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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Celebrating Interdependence
Editors:Catherine Plaisant
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1994-Apr-24 to 1994-Apr-28
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-651-4 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608941; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI94-2
  1. CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2
    2. SHORT PAPERS: Design in the Workplace
    3. SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia in Use
    4. SHORT PAPERS: Modeling I/O
    5. SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia Interfaces
    6. SHORT PAPERS: Auditory Information Interfaces
    7. SHORT PAPERS: Social Aspects of Design
    8. SHORT PAPERS: Designing Spoken Language Systems
    9. SHORT PAPERS: HCI Research?
    10. SHORT PAPERS: Access to Organized Data Structures
    11. SHORT PAPERS: Visual Interaction Techniques
    12. SHORT PAPERS: Designing Interaction Objects
    13. SHORT PAPERS: Cognitive Models
    14. SHORT PAPERS: Enhancing Interaction
    15. SHORT PAPERS: Virtual and Visual Environments

CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2


The Coming of Age of Software Design BIBAPDF 237
  Mitchell Kapor
The recognition of software design as a profession is long overdue. For too long the act of conceiving a new program, that is, seething its distinctive behavior and appearance apart from the mechanism of its implementation, has been unrecognized as a distinct professional activity of paramount importance.
   Software design is in the early stages of coming into its own. It is not an area of research, nor is it a branch of science or a field of engineering. Rather, it is a design discipline within the domain of computing.
   This talk will make the case for these propositions through reflection on personal experience as well as the history of other design professions.
Constructing New Interface Frameworks BIBAKPDF 239-240
  S. Joy Mountford
The design frameworks used successfully in the past by the interface community are largely becoming outmoded. Given current trends toward more personal, portable, media-based products the CHI community needs to revise their design frameworks to help shape a new cycle of interaction design. This talk will use media-based examples to show how the past has been influenced and present some new interface frameworks to help guide future interface design directions.
Keywords: Design, Design methodology, Future interfaces; Design, Design methodology, Future interfaces

SHORT PAPERS: Design in the Workplace

Keeping Viewers in the Picture: Real-World Usability Procedures in the Development of a Television Control Interface BIBAKPDF 243-244
  Alison Black; Oliver Bayley; Colin Burns; Ilkka Kuuluvainen; John Stoddard
This paper describes practical techniques used to ensure user oriented design of a TV control interface. Key issues were the early involvement of usability specialists, the use of different techniques throughout the design process to ensure the whole project team had direct contact with users, and ensuring usability principles were communicated effectively. The paper emphasizes the importance of usability procedures in the design of consumer products, and of taking usability 'out of the lab' to the environments in which products will be used.
Keywords: Consumer products, Television, Design methods, Usability, Observation, Scenarios, User testing
A Comparison of Methods for Teaching Information Systems Design BIBAKPDF 245-246
  Penny Collings; David Walker; Frank Hicks; Anne McMahon; Errol Martin
For some years now, we have been experimenting at the University of Canberra with a range of different approaches to the teaching of information systems design, and in particular the problem of providing a realistic context for the development of user requirements. Three alternative strategies of teaching information systems design, involving traditional written problem specifications, staff role-playing users, and behavioural simulations in which students play both user and IT professional roles are compared, and their areas of applicability identified.
Keywords: Design process, HCI education, Behavioural simulation, Role-playing

SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia in Use

Graphical Interfaces for Young Children in a Software-Based Mathematics Curriculum BIBAKPDF 247-248
  Joe Berkovitz
In designing a software-based elementary mathematics curriculum, we have created a family of graphical interfaces for manipulating mathematical objects. This case study describes part of our design, highlighting some issues of interest to the HCI community. We designed a small but flexible set of general interface mechanisms, adapting them to various instructional contexts. A design goal was to meet the needs of both young and adult users without reinventing familiar styles of interaction. User testing then helped us identify a parsimonious set of adaptations needed for children. Among other results this led to a significantly improved form of marquee selection.
Keywords: User interfaces, Ergonomics, Interaction styles, Computer uses in education, Children, Direct manipulation, Graphics editors, Marquee selection
ScienceWorks Modeler: Scaffolding the Doing of Science BIBAKPDF 249-250
  Shari L. Jackson; Jiannchuan Tony Hu; Elliot Soloway
At the heart of a working science literacy is the ability to create models that explain real-world phenomena. However, constructing, simulating, verifying and validating models poses a serious challenge for students. Just as professional computational scientists rely on technology in their model creation activities, we are developing the ScienceWorks Modeler to provide comparable technological support for students and teachers. With the Modeler, students can easily construct dynamic, photo-realistic, visualizable models, and compare predictions made by their computational models with actual data collected in the field. Students build their models using an easy-to-use object-oriented visual language -- not traditional programming.
Keywords: Model, Simulation, Science, Visualization


