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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Adjunct Proceedings

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsCHI93XAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Short TalksCHI93YAdjunct Proceedings of INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Doctoral Consortium, Workshops, Research Symposium, Special Interest Groups, Interactive Experience, Tutorials
Note:Bridges Between Worlds
Editors:Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White; Stacey Ashlund; Kevin Mullet; Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel; Ted White
Location:Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dates:1993-Apr-24 to 1993-Apr-29
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-574-7 (soft), 0-89791-575-5 (hard); ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608931; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-58883-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI93; acmdl: 259964 hcibib: CHI93X; hcibib: CHI93Y
Papers:111; 107; 81
Pages:547; 1-214; 215-243
  1. Short Papers (Talks): Visual Languages and Virtual Reality
  2. Short Papers (Posters): Designing for Extra-ordinary Users and Uses
  3. Short Papers (Posters): Designers Designing
  4. Short Papers (Posters): Designing with Users
  5. Short Papers (Talks): Multi-Modal User Interfaces
  6. Short Papers (Talks): A Kaleidoscope of HCI
  7. Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques I
  8. Short Papers (Posters): Multimedia and Multiuser Interfaces
  9. Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques II
  10. Short Papers (Talks): Graphical User Interfaces
  11. Short Papers (Talks): Information Access
  12. Short Papers (Posters): Models and Representations
  13. Short Papers (Posters): Help and Information Retrieval
  14. Short Papers (Posters): Evaluating Evaluation
  15. Short Papers (Talks): Design Milieux
Introduction BIB 1
  Austin Henderson; Erik Hollnagel

Short Papers (Talks): Visual Languages and Virtual Reality

Generation of Visual Language Environments BIBAKPDF 3-4
  Jeffrey D. McWhirter; Gary J. Nutt
In many problem domains visual languages are an important media for user/computer communication. A visual language environment (or editor) is a system that supports the creation and manipulation of instances of a particular visual language. This paper introduces the Escalante system, which facilitates development of, and experimentation with, highly functional environments for graph-based visual languages by supporting their specification and automatic generation.
Keywords: Visual language environments, Rapid prototyping, Graph editors
A Visual Language for Designing and Implementing User Interfaces BIBAPDF 5-6
  Ian Rogers; Jonathan Cunningham; Aaron Sloman
The User Interface Development Environment project (UK SERC/DTI, IED 4/1/1577) is using the Poplog AI toolset to build a development and programming environment to aid the construction of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs). The second prototype of the project, UIDE-2, contains three main tools from the GUI designer's point of view: the Librarian, the User View, and the Behaviour Editor.
   The Librarian is a suite of tools which store and maintain the various resources used by a user of UIDE-2.
   The User View shows the designer a sketched view of the final UI which simulates the behaviour of the delivery system. The User View is kept up-to-date automatically as the design progresses.
   The Behaviour Editor provides an editor for a visual programming language used by the GUI designer to specify the behaviour of the user interface under design.
   This paper will describe the Behaviour Editor and the visual language (behaviour diagrams) it supports [6].
A Multiparadigmatic Visual Environment for Adaptive Access to Databases BIBAPDF 7-8
  T. Catarci; S. K. Chang; M. F. Costabile; S. Levialdi; G. Santucci
Visual Query Languages (VQLs) are query languages essentially based on the use of visual representations to depict the domain of interest and express the related requests. Systems implementing a visual query language are called Visual Query Systems (VQSs) (a survey is in [1]). In recent years, many VQSs have been proposed in the literature adopting a range of different visual representations and interaction strategies. However, existing VQSs generally restrict the human-computer communication to only one kind of interaction paradigm. On the contrary, the presence of several paradigms, each one with different characteristics and advantages, will help both naive and experienced users to interact with the system. For instance, icons may well evoke the objects present in the database, while relationships among them may be better expressed through the edges of a graph, and collections of instances may be easily arranged into a form. The way in which the query is expressed also depends on the chosen visual representation.
Working Towards Rich & Flexible File Representations BIBAPDF 9-10
  Stephanie Houde; Gitta Salomon
Personal computers provide users with access to ever larger data stores. How can graphical user interfaces better support the management of increasing numbers of files? This paper suggests that we might aid users in recognizing and locating information by improving file representations.
   Today, icons are commonly used to represent files. In recent years, they have become increasingly more expressive. Initially, in command line systems, text labels alone were used to identify files. With the introduction of graphical user interfaces, generic document and application icons were introduced (see fig 1a). Over the years, file icons took on an appearance that reflects the application used to created them (fig 1b). More recently, some applications (e.g. Adobe's Photoshop, Apple's QuickTime MoviePlayer) produce file icons that serve as proxies [2] of the document's contents (Fig. 1c). These proxies are essentially visual miniatures of the document. There are, however, other types of proxies possible. This paper builds on the recognized trend toward information-rich icons. It provides several examples of how systems can emphasize a file's unique characteristics and thereby facilitate the often necessary task of browsing.
Designing in Virtual Reality: Perception-Action Coupling and Form Semantics BIBAKPDF 11-12
  Gerda Smets; W. W. Gaver; C. J. Overbeeke; P. J. Stappers
In this paper, we describe work on a CAD package we are developing for use in virtual reality. Although this research is only preliminary, it demonstrates some advantages of designing in virtual reality. We describe these advantages in terms of ecological approach to perception, focusing on two of the implications of this approach: the role of perception-action coupling in producing true direct manipulation, and the desirability of providing perceptual information about the affordances of objects in the design environment.
Keywords: Virtual reality, CAD, Ecological approaches
Alice and DIVER: A Software Architecture for Building Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 13-14
  Randy Pausch; Matthew Conway; Robert DeLine; Rich Gossweiler; Steve Miale
We are developing a rapid prototyping system built on an object-oriented, interpreted language which allows small interdisciplinary teams to quickly create and modify three-dimensional interactive simulations. Like other systems, we separate the simulation and presentation frame rates, but unlike existing systems, we do so in such a way that the application-level programmer need not understand the multi-process architecture. The system has been used for building perceptual psychology experiments, for replicating techniques developed by other researchers, and for experimenting with novel three-dimensional interaction techniques.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Head-mounted display, Rapid prototyping, Graphical simulation, Object oriented programming

