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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsCHI93XAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Short TalksCHI93YAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Doctoral Consortium, Workshops, Research Symposium, Special Interest Groups, Interactive Experience, Tutorials
Note:Bridges Between Worlds
Editors:Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White
Location:Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dates:1993-Apr-24 to 1993-Apr-29
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-574-7 (soft), 0-89791-575-5 (hard); ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608931; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-58883-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI93; acmdl: 259964 hcibib: CHI93X; hcibib: CHI93Y
Papers:111; 107; 81
Pages:547; 1-214; 215-243
  1. Video Support for Workplace Collaboration
  2. Perspectives and Illusions
  3. Panel
  4. Model-Based UI Development Systems
  5. Meetings and Collaborative Writing
  6. Panel
  7. Automated UI Generation
  8. Searching: Tools and Strategies
  9. Overviews
  10. Demonstrations
  11. Panel
  12. Hands, Menus and Dr. Fitts
  13. Finding and Keeping Information
  14. Demonstrations
  15. Formal Video Programme: Visualisation
  16. Formal Video Programme: Novel Technologies
  17. Formal Video Programme: Speech
  18. Formal Video Programme: Hypermedia and Multimedia
  19. Formal Video Programme: Programming by Example and Demonstration
  20. Formal Video Programme: CSCW
  21. Formal Video Programme: Future Scenarios

Video Support for Workplace Collaboration

Turning Away from Talking Heads: The Use of Video-as-Data in Neurosurgery BIBAKPDF 327-334
  Bonnie A. Nardi; Heinrich Schwarz; Allan Kuchinsky; Robert Leichner; Steve Whittaker; Robert Sclabassi
Studies of video as a support for collaborative work have provided little hard evidence of its utility for either task performance or fostering telepresence, i.e. the conveyance of a face-to-face like social presence for remotely located participants. To date, most research on the value of video has concentrated on "talking heads" video in which the video images are of remote participants conferring or performing some task together. In contrast to talking heads video, we studied video-as-data in which video images of the workspace and work objects are the focus of interest, and convey critical information about the work. The use of video-as-data is intended to enhance task performance, rather than to provide telepresence. We studied the use of video during neurosurgery within the operating room and at remote locations away from the operating room. The workspace shown in the video is the surgical field (brain or spine) that the surgeon is operating on. We discuss our findings on the use of live and recorded video, and suggest extensions to video-as-data including its integration with computerized time-based information sources to educate and co-ordinate complex actions among distributed workgroups.
Keywords: Multimedia, Video, Collaborative work, Task coordination, Computers and medicine
One is Not Enough: Multiple Views in a Media Space BIBAKPDF 335-341
  William Gaver; Abigail Sellen; Christian Heath; Paul Luff
Media spaces support collaboration, but the limited access they provide to remote colleagues' activities can undermine their utility. To address this limitation, we built an experimental system in which four switchable cameras were deployed in each of two remote offices, and observed participants using the system to collaborate on two tasks. The new views allowed increased access to task-related artifacts; indeed, users preferred these views to more typical "face-to-face" ones. However, problems of establishing a joint frame of reference were exacerbated by the additional complexity, leading us to speculate about more effective ways to expand access to remote sites.
Keywords: CSCW, Social interaction, Media spaces, Video

Perspectives and Illusions

How Fluent is Your Interface? Designing for International Users BIBAKPDF 342-347
  Patricia Russo; Stephen Boor
To successfully build bridges between worlds, user interface designers must increase their awareness of cross cultural differences, and make changes to the traditional software development process. Creating fluent interfaces for international markets goes beyond translating text and date, time, and number formats. This paper presents and explains a cross-cultural checklist of issues including text, local formats, images, symbols, colors, flow, and product functionality. Suggestions for an effective international product development cycle are provided. The suggested development cycle incorporates international design feedback and usability testing before the initial product is released.
Keywords: User interface design, Internationalization, Localization, Cross-cultural differences
Representation in Virtual Space: Visual Convention in the Graphical User Interface BIBAKPDF 348-354
  Loretta Staples
The graphical user interface (GUI) typically provides a multi-windowed environment within a flat workspace or "desktop." Simultaneously, however, controls for executing commands within this interface are increasingly being rendered three-dimensionally. This paper explores ways in which the space of the GUI desktop might be literally and figuratively deepened through the incorporation of visual devices that have emerged during the history of art -- specifically, perspective and light effects. By enriching the visual vocabulary of the GUI, greater semantic complexity becomes sustainable.
Keywords: User interfaces, Representation, Design, Three-dimensional graphics, Methodology, Art, Art history
Principles, Techniques, and Ethics of Stage Magic and Their Potential Application to Human Interface Design BIBAKPDF 355-362
  Bruce Tognazzini
Magicians have been designing and presenting illusions for 5000 years. They have developed principles, techniques and ethical positions for their craft that this paper argues are applicable to the design of human/computer interfaces. The author presents a number of specific examples from magic and discusses their counterparts in human interface design, in hopes that human interface practitioners and researchers will, having recognized the applicability of magic, go further on their own to explore its domain.
Keywords: HCI design, Illusion, Design, Misdirection, Simulation, Dissimulation, Time, Response time, Magic, Magician, Principle, Technique, Ethics, Anthropomorphism, Characters, Theater