Device Comparisons for Goal-Directed Drawing Tasks BIBAKPDF 251-252
  Shawna Meyer; Oryx Cohen; Erik Nilsen
This study compares five input devices (mouse, mousepen, trackball, stylus, and touchscreen) on a series of goal directed tasks using a drawing program. Striking performance differences are found for the touchscreen when compared with a previous study using a standard, isolated, laboratory task. The study also looks at the impact of device to screen mapping (absolute vs. relative) and device orientation (horizontal vs. vertical). Performance and preference data point towards an advantage for horizontal relative input devices.
Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks
Issues and Experience in Designing Two-Handed Interaction BIBAKPDF 253-254
  Stephane Chatty
Considering that direct manipulation interfaces using a pointing device could be more efficient with the addition of a second pointing device, we are designing and implementing two-handed interfaces for air traffic controllers. This paper describes the interaction styles we imagined for such interfaces, and some issues raised by their implementation.
Keywords: Two-handed interaction, Interaction style, Multimodal interaction, Air-traffic control
Passive Force Feedback for Velocity Control BIBAKPDF 255-256
  Mark Paton; Colin Ware
This paper introduces the Bungee Bat as a 3D passive force feedback device for velocity control for exploring 3D graphical environments. A qualitative study was carried out to compare a freehand velocity control device with the Bungee Bat for several navigation tasks in a graphical world consisting of a digital terrain map.
Keywords: Input device, Force feedback, Haptics, Human performance
Design of a Virtual Rigid Surface: Haptic/Audio Registration BIBAKPDF 257-258
  Louis B. Rosenberg
Few design parameters have been developed for the display of virtual percepts. This is particularly true for complex virtual constructs that include haptic information displayed through a force reflecting interface. This study looks at a fundamental virtual percept for haptic display, the representation of a virtual rigid surface, and empirically derives a design parameter for the registration of the haptic and audio perceptual content. Results of subject testing have revealed that a delay as high as 100 ms can exist between the presentation of haptic and audio sensations in display of a virtual rigid surface before users notice any perceptual distortion.
Keywords: Haptic display, Force reflection, Virtual reality, Design for perception, Audio registration, Force reflecting joystick
Anthropomorphic Model for Hand Gesture Interface BIBAKPDF 259-260
  Annelies Braffort; Christophe Collet; Daniel Teil
This paper presents an anthropomorphic computer model of the human hand, with the aim of improving the results of hand gesture recognition algorithms. Cinematic knowledge allows us to filter the data provided by gesture transducers and to reconstruct the hand, even when all the respective position values of its different components are not known. Moreover, such a model provides a representation of the hand which is independent of the transducers used to capture gestures.
Keywords: Gesture interface, Gesture production, Gesture recognition, Anthropomorphic model, Filtering, Reconstruction
A System for Application-Independent Time-Critical Rendering BIBAKPDF 261-262
  Rich Gossweiler; Randy Pausch
We are developing a rendering system which supports automatic, application-independent time-critical rendering for 3D graphics. When the scenes being generated overload the rendering engine, a rendering scheduler employs perception-based techniques to reduce the scene complexity at run-time. Perception-based degradation mechanisms are used because they are based on characteristics of the human, not characteristics of the application. Since the human is the one element guaranteed to exist across all interactive applications, this rendering system is application-independent.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Time-critical rendering, Rendering scheduler, Image degradation, Real-time, Application-independence, Interactive graphics

SHORT PAPERS: Multimedia Interfaces

User Interfaces for Hypermedia: How to Find Good Metaphors? BIBAKPDF 263-264
  Kaisa Vaananen; Jens Schmidt
Users of hypermedia are known to suffer from confusion and loss of overview when navigating within the hyperspace. This is especially serious problem in public information systems where instant acceptance by non-computer-experts must be ensured. Concrete real-world user interface metaphors can help solve these problems by imposing familiar structures and interaction possibilities and visualizing them to the user. This paper gives guidance to the hypermedia user interface designer in the task of selecting an appropriate metaphor.
Keywords: Hypermedia, User interface metaphors
A Geographically-Based Multimedia Approach to City Planning BIBAKPDF 265-266
  Michael J. Shiffer
This paper explores an implementation of a multimedia information system to aid geographically-oriented city planning situations. The implementation provides a method of interacting with city planning analysis tools using direct manipulation graphical interfaces. The technology combines maps, interactive video, text, sound, and other forms of data with analytic tools and an associative information structure using a city map as a central metaphor. This allows immediate navigation amongst chunks of related information during city planning meetings. The technology also makes it possible to link descriptive images, such as digital video and sound, to information that would normally be represented quantitatively.
Keywords: Geographic, Direct manipulation, Noise, Multimedia, Maps, Implementation, Group, Decision

SHORT PAPERS: Auditory Information Interfaces

Multimodal Interfaces: New Solutions to the Problem of Computer Accessibility for the Blind BIBAKPDF 267-268
  Yacine Bellik; Dominique Burger
This paper examines how multimodal interfaces can improve the accessibility of software application for blind users. The approach, which consists of translating visual interaction forms through non visual modalities, can't be successfully applied to graphical interfaces. Optimising interface for the blind involves rethinking paradigms and building the application interface on another base. Multimodal interfaces open new avenues for research and development into this area. This paper discusses these promising perspectives through a concrete example: a prototype multimodal text editor that has been developed in a research project between INSERM and CNRS.
Keywords: User interface, Multimodal interface, Non visual interface
Designing with Auditory Icons: How Well Do We Identify Auditory Cues? BIBAKPDF 269-270
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt
Despite the increased use of auditory icons in computer interfaces, a methodology for designing with auditory icons has not been demonstrated. This methodology should be based on factors which commonly affect the usability of auditory icons in computer interfaces. One step in this methodology is determining how well people can identify auditory cues. In the first of a series of experiments, subjects were asked to describe a collection of short everyday sounds. The content and accuracy of their identifications offers guidelines for the use of auditory cues.
Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Auditory icons, Design methodology, Audio, User interfaces