Short Papers (Posters): Designing for Extra-ordinary Users and Uses

Computer-Human Interface Technology at Deep Space Network (DSN), Jet Propulsion Laboratory BIBAKPDF 15-16
  Alvin Ellman; Magdi Carlton
The Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) of the DSN is responsible for scheduling the resources of DSN and monitoring all multi-mission spacecraft tracking activities in real time. Operators monitor network performance and identify, isolate and correct network problems. This is done from workstations at JPL connected to over 100 computers worldwide. The old system was failing to meet the users' needs, required modernization and needed redesign to allow for growth. A replacement project was begun in 1988, and the first release of the new system was implemented in 1991. Significantly improving the computer human interface became the dominant theme of the replacement project. However, the project team was faced with problems. There was no standard methodology in place for operability and computer-human interface design, and there was resistance from the users who had little or no experience with the technologies to be employed in the replacement. A "user-centered" design process evolved to address these issues. This paper presents the aspects of the process that had the greatest impact, and its effect on the resulting system.
Keywords: Computer-human interfaces, User-centered design, Control center, Automation
A Baby Babble-Blanket BIBAKPDF 17-18
  Harriet J. Fell; Linda J. Ferrier
The Baby Babble-Blanket capitalizes on early movements to allow young infants to activate a computer for communication. It is a multiple-switch-activated device with speech output allowing severely physically disabled infants, by kicking, batting or rolling on the blanket, to: establish cause and effect skills, explore a babbling repertoire or communicate with customized digitized speech. Our software incorporates a multiple base-line design allowing researchers and clinicians to collect and analyze data on the infant's response to sound output. We present results of field-testing the blanket with two normal and three multiply disabled children.
Keywords: Physically disabled infants, Speech communication, Data collection/analysis
On the Edge of the Creative Process: An Analysis of Human Figure Animation as a Complex Synthesis Task BIBAPDF 19-20
  Zeenat Jetha; Armin Bruderlin; Tom W. Calvert; Sang Mah
The process of animating human figures with a computer is a challenging task, both because the specification, representation and control of human movement is complex, and because animation as a human creative process is not well understood. Over the past six years, we have developed the LifeForms system, a computer application to animate human figures [2]. During this period, users of the system have played an active part in the design cycle: their feedback has lead to a better understanding of the interface for the representation of movement, while observing some of the users has given us insights into how the creative process can be supported by the system.
   In this paper, we discuss new work in progress to analyze the creative process in terms of its hierarchical structure, alternate views and use of knowledge. These components of the creative process were burst explored in a pilot experiment studying how dancers use LifeForms to create a given movement sequence. In this experiment, a videotape showing simple human movement sequences was provided as a design task for the subjects. The objective was to explore the functionality of the interface. However, by strictly replicating movement patterns in LifeForms rather than creating their own, individual sequences, the subjects' performance gave little information on the structure of complex synthesis tasks. Subsequently, a new experiment was designed to more closely explore the creative process. This time, the task involved using simple animated objects (shapes) as the basis for the movement composition assignment. These shapes provide the subjects with a higher level of abstraction than the video sequences in the previous design experiment, thus permitting them to interpret the animated shapes into their very own concrete ideas for movement to be realized with LifeForms.
Adapting Direct Manipulation for Blind Users BIBAPDF 21-22
  Gerhard Weber; F. H. Papenmeier
A new model for graphical input by blind users is investigated and has been implemented twofold as mouse substitutes in the MS Windows environment. A touch tablet can be used to point at windows and icons. So-called routing sensors can be used to point at individual characters.
ERGOLAB: A Screen Usability Evaluation Tool for Children with Cerebral Palsy BIBAKPDF 23-24
  Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture; Clairette Charriere; Jean M. Vanderdonckt; Claudy Bernard
This paper presents experimental tests to conduct with a screen usability evaluation tool named ERGOLAB in order to throw a bridge between the world of the user interface usability and the world of children with cerebral palsy (CWCP): calibrating the interactive media sensibility, adapting the screen space navigation, managing the hidden information. These usability tests range from elementary level to semantically complex one.
Keywords: Analysis and evaluation techniques, Persons with disabilities, Usability, User interface evaluation
Screen Usability Guidelines for Persons with Disabilities BIBAKPDF 25-26
  Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture; Jean M. Vanderdonckt
This paper presents lessons learned from implementing interactive applications for adult persons with moderate mental disabilities. Guidelines for improving screen usability have been drawn from the experience gained in implementing and using such software.
Keywords: Analysis and evaluation techniques, Guidelines, Persons with disabilities, Software ergonomics, Usability testing
COMSPEC: A Software Architecture for Users with Special Needs BIBAKPDF 27-28
  Dag Svanaes
We present research on the development of a software architecture for users with physical impairments. An interactive design tool has been developed to enable us to evaluate the feasibility of the architecture. We have been able to apply the same architecture both within applications and between applications.
Keywords: Users with special needs, Software architecture, Alternate access systems, Object-oriented programming, Visual programming
Program Visualization as a Debugging Tool for Novices BIBAKPDF 29-30
  Peter Brusilovsky
This paper discusses a non-traditional role for program visualization as a tool for novice program debugging. We present some ideas and methods that can increase the possibilities of program visualization as a debugging tool and report some experimental results which support our ideas.
Keywords: Program visualization, Program debugging, Programming environment

