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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Celebrating Interdependence
Editors:Catherine Plaisant
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1994-Apr-24 to 1994-Apr-28
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-651-4 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608941; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI94-2
  1. CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2
    2. INTERACTIVE POSTERS -- Social Action Posters
    4. PANELS

CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2


The Effect of Evaluation and Redesign BIBAKPDF 69-70
  Thomas K. Landauer
It is clear that formative evaluation and redesign holds great promise for rapid progress. Projections suggest that ten years of widespread application of these methods could yield more than 20 times the gains that would be expected otherwise.
Keywords: Usability engineering, Usefulness, Productivity, Iterative design, Iteration, Efficiency, Measurement, Assessment, Evaluation, History of UCD, Benefits, Progress, Testing, Improvement, UCD, User centered design, Comparisons
The HCI Bibliography: Past, Present, and Future BIBAKPDF 71-72
  Gary Perlman
The HCI Bibliography is a free-access online bibliographic database on Human-Computer Interaction. The basic goal of the project is to put an electronic bibliography for most of HCI on the screens of all researchers, developers, educators and students in the field through anonymous ftp access, mail servers, and Macintosh and DOS floppy disks. In 1994, through the efforts of over 100 volunteers from 13 nations, the bibliography has grown to a resource of over 10,000 entries occupying over 10 megabytes, used by over 350 sites in 23 nations. This notice describes the contents of the database, how to access it, and its history.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Bibliographic information, Research aids, Distributed group work, Networks, Information sharing, Online/electronic publication
The ACM SIGCHI Education Survey BIBAKPDF 73-74
  Gary Perlman; Jean Gasen
The HCI Education survey describes 68 programs, 162 faculty, and 139 courses in graduate-level education in human-computer interaction. In addition to the data files on each program, summary reports of programs, faculty, courses and other information have been generated. The survey was designed, conducted, analyzed, and distributed entirely online using Internet mail and ftp. The low cost and active nature of the medium of the survey administration and distribution makes it possible to have continuously updated information.
Keywords: Computer and information science education, Curriculum, Human-computer interaction, Electronic / online survey administration
Exploratory Learning of Interactive Devices BIBAKPDF 75-76
  Carol-Ina Trudel
The locus of this research is on the nature of exploratory learning of interactive devices. Exploratory Learning is a commonplace activity when people are faced with novel devices. It basically consists of "pressing buttons" and observing what happens. In this first series of experiments the performance of subjects exploring the various functions of a computer simulated digital watch was observed under three conditions: Unstructured (free exploration), Structured (given a list of goals) and Key Press Limit (restricted to 250 key presses). The main finding was that the latter group performed significantly better than the other two groups on a post-exploration questionnaire, and completed tasks significantly more efficiently on a post-exploration test. This finding is interpreted in terms of reflection: a limit on the number of moves permitted may encourage reflection, which is more beneficial to learning than the "mindless" exploration allowed on certain devices.
Keywords: Exploratory learning, User behaviour, Individual differences
Pointing in Entertainment-Oriented Environments: Appreciation versus Performance BIBAKPDF 77-78
  J. H. D. M. Westerink; K. van den Reek
Pointing in multi-media applications for entertainment is investigated, more specifically the relation between (subjective) user appreciation of pointing devices and (objective) performance measures like time-to-target.
Keywords: Multi-media, Consumer products, Pointing devices, Fitts' Law, User appreciation, Performance measures
Why You Can't Program Your VCR, or, Predicting Errors and Performance with Production System Models of Display-Based Action BIBAKPDF 79-80
  Wayne D. Gray; Haresh Sabnani
We present a production rule model of display-based action for a humble yet error-prone task: programming a VCR. The system is data-driven in that the task goal is achieved in spite of partially specified plans by relying on changes in the display to trigger the creation of new goals. Knowledge in the system is partitioned into Task Knowledge, Display-Based Knowledge, and Device Specific Knowledge. Predictions are made regarding novice-level errors that are then compared to empirical data. The system is implemented in ACT-R, and uses Apple events to communicate with a VCR simulated in HyperCard.
Keywords: Cognitive models, GOMS, D-TAG, ACT-R, VCR, Production systems, Errors, Performance, Display-based action, Symbolic theories of interactive tasks
"FingeRing": A Full-Time Wearable Interface BIBAPDF 81-82
  Masaaki Fukumoto; Yasuhito Suenaga
A new interface concept for mobile computing, the "Full-time Wearable Interface", is proposed. By wearing tiny interface devices similar to watches or glasses all the time, the user can operate PDAs at any time desired. As the first study of such an interface, we propose the finger ring style chord keyboard named "FingeRing". FingeRing can be used with any typing surface such as the waist or thigh; no subsidiary devices like keys or pads are needed. FingeRing can be used anytime, anywhere, and in any situation including standing or walking.
Virtual Hand Tool with Force Feedback BIBAKPDF 83-84
  Ravin Balakrishnan; Colin Ware; Tim Smith
We present a system which simulates working with a hand held machine tool on a piece of soft material. A two degree-of-freedom force reflecting joystick allows the user to feel the reactive forces between the virtual toolkit and material. An experiment to investigate the effects on performance in a high precision task when the standard visual display is augmented by our force display system shows a 44% (p < 0.01) improvement in accuracy but with time to completion also increased (by 64%). Users of the system find force feedback to be useful and feel that the system is a realistic simulation of the real world task.