SHORT PAPERS: Social Aspects of Design

Communicating HCI Modelling to Practitioners BIBAKWeb PagePDF 271-272
  Simon Buckingham Shum; Anker Helms Jorgensen; Annette Aboulafia; Nick Hammond
The human-computer interaction (HCI) community is generating a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches such as cognitive models and user-centred design representations. However, critical factors for their eventual application are their intelligibility, utility and usability for practitioners. In this paper, we present ongoing research into the transfer of analytic HCI approaches to designers. We outline our research strategy, three empirical studies, and some key results. We then highlight measures which respond to designers' requirements by making modelling product and process accessible to practitioners.
Keywords: HCI modelling, HCI theory, Design practice
Using Electronic Group Decision-Making Technology for Usability Walkthroughs: An Initial Qualitative Cost/Benefit Analysis BIBAKPDF 273-274
  Lauren Weisberg Zack
Today's business climate mandates that all application development methods be cost-effective as well as user-centered. An alternative to costly, traditional Usability laboratory testing is discussed. By employing advanced technologies such as electronic group decision-making tools, development teams may experience a reduction in cycle-time while retaining the ability to focus on end-user performance and preference information in order to improve customer satisfaction.
Keywords: Usability, Cognitive walkthroughs, Electronic brainstorming, GUI, User interface design team

SHORT PAPERS: Designing Spoken Language Systems

Talking vs Taking: Speech Access to Remote Computers BIBAKPDF 275-276
  Nicole Yankelovich
The telephone also has its share of problems. It seems everywhere we call these days we are greeted by a voice asking us to press 1 for this, 2 for that, and 3 for who knows what. Why are these systems so frustrating to use? Is it their inflexibility? Perhaps it's because people expect to engage in a conversation when they pick up the phone.
Keywords: Speech user interface, Speech recognition, Electronic calendar, Natural language processing
Storywriter: A Speech Oriented Editor BIBAKPDF 277-278
  Catalina Danis; Liam Comerford; Eric Janke; Ken Davies; Jackie DeVries; Alex Bertrand
Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI), a disorder that curtails repetitive movements such as typing and poses a potentially career-ending problem for people who write for a living, motivated our development of the StoryWriter editor. This editor accepts speech and keyboard input for text creation and six types of input for application control functions (speech, keyboard, mouse, foot pedal and two novel techniques, pointer touch and point and speak). The variability of RSI symptomatology dictated that several input methods be integrated seamlessly. The system can also be used efficiently by unimpaired individuals.
Keywords: Speech recognition, Editing, RSI, Dictation, Pointing


A Survey on User Expectations for Interface Builders BIBAKPDF 279-280
  M. C. Desmarais; C. Hayne; S. Jagannath; R. Keller
This study provides many insights into the features that users look for in interface building tools, as well as those that can hinder their use. The results suggest that users are willing to pay a high price for a reliable tool that will combine both fast prototyping and fully operational target interfaces and at the same time provide high functionality. Yet users want a tool that is easy to use and to learn. This is a great challenge for developers of interface builders since there is currently a compromise to make between tools that allow fast and easy prototyping, and toolkits which provide high functionality and good execution speed.
Keywords: GUI tools, Survey, Evaluation
Effects of Message Style on Users' Attributions toward Agents BIBAKPDF 281-282
  Susan E. Brennan; Justina O. Ohaeri
We used a Wizard-of-Oz paradigm to study effects of message style on dialog and on people's mental models of computer agents. People made airline reservations using a simulated reservation agent from which they received one of three message styles: Telegraphic, Fluent, or Anthropomorphic. The agent accepted any kind of language or command input people typed. When people took the initiative, they tended to model their inputs on the computer's messages. They expended more effort in the Anthropomorphic than in the Fluent or Telegraphic conditions. We found no evidence that natural language messages led to higher expectations of intelligence than telegraphic messages.
Keywords: Natural language interfaces, Error messages, Agents, Anthropomorphism, Mental models
When Users Do and Don't Rely on Icon Shape BIBAKPDF 283-284
  Jackie Moyes
It is expected that users learn to associate commands with an icon's shape, and eventually learn to associate its position. The experiment reported suggests that if the icon's shape is hard see as meaningful then subjects rely on position rather than shape in order to identify the appropriate icon. The experiment had four conditions, manipulating the abstractness of icon shape and constancy of icon position. After a training period, conditions changed without warning and the conclusions depend on whether or not performance was disrupted by the change. The effects were large: ranging from zero to four-fold worsening of performance.
Keywords: Icon design, Position, Representation
Toward a Deeper Comparison of Methods: A Reaction to Nielsen & Phillips and New Data BIBAKPDF 285-286
  Bonnie E. John
This paper critiques the design and interpretation of the Nielsen and Phillips INTERCHI'93 study comparing three evaluation techniques. In addition, this paper presents new data illustrating that it is as important to ask what analysts do when using these techniques as it is to ask how well they predict performance.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, GOMS, KLM, User testing, Usability, Inspection techniques

SHORT PAPERS: Access to Organized Data Structures

Electronic Proceedings (Eprocs) for IWANNT'93 BIBAKPDFCOM 287-288
  Robert B. Allen
An electronic proceedings for the 1993 International Workshop on Applications of Neural Networks to Telecommunications (IWANNT) was presented in the SuperBook text browsing system. The proceedings were available on workstations during the workshop and they are now available via the Internet. In the one month following the workshop, 285 logins were recorded from 28 countries. Respondents to an email questionnaire were generally favorable with 87% stating they would like Eprocs to be available for future conferences.
Keywords: Electronic proceedings, Information retrieval, Information systems, Internet, Hypertext
Navigational View Builder: A Tool for Building Navigational Views of Information Spaces BIBAKPDF 289-290
  Sougata Mukherjea; James D. Foley
Overview node and link diagrams are one of the best tools for context and orientation in hypermedia systems. To be really effective these need to show not only the node and link topology but more information about the underlying information space. The Navigational View Builder allows the designer or the user to control the dynamic binding between the visual properties of the overview diagrams and the underlying information. Dynamic binding can also be used for forming fish-eye views. Finally, by combining this method with force-based graph-drawing algorithms, visual clusters of related nodes based on various similarity metrics can be formed.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Information visualization, Binding