Short Papers (Posters): Designers Designing

User Interface Requirements for the Representation of Examples in a User Interface Design Guidance System BIBAKPDF 31-32
  Louis A. Blatt; Anna Zacherl
A common criticism of cognitive engineers/human factors experts is that user interface developers do not practice user centered design. Ironically, the tools (e.g., Smith and Mosier, 1987; Microsoft Style Guide, 1992; HFS100, 1990) produced by cognitive engineers to enable user interface design excellence have been designed with neither the task nor the user in mind. The tools that developers are forced to use are difficult to use in that they require tedious reading and memorization. This study uses a questionnaire and PICTIVE interviews to investigate the task of user interface design. This paper concludes with user interface requirements for systems that support the user interface design process.
Keywords: User interface design, Guidelines, Advisory systems
Teaching Product Designers New Tricks: Inexpensive but Effective Prototyping BIBAKPDF 33-34
  Peter Eisenberg; Anne Falenzer
An inexpensive user interface prototype was used to test the proposed interface of an infusion pump for hospital and home care settings. This case study shows how a prototype became a central part of the early development process. To most of the design team, this was a new approach and an eye-opening experience. In the end, the whole team and higher management embraced the process. In this case, prototyping not only allowed early user interface testing, but also went well beyond to serve as an essential design team communications tool.
Keywords: Rapid prototyping, User interface software, Design process
Expressing Guidelines into an Ergonomical Styleguide for Highly Interactive Applications BIBAKPDF 35-36
  Francois Bodart; Jean M. Vanderdonckt
Various forms of guidelines for user-interface design abound in the current literature, but suffer of many drawbacks (dissemination, incompleteness, lack of qualification, lack of uniformization, outdated, difficulty to use). As an attempt to overcome these inconveniences, a unified view of guidelines is introduced in a corpus ergonomicus, a multipurpose ergonomical styleguide for highly-interactive applications.
Keywords: Corpus ergonomicus, Guidelines, Styleguide, User-interface design, Usability testing
Making It Macintosh: An Interactive Human Interface Instructional Product for Software Developers BIBAPDF 37-38
  Harry J. Saddler
Making It Macintosh: The Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines Companion is an interactive instructional product designed and developed by Apple Computer, Inc. Making It Macintosh uses computer-based animation and interaction to document the Macintosh user interface, illustrate human interface design issues, and provide interface implementation strategies for software developers. This paper describes the product's audience, its goals, its design, and the specific techniques used to present its content to the user.
The CLIM Prototyping Environment (CPE) BIBAPDF 39-40
  Greg Siegle
The CLIM Prototyping environment (CPE) is an interactive graphical object manipulation environment developed at the Institute for the Learning Sciences. The system functions as a user interface management system (UIMS) and can be used as a runtime environment for arbitrary Common Lisp programs. In addition, interfaces may be created within CPE as part of a runtime environment with minimal or no programming. This approach encourages a great deal of high level user interaction with the program and facilitates rapid prototyping. In addition end users are able to easily create multiple interfaces for a single program. The line between creating and using an interface has thereby been minimized.
Formalizing User Interface Requirements BIBAKPDF 41-42
  Kevin Schlueter; Marilyn Mantei
User interface deficiencies often occur in redesigned systems because existing software specification tools do not capture sufficient user interface information. As a preliminary step towards the creation of software design tools that capture user interface information, the authors have identified five general types of user interface information that should be captured in a system redesign. The second step of the process is to create a formalized, programmable notation for representing these five types of user interface information. This is described for three of the types.
Keywords: User interface specification, System redesign
Summarising the Evolution of Design Concepts within a Design Rationale Framework BIBAKPDF 43-44
  Simon Shum; Allan MacLean; Justin Forder; Nick Hammond
A design rationale (DR) is a representation of the reasoning which has been invested in a design [1]. This short paper describes the use of the QOC Design Space Analysis approach to DR [2] to document the evolution of design concepts over the life of a three year project. The goal was the production of a retrospective DR document which filtered, integrated, and indexed discussions from a wide range of sources across the project. Designers' reactions to DR in general, point towards what kind of DR is most needed in development teams, and how DR of different sorts can be integrated with existing forms of design document.
Keywords: Design rationale, Design documentation, Design spaces, QOC
Summarising Task Analysis for Task-Based Design BIBAKPDF 45-46
  M. B. Curry; A. F. Monk; K. Choudhury; P. Seaton; T. F. M. Stewart
Task-based design demands that the designer has a good understanding of the user's job. Our experience of task analyses intended to convey such information is that they are often too detailed. We propose three ways for summarising the results of a user-centred task analysis as: (i) an hierarchical decomposition of the user's top-level work objectives; (ii) a set of scenarios of typical work and (iii) a list of user exceptions. The latter are points where the idealised sequence represented in (i) and (ii) are broken by problems and interruptions. Once these have been produced they can be used to evaluate the suitability of subsequent design decisions.
Keywords: Task analysis, Exceptions, Scenarios, Task-based design