Keywords: Force feedback, Haptics, Human performance, Virtual worlds
Input Techniques for HCI in 3D Environments BIBAKPDF 85-86
  Shumin Zhai; Paul Milgram
This poster is a summary of a long-term systematic investigation of 6 DOF input techniques for human computer interaction in 3D environments. It presents a taxonomic design space model and the major results of three experiments on various 6DOF input techniques.
Keywords: Input devices, Virtual reality, 3D interfaces, Psychomotor behaviour, Telerobotics
Electronic Meeting Assistance BIBAKPDF 87-88
  Stefanie Rather; Michael Stupperich
An electronic Meeting Assistance tool is being developed as part of the ESPRIT Project 5233 [TELESTATION]. This tool has a general purpose approach for electronic assistance of people during meetings. The most frequent tasks carried out during meetings, and therefore assisted by the tool, are exchanging information, supporting presentations and jointly editing documents. To demonstrate this new way of handling information, a first prototype has been realized and a field test is performed in a hospital environment.
Keywords: CSCW, Electronic conferencing, Mobile computing, Electronic WhiteBoard, Wireless communication
A Framework for Information Sharing in Collaborative Applications BIBAKPDF 89-90
  W. Keith Edwards
Collaborative applications can potentially have a great positive impact on the way groups of people work together. Unfortunately, collaborative applications are very hard to build. At the most basic level all collaborative applications facilitate information sharing. This project is looking at mechanisms for a particular class of information sharing in an attempt to make the construction of collaborative software easier.
   This work deals with the sharing of "coordinating" information. Coordinating information is information used to link a set of applications or processes together into a unified collaborative environment. The implementation portion of this work, called Intermezzo, provides programming models and runtime support to facilitate the sharing of coordinating information in collaborative applications.
Keywords: Collaborative applications, CSCW, Collaboration support environments
Using Cognitive Walkthrough for Evaluating a CSCW Application BIBAKPDF 91-92
  Anna-Lena Ereback; Kristina Höök
We studied the usefulness of the Cognitive Walkthrough method for evaluating an interface to a meeting booking system. We found that cognitive walkthrough is a useful method, but some alterations is needed. Specifically we found that the underlying theory of the method must be expanded, since goals may not be given in the same way as in single-user applications -- one user's goal is often affected by other users. We also found that the user descriptions should preferably be richer since there are several users involved, but that this makes the walkthrough very cumbersome.
   For comparison a video study was conducted. The studies proved that the Cognitive Walkthrough method was roughly as efficient in finding problems related to groupwork as the user study.
Keywords: Evaluation, Cognitive walkthrough, CSCW-applications, Meeting booking system
Characterising the Social Salience of Electronically Mediated Communication BIBAKPDF 93-94
  Owen Daly-Jones
A study was conducted to explore the impact of communication media on conversational structure, and to identify markers of the social salience of ensuing discussion. Sixteen subjects took part in a collaborative role-play exercise over two modes of communication; an audio link, and a video link with audio capabilities. Self-report measures highlighted the advantages of having a visual channel, in terms of assessing a partner's focus of attention and as an aid to teamwork. The value of a range of other measures (e.g. backchannel acknowledgements, and equivocal phrasings) are also reported on. In particular, there was some indication that collaborators in the audio condition found it harder to monitor understanding, being more likely to resort to explicitly questioning the remote partner.
Keywords: Communication media, Social salience, Conversational structure and process
Conveying Emotion in Remote Computer-Mediated-Communication BIBAKPDF 95-96
  Krisela Rivera; Nancy J. Cooke; Anna L. Rowe; Jeff A. Bauhs
Having the capability to express emotion via remote Computer-Mediated-Communication (CMC) systems may enhance decision making. Thirty-two subjects participated in a simulated remote CMC group-decision-making session. Seventeen subjects had emotional icons available, although use of these icons was optional. The remaining 15 subjects did not have icons available. Dependent measures included frequency of icon usage, conformity, quality of decision, and responses to a subjective questionnaire. The results indicated that subjects used icons when available and liked using them. Finally, subjective questionnaire data indicated that having emotional icons available seemed to make geographically-dispersed CMC more appealing.
Keywords: Groupware, Computer-mediated-communication, Computer-supported-cooperative work, Distributed cognition
A Comparison of Verbal Interaction in Literal and Virtual Shared Learning Environments BIBAKPDF 97-98
  Karl E. Steiner; Thomas G. Moher
We performed a study to examine the differences in verbal interaction between groups of young users working together at a single computer and groups working on a shared workspace at individual computers. Pairs of Kindergarten and First Grade students worked with the Graphic Story Writer (an interactive learning environment) at a single computer or at two networked computers running a shared workspace. A review of the student's verbal interactions showed that students in the shared workspace participated in fewer total verbal interactions, and participated in significantly fewer questions and answers.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Shared workspaces, Computer supported cooperative learning, Interactive learning environments, Constructive learning
Is Knowing More Really Better? Effects of System Development Information in Human-Expert System Interactions BIBAKPDF 99-100
  Jeff A. Bauhs; Nancy J. Cooke
With the time, cost and effort involved in the development of expertise, expert systems have become more commonplace in the work environment. It has been suggested that in order to enhance human-expert system interactions, it is necessary to provide users with system development information. This research empirically examined the role that providing this information plays in new user interactions with expert systems. Results indicate that system information aided in calibrating users' confidence in accord with system reliability, but that it had little effect on users' willingness to take expert system advice and may even hunt users' willingness to continue consulting a particular expert system.
