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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Celebrating Interdependence
Editors:Catherine Plaisant
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1994-Apr-24 to 1994-Apr-28
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-651-4 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608941; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI94-2
Pages:488
  1. CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2
    1. Introduction
    2. DEMONSTRATIONS: Evaluation
    3. DEMONSTRATIONS: Information Retrieval
    4. DEMONSTRATIONS: Education/Training
    5. DEMONSTRATIONS: Multimedia and Education
    6. DEMONSTRATIONS: CSCW
    7. DEMONSTRATIONS: Demonstrational Interfaces
    8. DEMONSTRATIONS: Design
    9. DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Reality Multimedia
    10. DEMONSTRATIONS: CSCW
    11. DOCTORAL CONSORTIUM
    12. INTERACTIVE EXPERIENCE

CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 2

Introduction

Introduction to the Technical Program BIB 1
  Thomas Landauer; Wendy W. Mackay

DEMONSTRATIONS: Evaluation

A Toolset for Systematic Observation and Evaluation of Computer-Human Interaction BIBAKPDF 5-6
  James Hicinbothom; Mark Watanabe; William Weiland; James Boardway; Wayne Zachary
The software engineering community is in need of tools that can provide useful, affordable usability testing and evaluation of design concepts throughout the software system life-cycle. Rapid interface prototyping tools help develop software products for potential users, but they are unable to perform the needed usability testing. The Intelligent Interface Construction (IICON) Evaluator solves this problem for advanced software systems that are built using OSF/Motif and the X Window System. It provides a systematic means of collecting objective observations of the computer-human interaction dialogue of interest, an extensive database capability supporting all phases of the evaluation process, and an extensible set of analysis tools.
Keywords: Evaluation, Observation, Tools, Dialogue analysis, Exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA), Usability testing
Timelines, A Tool for the Gathering, Coding and Analysis of Temporal HCI Usability Data BIBAKPDF 7-8
  Russell N. Owen; Ronald M. Baecker; Beverly Harrison
The gathering and analysis of temporal data is an important and difficult step in evaluating interactive systems. Generation of large sets of data using keystroke capture or video tape is deceptively simple. The real difficulty lies in analyzing this data. Timelines addresses this problem of coding the video and searching such temporal data for patterns.
Keywords: User interface evaluation, Usability studies, Data visualization, Video analysis

DEMONSTRATIONS: Information Retrieval

Workscape: A Scriptable Document Management Environment BIBAKPDF 9-10
  Peter Lucas; Lauren Schneider
Workscape is a prototype office document management system designed to break the barriers between various types of electronic documents. It provides users with a common user interface for direct and scripted manipulation of information of heterogeneous forms and from diverse sources. Workscape is comprised of a client/server architecture, a three-dimensional direct manipulation interface, and an asynchronous scripting environment. The system provides a platform for the cost-effective development of highly customized applications in many task domains.
Keywords: Document management, Three dimensional interface, Unifying data sources, Objectification, Scriptability
InfoCrystal: A Visual Tool for Information Retrieval & Management BIBAKPDF 11-12
  Anselm Spoerri
This demonstration introduces the InfoCrystal that can be used both as a visualization tool and a visual query language to help users search for information. The InfoCrystal visualizes all the possible binary as well as continuous relationships among N concepts. Users can assign relevance weights to the concepts and set a threshold to select relationships of interest. The InfoCrystal allows users to specify Boolean as well as vector-space queries graphically. Arbitrarily complex queries can be created by using the InfoCrystals as building blocks and organizing them in a hierarchical structure. The InfoCrystal enables users to explore and filter information in a flexible, dynamic and interactive way.
Keywords: Information visualization, Visual query language, Information retrieval, Graphical user interface