Short Papers (Posters): Designing with Users

Designing the Look BIBAKPDF 47-48
  Daniel Felix; Helmut Krueger
The design of complex public systems needs special care. In the reported study, the design of the screen content (colour, form and placing) was tested, using four different, individually developed screen layouts. 20 subjects were asked which layout appealed most to them, and which design was easiest to understand. A majority of the subjects preferred the most colourful design with strong colour-coding of the functions. The approach of testing this step separately has proven to be valuable, as the further development was facilitated, as no discussion over the general look was needed when testing other aspects. This step seems to us a good addition to other tests to improve acceptance and the usability of systems, especially for public use.
Keywords: Prototyping, Screen design, Acceptance, Usability
Designing a Visual Database for Fashion Designers BIBAKPDF 49-50
  Charlie Hill; Gillian Crampton Smith; Eleanor Curtis; Stephen Kamlish; Mike Scaife
The design and rapid prototyping of a hypermedia tool is described in which interaction design techniques were employed after extensive empirical research into the fashion design process. The tool enables fashion designers to draw on past work when designing new garments, and incorporates a novel approach to casual data entry. The interaction design process is explained from problem analysis through animated walkthroughs to prototype development. Issues are raised for both researchers and developers: problems in the transition from research to design; difficulties in testing usability during conceptual design; the need to make systems emotionally engaging and memorable.
Keywords: Interaction design, Graphic design, User interface, Fashion design, Database applications, Hypermedia, Data entry, Annotation, Design process
A C.A.R.D. Game for Participatory Task Analysis and Redesign: Macroscopic Complement to PICTIVE BIBAKPDF 51-52
  Leslie Gayle Tudor; Michael J. Muller; Tom Dayton
CARD (Collaborative Analysis of Requirements and Design) is a participatory technique for analyzing task flows, and for redesigning task flows, in software systems. It provides a macroscopic complement to the more microscopic design activities that are supported by the PICTIVE technique. CARD uses the metaphor of a card game as the vehicle for communication and collaboration among users, developers, and designers. We report initial results from the use of CARD on two products.
Keywords: Participatory design, Task analysis, PICTIVE, Design, Redesign, Screen, Task flow, Design games, User centered design
Participative Design of Human-Machine Interfaces for Process Control Systems BIBAKPDF 53-54
  S. Ali; J. Heuer; M. Hollender; G. Johannsen
A new method for participatively developing and evaluating Man-Machine Interfaces (MMI) for Supervisory and Control Systems (S&C) of chemical distillation columns is presented. Participation is considered important not only during the design phase, but should be built into the system by making the interface adaptable to the users requirements also during the operation phase. Better building blocks for input and output elements as well as improved models for navigation in picture hierarchies are offering enhanced flexibility to the operator.
Keywords: Participative design, Process control
Translation in Participatory Design: Lessons from a Workshop BIBAKPDF 55-56
  Marian G. Williams; Vivienne Begg
The authors held a workshop called "Translation in Participatory Design" at the Conference on Participatory Design (PDC '92). The goal of the workshop was to elucidate the notion of translation in participatory design. We intended to focus on the special role that can be played by software designers who are also experts in the field for which they are developing software. Our major claim was that some design tasks can be completed successfully or expediently only by a software designer who has worked in the user's field. In the course of the workshop, a more complex and detailed account of the translator role was developed, with attention to how, why, and by whom this role is taken on during design.
Keywords: Participatory design, Translation, Case studies, Metaphor, Workplace mechanization
Using Case Studies in the Iterative Development of a Methodology to Support User-Designer Collaboration BIBAKPDF 57-58
  Susan Harker
This paper describes the use of case studies based on role play and scenarios to test and evaluate a methodology for capturing and specifying user requirements.
Keywords: Requirements, Methods, Users, Developers, Role-play, Scenarios, Prototyping, Iterative development
Using Cluster Analysis to Guide Interface Design for Audiotext Services BIBAPDF 59-60
  Eileen C. Schwab; Amy L. Schwartz
Rapid Order is an audiotext system which lets customers learn about and order telephone services. The system has three main branches: QuickTeach, ordering, and pricing information. In QuickTeach, users can learn why a service might be beneficial to them and how to activate/deactivate the services. Given the multiple intended uses and the large number of services represented, it is important that the Rapid Order menu is as easy to use as possible. The current QuickTeach menu structure classifies the 12 services into four categories: Custom Calling Services, Advanced Custom Calling Services, Linebacker, and Calling Card. This structure might make sense to a user familiar with the development history of these services, but the typical consumer does not think in terms of Custom and Advanced Custom Calling Services. We can facilitate our customer's use of the menu interface if we group together items that are close in the customer's mental similarity space.
   Previous research has successfully used the cluster analysis technique as a way to investigate people's mental similarity space (Lewis, 1991). The purpose of these studies was to derive a menu structure for the Rapid Order audiotext system which best fits with consumers' intuitive categories for the 12 services represented.
Using Video Scenarios to Present Consumer Product Interfaces BIBAPDF 61-62
  Raghu Kolli
In the initial stages of new product development, designers present alternative concepts through sketches, storyboards, interactive prototypes and physical mock-up models. These representations are useful for communication with the design team, the client and for early usability testing with users. In case of highly interactive consumer electronic products (stereo systems, video cameras, fax machines, telephones etc.), LCD displays, buttons, sliders and other user control elements are closely integrated with the three dimensional product form. Hence, an assessment of the product interface necessarily involves the product form as well.