Keywords: Expert systems, Trust in machines, Human-expert system interactions
Multiple Methods Mean More Minutes BIBAKPDF 101-102
  Marita Franzke
An experiment was conducted to produce a low-level description of the initial acquisition of skill with a display-based application. This experiment constituted of a situation in which interface-literate users explored new functionality in two versions of a graphing system. Performance on initial exploration trials is compared to performance on subsequent structure-equivalent trials that profit from previous experiences with the system, both at short and long time delays. Performance times for exploration and two different delay conditions are discussed. Preliminary data analyses indicate that several interactions were difficult to discover, but are well retained even after a one-week interval. Comparisons between the two versions suggest that the availability of more functions and multiple methods inflated our subjects' performance times during exploration and during later trials.
Keywords: Display based systems, Multiple methods, Exploration, Retention, Versions
Observing Users in Multimodal Interaction BIBAKPDF 103-104
  Daniel Salber
My doctoral research focuses on the usability and usage of new computer technology such as interactive systems that support the combination different input media such as voice, gesture and video. I have contributed to the study of these systems in four complementary ways: the MSM framework helps classifying and reasoning about current and future "interactionally-rich" systems; I have also used formal methods to specify multimodal interaction; I have designed and developed the NEIMO multimodal Wizard of Oz platform, a tool for observing users using multimodal interaction and assessing usability issues; I am now working on computer-mediated communication and collaboration through audio and video.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Evaluation, Usability, Formal methods, Observation of users, Video, Groupware, CSCW, MediaSpace
Cost of Operations Affects Planfulness of Problem-Solving Behaviour BIBAKPDF 105-106
  Kenton O'Hara
There is currently a debate in cognitive psychology between plan-based theories of action and more 'situated' accounts. I argue instead that there is a continuum between planned and situated action along which people shift according to various properties of the task. One such factor may be the cost of performing an action. This paper reports three experiments that examine this factor within the domain of problem solving. These manipulate different aspects of the user interface, each with a high profile as determinants of usability in the HCI literature. In all three experiments, the high cost condition was seen to encourage people to engage in advance planning, resulting in more efficient solutions, in terms of number of operations.
Keywords: Problem solving, Planning, Operator cost, 8-puzzle, Jump-slide puzzle, System response time, Error recovery
User Acceptance of Handwritten Recognition Accuracy BIBAKPDF 107
  Mary J. LaLomia
One disadvantage for an individual using handwriting to communicate with a computer is that their handwriting may not always be recognized correctly by current recognition technologies. We are attempting to answer the question of how high does recognition accuracy have to be for people to find the technology useful. We used a "Wizard of Oz" methodology to simulate different recognition accuracy rates that were output to a participant writing on a pen-based computer. Mode of presentation, type of writing pad and recognition rate were varied. After reviewing the errors, participants ruled the acceptability of the recognition rate under different conditions. In general, participants found a handwriting recognition rate of 97% or higher to be acceptable, however, this relationship was modulated by the different evaluation conditions.
Keywords: Pen-based computers, Handwriting, Recognition accuracy
A Comparison of Usability Evaluations Conducted by Different Teams BIBAKPDF 109-110
  Anna L. Rowe; Tammy Lowry; Shannon L. Halgren; Nancy J. Cooke
The wide variety of usability methods available to usability engineers offer many approaches to usability testing. However, different evaluation methodologies may lead to the identification of varying interface issues, and different interface designs may result. This study examined how different usability teams approach the same interface evaluation. The results indicate that different teams begin their evaluations in similar manners but tend to diverge after this point. Furthermore, different interface problems are identified by the teams. However, when similar issues are identified, the teams' redesign recommendations are similar. In general, the results indicate that several evaluators and several methods should be utilized to optimize the identification of interface issues.
Keywords: Usability, Interface evaluation, User interface, Design process
Wizard: Non-Wimp Oriented Prototyping of Direct Manipulative Behavior BIBAKPDF 111-112
  Martina Manhartsberger; Manfred Tscheligi
In spite of the number of user interface design and development systems developed in the past years there is still a lack of real prototyping tools supporting the iterative development of user interface design alternatives. The behavioral part of a user interface is often neglected or has to be implemented by low level programming. The Wizard Tool supports the prototyping of interface behavior especially for Non-WIMP interfaces at a very high level of abstraction.
Keywords: Prototyping, User interface design tools, Direct manipulation
CHIRP: The Computer Human Interface Rapid Prototyping and Design Assistant Toolkit BIBAPDF 113-114
  Robert J. Remington
This presentation includes a description and a demonstration video of the Computer Human Interface Rapid Prototyping (CHIRP) Toolkit. The CHIRP Toolkit architecture, planned capabilities, and the way in which computer human interface (CHI) designers interact with it to build and modify functional interactive scenarios are described. The presentation includes a sample of case studies that illustrate how the evolving CHIRP toolkit is being used to support CHI design for real world systems.
Participatory Design for Sensitive Interface Parameters: Contributions of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients to Their Prosthetic Software BIBAKPDF 115-116
  Elliot Cole; Parto Dehdashti; Linda Petti; Marlene Angert
Interface design is important in the design of prosthetic software for brain injury patients. Personal productivity modules demonstrated their ability to help patients when other rehabilitation methods had failed. However, the software was typically very sensitive to what are considered relatively minor design parameters. Patients were able to guide designers and their therapists in constructing highly effective interfaces. In some instances, the dimension which the patient was optimizing was not readily apparent, and consequently could not be achieved by other means. The research and poster has relevance the broader area of learning disabilities.