SHORT PAPERS: Visual Interaction Techniques

Knurls: Effective 3D Intra-Molecular Manipulation with a 2D Device BIBAKPDF 291-292
  Scott D. Kahn; Gary A. Chappell; Andrew Smellie; Michael Shantz; Steven Teig
A number of interaction models and techniques have been designed and developed for using a 2D device to explore and/or deliver direct user manipulation of 3D objects presented on a 2D display. While existing approaches work well for rotating and translating self-contained objects, they are not effective enough in supporting dynamic manipulation of intra-object components, such as the atoms and bonds within a 3D molecule. Our explorations of this domain have led to the design and development of manipulation "knurls," which are transient 3D interaction highlights/controls rendered directly on the atoms/bonds of the molecule. In appearance rather like thumbwheels or dials, knurls allow the user to center all of his focus on the object actually being manipulated. Knurls very effectively support the use of 2D control devices for direct 3D intra-molecular manipulations, such as atom translations, bond rotations, and ring flexing. High quality 3D molecule displays give users the 'look' of familiar plastic models; knurls give them the 'feel' of plastic models. The knurls manipulation concept is broader than our domain-specific implementation, and could readily be extended to other domains such as mechanical CAD or CAE.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Methodology and techniques, Interaction techniques, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Models and principles, User/machine systems, Human factors, Input/output devices, Input devices, Virtual controllers, I/O devices, Knurls, Mouse, Direct manipulation, Three dimensional graphics, Molecular modeling
What You See Is What You Get -- But Do You Get What You See? BIBAKPDF 293-294
  Hermina J. M. Tabachneck; Herbert A. Simon
Visualization can be very powerful. But can we over-visualize? This paper describes three experiments that show that visualization without proper grounding in the underlying knowledge base could be detrimental to understanding. Although we concentrate on graphs, the conclusions should hold for diagrams and icons as well. Visualization needs to be seen as but one aspect of what is needed to understand a concept. The visual aspect of a concept can be extremely helpful and enlightening -- but without thorough connections to its non-visual aspects, such as verbally expressed causal mechanisms, it can be but so many lines on paper.
Keywords: Visualization, Multiple representations, Graphs, Diagrams, Empirical studies, Cognitive models

SHORT PAPERS: Designing Interaction Objects

Alice: A Rapid Prototyping System for Building Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 295-296
  Matthew Conway; Randy Pausch; Rich Gossweiler; Tommy Burnette
Alice is a rapid prototyping system used to create three dimensional graphics simulations like those seen in virtual reality applications. Alice uses an interpreted language called Python to implement the semantics of user actions. This interactive development environment allows users to explore many more design options than is possible in a compiled language environment.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Rapid prototyping, Interpreted languages
Sage: Creating Reusable, Modularized Interactive Behaviors by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 297-298
  Gurminder Singh; Zhao Cuie
Sage allows interactive behaviors (or command sequences) used in graphical user interfaces to be stored as templates and reused. These behaviors are specified by demonstration by using Sage's companion system called Druid. A collection of related behaviors can be stored as a library and shared within and across development teams to facilitate faster and bug-free interface development. By providing libraries of interactive behaviors, Sage facilitates the development of behaviorally consistent interfaces within and across applications.
Keywords: UIMSs, Programming by demonstration, Interactive behaviors, Behavior inferencing, Visual programming

SHORT PAPERS: Cognitive Models

Acquisition of Display-Based Skill BIBAKPDF 299-300
  Stephen J. Payne
Two experiments are reported that track the development of skill and the nature of errors in a menu-traversal task. Three findings challenge models of skill acquisition. First, there is a great deal of transfer from practised to unpractised tasks, suggesting an important role for incidental acquisition of declarative knowledge. Second, working memory load affects error rates and acquisition of declarative knowledge but has no effect on the shape of learning curves. Third, errors in skilled performance are more likely if identical errors have already been made.
Keywords: Cognitive skills, Menus, Exploratory learning
A Model-Based Analysis of Errors in Display-Based HCI BIBAKPDF 301-302
  Muneo Kitajima; Peter G. Polson
This paper describes a model-based analysis of errors in expert use of graphical user interfaces. Two mechanisms, speed-accuracy tradeoffs and attention failures, were simulated by a model consisting of processes for display elaboration, selection of objects to be operated on, and selection of a next action. Both selection processes are performed in a context defined by the elaboration process, simulated by a sampling mechanism which uses knowledge in long-term memory for display comprehension. The model provides a well motivated account of errors made by expert users. Finally, the use of the model in interface evaluation is discussed.
Keywords: Errors, Action cycle model, Graphical user interface, Display-based human-computer interaction