Perceptual vs. Hardware Performance in Advanced Acoustic Interface Design BIBAKPDF 363-366
  Elizabeth M. Wenzel; William W. Gaver; Scott H. Foster; Haim Levkowitz; Roger Powell
This panel brings together experts in the field of non-speech auditory displays with points of view ranging from long-term basic research in human perception to the timely production of useable tools in commercial systems. The panel will examine issues of perceptual validity and engineering performance from several different perspectives representative of current work in the field, and discuss how such issues can or should impact decisions made during technology development. Panelists' perspectives include: levels of analysis in designing and using auditory interfaces (Gaver), an example of what can be learned about implementation requirements from low-level psychophysical studies (Wenzel), designing integrated systems to encompass sonification in a three-dimensional environment (Foster), issues in the study of information transfer in representational acoustic signals (Levkowitz), and the design of a generalized technology platform for acoustic signal presentation (Powell).
Keywords: Acoustic displays, Multimedia, Auditory perception, User-interface design issues, Human performance issues

Model-Based UI Development Systems

Separations of Concerns in the Chiron-1 User Interface Development and Management System BIBAKPDF 367-374
  Richard N. Taylor; Gregory F. Johnson
The development of user interfaces for large applications is subject to a series of well-known problems including cost, maintainability, and sensitivity to changes in the operating environment. The Chiron user interface development system has been built to address these software engineering concerns. Chiron introduces a series of layers that insulate components of an application from other components that may experience change. To separate application code from user interface code, user interface agents called artists are attached to application abstract data types. Operations on abstract data types within the application implicitly trigger user interface activities. Chiron also provides insulation between the user interface layer and the underlying system, artist code is written in terms of abstract depiction libraries that insulate the code from the specifics of particular windowing systems and toolkits. Concurrency is pervasive in the Chiron architecture. Inside an application there can be multiple execution threads; there is no requirement for a user interface listening/dispatching routine to have exclusive control. Multiple artists can be attached to a single application abstract data type, providing alternative forms of access by a single user or coordinated access and manipulation by multiple users.
Keywords: User interface management systems (UIMS), Modularization of UIMS, Concurrency, Event-based integration, Artists, GUI construction, Design
A Second Generation User Interface Design Environment: The Model and the Runtime Architecture BIBAKPDF 375-382
  Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya; James D. Foley; Todd Griffith
Several obstacles exist in the user interface design process which distract a developer from designing a good user interface. One of the problems is the lack of an application model to keep the designer in perspective with the application. The other problem is having to deal with massive user interface programming to achieve a desired interface and to provide users with correct help information on the interface. In this paper, we discuss an application model which captures information about an application at a high level, and maintains mappings from the application to specifications of a desired interface. The application model is then used to control the dialogues at runtime and can be used by a help component to automatically generate animated and textual help. Specification changes in the application model will automatically result in behavioral changes in the interface.
Keywords: Application model, User interface model, User interface generation, User interface design environment, Automatic help generation
Beyond Interface Builders: Model-Based Interface Tools BIBAKPDF 383-390
  Pedro Szekely; Ping Luo; Robert Neches
Interface builders only support the construction of the menus and dialogue boxes of an application. They do not support the construction of interfaces of many application classes (visualization, simulation, command and control, domain-specific editors) because of the dynamic and complex information that these applications process. HUMANOID is a model-based interface design and construction tool where interfaces are specified by building a declarative description (model) of their presentation and behavior. HUMANOID's modeling language provides simple abstraction, iteration and conditional constructs to model the interface features of these application classes. HUMANOID provides an easy-to-use designer's interface that lets designers build complex interfaces without programming.
Keywords: UIMS, Design process, Interface builders, Model-based interface tools