DEMONSTRATIONS: Education/Training

Studying Motion with KidVid, A Data Collection and Analysis Tool for Digitized Video BIBAKPDF 13-14
  Andee Rubin; Dewi Win
With the support of a grant from the Applications of Advanced Technologies Program of the National Science Foundation, the VIEW project at TERC investigates how to use the power of video to help middle school students learn the mathematical concepts of change over time. Video is an appropriate medium for studying processes that take place over time since it renders transient events permanent, making them available for analysis and replication. By using video as a data collection device, students explore previously inaccessible aspects of the world, such as the motion of animals walking, plants growing, or wheels spinning. Video also provides a means for students to apply graphical, kinesthetic, and linguistic representations of mathematical relationships to obtain more solid understandings of motion. Toward this end, VIEW is designing software tools for students to extract measurements from digitized video.
Keywords: Video-based laboratories, Digitized video, Motion velocity, Change over time, Multimedia, Data collection, Data analysis, Middle school mathematics
DIME: Distributed Intelligent Multimedia Education BIBAKPDF 15-16
  Bob Radlinski; Michael E. Atwood; Michael Villano
The DIME (Distributed Intelligent Multimedia Education) system is a desktop learning environment that provides computer-based instruction, regardless of the students' or instructors' physical location. The DIME system currently has four components: an intelligent tutor; a CSCW facility; an on-line video library; and a two-way video link. Collectively, these components provide students with the ability to independently review and practice newly learned concepts and to collaborate with remote instructors or with other students.
Keywords: Intelligent tutoring, Distance learning, CSCW, Training, Multimedia

DEMONSTRATIONS: Multimedia and Education

Media Fusion: An Application of Model-Based Communication BIBAKPDF 17-18
  R. D. Borovoy; E. B. W. Cooper; R. K. E. Bellamy
Model-Based Communication (MBC) is a technology that enhances electronic communication with "conversational props". This technology has been applied to the educational domain, the resulting application is called Media Fusion. Media Fusion seeks to support learning by linking video and text messaging to data analysis tools in order to encourage communication and reflection.
Keywords: Collaboration, Learning, Multimedia
The Development of an Interactive Multimedia Courseware Program Highlighting Visual Momentum BIBAKPDF 19-20
  Wayne C. Neale; Pamela Kurstedt
In an application serving a freshman engineering course, visual momentum is used to demonstrate the conceptual integration of information that exists in tabular, mathematical, and graphical form. Visual momentum is a design technique that cognitively integrates information across displays. The increasingly complex and novel multimedia interfaces require new research and new techniques that will ensure usability. Furthermore, when an interface is used to instruct, additional effort and new techniques are required to create a learning situation. The concept of visual momentum is introduced to the interface of a multimedia courseware program named "World of Quality."
Keywords: Multimedia, Interface design, Courseware, Cognition, Learning, Visual momentum

DEMONSTRATIONS: CSCW

The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory BIBAKPDF 21
  S. E. McDaniel; G. M. Olson; T. E. Weymouth; C. E. Rasmussen; A. Prakash; C. R. Clauer; D. E. Atkins; L. R. Penmetsa; N. R. Manohar; H. S. Shim
This is a demonstration of a computer-based science collaboratory which provides real-time remote access to instruments located in Greenland and their data to space physicists located in the US and Denmark. The demonstration will include a connection to the instruments as well as to scientists using the software.
Keywords: Collaboratory, Graphical user interface, Computer supported collaborative work (CSCW)
The Collaborative Desktop: An Environment for Computer Supported Cooperative Work BIBAKPDF 23-24
  Konrad Tollmar; Hans Marmolin; Yngve Sundblad
The Collaborative Desktop, CoDesk, consists of a set of generic tools for CSCW, Computer Supported Cooperative Work. The Collaborative Desktop is an attempt to make collaboration a natural part of the daily use of a computer. Our way to achieve this is to put the user in the center of the computing in a similar way that applications and documents are defined and visualized in Apples Finders metaphor of the daily-work desktop. TheKnowledgeNet is a vision of a system for collaboration in teams where the members have access to a common base of information, including knowledge about who-knows-what. The design of CoDesk is based on its function as an interface to TheKnowledgeNet. Basic principles in the CoDesk interface are object orientation, direct manipulation, a structured room metaphor, generic communication and co-editing tools.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work -- CSCW, Knowledge organisation, User-centred design, Distributed systems, Multimedia communication, Direct manipulation