SHORT PAPERS: Enhancing Interaction

DeskSlate: A Shared Workspace for Telephone Partners BIBAKPDF 303-304
  Brid O'Conaill; Erik Geelhoed; Peter Toft
Research has shown that adding a shared workspace to an audio channel benefits a complex text editing or a graphical task but not a simple summary task. This laboratory based work did not test the additional benefit of having a permanent record of activity (not normally provided by audio alone). DeskSlate is a laboratory prototype which provides the ability to annotate documents or use a shared whiteboard while maintaining voice contact over a single telephone line. When we introduced the system into people's real work environments, shared workspace plus audio provided benefit over a broader range of tasks than was found in the laboratory experiments.
Keywords: CSCW, Shared electronic workspace, Telephone, Field trials, Laboratory experiments
Towards the Interactive Office BIBAKPDF 305-306
  Steve Hodges; Gifford Louie
We describe a prototype system, the Interactive Office, which supports the occupant's daily activities in an office. Discrete sensors embedded in an office detect the occupant's movements whilst a number of actuators allow computer control of the environment. Integrating inputs from many sensors places the user in a context, which, combined with the actuators, can be used to automate simple tasks. Using this system, an occupant need not change their normal actions or directly interact with an interface. We describe the underlying technology for this type of indirect interaction and illustrate the potential of augmenting an office to support a user's daily tasks.
Keywords: Context based interaction, Ubiquitous computing, Computer augmented environments, Office automation
A Groupware Environment for Complete Meetings BIBAKPDF 307-308
  Ted O'Grady; Saul Greenberg
Meetings have different phases: a pre-meeting setup phase, a during meeting phase and a post-meeting teardown phase. Additionally, meetings are individual, each requiring a different set of tools and applications. We are developing a prototype groupware environment that addresses the different phases of meetings as well as providing for customizable meetings.
Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Desktop conferencing
TeleCSILE: Facilitating Collaboration Between Teachers in Different Schools BIBAKPDF 309-310
  Peter Rowley
CSILE is a Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment designed to support a learning model in which students explicitly set group learning goals and teachers focus on facilitating expert pursuit of those goals. We constructed TeleCSILE to support reflective collaboration between teachers in different schools via low-cost e-mail links, facilitating their elaboration of a practical model for implementing this desired, but difficult to achieve, shift in their classrooms. We report on the design considerations behind TeleCSILE and conclude with a user interface case study that illustrates the impact of translating a collaborative facility into a distributed context.
Keywords: Computer conferencing, Group and organization interfaces, Evaluation/methodology & organizational design, Computer uses in education, Design (cognitively based design of educational software), Computer-supported cooperative learning
Synthesis of Sign Language Gestures BIBAKPDF 311-312
  Sylvie Gibet
Communication with the hearing-impaired can be improved by an interface that is capable of translating natural language into animated sign-language. This short-paper presents a model that simulates natural hand-arm movements. A simple command, specified in terms of successive target end-points is translated through the control model into a complete movement trajectory. The main issues of this model are:
  • - the synthesized gestures are very natural,
  • - the command is very efficient since it straightforwardly translates sign
       language specification into joint angles or positions.
    Keywords: Natural movement synthesis, Sign language communication, Gesture animation, Computer animation
  • Gestural Human-Machine Interaction for People with Severe Speech and Motor Impairment Due to Cerebral Palsy BIBAKPDF 313-314
      David M. Roy; Marilyn Panayi; Roman Erenshteyn; Richard Foulds; Robert Fawcus
    The objective of the research is to develop a new method of human-machine interaction that reflects and harnesses the abilities of people with severe speech and motor impairment due to cerebral palsy (SSMICP). Human-human interaction within the framework of drama and mime was used to elicit 120 gestures from twelve students with SSMICP. 27 dynamic arm gestures were monitored using biomechanical and bioelectric sensors. Neural networks are being used to analyze the data and to realize the gestural human-machine interface. Preliminary results show that two visually similar gestures can be differentiated by neural networks.
    Keywords: Gesture recognition, Disability, Cerebral palsy, Performance art, Electromyogram, EMG, Artificial neural networks

    SHORT PAPERS: Virtual and Visual Environments

    Pad++: Advances in Multiscale Interfaces BIBAKPDF 315-316
      Benjamin B. Bederson; Larry Stead; James D. Hollan
    We have implemented an infinite resolution multimedia sketchpad as a base for exploring a stream-of-consciousness model of computation where information creating, sharing and retrieval becomes so intuitive that the interface becomes invisible. Motivation to pursue this came from work on Pad [4], which can be thought of as a kind of traditional sketchpad or windows environment in the sense that it is a general-purpose substrate for visualizing two dimensional graphics and text. But Pad also supports the radical notion of being infinite in extent and resolution.
    Keywords: Interactive user interfaces, Multiscale interfaces, Multimedia authoring, Information navigation, Hypertext, Information visualization
    An Approach for Designing Virtual Environment Training Systems BIBAKPDF 317-318
      Mark S. Schlager
    We have developed a set of analytic tools to identify and develop virtual environment (VE) simulation training applications. Task selection criteria help identify tasks that might benefit from VE training; VE requirements matrices are used to derive VE training system requirements; and cost-effectiveness factors are used to judge the relative merits of VE and other training delivery technologies. The tools have been applied successfully in aircraft and space maintenance domains, and work is in progress to extend them to nuclear power plant maintenance.
    Keywords: Virtual environment, Training simulation systems, Design requirements, Cost-effectiveness
    VR Management Tools: Beyond Spatial Presence BIBAKPDF 319-320
      John A. Waterworth; Luis Serra
    We have created three types of user-controlled management tool for use in virtual reality environments: the 3DMenu, the M-Cube, and the SuperCube. 3DMenus are equivalent to the menu systems found in two dimensional interactive environments, but have the necessary spatial presence for the immersive 3D world of a VR application. M-Cubes are directly equivalent to 3DMenus but, by using all six available surfaces to present selection alternatives, occupy significantly less space. SuperCubes, in contrast to both these approaches, reflect a move beyond spatial presence by the attachment of meaning to their manipulation; the dimensions of space are also dimensions of information.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, VR, Interface management tools, 3D, Information dimensionality, Menus
    OPOSSUM: A Flexible Schema Visualization and Editing Tool BIBAKPDF 321-322
      Eban M. Haber; Yannis E. Ioannidis; Miron Livny
    In the spirit of interdependence of the different areas of CHI research, we present a description of OPOSSUM, a visualization tool inspired by concepts from heterogeneous databases. OPOSSUM is a tool for visualizing and editing structured data; we use it to view and modify object-oriented database schemes. OPOSSUM is based on a formalism that allows declarative descriptions of the following: 1) a model describing the schema to be visualized, 2) a model describing visualizations, and 3) a mapping between the two models. The formal approach makes OPOSSUM very flexible, and promises solutions to several problems of schema visualization.
    Keywords: Model-based interface tools, Metaphors, Database, Schema visualization
    Analyzing Graphic and Textual Layouts with GOMS: Results of a Preliminary Analysis BIBAKPDF 323-324
      Mei C. Chuah; Bonnie E. John; John Pane
    We combined previous research on GOMS modeling with some simple assumptions about visual search strategies to make zero-parameter predictions of the time necessary to perform a task on four different graphic and textual displays. We compared these predictions to empirical measures of performance time and obtained an absolute average percent difference of 8%. These results indicate that GOMS may be extended to be a useful tool for analyzing different layouts.
    Keywords: GOMS, Cognitive modeling, Graphic layout, Textual layout
    Immersive Environments: A Physical Approach to the Computer Interface BIBAKPDF 325-326
      Allison Druin; Ken Perlin
    Every year we spend a greater proportion of our daily lives, at home, in business, in education, and in entertainment, in front of a computer screen. As networking becomes commonplace, this increasingly includes our activities with other people. We want to aim at a richer interaction.
       How can technology become a seamless extension of our real world physical surroundings? This is a focus of research at the NYU Media Research Laboratory. We are developing new approaches to large-scale physically immersive, multimedia environments. Recently we collaborated with film students and faculty from the NYU Tisch School of the Arts to create three room-sized computer-mediated immersive environments. This short paper will summarize our approach to interdisciplinary research in the context of developing new technologies for immersive environments.
    Keywords: Immersive environments, Physical multimedia, Interdisciplinary research


    Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBAKPDF 329
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
    User documentation, whether in print or "built-in" to the online user interface, is now a vital element of successful computer products. Managers and developers recognize that the common model of documentation as remediation for deficient design must not persist, but they often don't know how to build documentation usability into an ongoing product-development effort.
       Therefore, this meeting is a forum on human factors in computer documentation. With the growth of online user support and the increasing integration of documentation with the user interface, this SIG provides CHI'94 attendees with a specific opportunity to discuss recent developments in documentation usability. Topics include:
  • Addressing documentation usability early in the product design process;
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting documentation usability
  • Roles and relationships among documentation specialists, user-interface
       designers, and software developers;
  • Schedule and budget issues relating to documentation usability.
    Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development
  • Usability Lab Tools: One Year Later BIBAKPDF 330
      Paul Weiler; Monty Hammontree
    This Special Interest Group (SIG) is a follow-up to panels from last year's CHI and the Usability Professionals Association conferences. The intent of the SIG is to provide a forum for the exchange of new ideas and technologies in the area of usability laboratory tools. Experts in the area will meet to discuss and demonstrate recent developments in tools and talk about future plans. Topics for discussion include, but are not limited to, event logging, observation logging, video tape analysis, highlight tape production, remote usability testing, and new technologies. Anyone involved or interested in usability testing is invited to attend.
    Keywords: Usability, Tools, Data collection, Laboratory, Testing, Logging, Video, Analysis
    Ergonomic Standards for Software: Update for 1994 BIBAKPDF 331
      Patricia A. Billingsley
    As of January 1993, the member nations of the European Community have been required to adopt minimum health and safety standards for office-based computer systems, including the user interfaces to those systems. This European initiative continues to drive the efforts of many standards committees, both in the United States and abroad, as they attempt to develop reasonable and meaningful ergonomic standards for software user interfaces.
       In this SIG session, a panel of user interface standards experts will describe the latest developments in the national and international arenas, and discuss the impact of emerging ergonomic standards on members of the CHI community and software development in general. The panel will include representatives of the most active standards committees, including CEN TC122/WG5, ISO-IEC JTC1/SC18/WG9, ISO TC159/SC4/WG5, ANSI X3V1.9, HFES-HCI, and IEEE P1201.2. The final half-hour of the session will be set aside for an open discussion with the audience.
    Keywords: Software ergonomics, Software user interface standards, ISO, ANSI, IEEE
    Educating the Next Generation of Information Systems Specialists: Report on a US National Science Foundation Task Force BIBAKPDF 332
      Michael J. Muller; Anita LaSalle; Michael C. Mulder
    We present results from a US National Science Foundation Task Force on Information Engineering. The task force combined academic and industry views on the expertise required to support team work for the design and development of software systems. The information systems specialist who has been "designed" by the task force would be a critical member of such teams. For comment by CHI participants, we present a profile of the knowledge, skills and expertise needed by the new specialist, and draft curricula to educate such specialists.
    Keywords: Information engineering, Systems, Design, Curriculum, Education, Development, Team
    Issues in Human Factors Organization and Practices BIBAKPDF 333
      Barry Beith; Thyra L. Rauch; Thomas D. Wilson
    We invite human factors professionals (and anyone with a vested interest) from development and testing organizations to come together discuss strategies, tactics, and tools for achieving user-centered product development.
       We expect participants to be willing to work together in an environment of openness about their working environment, specific problems that they need to solve, and the solutions they have achieved for past problems.
       Our goals include:
  • Identifying current difficulties in affecting the course of product
  • Outlining alternative solutions, along with the associated benefits, costs,
       difficulties in reaching these solutions, and potential new problems that
       may result.
  • Availability of resources.
  • Political solutions, strategies, and tactics.
  • Success stories, with analyses of what key changes made each solution work.
    Keywords: Human factors, Organization, Process
  • SIGCHI Vision: Linking Research and Practice BIBAKPDF 334
      Vivienne Begg
    This SIG is proposed as a result of the Vision process in which ACM SIGCHI has been engaged. This process is designed to help the leadership of SIGCHI to rethink our mission as an ACM SIG. In order to open the discussion to the membership, an email discussion list, vision.chi, was opened up last year, and this topic, "Linking Research and Practice" was one which emerged as being of importance to the participants. This proposal consists of two parts, the themes which emerged in discussion, and a structure for further discussion in the context of CHI '94. The goal of the SIG is to get some answers to the questions raised in the "Themes".
    Keywords: Research, Practice, Conference, Meeting, Publication, Membership, Quality
    Visual Interaction Design Special Interest Area Annual Meeting BIBAKPDF 335
      Loretta Staples; Andy Cargile
    In the past, our attendees have included graphic and industrial design professionals, educators, and students, as well as those interested in knowing more about or lending support to the area of visual/product design. This year's meeting will focus on the visual design community's presence within the larger CHI organization, with an emphasis on developing an agenda of activities for the coming year.