Keywords: Participatory design, Users with disabilities
Using a Game to Teach a Design Process BIBAKPDF 117-118
  Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder; Don Ballman; Will Schroeder
The gap between theory and practice presents a perennial problem in teaching good interface design. To bridge this gap, we have developed a game that allows participants to prove to themselves how paper prototyping and usability testing can be used to quickly and effectively iterate the design of a product interface. It is an intense, fun, and thought-provoking experience. Participants not only learn new skills, but also how to apply them as a team to a complex problem under time and resource constraints.
Keywords: Usability testing, Usability evaluation, Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Practical techniques
Actors, Hairdos & Videotape -- Informance Design: Using Performance Techniques in Multi-Disciplinary, Observation Based Design BIBAKPDF 119-120
  Colin Burns; Eric Dishman; William Verplank; Bud Lassiter
We have been developing a visualisation technique that we call Informance Design. We render scenarios as plays and interactive environments. Designer "actors" role-play as users with simple prototypes employed as "props". These performances open up informed dialogues between designers and an audience, to further explore the design issues raised. The use of performance techniques such as improvisation can promote multi-disciplinary, collaborative design work in ways that are as much visceral and experiential as intellectual and reflective. Informances, like user testing, are enactive and evaluative. Unlike user testing, they are intended to explore design ideas in ways that are generative rather than analytic.
Keywords: Collaborative design, Iterative design, Participatory design, User-centred design, User interface design, User observations, Wizard of Oz, Role-play, Scenarios, Storyboards, Rapid prototyping
Visual Layout Techniques in Multimedia Applications BIBAKPDF 121-122
  Francois Bodart; Jean Vanderdonckt
The aim of this work is to explore and illustrate how techniques for visual communication can serve for laying out interaction and interactive objects in multimedia applications. These techniques have been extracted from visual literacy in order to be adapted to the area of multimedia applications. These applications are generally known and designed for their great feedback and power of interaction between simple interaction objects (e.g. list boxes, radio buttons, push buttons) and interactive objects (e.g. text, image, picture, video motion). Thirty groups of techniques are introduced by defining their opposites on a continuum. Combination of these techniques can provide a particular multimedia layout style as encountered in visual arts. To prove that such visual layout techniques are affordable, several examples are given, compared and discussed.
Keywords: Graphical arts, Interaction objects, Interactive objects, Layout frame, Layout grid, Multimedia applications, Visual design, Visual techniques
Automatic Generation of a User Interface for Highly Interactive Business-Oriented Applications BIBAKPDF 123-124
  Jean Vanderdonckt
The goal of this work is to prove that a designer can be able to generate as systematically as possible a first sketch of the presentation for an ergonomical user interface in the specific area of highly-interactive business-oriented applications. It basically consists of three foundations: (i) the corpus ergonomicus, a multi-purpose high-level styleguide; (ii) the SEGUIA tool which is able to assist the designer in the selection and layout tasks; (iii) the SIERRA tool which an on-line hypermedia documenting linguistic ergonomic criteria and guidelines defined in the corpus ergonomics. This work is integrated in the TRIDENT project which is a methodology and a supporting environment for developing highly-interactive business-oriented applications.
Keywords: Business-oriented applications, Computer-aided generation, Criteria, Guidelines, Layout, Selection, Styleguide
Dual Task Model: An Evaluation Model for the Complex Operation BIBAKPDF 125-126
  Masaaki Kurosu
An evaluation model for the dual task situation was developed. The model estimates the total duration of the operation for any bench-mark task based on the unit operations.
Keywords: Operation model, Evaluation, Task analysis
An EPIC Model for a High-Performance HCI Task BIBAKPDF 127-128
  Scott D. Wood; David E. Kieras; David E. Meyer
EPIC is an architecture for computational models of human information processing that incorporates current results and theories from human performance. It combines detailed processors for different modalities with a production-system cognitive processor. An EPIC model was constructed for telephone operator tasks based on one protocol and then was validated against two other protocols for similar tasks. Total execution time and detailed keystroke-level inter-event times were predicted with good accuracy. It should be possible to construct such models on a routine basis to predict performance of interface designs involving multiple modalities and time-critical tasks.
Keywords: User models, Cognitive architecture, Performance prediction, Human performance
Dilemma -- A Tool for Rapid Manual Translation BIBAKPDF 129-130
  Jussi Karlgren; Hans Karlgren; Paul Pettersson; Magnus Nordstrom; Bengt Wahrolen
Dilemma is a tool built to aid human translators in achieving higher productivity and better quality, by presenting lexical information which is automatically extracted from previous translations. The design decisions have been based on analyses of the human translation process. We present the ideas behind the tool, and outline the functionality. The system described has been used by professional translators with good results.
Keywords: Natural language, Translation
Hierarchical Events in Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 131-132
  David S. Kosbie
This poster describes part of the Ph.D. thesis work presented by the author in the 1994 CHI Doctoral Consortium. There are many uses of history mechanisms in modern graphical user interfaces, including Undo, Help, and Programming by Demonstration. Virtually all research into history mechanisms, however, presumes that the history is simply a linear sequence of unstructured events. People, however use computers to perform richly-structured tasks. The basic premise of this thesis is that including the task structure in the event history will allow Undo, PBD, and other history mechanisms to operate more correctly and in more situations. A second premise is that hierarchical event histories can be presented to end users in an understandable and useful manner. This poster describes Katie, an application environment which demonstrates the viability of these premises.