DEMONSTRATIONS: Demonstrational Interfaces

The Garnet User Interface Development Environment BIBAKPDF 25-26
  Brad A. Myers
The Garnet User Interface Development Environment contains a comprehensive set of tools that make it significantly easier to design and implement highly-interactive, graphical, direct manipulation user interfaces. The toolkit layer of Garnet provides a prototype-instance object system, automatic constraint maintenance, an efficient retained-object graphics output model, a novel input model, two complete widget sets, and complete debugging tools. Garnet also contains a set of interactive user interface editors that aim to make it possible to create the user interface without programming. Instead, the user draws examples of the desired graphics and demonstrates their behaviors. The demonstration will show the various parts of Garnet.
Keywords: User interface management systems, User interface development environments, Toolkits, Interface builders, Demonstrational interfaces
SAGE Tools: A Knowledge-Based Environment for Designing and Perusing Data Visualizations BIBAKPDF 27-28
  Steven F. Roth; John Kolojejchick; Joe Mattis; Mei C. Chuah; Jade Goldstein; Octavio Juarez
We present three novel tools for creating data graphics: (1) SageBrush, for assembling graphics from primitive objects like bars, lines and axes, (2) SageBook, for browsing previously created graphics relevant to current needs, and (3) SAGE, a knowledge-based presentation system that automatically designs graphics and also interprets a user's specifications conveyed with the other tools. The combination of these tools supports two complementary processes in a single environment: design as a constructive process of selecting and arranging graphical elements, and design as a process of browsing and customizing previous cases. SAGE enhances user-directed design by completing partial specifications, by retrieving previously created graphics based on their appearance and data content, by creating the novel displays that users specify, and by designing alternatives when users request them. Our approach was to propose interfaces employing styles of interaction that appear to support graphic design. Knowledge-based techniques were then applied to enable the interfaces and enhance their usability. This paper summarizes a more detailed presentation of work contained in [4].
Keywords: Graphic design, Data visualization, Automatic presentation systems, Intelligent interfaces, Design environments, Interactive techniques

DEMONSTRATIONS: Design

Demonstrating Raison d'Etre: Multimedia Design History and Rationale BIBAKPDF 29-30
  John M. Carroll; Sherman R. Alpert; John Karat; Mary S. Van Deusen; Mary Beth Rosson
Raison d'Etre is a hypermedia design history application. It provides access to a database of video clips containing stories and personal perspectives of design team members recorded at various times through the course of a project. The system is intended to provide a simple framework for recording and organizing the informal history and rationale that design teams create and share in the course of their collaboration.
Keywords: Documentation, Design history, Collaboration, Multimedia database, Hypermedia
Repeat and Predict -- Two Keys to Efficient Text Editing BIBAKPDF 31-32
  Toshiyuki Masui; Ken Nakayama
We demonstrate a simple and powerful predictive interface technique for text editing tasks. With our technique called the dynamic macro creation, when a user types a special "repeat" key after doing repetitive operations in a text editor, an editing sequence corresponding to one iteration is detected, defined as a macro, and executed at the same time. When we use another special "predict" key in addition to the repeat key, wider range of prediction schemes can be performed depending on the order of using these two keys.
Keywords: Text editing, Predictive interface, Programming by example, PBE, Programming by demonstration, PBD, Keyboard macro, Dynamic macro creation

DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Reality Multimedia

DesignSpace: A Manual Interaction Environment for Computer Aided Design BIBAKPDF 33-34
  William L. Chapin; Timothy A. Lacey; Larry Leifer
DesignSpace is a computer-aided-design (CAD) system that facilitates dexterous manipulation of mechanical design representations. The system consists of an interactive simulation programmed with a seamless extended model of the designer's physical environment and driven with continuous instrumentation of the designer's physical actions. The simulation displays consistent visual and aural images of the virtual environment without occluding the designer's sensation of the physical surroundings. Developed at Stanford University's Center for Design Research (CDR), DesignSpace serves as an experimental testbed for design theory and methodology research. DesignSpace includes significant contributions from recent CDR development projects: TalkingGlove, CutPlane, VirtualHand, TeleSign, and VirtualGrasp. The current DesignSpace prototype provides modeling facility for only crude conceptual design and assembly, but can network multiple systems to share a common virtual space and arbitrate the collaborative interaction. The DesignSpace prototype employs three head-tracked rear projection images, head-coupled binaural audio, hand instrumentation, and electromagnetic position tracking.
Keywords: CAD, Virtual environment, Dexterous manipulation, Interactive simulation, Presence, Spatial acoustics, Manual and gestural communication, Teleconference, Collaboration
Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) BIBAPDF 35-36
  Sherman W. Tyler
This demonstration illustrates a system to support the early stages in the design of complex human-machine systems. One of its major contributions derives from modeling both the hardware devices and human cognitive and physical behavior in software, obviating the need for expensive simulators or human-in-the-loop testing during early design. This demonstration highlights the dynamic simulation capability of MIDAS and points to the variety of areas where this system has been applied (cockpit design for rotor- and fixed-wing aircraft, nuclear power plant control, 911 emergency operations consoles).

DEMONSTRATIONS: CSCW

LiveWorld: A Construction Kit for Animate Systems BIBAKPDF 37-38
  Michael Travers
LiveWorld is a graphical environment designed to support research into programming with active objects. It offers novice users a world of manipulable objects, with graphical objects and elements of the programs that make them move integrated into a single framework. LiveWorld is designed to support a style of programming based on rule-like agents that allow objects to be responsive to their environment. In order to make this style of programming accessible to novices, computational objects such as behavioral rules need to be just as concrete and accessible as the graphic objects. LiveWorld fills this need by using a novel object system, Framer, in which the usual structures of an object-oriented system (classes, objects, and slots) are replaced with a single one, the frame, that has a simple and intuitive graphic representation.
   This unification enables the construction of an interface that achieves elegance, simplicity and power. Allowing graphic objects and internal computational objects to be manipulated through an integrated interface can provide a conceptual scaffolding for novices to enter into programming.
Keywords: Programming environments, Objects, Direct manipulation, Visual object-oriented programming, Agents, Rules
ReActor: A System for Real-Time, Reactive Animations BIBAKPDF 39-40
  J. Eugene Ball; Daniel T. Ling; David Pugh; Tim Skelly; Andrew Stankosky; David Thiel
Real-time, reactive 3D animation is a basic technology needed to implement a diverse range of user interfaces, from simulation-based virtual realities, to interactive games, to visually expressive, personal assistants. However, there has been little support for the creation of animations which have real-time specifications, synchronized across multiple time-based modalities, and having complex behavior in response to user input.
   ReActor is a run-time environment which provides a hierarchical set of abstractions to support real-time, reactive animations. These abstractions support the animation of geometric and abstract properties and the specification of behavior in real and relative time. They also facilitate the construction of user interfaces with interactive animations exhibiting complex, procedure-driven behaviors. This demonstration will illustrate these abstractions and the power that they provide through a series of examples.
Keywords: Interactive animation, 3D-graphics, Real-time scheduling, Synchronization

DOCTORAL CONSORTIUM

List of Students Selected to Participate in the Doctoral Consortium BIBAPDF 41
  Marilyn Mantei; Andrew Monk
The Doctoral Consortium is a closed session in which Ph.D. students have a chance to discuss their thesis work with each other and a panel of CHI experts. This year the panel consists of:
  • Bill Buxton
  • Joan Greenbaum
  • Marilyn Mantei
  • Andrew Monk
  • Dan Olsen, Jr.
  • INTERACTIVE EXPERIENCE