Short Papers (Talks): Multi-Modal User Interfaces

"Kirk Here:" Using Genre Sounds to Monitor Background Activity BIBAPDF 63-64
  Jonathan Cohen
ShareMon, a prototype application, uses sounds, text-to-speech, or graphical messages to notify users about background file sharing events. In file sharing, hosts make files available for users known as guests to access over the network. Once a host sets up file sharing, guests may access the host's machine without the host being aware of it. So, for example, ShareMon notifies the host with a knocking sound when a guest logs on, and notifies the host with a door slamming sound when a guest logs off.
Synthetic Synesthesia: Mixing Sound with Color BIBAKPDF 65-66
  Kristinn R. Thorisson; Karen Donoghue
An interface is described that uses color and spatial relations to provide an intuitive interface for sound manipulation. A simple geometric shape, called the Geometric Sound Mixer (GSM), is used to mix sounds. Timbre is represented as color within the GSM; the relative loudness of these sound sources is represented visually by the color mixture. A dynamic representation of any sound mix can be viewed on the Mix Time Line, where relative moment-to-moment audio levels control the color mix and brightness as the sounds play in real time. Perceptually linear audio and color mixes are achieved using psychophysical functions. The result is an environment that allows for complex manipulations of sound in a highly simplified, structured environment.
Keywords: Sound manipulation, Color, Perception, Psychophysics, Multi-media, User interface design
An Experimental Study of Future 'Natural' Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 67-68
  Christophe Mignot; Claude Valot; Noelle Carbonell
In order to study users' spontaneous formulation of commands in the context of multimodal human-computer interaction (HCI), we conducted a Wizard of Oz experiment on the use of unconstrained speech and 2D-gestures for interacting with standard application software: 8 subjects performed various design and process control tasks during 3 weekly sessions. Some functionalities of the multimodal user interface were simulated by 3 human operators or 'wizards'.
   First analyses bring out the great diversity of subjects' styles and strategies; they also indicate that, in such environments, the addition of spoken natural language to direct manipulation (the manipulation of graphical objects through pointing) improves HCI efficiency and flexibility, whilst command interpretation remains tractable.
Keywords: Multimodal human-computer interaction, Wizard of Oz paradigm, User models, Multimodal natural language interfaces
A Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interaction: Combination of Gesture and Speech Recognition BIBAKPDF 69-70
  Minh Tue Vo; Alex Waibel
Multi-modal interfaces can achieve more natural and effective human-computer interaction by integrating a variety of signals, or modalities, by which humans usually convey information. The integration of multiple input modalities permits greater expressiveness from complementary information sources, and greater reliability due to redundancies across modalities.
   This paper describes a text editor developed at Carnegie Mellon, featuring a multi-modal interface that allows users to manipulate text using a combination of speech and pen-based gestures. The implementation of this multi-modal text editor also illustrates a framework on which more general joint interpretation of multiple modalities can be based.
Keywords: Multiple modalities, Multi-modal interface, Gesture recognition, Word spotting, Semantic-fragment grammar, Neural networks
Mode Preference in a Simple Data-Retrieval Task BIBAPDF 71-72
  Alexander I. Rudnicky
Multi-modal systems allow users to both tailor their input style to the task at hand and to use input strategies that combine several modes in a single transaction. As yet no consistent body of knowledge is available for predicting user behavior in multi-modal environments or to guide the design of multi-modal systems. This is particularly true when interfaces incorporate new technologies such as speech recognition.
An Evaluation of Video Mediated Communication BIBAKPDF 73-74
  Steve Whittaker; Brid O'Conaill
We test a theory of mediated interaction [3] by comparing real meetings held across two videoconferencing systems with face-to-face (FTF) interaction. As predicted, delayed and half-duplex audio, with poor quality visual images reduces interactive properties and produces "lecture-like" conversation. Contrary to our predictions, conversation with high quality audio and image is not identical with FTF. We discuss reasons for this and make recommendations for the design of mediated communication systems.
Keywords: Interpersonal communication, Video, Audio, Evaluation