Meetings and Collaborative Writing

Tivoli: An Electronic Whiteboard for Informal Workgroup Meetings BIBAPDF 391-398
  Elin Ronby Pedersen; Kim McCall; Thomas P. Moran; Frank G. Halasz
This paper describes Tivoli, an electronic whiteboard application designed to support informal workgroup meetings and targeted to run on the Xerox Liveboard, a large screen, pen-based interactive display. Tivoli strives to provide its users with the simplicity, facile use, and easily understood functionality of conventional whiteboards, while at the same time taking advantage of the computational power of the Liveboard to support and augment its users' informal meeting practices. The paper presents the motivations for the design of Tivoli and briefly describes the current version in operation. It then reflects on several issues encountered in designing Tivoli, including the need to reconsider the basic assumptions behind the standard desktop GUI, the use of strokes as the fundamental object in the system, the generalized wipe interface technique, and the use of meta-strokes as gestural commands.
The User-Centred Iterative Design of Collaborative Writing Software BIBAKPDF 399-405
  Ronald M. Baecker; Dimitrios Nastos; Ilona R. Posner; Kelly L. Mawby
This paper presents the user-centred iterative design of software that supports collaborative writing. The design grew out of a study of how people write together that included a survey of writers and a laboratory study of writing teams linked by a variety of communications media. The resulting taxonomy of collaborative writing is summarized in the paper, followed by a list of design requirements for collaborative writing software suggested by the work. The paper describes two designs of the software. The first prototype supports synchronous writing and editing from workstations linked over local area and wide area networks. The second prototype also supports brainstorming, outlining, and document review, as well as asynchronous work. Lessons learned from the user testing and actual usage of the two systems are also presented.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Groupware, User-centred design, Iterative design, Behavioural research, Collaborative writing, Writing software, Synchronous and asynchronous writing
Take CoVer: Exploiting Version Support in Cooperative Systems BIBAKPDF 406-413
  Anja Haake; Jorg M. Haake
Current CSCW applications support one or more modes of cooperative work. The selection of and transition between these modes is usually placed on the users. At IPSI we built the SEPIA cooperative hypermedia authoring environment supporting a whole range of situations arising during collaborative work and the smooth transitions between them. While early use of the system shows the benefits of supporting smooth transitions between different collaborative modes, it also reveals some deficits regarding parallel work, management of alternative documents, or reuse of document parts. We propose to integrate version support to overcome these limitations. This leads to a versioned data management and an extended user interface enabling concurrent users to select a certain state of their work, to be aware of related changes, and to cooperate with others either asynchronously or synchronously.
Keywords: CSCW, Versioning, Cooperation modes, Alternative object states, Group awareness, Hypertext


Comparative Design Review: An Exercise in Parallel Design BIBAPDF 414-417
  Jakob Nielsen; Randy Kerr; Dan Rosenberg; Gitta Salomon; Heather Desurvire; Rolf Molich; Tom Stewart
Three user interface designers were asked to design interfaces for a given problem. These designs were made available to a group of usability specialists for heuristic evaluation. The reviewers will lead off the panel with specific questions to the designers regarding the usability aspects of their designs. The panel will feature a lively discussion of the designers' various approaches and solutions.

Automated UI Generation

Generating User Interfaces from Data Models and Dialogue Net Specifications BIBAKPDF 418-423
  Christian Janssen; Anette Weisbecker; Jurgen Ziegler
A method and a set of supporting tools have been developed for an improved integration of user interface design with software engineering methods and tools. Animated user interfaces for database-oriented applications are generated from an extended data model and a new graphical technique for specifying dialogues. Based on views defined for the data model, an expert system uses explicit design rules derived from existing guidelines for producing the static layout of the user interface. A petri net based technique called dialogue nets is used for specifying the dynamic behaviour. Output is generated for an existing user interface management system. The approach supports rapid prototyping while using the advantages of standard software engineering methods.
Keywords: Automatic user interface design, Dialogue specification, Dialogue nets, User interface management systems
Encapsulating Knowledge for Intelligent Automatic Interaction Objects Selection BIBAKPDF 424-429
  Jean M. Vanderdonckt; Francois Bodart
TRIDENT is a set of interactive tools that automatically generates a user interface for highly-interactive business-oriented applications. It includes an intelligent interaction objects selection based on three differents concepts. First, an object oriented typology classifies abstract interaction objects to allow a presentation independent selection. Second, guidelines are translated into automatic rules to select abstract interaction objects from both an application data model and a dialog model. Third, these guidelines are encapsulated in a decision tree technique to make the reasoning obvious to the user. This approach guarantees a target environment independent user interface. Once this specified, abstract interaction objects are mapped into concrete interaction objects to produce the observable interface.
Keywords: Automatic user interface generation, Decision tree, Intelligent user interface, Interaction objects, Rule-based system
Providing High-Level Control and Expert Assistance in the User Interface Presentation Design BIBAKPDF 430-437
  Won Chul Kim; James D. Foley
Current user interface builders provide only low-level assistance, because they have knowledge of neither the application, nor the principles by which interface elements are combined effectively. We have developed a framework that unites the knowledge components essential for effective user interface presentation design. The framework consists of an application model (both a data model and a control model), a design process model that supports top-down iterative development, and graphic design knowledge that is used both to place dialog box elements such that their application dependent logical relationships are visually reinforced and to control design symmetry and balance. To demonstrate the framework's viability, we have constructed a tool based on encapsulated design knowledge that establishes high-level style preferences and provides expert assistance for the dialog box presentation design and menu structuring.
Keywords: Automatic layout, Knowledge-based tool, Ul design process