Keywords: Hierarchical events, Event history, Application interface, Undo, Programming by demonstration
PVAT: Development of a Video Analysis Tool BIBAKPDF 133-134
  Mihriban Whitmore; Tim McKay
The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) was developed to provide a structured methodology for classifying microgravity working postures from video footage. A user evaluation was conducted to identify interface issues and required modifications to the software. Two raters were trained to use PVAT for analysis of a Shuttle mission video. Preliminary results indicate that PVAT was acceptable in terms of setup procedure, button labels and locations, and screen layout. However, the raters experienced eyestrain and had to take breaks every 15-25 minutes. As a follow-up, comprehensive usability testing of PVAT will be conducted using a pre-analyzed video to evaluate the inter- and intra-rater reliability.
Keywords: Video analysis, User evaluations
InHouse: An Information Manipulation Environment for Monitoring Parallel Programs BIBAKPDF 135-136
  Manfred Tscheligi; Sabine Musil
Information Manipulation Environments (IME) are user interfaces for non standard application domains. They are visual, metaphor oriented, direct manipulative and problem oriented. This new kind of user interface is described and an example for one actual application of this concept is given. The chosen application domain was that of parallel programming. InHouse provides a user interface for user oriented monitoring of parallel system behaviour. Making the complex concepts of parallel systems as easy as possible for users not familiar with them is one of the main goals in the design of this specific IME.
Keywords: Non-standard interface, Metaphors, User interface design, Prototyping, Non-WIMP paradigm, Parallel systems
The Design of Animated Signs as Help BIBAKPDF 137-138
  C. Dormann
The theory of design might be more useful to graphical user interface design and animation than traditional methods. The rhetoric perspective is applied to the development of animated signs (i.e "icons"), specifically to animated help: the function of the interface sign is shown by a short animation. Then, a few principles of visual rhetorics are introduced such as metaphor, personification, etc. It will be explained how these principles could provide an attractive and enjoyable visual help system for a novice user.
Keywords: User interface design, Help, Animation, Visual rhetorics
Examining Animated Algorithms: The Role of Problem Domain Experience and Problem Representation in Rule Development BIBAKPDF 139-140
  Faison P. Gibson; F. Javier Lerch; Mark Fichman
One of the key activities in designing software is developing explicit rules or theories about the problem domain. We investigated two factors expected to influence rule development the designer's level of prior experience in the problem domain and the designer's problem representation. Our experimental results indicate that higher problem domain experience enhances subjects' ability to effectively consider multiple problem domain constraints and improves the likelihood of writing correct rules. Alternative problem representations focused subjects' attention toward or away from tractable units of analysis for writing rules. However, our problem representation manipulation did not affect the success rate for writing correct rules.
Keywords: Rule development, Domain experience, Problem representation, Software design
The Visual Browsing Tool for Astrophysical Data Management BIBAKPDF 141
  Paul Pinkney; Alice Bertini
The Visual Browsing Tool (VBT) for Astrophysical Data Management is a software tool that allows interaction and visual exploration of astrophysical science mission databases containing heterogeneous data. The attributes characterizing these data include text, tables, images, and spectra. Visual browsing through a database allows graphical/textual representations of data in their most natural appearance. Such data carry spatial, spectral and temporal relations which are important for the scientists to collect and compare disparate information. The objective of the VBT is to provide a tool for visual exploration of and direct interaction with the content of astrophysical databases.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Graphical user interface, Scientific visualization, Astrophysical data management, Multi-spectral data analysis, Task-centered design, Structured query language, Client-server architecture
Visual Access to Hyper-Information: Using Multiple Metaphors with Graphic Affordances BIBAKPDF 142
  Eviatar Shafrir; Jafar Nabkel
Finding answers in a maze of hyper-linked information is disorienting and frustrating for computer users. Online help for workstation applications is largely inaccessible, difficult to consume, and rarely used. Confronted by these large volumes, users ask themselves "where am I?" and "is what I'm looking for really here?" The poster presents an integrated product of information design with graphic affordances that together ease user access and exploration. Multiple recognizable metaphors visually couple hyperlinks with topics, helping each user create a predictable cognitive map of the information-space. The collaboration between learning products professionals and visual designers, practicing visual thinking techniques was instrumental in creating this integrated solution.
Keywords: Hyper-information, Online help, Metaphor, Affordance, Icon, Visual design, Visual language
Note: Color plates on page 483
Library Information Access Client BIBAKPDF 143-144
  J. Ray Scott
The Library Information Access Client is a prototype client designed for the library user. This client allows the user to explore large numbers of information sources, issue queries to multiple information sources, and retrieve the results. The client uses the Workscape scripting capabilities as well as Workscape tools to provide the library patron with a complete information management environment.
Keywords: Information access, Search and retrieve, Library client
V: A Visual Query Language for a Multimodal Environment BIBAKPDF 145-146
  Ivan Bretan; Robert Nilsson; Kent Saxin Hammarstrom
V is a two-dimensional, visual, direct manipulation query language designed for use in a multimodal environment that includes a natural language processing component. The language has the expressiveness of at least full first order predicate logic, including some higher-order extensions that provide a framework within the language itself for navigating and browsing the query domain. The language focuses on the visualisation of the logic structure of queries and is intended as a complement to natural language, providing reification and persistence of discourse objects, together with support for bidirectional paraphrasing and user controlled discourse management.