Short Papers (Talks): A Kaleidoscope of HCI

Learning by Exploration, and Affordance Bugs BIBAPDF 75-76
  Stephen W. Draper; Stephen B. Barton
Modern highly visual interfaces can often be learned largely by exploration, without human or textual instruction. We should take this seriously as a major design aim, because of its advantages when successful, and because it largely succeeds in many cases. For instance, computer naive subjects and have them discover and use many of the features of MacPaint within the first half hour of use, without any instruction. However observation reveals many remaining imperfections -- bugs relative to the aim of supporting learning by exploration (LBE). Thus an aim of evaluation and debugging of such designs is to address those usability problems impeding LBE.
   Not very much has appeared in the literature explicitly about LBE. Shneiderman lists in his analysis of direct manipulation some basic desirable properties (e.g. safety of trying things out, visible feedback). There has been some theoretical work on models of how humans might infer things (Lewis 1988, Lewis & Polson 1990) from observations, and so do LBE. An empirical approach however should begin with the basic phenomena, and then go on to ask what LBE depends on in practice in the sense of what processes seem to be the ones that need more attention and debugging in current designs. This is the approach we follow here.
Pictographic Naming BIBAKPDF 77-78
  Daniel P. Lopresti; Andrew Tomkins
We describe pictographic naming, a new approach to naming for pen-based computers, in which filenames are pictures rather than ASCII strings. Handwriting recognition (HWX) of a name is delayed as long as possible. We show that most file system operations can be accomplished without HWX. Since pictographic names are sets of strokes, they can never be reproduced exactly so name lockup becomes an approximate matching problem. We give efficient algorithms for this problem, and present results for name matching in English and Japanese.
Keywords: Handwriting recognition, Naming paradigms
Interaction is Orthogonal to Graphical Form BIBAKPDF 79-80
  Dag Svanaes
The aim of the work described in this paper is to build an empirically based theory of how people perceive interacting with computers. Through controlled experiments I have been able to identify some commonly used metaphors for describing interaction. I suggest that the interaction aspects of human-computer interaction can be isolated out as a dimension orthogonal to graphical form.
Keywords: Perception, Interaction, Metaphor, Look and feel
Listener Response to Time-Compressed Speech BIBAPDF 81-82
  Eileen C. Schwab; Jenny DeGroot
Time compressed speech is faster than unaltered speech, but its pitch is the same. This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of employing this technology in audiotext applications. Two potential advantages are: 1) Providing information in a shorter time should reduce the duration of phone calls, saving both customer and service-provider time and resources, and 2) Research on advertising indicates that compressed speech is often more engaging for consumers than a normal speaking rate (e.g., MacLachlan & LaBarbera, 1978). A potential disadvantage is that too much compression may sound unpleasant and decrease comprehension. These effects might be more extreme for older customers, or for those who speak English as a second language. Moreover, compression might have different effects on the comprehension of long expository passages and the intelligibility of briefer items such as menu choices.
   Ameritech's Rapid Order and QuickTeach system is an interactive voice response (IVR) system that provides recorded information about custom calling features and takes orders for features. This study investigates callers' responses to temporally compressed versions of the system's announcements. Intelligibility, comprehension, and subjects' attitudes were measured.
Spelling Mistakes: How Well Do Correctors Perform? BIBAKPDF 83-84
  D. G. Hendry; T. R. G. Green
Commercial spelling correctors were tested on mistypings and misspellings. Mistypings were 'corrected' more successfully. Success rates for misspellings covered a fair range, but it is hard to quantify comparisons between correctors, and an accepted evaluation procedure is urgently needed. Improved correction techniques would benefit foreign speakers and poor spellers.
Keywords: Spelling correction, Word processors
Usability Testing on a Shoestring BIBAPDF 85-86
  Marta A. Miller; Catherine O'Donnell
What do you do when your job is to usability test your company's software and you have neither a usability lab nor the $30,000-$50,000 it takes to hire one??? The User Interface group at GE Information Services (GEIS) has developed a methodology that allows us to perform usability tests in-house and on the road that produce acceptable results without all the overhead of a typical lab.
   This methodology, what you might call Low-Overhead Usability Testing, allows all data to be collected in 1-2 days and for as little as $200-500. Low-Overhead Usability Testing can be accomplished with two trained professionals (one test administrator and an observer), a large conference room or computer lab, some paper forms, and 12 participants to act as subjects. Visitors (e.g., Developers and Management) can also be invited to view the testing.

Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques I

Text Correction in Pen-Based Computers: An Empirical Comparison of Methods BIBAKPDF 87-88
  Tedde van Gelderen; Anthony Jameson; Arne L. Duwaer
Three methods for correcting text in pen-based computers were compared in an experiment involving 30 subjects. In spite of simulated virtually perfect character recognition, the two methods involving handwriting proved 25% slower than the method involving a "virtual keyboard". There was essentially no difference between the execution times with the two handwriting methods, which differed in the way of determining when to display the results of symbol recognition: after a certain delay vs. after an explicit request by the user.
Keywords: Pen-based computers, Text editing, Handwriting, Input devices
Lazy Recognition as a Principle of Pen Interfaces BIBAKPDF 89-90
  Masaki Nakagawa; Kimiyoshi Machii; Naoki Kato; Toshio Souya
The pen is suitable for creative work since one can express almost everything and is not bothered by the method to use. Experimental pen-based systems and products have not exploited the 'automated' nature of handwriting. They try to recognize handwriting immediately after each pattern is written with the result of frequent misrecognition and thus interrupt user's thinking. This paper presents lazy recognition scheme which delays the display of recognition until needed. One's thought is better developed by working with one's handwriting. Lazy recognition also provide easier structure to process handwritten patterns. Automatic segmentation of characters and diagrams is described.
Keywords: Pen interface, Writers creative workbench, On-line recognition, Lazy recognition, Pattern segmentation
Extending an Existing User Interface Toolkit to Support Gesture Recognition BIBAKPDF 91-92
  James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers
Gestures are a powerful way to specify both objects and operations with a single mark of a stylus or mouse. We have extended an existing user interface toolkit to support gestures as a standard type of interaction so that researchers can easily explore this technology.
Keywords: Gesture recognition, User interfaces, Pen, Stylus, Toolkits, Direct manipulation, Interaction techniques
A Multimodal Dialogue Controller for Multimodal User Interface Management System Application: A Multimodal Window Manager BIBAKPDF 93-94
  Yacine Bellik; Daniel Teil
This paper presents a multimodal dialogue controller which can be integrated in a MUIMS (Multimodal User Interface Management System). The well-known A.T.N. (Augmented Transition Networks) model [3] is used to represent the multimodal grammar of a user interface. This type of model has been used before to specify monomodal user interfaces [4] [5]. The work presented here shows it is possible to use the A.T.N. model for multimodal user interfaces by adding specific extensions.
Keywords: Multimodal interfaces, User interface management system, Augmented transition networks
A Wizard of Oz Platform for the Study of Multimodal Systems BIBAKPDF 95-96
  Daniel Salber; Joelle Coutaz
The Wizard of Oz (WOz) technique is an experimental evaluation mechanism. It allows the observation of a user operating an apparently fully functioning system whose missing services are supplemented by a hidden wizard. In the absence of generalizable theories and models for the design and evaluation of multimodal systems, the WOz technique is an appropriate approach to the identification of sound design solutions. We show how the WOz technique can be extended to the study of multimodal interfaces and we introduce the Neimo platform as an illustration of our early experience in the development of such platforms.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction, Wizard of Oz, Evaluation techniques