Searching: Tools and Strategies

Orienteering in an Information Landscape: How Information Seekers Get from Here to There BIBAKPDF 438-445
  Vicki L. O'Day; Robin Jeffries
We studied the uses of information search results by regular clients of professional intermediaries. The clients in our study engaged in three different types of searches: (1) monitoring a well-known topic or set of variables over time, (2) following an information-gathering plan suggested by a typical approach to the task at hand, and (3) exploring a topic in an undirected fashion. In most cases, a single search evolved into a series of interconnected searches, usually beginning with a high-level overview. We identified a set of common triggers and stop conditions for further search steps. We also observed a set of common operations that clients used to analyze search results. In some settings, the number of search iterations was reduced by restructuring the work done by intermediaries. We discuss the implications of the interconnected search pattern, triggers and stop conditions, common analysis techniques, and intermediary roles for the design of information access systems.
Keywords: Information search, Information use, Intermediaries, Collaborative work
Using Icons to Find Documents: Simplicity is Critical BIBAKPDF 446-453
  Michael D. Byrne
A common task at almost any computer interface is that of searching for documents, which GUIs typically represent with icons. Oddly, little research has been done on the processes underlying icon search. This paper outlines the factors involved in icon search and proposes a model of the process. An experiment was conducted which suggests that the proposed model is sound, and that the most important factor in searching for files is the type of icons used. In general, simple icons (those discriminable based on a few features) seem to help users, while complex icons are no better than simple rectangles.
Keywords: Screen design, Icons, Empirical evaluation, Formal models of the user
Queries-R-Links: Graphical Markup for Text Navigation BIBAKPDF 454-460
  Gene Golovchinsky; Mark Chignell
In this paper we introduce a style of interaction (interactive querying) that combines features of hypertext with Boolean querying, using direct markup of text to launch queries. We describe two experiments that compare the relative ease of expressing Boolean queries as text versus a graphical equivalent. The results of these experiments show that the expression of queries in the graphical format is no more difficult than the textual equivalent. We then describe the Queries-R-Links system that we have developed at the University of Toronto. Queries-R-Links uses the graphical markup method to launch Boolean queries interactively using direct markup of text. This work represents significant progress towards information exploration systems that combine the useful features of information retrieval querying and hypertext browsing.
Keywords: Querying, Text retrieval, Navigation, Hypertext, Pen-based interaction


The Applied Ergonomics Group at Philips BIBAPDF 461-462
  Ian McClelland
The Applied Ergonomics (AE) group functions as a specialist support group within Corporate Design (CD). In January 1993 the AE group had 10 ergonomists, serving a staff of over 200 in CD. CD has responsibility for the industrial design of all Philips products. Philips has a diverse product portfolio covering consumer and professional applications, and operates in markets worldwide. Almost all the work of the AE group is for products using embedded software, some of which are called 'computers'.
Information Design Methods and the Applications of Virtual Worlds Technology at WORLDESIGN, Inc. BIBAKPDF 463-464
  Robert Jacobson
Information design is a new professional practice that systematically applies the lessons of human-computer interaction and human factors studies, communication theory, and information science to the presentation of complex data. WORLDESIGN, Inc., an information design studio, practices information design with an emphasis on virtual worlds technology in the service of its corporate, mostly industrial customers.
Keywords: Information design, Virtual worlds technology, Information environments, Industry, Applications, Collaborative design, Craft guilds
The Silicon Graphics Customer Research and Usability Group BIBAPDF 465-466
  Mike Mohageg
Silicon Graphics Computer Systems, Inc. is a leading supplier of visual processing computer systems. Our goal is to pioneer true 3D computing, to define new classes of visual computing, and to provide practical, beneficial, and cost-effective solutions for a variety of industries.
   The Customer Research and Usability Group provides usability consulting services to improve the competitive value and ease of use of products. We have been in existence since June of 1990.


Filtered Suggestions BIBAPDF 467
  Joris Verrips
MTYP is a program that helps to select texts or macros with very few keystrokes using Filtered Selections. Each newly typed in letter filters suggestions that contain it with a priority for uppercase letters.
From Undo to Multi-User Applications -- The Demo BIBAKPDF 468-469
  Michael Spenke
The object-oriented history mechanism of the GINA application framework and its relevance for multi-user applications are demonstrated. The interaction history of a document is represented as a tree of command objects. Synchronous cooperation is supported by replicating the document state and exchanging command objects. Asynchronous cooperation leads to different branches of the history tree which can later be merged.
Keywords: User interface management systems, CSCW, Command objects, Undo, Dialog history


Common Elements in Today's Graphical User Interfaces: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly BIBAKPDF 470-473
  A. Brady Farrand; Marc Rochkind; Jean-Marie Chauvet; Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini; David C. Smith
This panel will identify some of the similarities amongst the different familiar graphical user interfaces that make them seem so indistinguishable. This panel will then identify some of the similarities that don't belong in any modern user interface.
Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Common GUI, Design esthetics

