Formative Usability Evaluation Methods BIBAPDF 464
      Deborah Hix; H. Rex Hartson; Jakob Nielsen
    Numerous methods are emerging for formative usability evaluation, including heuristic evaluation, iterative refinement, and other approaches to usability engineering. But these methods have well-known limitations. Many are applicable only to a narrow range of interface types and have not been tried on innovative, non-routine interfaces. Almost all methods are time consuming and personnel intensive.
       Key to breaking down the pervasive usability barriers that exist in interactive systems is vastly improved methodologies for developing such systems. Evaluation of human performance and preference lies at the heart of such methodologies. Thus, there is a need to develop a new generation of high impact methods for formative usability evaluation. By high impact, we mean effective, low cost, and easy to use, and that apply to a broader variety of interface types. Until now, development of such methods has been ad hoc a worst and based on expert experience at best, without a model as a framework for method development
       In order to bring more science into the development of formative usability evaluation methods, a goal of this one day workshop was to produce this missing epistemological ingredient: a multi-dimensional taxonomical model of usability evaluation methods. This model is to serve as a structure for discussion, comparison, definition, research, development, and evaluation of usability evaluation methods. In this workshop we were not looking for new methods, per se, but rather for a taxonomical model by which existing methods can be classified and upon which development of new methods can be based.
    The Future of Speech and Audio in the Interface BIBAKPDF 465
      Barry Arons; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    This workshop will explore current and future applications, research areas, and interaction techniques that use audio in the user interface. The emphasis of the meeting will be on a "CHI perspective" of using speech and sound, in appropriate interactive contexts, where the audio channel can be exploited for the user's benefit. The workshop will encompass user interface areas including: speech input and output, non-speech audio, data sonification, spatial audio, and access to audio databases. The workshop will not address topics such as computer music, hardware/systems support for audio, or signal processing as these areas are better addressed in other forums.
    Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Sonification, Sound, Acoustic displays, Auditory perception, Speech interfaces
    Designing the Teaching of HCI BIBAPDF 466
      Clark N. Quinn; Jonas Lowgren; Jean Gasen; Peter Gorny
    The theme of this 1.5 day (Sunday and Monday morning) workshop is to focus on the link between pedagogical theory and successful instruction in HCI by providing a forum for collaborative work on teaching techniques. We address active HCI teachers in academia and industry and emphasize the notion of working together at the workshop rather than merely talking about the issues of interest.
       The goals of the workshop are to:
  • facilitate exchange of teaching ideas and techniques;
  • provide a forum of teacher colleagues for trying out and refining teaching
  • support reflection about teaching techniques in terms of teaching and
       learning theories;
  • encourage continued collaboration between HCI teachers across the world.
  • Using Scenarios to Elicit User Requirements BIBAKPDF 467
      Steve Fickas; W. Lewis Johnson; John Karat; Colin Potts
    Designers could apply scenarios in requirements analysis more effectively if they knew more about their benefits and limitations in real projects. This workshop will explore these issues. By the end of the workshop participants will have drawn up a list of detailed issues about scenarios that will drive ongoing research into requirements analysis, interactive systems design, and participatory design. Some of these issues will be framed in terms of assumptions and hypotheses that could be tested by empirical methods. Others will be stated in terms of open-ended prescriptive guidelines that further practice should refine.
    Keywords: Scenarios, User-centered design, User requirements
    Analyzing and Communicating Usability Data: Now that You Have the Data What Do You Do? BIBAPDF 468
      Nandini Nayak; Debbie Mrazek
    This workshop seeks to bring together practitioners and researchers who have used "discount" methods or ethnographic techniques to successfully influence the interface design process. The objective is to compile a set of analysis and communication tactics and tools that will help usability professionals communicate usability data effectively.
    The Challenges of 3D Interaction BIBAKPDF 469
      Andries van Dam; Kenneth P. Herndon; Michael Gleicher
    The primary goal of this workshop is to help define principles and techniques for the design, implementation and evaluation of future 3D user interfaces. These interfaces must address many challenges arising from such sources as users' perceptual and cognitive skills and abilities, limitations of currently available input and output devices, the nature of 3D tasks and the variety of implementation strategies and development environments.
    Keywords: Interactive 3D graphics, Perception and cognition, 3D user interfaces, 3D interaction techniques
    Pattern Recognition in HCI: A Viable Approach? BIBAKPDF 470
      Janet Finlay; Alan Dix; George Bolt
    The workshop brings together HCI researchers with their problems and pattern recognition researchers with their methods in order to open the way for better communication. During the workshop (and beyond) researchers are experimenting with different methods on real problems, in order to ascertain the scope and limitations of the methods for HCI.
    Keywords: Pattern recognition, Neural networks, Inductive learning, Statistics, User modelling, Evaluation, Task analysis
    Design Rationale: Mutual Opportunities for Research and Practice BIBAPDF 471
      Alistair Sutcliffe; John M. Carroll; Allan MacLean
    The objective of the workshop is to identify opportunities for practitioners to improve their practice and for researchers to develop new techniques. The intention is to create a two way flow of information to help researchers improve current rationale methods in response to industrial requirements, to exchange experience in use of rationales in case studies, and to stimulate research towards new methods and improved practice.
    New Uses and Abuses of Interaction History: Help Form the Research Agenda BIBAKPDF 472
      Will Hill; Loren Terveen
    Recording human-computer interaction for the purposes of reusing commands, undoing actions, recovering from crashes, constructing keyboard macros, and observing users has been with us since the earliest command shells and text editors. For much of that time it remained a sleepy "back water" technology area except for a continuing increase in work-monitoring and associated incidents breaching user privacy. However, with the drastic fall of costs for digital storage, processing and telecommunications, all that is now rapidly changing. Digital records of activity are common at work, market-place and home. While new interaction history techniques such as design capture, automatic change bars, readwear, interface agents, digital audio recording, hot lists, version management, viewer histories, automatic biography, usability studies, active badges, wireless personal communicators, position-sensing and caller-id are enriching the experience of interfaces, the same techniques are enabling new and more invasive abuses. This one-day interdisciplinary workshop will gather 20 practitioners and researchers from the fields of human-computer interaction design, research, ethics and law to produce their "Top Ten" list of research questions concerning uses and abuses of interaction history for the CHI community to address in the coming years. There will be no presentations, but homework will be collected and redistributed via email prior to the workshop. The day will blend open discussions with directed small-group works.
    Keywords: Interaction history, Design capture, Interface agents, Digital audio, User modeling, Active badges, Usability, Privacy, Ethics, Law