Keywords: Visual language, Database query, Multimodal interfaces

INTERACTIVE POSTERS -- Social Action Posters

Social Action Posters BIBAPDF 147
  Pamela A. Burke; Michael J. Muller
At CHI'92, several hundred people joined a discussion of the events taking place in Los Angeles CA US -- the police actions, the civic demonstrations, and the insurrection in response to the first verdict in the Los Angeles Police - Rodney King beating case. We exchanged our experiences in working for social change. People spoke of their work in providing information access to disadvantaged groups, designing electronic methods for improving the democratic process, supporting community anti-bias commissions, implementing computer (and non-computer) literacy outreach programs, and much more. Many of us were sustained and renewed in our individual work. This meeting contributed to the formation of the SIGCHI Special Interest Area on Social Action.
   Through the social action posters program, we continue this exchange of information at CHI'94. In the Call for Participation, we encouraged people to submit work that focused on practical projects, solid achievements, and to communicate enough information so that others could develop similar or related projects of their own -- or could join an existing social action project. These criteria guided the review committee in its selection process.
Computer Science Olympiad: Community Project for Disadvantaged Schools BIBAKPDF 148
  Donald Cook
The project that we established in 1990, has as its goal the introduction of computer technology into black schools, has now run successfully for three years. Our aim to teach a number of black pupils computer programming and problem solving, is being realized. The sub goal; to have at least one programmer among the finalists in the Computer Olympiad within three years, is not within our reach at this stage. The disruptions at the schools has severely impacted our efforts in the last two years.
Keywords: Olympiad, Community project, Disadvantaged schools
The Boston Peace and Justice Hotline: A Phone-Based Community Bulletin Board BIBAKPDF 149-150
  Paul Resnick
Touch-tone telephones are the most widely available, best-networked computer terminals. Any civic networking project would do well to consider ways to leverage this resource, since even people who have never used a computer have access to touch-tone phones. I have conducted several tests of telephone bulletin boards, of which the most successful has been an event calendar for Boston area political activists.
Keywords: Social impact, Community, Phone-based interface, Bulletin board
CAIS: A University-Based Social Action Project BIBAPDF 151-152
  Dov Te'eni
By providing computer services to local not-for-profit organizations, the Cleveland Arts Information Systems project (CAIS) at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is a vehicle for combining social action with teaching and research. Through its work with three target groups (cultural organizations, religious organizations and neighborhood centers), CAIS utilizes the University's resources to assist not-for-profit organizations in identifying and satisfying their computer needs. Therefore, CAIS effectively unites the University's academic mission with its mission to provide service to the surrounding community.
Science-by-Mail BIBAKPDF 153-154
  Ellen A. White; Marc E. Fusco
Science-by-Mail is a hands-on, experimental science activity program for children in grades 4-9 that is designed to be engaging, educational, and fun! Each participating child is matched with a volunteer pen-pal scientist who provides encouragement and guidance. They receive three "challenge packets" throughout the year containing information and materials related to an issue in science or technology. Communication between students and scientists about the packets forms the core of the interactions. A nationwide program developed by the Museum of Science, Boston, Science-by-Mail currently involves about 25,000 children and 2,500 scientists.
Keywords: Science-by-mail, Science, Children, Volunteer, Social action


Usability at Digital After 15 Years: Principles and Pitfalls BIBAKPDF 157-158
  Elizabeth M. Comstock; Dennis R. Wixon
This overview describes the evolution of the Usability Expertise Center at Digital Equipment Corporation.
Keywords: Organizational overview, Usability methods
HCI Research in Paderborn, Germany BIBAKPDF 159-160
  Gerd Szwillus
Research and development in Human-Computer Interaction in Paderborn is housed within two corporations: the Computer Science Department of the University of Paderborn and the CADLAB Institute, a joint R&D-Institute of the University and the SIEMENS-NIXDORF INFORMATIONSSYSTEME AG (SNI). SNI has evolved from the traditionally Paderborn based computer company NIXDORF AG, by beckoning part of the SIEMENS trust. CADLAB is half funded from SNI and half funded from the University. Its main goal is to provide an effective knowledge and technology transfer between the two organizations. The University of Paderborn has about 18000 students in a large number of mostly technically and pedagogically oriented departments. Paderborn itself is a small city with about 120000 inhabitants, and is situated right in the middle of the united Germany.
Keywords: 3-D-interaction, Visualization, Virtual reality, CSCW, Task analysis, Work analysis, User interface specification, User interface evaluation, User interface development tools, Graphical constraints, Pen-based interfaces
"But, How Much Does It Cost?": Selling User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 161-162
  Ingrid K. Towey; James M., II Gill; Kurt W. Morehouse
Because Glaxo's purpose is to discover drugs and not to write software, proponents of user interface design and user testing at our company have had to sell the importance of HCI. This presentation outlines the strategies used to convince our management that user interface design and user testing are critical to the role of computing in the pharmaceutical industry. We also discuss how we have learned to use interface design principles in our projects and the approaches used to ensure that our work is cost-effective and contributes to the drug-discovery process.
Keywords: User interface design, User testing, Minimalist manual, Documentation, Task analysis, Directed dialogs
An Overview of Interval Research Corporation BIBAKPDF 163-164
  David E. Liddle; Meg Withgott; Debby Hindus
This short paper describes the background, philosophy, organization, staff, and business model of Interval Research Corporation. Several of Interval's research directions are briefly presented, including field ethnography, media manipulation, immersive narratives, cultural play, and virtual communities.