Short Papers (Posters): Multimedia and Multiuser Interfaces

Application of Living Book in Medical Education BIBAKPDF 97-98
  Jorn Nilsson; Dipak Khakhar
A prototype "Living Book" transcribing a textbook on Human Anatomy and Physiology is presented. Other possible uses for the Living Book are discussed.
Keywords: Multimedia design, Living book, Interactive design, Medical applications
Multimedia Environments: Supporting Authors and Users with Real-World Metaphors BIBAKPDF 99-100
  Kaisa Vaananen
This work investigates the processes of constructing and using multimedia information systems within the particular context of supporting real-world metaphors. It is recommended that authoring tools for multimedia environments should integrate mechanisms for both the design and implementation tasks. Furthermore, the tool should provide a set of real-world metaphors that support both the author in structuring the information, and the user in understanding and interacting with that information. By bringing the authoring and interaction processes closer together under a real-world metaphor, the author's task in constructing a usable and engaging multimedia information system should be much simpler. This paper discusses this and illustrates the process by describing a system called ShareME -- Shared Multimedia Environments.
Keywords: Multimedia authoring tools, Navigation, User interface metaphors
Authoring Multimedia in the CMIF Environment BIBAKPDF 101-102
  Lynda Hardman; Guido van Rossum; Dick C. A. Bulterman
We present the user interface to the CMIF authoring environment for constructing and playing multimedia presentations. Within the environment an author constructs a presentation in terms of its structure and additional synchronization constraints, from which the actual timing information is derived.
   The CMIF authoring environment presents three main views of a multimedia presentation: a hierarchy view for manipulating and viewing a presentation's hierarchical structure; a channel view for managing logical resources and specifying and viewing precise timing constraints; and a player for playing the presentation.
Keywords: Multimedia authoring, Hypermedia authoring, Composition, Synchronization
A Multimedia Interface for Knowledge Building and Collaborative Learning BIBAKPDF 103-104
  Christopher M. Hoadley; Sherry Hsi
We describe a multimedia tool developed for scaffolding constructive conversation and sharing information by means of a public kiosk. The Multimedia Forum Kiosk (MFK) provides an environment where users communicate asynchronously with video, audio, and text. Unlike unstructured media such as entail, the interface provides multiple representations of the structure of the discourse which aid in understanding the previous discussion, eliciting and refining new ideas, and developing a sense of community with other users. The software has undergone evaluation, testing, and revision as a tool for an education research community. Preliminary results indicate that users learn the interface unproblematically without training, and that they successfully explore and contribute to the discussions. We introduce the MFK as a tool for collaborative discussion and learning, and discuss several potential uses for the tool, both pedagogical and utilitarian. A more formal testing plan to evaluate the software and interface design is underway.
Keywords: Communication, Computer-supported cooperative work, Discourse, Education, Multimedia
Assessing a Groupware Implementation of a Manual Participatory Design Process BIBAPDF 105-106
  Michael J. Muller; David S. Miller; John G. Smith; Daniel M. Wildman; Ellen A. White; Tom Dayton; Robert W. Root; Aita Salasoo
Our attempt to implement a groupware version of a manual participatory design process (Muller, Miller, Smith, White, and Wildman, 1992) has revealed several constraints that may apply to other groupware systems for collaboration -- especially those that involve skills from outside the computer domain.
Floor Control Policies in Multi-User Applications BIBAKPDF 107-108
  John Boyd
In multi-user applications, there is often the need to decide who controls what, that is, for policies of what is called "floor control". This paper presents several dimensions of floor control policies to demonstrate their diversity. A particular policy, called fair dragging, is given as an example.
Keywords: Software, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Software, Operating systems, Process management, Concurrency, Mutual exclusion, Scheduling, Software, Systems, Programs and utilities, Window managers, Information systems, Models and principles, User/machine systems, Human factors, Human information processing, Information Systems, Models and principles, Information interfaces and presentation, User interfaces, Input devices and strategies, Interaction styles, User interface management systems, Windowing systems, Information systems, Models and principles, Group and organization interfaces, Evaluation/methodology, Synchronous interaction, Theory and models, Floor control, Synchronous multi-user applications
Teleconferencing Eye Contact Using a Virtual Camera BIBAKPDF 109-110
  Maximilian Ott; John P. Lewis; Ingemar Cox
To preserve eye contact in teleconferencing both the camera and the monitor need to be positioned on the same optical axis which, in practice, is usually not possible. We propose a method to construct the view from a virtual coaxial centered camera given two cameras mounted on either side of the monitor. Stereoscopic analysis of the two camera views provides a partial three-dimensional description of the scene. With this information it is possible to "rotate" one of the views to obtain a centered coaxial view that preserves eye contact.
Keywords: Teleconferencing, Eye contact, Stereo matching, Camera calibration
Anthropomorphism, Agency, & Ethopoeia: Computers as Social Actors BIBAKPDF 111-112
  Clifford Nass; Jonathan Steuer; Ellen Tauber; Heidi Reeder
Attempts to generate anthropomorphic responses to computers have been based on complex, agent-based interfaces. This study provides experimental evidence that minimal social cues can induce computer-literate individuals to use social rules -- praise of others is more valid than praise of self, praise of others is friendlier than praise of self, and criticism of others is less friendly than criticism of self -- to evaluate the performance of computers. We also demonstrate that different voices are treated as distinct agents.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism, Ethopoeia, Agents, Voice, Speech, Social psychology