    3-D Interactive Percussion: The Virtual Drum Kit BIBAKPDF 45-46
      David Burgess; Elizabeth Mynatt
    This interactive experience places the user in an auditory virtual environment which combines computed models of natural sound sources with spatial audio. The user wears headphones and a lightweight head-tracking receiver. A second receiver is held in the user's hand and used as a mallet for striking various virtual objects, or drums. When struck, each drum generates a particular percussive sound. Each sound is specialized to appear to come from the direction of the virtual drum that generates it. The drums are also responsive to the manner (velocity, angle, etc.) in which they are struck and may sound different when heard from different angles.
    Keywords: Acoustic displays, Spatial sound, Auditory perception, Virtual displays
    DesignSpace: A Manual Interaction Environment for Computer Aided Design BIBAKPDF 47-48
      William L. Chapin; Timothy A. Lacey; Larry Leifer
    DesignSpace is a computer-aided-design (CAD) system that facilitates dexterous manipulation of mechanical design representations. The system consists of an interactive simulation programmed with a seamless extended model of the designer's physical environment and driven with continuous instrumentation of the designer's physical actions. The simulation displays consistent visual and aural images of the virtual environment without occluding the designer's sensation of the physical surroundings. Developed at Stanford University's Center for Design Research (CDR), DesignSpace serves as an experimental testbed for design theory and methodology research. DesignSpace includes significant contributions from recent CDR development projects: TalkingGlove, CutPlane, VirtualHand, TeleSign, and VirtualGrasp. The current DesignSpace prototype provides modeling facility for only crude conceptual design and assembly, but can network multiple systems to share a common virtual space and arbitrate the collaborative interaction. The DesignSpace prototype employs three head-tracked rear projection images, head-coupled binaural audio, hand instrumentation, and electromagnetic position tracking.
    Keywords: CAD, Virtual environment, Dexterous manipulation, Interactive simulation, Presence, Spatial acoustics, Manual and gestural communication, Teleconference, Collaboration
    The Future of Programming Interactive Experience BIBAPDF 49-50
      Chris DiGiano; Clayton Lewis; Chris Hurtt
    The Future of Programming Interactive Experience is a multimedia exhibit about future directions in the field of computer programming. Visitors to the exhibit will be able to explore visions resulting from a recent Future of Programming Workshop. They will also be able to contribute their own commentary on these visions, which will become part of the exhibit for subsequent visitors.
    Half-QWERTY: Typing with One Hand Using Your Two-Handed Skills BIBAKPDFWeb Page 51-52
      Edgar Matias; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
    Half-QWERTY is a new one-handed typing technique, designed to facilitate the transfer of two-handed typing skill to the one-handed condition. It is performed on a standard keyboard (with modified software), or a special half keyboard (with full-sized keys). Experiments have shown [2] that it is possible for QWERTY touch-typists to achieve high one-handed typing rates (40+ wpm) in a relatively short period of time (<10 hr) using the Half-QWERTY technique. These speeds are 2-3 times the rates achievable using compact keyboards, and exceed handwriting speeds. Half-QWERTY is important in providing access to disabled users, and for the design of compact computers.
    Keywords: Input devices, Input tasks, Human performance, One-handed keyboard, QWERTY, Portable computers, Disabled users, Skill transfer
    Making it Macintosh: Process, People and Product BIBAKPDF 53-54
      Lauralee Alben; Jim Faris; Harry J. Saddler
    This exhibit is designed to provide a look into the process of interface design, specifically the design of an interactive CD-ROM title called Making It Macintosh: The Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines. The exhibit follows three congruent themes: the interactive, instructional product itself; the history of the design and development process; and interdisciplinary collaboration.
    Keywords: Design, Interface design, Graphic design, Multimedia, Guidelines, Design process, Visual design, Interdisciplinary collaboration
    Memory Map: An Interactive Installation that Maps Memory Space to Physical Space BIBAKPDF 55-56
      Stephen Wilson
    Memory Map is an interactive installation in which the memories, reflections, and anticipations of visitors become critical aesthetic elements. The physical space of a hall becomes a metaphor for the collective memory space of those who have visited the installation -- for example, with the voices of those older than the present viewer coming from in front and those younger coming from behind. The installation explores interface issues of 3-D sound and the mapping of conceptual abstractions to physical space.
    Keywords: 3-D sound, Visualization, Mapping of conceptual space