Keywords: Interaction research, Research organization, Business models
Research at The Center for HCI Design -- City University BIBAPDF 165-166
  Alistair Sutcliffe
The Centre was formed in January 1991 as a focus of research excellence for human computer interface design within City University. The Centre concentrates on CHI-in-the-large, i.e. user centred design of complete applications rather than CHI-in-the-small for detailed design of widgets or small scale interactive artefacts. The principle theme is application of theory from cognitive science to the design process by methodological studies and research within the task artefact cycle tradition.
   Research sub themes are requirements engineering for interactive systems, design methods for graphical user interfaces, including study of complex 3D visualisation, methods and models for assessing human error and failure within the context of system level dependability, and integration of HCI with software engineering methods. Four major projects illustrate this work, the first two conduct basic research into the requirements analysis phase of systems engineering while the latter projects investigate modelling visual human computer communication and development of intelligent user interfaces.
Communication and Cognitive Science Research in Linkoping BIBAKPDF 167-168
  Yvonne Wærn; Sture Hagglund
The research reported is interdisciplinary with contributions from psychology, artificial intelligence and linguistics.
   Questions approached are: design of user interfaces natural language understanding and generation, and critiquing systems.
Keywords: Critiquing systems, Interface design, Natural language, Wizard of Oz
CMI and Ventana Corporation BIBAPDF 169-170
  Jay F., Jr. Nunamaker; Robert O. Briggs
The Center for the Management of Information (CMI) conducts research on designing, developing, and using electronic technology to make teams more productive. CMI conducts several streams of research: electronic meeting systems, process re-engineering, group interface, group memory, and multimedia support for distributed teams.
The COMIC Research Project on CSCW BIBAPDF 171-172
  Tom Rodden; Liam Bannon; Kari Kuutti
This paper provides an overview of the COMIC (COmputer-based Mechanisms of Interaction in Cooperative work) project, an EC ESPRIT-funded Basic Research Project (No. 6225) on CSCW. The project aims to develop the theories and techniques necessary to support the development of future CSCW systems. The development of these systems needs to be informed by a range of disciplines that combine an understanding of the nature of co-operative work with the technology to support it within a real world setting.
The Ontario Telepresence Project BIBAKPDF 173-174
  Ron Riesenbach
The Ontario Telepresence Project is an inter-disciplinary research effort between academics and industry scientists studying sociological issues associated with the deployment of advanced computer and video supported cooperative work systems. The project's focus is on the integration and packaging of existing computer, video and telecommunications systems and on the development of methodologies for their successful deployment in arms-length user sites.
Keywords: Desk-top video, Media space, Inter-disciplinary research, User studies, CSCW


What HCI Designers Can Learn from Video Game Designers BIBAKPDF 177-178
  Randy Pausch; Rich Gold; Tim Skelly; David Thiel
Computer users have tasks they need to perform, and are therefore motivated to overcome poorly designed interfaces. With video games, there is no external motivation for the task -- if the game's interface is not compelling and entertaining, the product fails in the marketplace. Many aspects of game design, such as an attractor mode to draw users toward the game, have direct relevance to other domains, such as information kiosks. This panel will consist of video game designers who will relate their design methodologies, techniques, and other experiences which will help HCI designers create more compelling, engaging, and effective interfaces.
   The panel will consist of panelists' presentations followed by a large allocation of time for interaction with the audience's questions. The panelists' presentations will include demonstration examples drawn from coin-operated and computer-based games.
Keywords: Video games, Design process, Direct manipulation, Input devices, Interface design, Design methodology, Consumer acceptance
Diversified Parallel Design: Contrasting Design Approaches BIBAKPDF 179-180
  Jakob Nielsen; Tony Fernandes; Annette Wagner; Richard Wolf; Kate Ehrlich
Three leading user interface designers were asked to design interfaces for a given problem. Each designer was asked to optimize the design for certain usage conditions, making this panel into a case study of diversified parallel design. The panel will feature a lively discussion of the designers' various approaches and solutions, including a discussion of their preliminary design solutions and their design process. Furthermore, in preparation for the panel, the designs have been made available to a usability specialist who will critique them and point out possible usability problems inherent in the designs.
Keywords: Internationalization
Guilty or Not Guilty? Human Factors Structured Methods on Trial BIBAPDF 181-182
  John Long; Simon Hakiel; Leela Damodoran; Bill Hefley; Kee Yong Lim
How well do structured human factors methods meet their requirements and so help solve the 'too-little-too-late' contribution of human factors to system design and development? This panel brings together industrial practitioners and academic researchers to put human factors structured methods on trial and to judge their fitness for purpose. Panelists share the same perspective, but their views differ within that perspective. When experts disagree, non-experts learn most.
Approaches to Managing Deviant Behavior in Virtual Communities BIBAKPDF 183-184
  Amy Bruckman; Pavel Curtis; Cliff Figallo; Brenda Laurel
It is an unfortunate fact of life that where there are multi-user computer systems, there will be antisocial behavior. On bulletin board systems (BBSs), there are those who persist in being obscene, harassing, and libelous. In virtual worlds such as MUDS, there are problems of theft, vandalism, and virtual rape.