    Keywords: Design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, Product design, Industrial design, Special interest group
    Reflective Practitioners: Connecting Research and Practice BIBAKPDF 336
      George Casaday; Cynthia Rainis; Dennis Wixon
    Our purpose is to establish an ongoing community of practitioners who will support each other in applying knowledge gained from research and practice in HCI. Reflective practitioners value dialog with the research community, ideas from published reports of successful practice, individual discussions with other practitioners, and careful evaluation of the results of their own work. They are interested in articulating design rationale as well as in producing design results. They are interested in sharing the results of their practice with others.
       At this meeting, we plan to follow up on the IC'93 workshop, Reflective Practitioners, by welcoming a larger group of participants, identifying our common needs and problems, and developing ideas for an action plan for cooperation. The three main outcomes of this years meeting are to articulate a shared understanding of who we are, what we need, and how we can help each other; to create an e-mail distribution list that we can use to stay in communication between SIGCHI conferences; and to plan activities for the coming year, including organizing the SIG meeting at CHI'95.
    Keywords: HCI, Human computer interaction, Research, Practice
    HCI Challenges in Government Contracting BIBAKPDF 337
      Elizabeth Buie; Ira Winkler; Christopher Norloff; Michael Shafto; Nigel Bevan; Andrew Cohen; Bonnie Hawkins; Deborah Hix
    Governments spend huge resources on custom computer systems, developed by contractors to government specifications under government monitoring. HCI development faces challenges from this environment's constraints and the HCI community's virtual neglect. This SIG will identify common HCI challenges and will explore ways of addressing them. An extended audience discussion will follow brief statements by government clients, contractors, and consultants on HCI issues in U.S. and European government contracts. The SIG will focus on potential solutions to identified challenges.
    Keywords: Government, Military, Contracts, User interfaces, Systems development, Interactive systems, Organizational impacts
    International Usability Testing: How Can We Do It Early, Often, & Cost-Effectively BIBAKPDF 338
      Marta A. Miller; Catherine O'Donnell
    The problem (and focus of this SIG) is: How do you do usability testing, especially using discount methods, when the usability staff is 3000+ miles from the user population?
       SIG participants will be called on to raise and define the issues. A sampling of issues might include:
  • Do you need usability staff in international locations to execute a
       successful usability test? Are there existing labs and universities that
       could be used?
  • Do language and cultural differences between staff and participants negate
       the outcome of usability tests?
  • Are foreign nationals good representatives of users in their home country?
  • How do we get backing from the business to conduct testing in international
  • What ways exist to control costs?
  • What are the logistics involved in taking the staff and equipment to
       international locations?
  • Do testing techniques exist that collect good data without requiring travel
       (e.g., Video-conferencing)?
    Keywords: Evaluation, Usability, Internationalization, User testing
  • New Directions in HCI Education and Research BIBAKPDF 339
      Gary W. Strong
    A workshop entitled "New Directions in Human-Computer Interaction Education and Research" was conducted during February 5th and 6th in Washington DC. It was sponsored by the Interactive Systems Program and the Applications of Advanced Technology Program of the National Science Foundation and by the Software and Intelligent Systems Technology Office of the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The purpose was to identify a relationship between HCI research and HCI education and to make recommendations on how to improve the quality of HCI education. A draft of the report from this workshop on "New Directions in HCI Education and Research" will be presented and opened to discussion by interested parties.
    Keywords: HCI education, HCI research, Funding
    The SIGCHI Identity Visioning Project BIBAKPDF 340
      Michael E. Atwood
    For the past few years, the SIGCHI Extended Executive Committee (EEC) has engaged in a visioning exercise that considered what SIGCHI would become in the near future. This activity identified areas that are important to address now. Currently, these areas consider membership and the process of volunteering, the links between research and practice, electronic publishing, and identity. In this SIG, we focus on identity; other SIGs focus on the other areas.
       During the next 18 months, the EEC will work on projects that will refine our identity as a society and strengthen the common bonds that led us to associate with SIGCHI. We will explore how the EEC and other SIGCHI members can work together to create new programs that are of benefit to the individuals involved, to our SIGCHI society, and to the HCI community at large.
       In this SIG, we will present plans for projects suggested by the EEC, solicit your comments on these projects, ask for your ideas for new projects, and invite your participation on these projects.
    Keywords: SIGCHI, EEC, Visioning, Identity
    East-West Human Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 341
      Eddy Boeve; Steven Pemberton
    This SIG will provide information about EWHCI '94: the fourth East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, to be held in St. Petersburg from 2-6 August 1994.
       The Logistics Team and attendees of the previous conferences will be on hand to answer questions for those interested in attending.
    Keywords: Russia, Conference, HCI
    Usability Professionals Association Meeting BIBAKPDF 342
      Mary Beth Butler
    The Usability Professionals Association (UPA) meets annually at CHI to discuss issues of common concern to people involved with usability. The UPA's emphasis is on practical ideas for implementing usability engineering and testing programs.
       All levels of usability professionals are invited to come share their experience, ask questions, and meet other people facing similar challenges.