    The Pantograph: A Large Workspace Haptic Device for Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 57-58
      Christophe Ramstein; Vincent Hayward
    A multi-modal user interface taking advantage of kinesthesia, force display, sound, and graphics, to improve human-computer interaction is described. This design primarily addresses the needs of visually impaired persons working in an office situation, but is presently applied to numerous other instances of human-machine interaction; such as operator workstations in control rooms or cockpits. The main technological item introduced here is the haptic interface itself (nicknamed the "Pantograph") which measures position and velocity of a manipulated knob and displays forces in two dimensions over a wide frequency range. Programmed mechanical models are used to kinesthetically describe the features of the interface. These models are analogous to ironic representations in conventional graphic interfaces. Users, acting and perceiving through the haptic channel, simultaneously perceive simulated objects through the visual and auditory channels. Further developments are briefly reported.
    Keywords: Multimodal human-computer interaction, Haptic device, Physical model
    Portraits of People Living with AIDS: An Interactive Documentary BIBAKPDF 59-60
      Hazen Reed
    "Portraits of People Living With AIDS" seeks to involve users in an active understanding of the AIDS condition. This interactive documentary introduces participants to four people living with AIDS (a male painter, a woman activist, a male inner-city AIDS councilor, and twenty-five year old college woman) via audio, video clips, and photographic essays digitally stored on a Macintosh computer. Each new user of "Portraits of People Living With AIDS" has the opportunity to contribute to the evolution of the documentary by leaving their own digitally recorded message (via a video camera attached to a digitizer card in the computer), allowing both interviewee and end users to have a voice in the process of constructing knowledge about AIDS.
    Keywords: Interactive documentary, Interactive ethnography, Social construction of knowledge, Self, User, Non-dogmatic, Non-domineering, Collaborative
    StillDancing: Interacting Inside the Dance BIBAKPDF 61-62
      Thecla Schiphorst; Sang Mah; John Crawford
    StillDancing is a system in which a participant's physical whole body movement defines interactions with a 3D graphical movement composition system. The Ascension Technologies Flock of Birds, a six degree of freedom motion capture system, will provide input to LifeForms [1,2], a computer choreographic design tool for human movement. A participant is able to select their own movement samples displayed in real time and projected in a life-size scale, and also to use other characteristics of their gesture to provide a mechanism to compose and position themselves within an ongoing dance created from movement images and the collective movement of other participants who "enter the dance" during CHI 94.
    Keywords: User interface design, Motion tracking system, Gestural interface, Dance, Choreography, Human animation, Interaction, Input devices, Virtual reality, Composition, Design
    Tabletop and Tabletop Jr.: Two Tools for Hands-On Data Exploration for Kids BIBAKPDF 63-64
      Laura Bagnall
    The Tabletop programs are exploratory environments and personal tools for students to learn about organizing and representing information, and about data analysis and statistics. Both programs share the same visual representation of data in which records appear as animated, movable icons. In Tabletop Jr., children can build "data" in the form of objects that carry visible features. Tabletop (aka Tabletop Sr.) combines general database capabilities with a powerful, flexible graphing facility based on an intuitive system of spatial representation.
    Keywords: K-12 education, Databases, Visual representation, Statistics, Data analysis, Data visualization
    Video Streamer BIBAKPDF 65-66
      Eddie Elliott; Glorianna Davenport
    Motion images are usually conveyed full-screen, coming to life through a rapid sequence of individual frames. The tools presented here allow a viewer to step back from the full-screen view to gain perspective of time, and then to transfer from sequential image streams to collages of parallel images. The Video Streamer presents motion picture time as a three dimensional block of images flowing away from us in distance and in time. The Streamer's rendering reveals a number of temporal aspects of a video stream. The accompanying shot parser automatically segments any given video stream into separate shots, as the streamer flows. The Collage provides an environment for arranging clips plucked from a sequential stream as associations of parallel elements. This process of arranging motion images is posed as an engaging viewing activity. The focus is on viewing utensils, but these tools provide an alternative perspective to video elements that also has bearing on editing.
    Keywords: Time, Digital video, Video capture, Video editing, Video parsing, Visual thinking