   Behavior is "deviant" if it is not in accordance with community standards. How are such standards developed? Should standards be established by system administrators and accepted as a condition of participation, or should they be developed by community members? Once a particular person's behavior is deemed unacceptable, what steps should be taken? Should such steps be taken by individuals, such as "filters" or "kill" files on BBSs, and "gagging" or "ignoring" on MUDS? Or should the administrators take action, banning an individual from the system or censoring their postings? What is the appropriate balance between centralized and decentralized solutions? (Figure 1).
   Figure 1: Approaches to Deviant Behavior: Two Continuums
    gagging (MUDs)
    kill files (BBSs)
    from peers
    banishment (MUDs)
    feedback from
    account suspension BBSs) administration
   Gags and filters are computational solutions to deviant behavior. Are there appropriate social solutions? How effective are approaches like feedback from peers, community forums, and heart-to-heart chats with sympathetic system administrators? Are different approaches effective with communities of different sizes? What is the appropriate balance between social and technological solutions?
Keywords: Community, Standards, Behavior, Social versus technological approaches, Virtual communities, MUDs, Bulletin board systems (BBSs)
Media Spaces and Their Application in K-12 and College Learning Communities BIBAKPDF 185-186
  Louis Gomez; Rob Fish; Sara Bly; Yvonne Andres; Sergio Canetti; Barry Fishman; Joseph Polman
The CHI community has grappled with the design of media spaces in white collar settings for the past several years [1,2]. This forum is intended to challenge the assumptions made by that research in light of new settings presented by schools. We explore the opportunities that exist in media space research and design for K-12 and college learning communities.
Keywords: Media spaces, Design, Collaborative learning, Education, Networking, Video
Interaction Paradigms for Human-Computer Cooperation in Design BIBAKPDF 187-188
  Mark Friedell; Sandeep Kochhar; Joe Marks; Steve Sistare; Louis Weitzman
Computer-aided-design (CAD) systems are now used to design all kinds of artifacts, from jet fighters to works of art. A major challenge in the design of a CAD system itself is the user interface (UI). Developing the UI to a CAD system raises myriad questions about input devices and techniques, display devices and techniques, and the details of the dialogue that relates the two. But these questions are ancillary to one central question: what is the fundamental nature of the interaction between human and computer in the design process supported by the CAD system? Is the design activity essentially manual, with the computer playing the role of passive tool, like a pen or paintbrush? Or is the computer augmenting the human designer by actively restricting available design choices, or by playing the role of critic or "improver"? Or maybe the interaction paradigm is one of "interactive evolution," in which the computer is responsible for generating design alternatives, with the human merely choosing among choices suggested by the machine. Or perhaps the computer performs the design process completely automatically, with a final acceptance check being the only human contribution? The panelists will describe these different paradigms for human-computer cooperation in a set of related CAD systems and prototypes and discuss the conditions under which each paradigm might be most useful.
Keywords: Cooperative design, Human-computer interaction, Interaction techniques, Graphical user interfaces, Design automation, Design methodologies, Automated design of graphical displays, Computer-aided design
Is HCI Education Getting a Passing Grade from Industry? BIBAKPDFHTML 189-190
  Gary Perlman; Arye R. Ephrath; Thomas T. Hewett; John Long; S. Joy Mountford; Jenny Preece
ACM SIGCHI is expending more and more effort on HCI education, funding a variety of projects, including a curriculum report, an IFIP working group, and a survey of programs. Is SIGCHI directing its resources wisely and effectively? Who are the consumers of HCI education, and who are their employers? What should be the direction of HCI education in the 90's? Panelists from industry and academia will "face off" to debate what industry wants, needs, and is getting from HCI education.
Keywords: Computer and information science education, Curriculum, Project and people management, Staffing, Training, Human factors, Management, Education
Designing for Diverse Users: Will Just a Better Interface Do? BIBAKPDF 191-192
  Laura Leventhal; Barbee Teasley; Daryl Stone; Ann-Marie Lancaster; Aaron Marcus; Bonnie Nardi; Jakob Nielsen; Masaaki Kurosu; Rachelle Heller
An important challenge to user interface designers is meeting the needs of users who differ in gender, culture, age, and/or abilities. At least two strategies have emerged: to design different interfaces for each group or to just design good interfaces. The panel will discuss approaches to and issues related to accommodating diversity.
Keywords: Diversity, Internationalization, Interface design
Debating the Media Space Design Space BIBAKPDF 193-194
  Victoria Bellotti; Robert Fish; Robert Kraut; Paul Dourish; Bill Gaver; Annette Adler; Sara Bly; Marilyn Mantei; Gale Moore
Why do Audio Video (AV) communications infrastructures differ so widely in sane of their key features? What factors led designers and researchers to choose radically different solutions to the same design problems? This panel brings together users, researchers and key designers to expose their rationale and debate some of the issues which are currently being confronted in the development of such technology.
Keywords: Media spaces, Accessibility, Connections models, Communication, Privacy, Social and technical perspectives, User participation, Iterative design, Design rationale
Beyond Accuracy, Reliability, and Efficiency: Criteria for a Good Computer System BIBAKPDF 195
  Batya Friedman; Nancy Leveson; Ben Shneiderman; Lucy Suchman; Terry Winograd
This panel invites the CHI community to examine the select set of criteria that we typically use to judge the quality of systems-in-use in society. In addition to accuracy, reliability, and efficiency, panelists draw on their design and research experiences to offer a diversity of perspectives on what makes a good computer system good. Discussion emphasizes safety, computing in the service of human needs, the artful integration of computer systems into their sites of use, and ethical considerations.
Keywords: Computer system design, Information systems, Social implications of computers, Standards