Hands, Menus and Dr. Fitts

Human Performance Using Computer Input Devices in the Preferred and Non-Preferred Hands BIBAKPDF 474-481
  Paul Kabbash; I. Scott MacKenzie; William Buxton
Subjects' performance was compared in pointing and dragging tasks using the preferred and non-preferred hands. Tasks were tested using three different input devices: a mouse, a trackball, and a tablet-with-stylus. The trackball had the least degradation across hands in performing the tasks, however it remained inferior to both the mouse and stylus. For small distances and small targets, the preferred hand was superior. However, for larger targets and larger distances, both hands performed about the same. The experiment shows that the non-preferred hand is more than a poor approximation of the preferred hand. The hands are complementary, each having its own strength and weakness. One design implication is that the non-preferred hand is well suited for tasks that do not require precise action, such as scrolling.
Keywords: Hand comparisons, Computer input, Fitts' law
The Limits of Expert Performance Using Hierarchic Marking Menus BIBAKPDF 482-487
  Gordon Kurtenbach; William Buxton
A marking menu allows a user to perform a menu selection by either popping-up a radial (or pie) menu, or by making a straight mark in the direction of the desired menu item without popping-up the menu. A hierarchic marking menu uses hierarchic radial menus and "zig-zag" marks to select from the hierarchy. This paper experimentally investigates the bounds on how many items can be in each level, and how deep the hierarchy can be, before using a marking to select an item becomes too slow or prone to errors.
Keywords: Marking menus, Pie menus, Gestures, Pen based input, Accelerators, Input devices
Lag as a Determinant of Human Performance in Interactive Systems BIBAKPDF 488-493
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Colin Ware
The sources of lag (the delay between input action and output response) and its effects on human performance are discussed. We measured the effects in a study of target acquisition using the classic Fitts' law paradigm with the addition of four lag conditions. At the highest lag tested (225 ms), movement times and error rates increased by 64% and 214% respectively, compared to the zero lag condition. We propose a model according to which lag should have a multiplicative effect on Fitts' index of difficulty. The model accounts for 94% of the variance and is better than alternative models which propose only an additive effect for lag. The implications for the design of virtual reality systems are discussed.
Keywords: Human performance modeling, Lag, Feedback delay, Visual reality, Fitts' law, Speed-accuracy tradeoff

Finding and Keeping Information

Computer Image Retrieval by Features: Suspect Identification BIBAKPDF 494-499
  Eric Lee; Thom Whalen
Correct suspect identification of known offenders by witnesses deteriorates rapidly as more are examined in mugshot albums. Feature approaches, where mugshots are displayed in order of similarity to witnesses' descriptions, attempt to increase identification success by reducing this number. A methodology is proposed for system design and evaluation based on experiments, computer simulations, and four classes of system performance measures: identification performance, retrieval rank, tolerance performance, and feature quality. This was used to develop a system for 640 mugshots of known offenders. In three empirical tests, over 90% of witness searches resulted in suspects retrieved in the first eight mugshots.
Keywords: Computer image retrieval, Information retrieval, Feature retrieval
Empirically-Based Re-Design of a Hypertext Encyclopedia BIBAKPDF 500-506
  Keith Instone; Barbee Mynatt Teasley; Laura Marie Leventhal
This paper reports on the processes used and guidelines discovered in re-designing the user interface of the hypertext encyclopedia, HyperHolmes. The re-design was based on the outcomes of a previous experiment and was evaluated experimentally. Results showed that the new system resulted in superior performance and somewhat different styles of navigation compared to the old system and to paper. The study provides empirical support for design guidelines relating to tiled windows, navigation tools, graphics and hierarchical navigation.
Keywords: Hypertext, Design, Experiment, Empirical results, Usability, Navigation, Electronic encyclopedia
Bridging the Paper and Electronic Worlds: The Paper User Interface BIBAPDF 507-512
  Walter Johnson; Herbert Jellinek; Leigh, Jr. Klotz; Ramana Rao; Stuart Card
Since its invention millenia ago, paper has served as one of our primary communications media. Its inherent physical properties make it easy to use, transport, and store, and cheap to manufacture. Despite these advantages, paper remains a second class citizen in the electronic world. In this paper, we present a new technology for bridging the paper and the electronic worlds. In the new technology, the user interface moves beyond the workstation and onto paper itself. We describe paper user interface technology and its implementation in a particular system called XAX.


Integrated CSCW Tools within a Shared 3D Virtual Environment BIBAKPDF 513
  Christer Carlsson; Lennart E. Fahlen
With the advance of computer graphics hardware and computer communication technology it is now possible to build personal interactive 3D interfaces. Our research goal is to use this technology to create CSCW environments.
   There are several problems with existing CSCW applications and environments. We specifically address three intimately connected problem areas:
  • awareness (what are other users doing?)
  • focus (where is my attention directed?)
  • interaction metaphors (how do I do something?) Our approach is to let each user be represented by a 3D icon ("body icon" and graphically model the user's input devices in 3D space. Users navigate between applications in 3D space and can meet and collaborate in the environment. There is a direct correspondence between a user's body icon, input devices and the actions taken by the user. We claim that this gives users a more detailed and natural understanding of other users activities than in conventional CSCW systems. By using direct (real world) metaphors in the interaction with applications, it is our hope that the cognitive load on the users is reduced and the awareness and focus effects are increased.
    Keywords: CSCW, Virtual reality, Interactive 3D graphics, User interface
  • The Paper Model for Computer-Based Writing BIBAPDF 514
      Ann Fatton; Staffan Romberger; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh
    When writing or reading on paper, we usually have a robust perception of the text as a spatial object with inherent structure. By a quick visual inspection of a book in our hands, and by flipping the pages for a few seconds, we get a preliminary feel for the size, structure and content of the text material. Not only are we guided by those physical cues in the process of approaching a new text, they also enable us to remember the text by its appearance and spatial arrangement (see e.g. [2]).
       In contrast, during on-screen writing and reading with a word processor, users often lack a global perspective of the text. In fact, the use of word processors has been shown to cause problems for writers in reading and evaluating long documents on the screen. The word processor is usually used on a small screen, showing only a very restricted part of the text at a time. Moreover, when the user makes revisions or shifts position in the text, the location of the text relative to the screen window varies. This contributes to writers lacking an adequate "sense of the text" when writing a long document [1].