       At this year's SIG, we'll be reviewing plans for the UPA annual summer conference; discuss activities to formalize the activities of the UPA, and review issues of common interest raised at CHI '94.
    Keywords: Usability, Usability testing, Usability labs
    War Stories and Experience Designing with Contextual Techniques BIBAKPDF 343
      Karen Holtzblatt
    Field research and ethnographic techniques have increasingly been used to drive product and system development in software development organizations. This SIG gives practitioners and researchers the opportunity to discuss their own experience using ethnographic techniques in the development process. The session will also be of interest to those who wish to introduce such techniques into their organization and to those who have had difficulty using them in the past.
       The discussion will start with practitioners from WordPerfect, Microsoft, and elsewhere presenting their experience. This will be followed by discussion of issues and possible solutions to problems raised by participants.
       We will talk about issues such as: different ways of defining a software development problem and how to define an appropriate data gathering technique for it; how people without special skill can successfully use these techniques; how to ensure the data is reflected in the final design; and how the process can fit to the time scale of a real development process.
    Keywords: Ethnography, Design, Usability
    Electronic Resources in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDFHTML 344
      Gary Perlman; John "Scooter" Morris; Jakob Nielsen; Brian Shackel
    At CHI'91 there was a SIG meeting on Resources in HCI in which the HCI Bibliography [Perl91] and the HILITES database [Shack92] were featured. Since that time, the resources in HCI have expanded dramatically, almost all of which are available online, many of which are available free of charge. The topics of this SIG meeting are:
  • identifying current resources in HCI;
  • identifying as yet unknown resources;
  • identifying useful resources to develop;
  • soliciting input on acceptable formats and how resources should be made
    Keywords: Information networks, Online information services, Electronic publishing, Human-computer interaction, SIGCHI Vision
  • Issues in End User Software Internationalization BIBAKPDF 345
      Tracy M. Jennings
    There has been increasing discussion in the CHI community about internationalizing end user software. One model suggests that feedback from international users should be included before a product is released. One source of feedback would be usability testing. The model also suggests that text translations and date, time, and number format conversions may not be sufficient to internationalize a product; other elements to be considered include images, symbols, color, now and function [1]. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss three issues related to this model.
       One issue is whether this is a good model for internationalization. Are there other models? Are there different models for different products?
       We will also address the assumption of this model that early user feedback and increasing the number of interface components to be internationalized will increase user acceptance and add value to a product. Are there cases where this assumption does not apply?
       Finally, if we assume that early testing is important, what techniques and technologies are available and which are most cost effective? Some testing technologies include remote testing, video conferences, mobile labs, and using existing translation centers.
       I hope that through our discussion we can learn more about how international concerns impact our work.
    Keywords: Internationalization, Usability testing
    SIGCHI Vision: Membership & Volunteers Action Proposal BIBAPDF 346
      Stacey Ashlund; John Bennett
    This report summarizes the possible actions under consideration by the SIGCHI Extended Executive Committee with respect to membership and volunteers as part of an ongoing visioning process. The purpose of this CHI'94 SIG is to gather membership feedback on these actions.
       The charter of the Membership & Volunteers program is as follows:
  • To contribute to the goals and objectives of SIGCHI members.
  • To recruit new members.
  • To ensure the volunteer process is mutually beneficial to the volunteers and
  • Meeting Federal Accessibility/Disability Requirements in Interface Design BIBAKPDF 347
      Gary W. Strong
    IFIP Working Group 13.3, "Human Computer Interaction and People with Disabilities" was formed in 1993 and announces itself with this SIG session devoted to US regulations and interface design. The Americans with Disabilities Act and recent Federal Acquisition Regulations have alerted software developers to the need to accommodate people with disabilities in the design of interfaces. Efforts that have been made will be discussed and assistance will be provided to help those needing to make accommodations to get started.
    Keywords: Accessibility, Disabilities, Americans with Disabilities Act, Federal regulations, Social inclusion, Information highway
    Tools for Working with Guidelines BIBAK --
      Iris Dilli; Peter Gorny; Harald Reiterer; Kaori Ueno; Jean Vanderdonckt
    This SIG will focus on existing and planned tools for helping the designer working with guidelines. Up to now, many discussions have been oriented to the guideline contents and little has been paid to computer-aided activities involving guidelines: learning, understanding, teaching, illustration, documentation, standard compliance, usability assessment, guideline evaluation, computer-aided generation of user-interface explicitly based on guidelines, advice-giving systems, ... Some tools emerge today, but it is not clear enough what type of tool they consist of, what kind of help they provide, for what purpose they are made for. DIADES-II (I. Dilli), EXPOSE (P. Gorny), IDA (H. Reiterer), GuideBook (K. Ueno), and SIERRA (J. Vanderdonckt) have been presented to foster the discussion. This SIG will try to clarify the purposes of such tools. It also will examine the gap existing between the demand and the supply in the area of guideline tools, i.e. what the designer wants to have and what facilities are provided by tools.
    Keywords: Computer-aided software engineering, Guidelines, Human factors, Hypermedia, Usability engineering