    Formal Video Programme: Visualisation

    The Human Guidance of Automated Design BIBAPDF 515
      Lynne Colgan; Robert Spence; Paul Rankin
    This 5-minute video describes the potential of automated design ('optimisation') and identifies associated difficulties which can be overcome by an interface allowing the designer to guide the automated design process. Within the context of electronic circuit design the video then shows a system, called CoCo, for the Control and Observation of Circuit Optimisation. Illustrations focus on graphical interfaces used for (a) describing the circuit, (b) describing the required performance and (c) the human guidance of the automated design of that circuit. Jargon has been suppressed so that workers in related fields can see the implications of the idea.
    Browsing Graphs Using a Fisheye View BIBAPDF 516
      Marc H. Brown; James R. Meehan; Manojit Sarkar
    The accompanying videotape demonstrates a system for viewing large graphs [2]. It's one of many possible implementations of a general framework for graphical fisheye views that we have developed.
       The graph in the video represents direct routes between major cities in the United States. An obvious way to see more detail about an area is to zoom into the graph. However, as the user zooms into an area, less of the graph is visible so the global structure of the graph is lost. This becomes more acute as the user pans the zoomed image.
       An alternate way to browse the graph is to use the graphical fisheye view technique. In a fisheye view, the area of interest is shown with detail while the rest of the structure is shown with successively less detail [1].
    High Interaction Data Visualization Using Seesoft to Visualize Program Change History BIBAKPDF 517
      Joseph L. Steffen; Stephen G. Eick
    A problem in developing large software systems is understanding the source code. This problem is difficult because of the volume of code. The listing for a moderately sized system with 100,000 lines, printed 50 lines per page, would run 2,000 pages. This video shows a new software tool, Seesoft, that applies scientific visualization techniques to visualizing code. The visualization approach is to represent files in a directory in columns and the source code lines as rows of colored pixels. The indentation and length of each row of pixels corresponds to the actual code. The color of each row of pixels is determined by a statistic such as the age, programmer, or type of line, that we obtain from the change management system. The visual impression is that of a miniature picture of the source code with the indentation showing the usual C controls structure and the color showing the spatial distribution of the statistic. A user may adjust the display using direct manipulation techniques to discover interesting patterns in the code. Software engineering concepts such as complexity and bug fix on fix density can be visualized.
       The main interest of this work to the human factors community is the use of graphical user interface for selecting and combining statistics from a database, the effective use of hundreds of colors to display a mass of data, and the reduction of the pint-and-click direct manipulation metaphor to just pointing, e.g. something of interest will occur where ever the mouse points to on the display.
    Keywords: Direct manipulation, Graphical user interface, Scientific visualization
    Exploring Remote Images: A Telepathology Workstation BIBAPDF 518
      Catherine Plaisant; David A. Carr; Hiroaki Hasegawa
    Telemedicine is the practice of medicine over communication links. The physician being consulted and the patient are in two different locations. A first telepathology system has been developed by Corabi Telemetrics. It allows a pathologist to render a diagnosis by examining tissue samples or body fluids under a remotely located microscope.
    QOC in Action: Using Design Rationale to Support Design BIBAPDF 519
      Diane McKerlie; Allan MacLean
    Design Rationale emphasises working with explicit representations not only of possible design solutions, but also of the reasons and processes behind them. Although the arguments for using Design Rationale are compelling, there is still very little experience of supplying the current approaches in practice. To explore its use in a practical setting we have been collaborating with the Open University using QOC (Questions, Options, Criteria) to design hypermedia interfaces for presenting course material (currently text books, course notes, and videos). This video illustrates some of the ways in which we have used QOC to support our activities.

    Formal Video Programme: Novel Technologies

    Touch-Typing with a Stylus BIBAPDF 520
      David Goldberg; Cate Richardson
    Our approach to developing touch-typing for a stylus is based on introducing a special alphabet of unistrokes. Like touch-typing for keyboards, unistrokes have to be learned. Unistrokes have the following advantages over ordinary printing:
  • They are designed somewhat like error correcting codes. When written
       sloppily, they can still be distinguished from one another.
  • Each unistroke is a single pen-down/pen-up motion hence the name unistroke.
       Not only does this mean that recognition cannot have segmentation errors
       (that is, errors in determining which sets of strokes belong to a single
       multi-stroke letter), but it means that letters can unambiguously be written
       one on top of another. Thus unistrokes can be entered in a small box just
       big enough to hold one letter.
  • The unistrokes associated with the most common letters ('e', 'a', 't', 'i',
       'r') are all straight lines, and hence arc fast to write. The unistroke design is being evaluated by having users send several e-mail messages per day using a stylus front-end to the Unix mail program. Based on measurements from this program, it appears that unistrokes may be able to support an entry rate as high as 3.5 letters/sec (touch typing is typically 6-7 letters/sec).
       The video gives the motivation for unistrokes, briefly shows text entry using a conventional pen-based interface [1], discusses the unistroke alphabet and how it was designed to be easy to learn, and then shows a skilled writer using unistrokes.
  • ARGOS: A Display System for Augmenting Reality BIBAKPDF 521
      David Drascic; Julius J. Grodski; Paul Milgram; Ken Ruffo; Peter Wong; Shumin Zhai
    This video describes the development of the ARGOS (Augmented Reality through Graphic Overlays on Stereovideo) system, as a tool for enhancing human-telerobot interaction, and as a more general tool with applications in a variety of areas, including image enhancement, simulation, sensor fusion, and virtual reality.
    Keywords: Stereoscopic displays, 3-D, Virtual reality, Remote manipulation, Teleoperation

    Formal Video Programme: Speech

    Talking to Machines BIBAKPDF 522
      Christopher K. Cowley; Dylan M. Jones
    The film shows how dialogue design and error correction strategies, informed by human factors research, can lead to the development of usable and profitable systems. It starts with a simulation of a truly conversational machine to show the level of performance necessary to compete with human recognition. Template matching recognition is clearly explained so that viewers can see how most devices actually work. The film then shows the Digital Equipment Corporation's DECvoice in a number of voice input and output scenarios which highlight typical design problems and solutions. It concludes with a set of guidelines which will help designers make reasoned decisions about when and how to use speech recognition and avoid the typical problems experienced by users. The film ends with an example of a system which, having been designed with the guidelines in mind, is usable, efficient, and practical within the constraints of contemporary technology.
    Keywords: Speech, Recognition, Interfaces
    The ALFRESCO Interactive System BIBAKPDF 523
      Oliviero Stock
    This work is aimed at building a dialogue system in which natural language is the basic communication channel, but the computer is seen as an active agent that allows a multimedia type interaction. In this way the means of communication are amplified, with the possibility of referring to images and other texts.
       ALFRESCO is an interactive system for a user interested in frescoes. It runs on a SUN 4 connected to a videodisc unit and a touchscreen. The particular videodisc in use includes images about Fourteenth Century Italian frescoes and monuments. The system, beside understanding and using language, shows images and combines film sequences. Images are active in that the user may refer to items by combining pointing with the use of linguistic demonstratives; for example, the user can point to a detail of a fresco and say "can I see another painting representing this^ saint?" Also, the system's linguistic output includes buttons that allow the user to enter in an hypertextual modality. The dialog may cause zooming into details or changing the focus of attention into other frescoes. The overall aim is not only to provide information, but also to promote other masterpieces that may attract the user.
    Keywords: Natural language processing, Artificial intelligence, Multimediality
    Hyperspeech BIBAKPDF 524
      Barry Arons
    Hyperspeech is a speech-only hypermedia application that explores issues of speech user interfaces, navigation, and system architecture in a purely audio environment without a visual display. The system uses speech recognition input and synthetic speech feedback to aid in navigating through a database of digitally recorded speech segments.
    Keywords: Speech user interfaces, Speech applications, Hypermedia, Speech as data, Speech recognition, Speech synthesis, Conversational interfaces

    Formal Video Programme: Hypermedia and Multimedia

    IMPACT: Interactive Motion Picture Authoring System for Creative Talent BIBAPDF 525
      Hirotada Ueda; Takafumi Miyatake; Satoshi Yoshizawa
    We are developing a multimedia authoring system, called IMPACT [1]. It is not easy for non-professional users to get good quality motion pictures and to edit them, for instance, in order to create multimedia presentations that express their concepts. To make this kind of tasks feasible for everyone, image-recognition technology is applied. Visualization of the structure of motion pictures is also very important [2]. A couple of visualization technique are developed for time axis editing.
    Microcosm: An Open Hypermedia System BIBAPDF 526
      Hugh Davis; Wendy Hall; Adrian Pickering; Rob Wilkins
    Microcosm is an open hypermedia system within which it is possible to make and follow links from one multimedia document to another. The open nature of the system gives rise to a number of difficult user interface issues which are demonstrated in the video.
    Multimedia Documents as User Interfaces BIBAPDF 527-528
      M. Cecelia Buchanan; Polle T. Zellweger; Ken Pier
    Previous work has demonstrated the use of documents as user interfaces, in which static document elements, such as words and pictures, become user interface interaction elements, such as menus and buttons [Bier 90]. In this videotape, we demonstrate our extension of this concept to dynamic multimedia documents, allowing user interface designers to create multimedia documents and to specify dynamic interaction elements within them.
       This video was taped from the screen of a Sun Microsystems SPARCstation 2. The audio portions of the multimedia documents were recorded and played back using TiogaVoice and the Etherphone voice management system [Zellweger 88].

    Formal Video Programme: Programming by Example and Demonstration

    Graphical Editing by Example BIBAPDF 529
      David Kurlander
    Graphical editing, like many applications facilitated by computers, often involves repetitive tasks. To reduce repetition, programmers can write procedures to automate these tasks, however most users do not know how to program, and the repetitive tasks that they perform are frequently too specialized for the application programmer to anticipate. End users would benefit from the ability to customize and extend their applications for the tasks they usually perform.
       Programming by example systems and demonstrational interfaces aim to give end users this capability. Such systems are programmed simply by using the applications, rather than through an ancillary extension language. Innovative systems such as Pygmalion, Tinker, SmallStar, Peridot, Metamouse, and Eager have all explored ways of bringing more power to the non-programming end user [1]. The accompanying videotape demonstrates Chimera, a system built to explore new demonstrational techniques in the domains of graphical editing and interface building.
    Guiding Automation with Pixels: A Technique for Programming in the User Interface BIBAPDF 530
      Richard Potter
    The video demonstrates how a user can program Triggers to automate the wrapping of a properly sized rounded rectangle around a preexisting text field in an unmodified copy of MacDraw II. MacDraw II conveniently places a gray bounding box around a selected field. Pixel pattern searches using pieces of this bounding box as the pattern give enough data access to determine the size and location of the text field. Triggers then simulates a series of keystrokes and mouse actions that create the rounded rectangle. Other examples from graphic and text domains are briefly shown.
    Inferring Graphical Constraints with Rockit BIBAPDF 531
      Solange Karsenty; Chris Weikart; James A. Landay
    Graphical constraints define relations among graphical objects that must be maintained by an underlying system. The automatic maintenance of these relations has become important in increasing the functionality of graphical editors and user interface builders. Yet this increase in functionality has also brought the users of these tools the difficult task of specifying the constraints -- generally by writing mathematical equations that define the relations which must hold.
       The purpose of Rockit [2] is to identify the possible graphical constraints between objects in a scene and allow the user to quickly and easily choose and apply the desired constraints. Rockit is embedded in a graphical editor that allows the creation of application objects by direct manipulation. The user creates graphical objects and applies constraints to them. Typical objects include diagrams, circuits, flowcharts, and also standard application widgets. The supported constraints include connectors, aligners, and spacers. In this videotape, we illustrate our system through the construction of a slider.
    Tourmaline: Macrostyles by Example BIBAKPDF 532
      Andrew J. Werth; Brad A. Myers
    Tourmaline is a system that simplifies the formatting of complicated headings and captions in a WYSIWYG word processor. The style systems of typical commercial word processors, although very useful, are too limited when a user needs to format items such as paper headings, which may contain many different styles within a single heading. The style systems of some batch oriented systems give the user more power by providing macro facilities to automatically format text, but these systems are extremely difficult to learn and use. Tourmaline uses demonstrational techniques [2] to combine the ease-of-use of WYSIWYG with the power of batch oriented text formatters. The system allows users to define macrostyles by example. A macrostyle is an abstract representation of a text object that allows different parts of the object to have completely different formatting attributes.
    Keywords: Text formatting, Demonstrational interfaces, Programming by example, Inferences, Heuristics, Microstyles

    Formal Video Programme: CSCW

    The Active Badge System BIBAPDF 533-534
      Andy Hopper; Andy Harter; Tom Blackie
    The Active Badge is used to provide information about where people are [Want et al. 1992, Want and Hopper 1992. It is battery powered, transmits in the infra-red spectrum and is approximately 60x60x8 millimetres. The transmissions take place every 15 seconds and identify the badge. Receivers are linked by wire to a computer and are placed so as to define cells for the coverage required. Normally they correspond to spaces occupied by one or a number of people. The badge has a light-dependent resistor used to reduce power consumption by decreasing the frequency of transmissions when in the dark. This also means that the user can switch the badge off by placing it in a pocket or face down on the table. Not all badge transmissions are picked up by a receiver, but by using simple algorithms in the receiving software the system can be made sufficiently accurate to be very useful. As well as transmitting the Active Badge can receive which makes possible a more secure system by using a one-way authentication function. Two buttons, two visible LEDs and a tone generator are available for simple interactions. Reciprocity of use is ensured by making badge information available to all computer screens in the organisation.

    Formal Video Programme: Future Scenarios

    IMAGINE: A Vision of Health Care in 1997 BIBAPDF 535
      Steve Anderson; Shiz Kobara; Barry Mathis; Ev Shafrir
    IMAGINE is a vision of health care in the year 1997 augmented by a variety of integrated information technologies. The film is not a literal prediction, but rather a projection of where current technologies are headed and what changes they will produce in the fields of medical diagnosis, patient care and hospital administration. Though produced at Hewlett-Packard, IMAGINE represents the capabilities of many companies and is a demonstration of open systems and their integration.
       The film's three scenarios highlight a range of situations. All pose problems in patient treatment or cost control, and in each it is information, delivered when and where it's needed, that provides the solutions.
       All of the medical procedures, information presentations, and interaction techniques were reviewed by experts in the fields concerned. Cardiologists, neurologists, pathologists, nurses and administrators provided abundant critical review to ensure accuracy. While this process was time consuming for such a fast paced film, it was felt to be essential for acceptance by the medical community.