Short Papers (Posters): Interaction Techniques II

A Taxonomy of Graphical Presentation BIBAKPDF 113-114
  Robert Spence
A taxonomy of graphical presentation is proposed which is based on four mutually orthogonal transformations. It allows a range of presentation techniques to be simply described.
Keywords: Graphical presentation, Taxonomy
Navigation in Pop-Up Menus BIBAPDF 115-116
  David R. Airth
Pop-up menus (sometimes referred to as context menus) are menus that appear over objects in the interface instead of in a static menu area, such as a menu bar. Pop-ups allow users with a mouse to access an object's commands directly on the object, without going to a menu bar. Many popular graphical user interfaces such as the NeXT computer (which relies heavily on pop-up menus), a number of Microsoft Windows applications, and many X-Window applications currently use pop-up menus. A number of studies have investigated the effects of menu's physical structure on users' behavior. Walker, Smelcer and Nilsen (1991) successfully used Fitts' law to predict the mean time to select a menu item with a mouse in a hierarchical menuing system. The present study, however, indicates that users choose the motor behavior with which they are most familiar and not the strategy that minimizes mouse movement. Therefore, Fitts' law will not give accurate predictions of menu selection time since users do not necessarily choose the shortest path to a menu item. Also, the data from this study suggest that the menu search behavior users employ is independent of the menu's physical structure.
Adaptive Bar BIBAKPDF 117-118
  Matjaz Debevc
Adaptive systems offer automatic adaptation of the user interface to the user's knowledge. Such systems check the user's procedures and eventually propose certain changes in the interface or instruct the user in order to help him to reach his goal more easily.
   The following article shows how we designed and implemented an adaptive bar (also called toolbar or speedbar). During the session the user interface suggests the removal or installation of certain icons. It also arranges and resides the icons according to their priority.
Keywords: Adaptive user interface, User interface design, Software ergonomics
Fisheye Videos: Distorting Multiple Videos in Space and Time Domain According to Users' Interests BIBAKPDF 119-120
  Kimiya Yamaashi; Masayuki Tani; Koichiro Tanikoshi
Many applications, such as tele-conference systems and plant control systems need to display a large number of videos. In those applications, displaying multiple video windows overwhelms limited computing resources (e.g., network capacity, processing power) due to the vast amount of information.
   This paper describes a technique allows multiple videos to display in the limited computing resources. This technique distorts multiple videos according to users' interest. Users are not interested in all videos simultaneously. They only look at a part of them in detail and get the global context of other videos. The technique displays videos of interest in more detail by degrading other videos to allow an efficient use of limited computing resources, which we call the Fisheye Videos technique. The technique distorts a video in the space and time domain (e.g., spatial resolution, frame rate) according to users' interests, which are estimated based on the window conditions such as its distance from a focused window and the amount of masked area by other windows.
Keywords: Digital video, CSCW, Tele-conference system, Plant control system, Window system
The FeelMouse: An Interaction Device with Force Feedback BIBAKPDF 121-122
  Franz Penz; Manfred Tscheligi
Force feedback is a valuable possibility to extend the base of human-computer communication from strongly visual to multisensory information exchange. By the integration of force feedback the user is more directly involved in object characteristics which is surface structure and hardness. We present a very cheap and simple solution for a force feedback input device. The force mechanisms is attached to a standard two button mouse. By the software controlled adjustment of a feel value objects get different force sensation behavior.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces, Input devices, Force feedback
An Evaluation of Four 6 Degree-of-Freedom Input Techniques BIBAPDF 123-124
  Shumin Zhai; Paul Milgram; David Drascic
A great deal of research has been carried out in evaluating two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) computer input devices [e.g. Buxton 1990]. Relatively little research has been carried out with 6-DOF devices, however. Research currently underway at the University of Toronto aims at systematically investigating a variety of factors involved in the process of manipulating the location and orientation of objects in 3-space. Along with some conceptual discussion, this paper presents our first experiment in this effort.
Relativity Controller: Reflecting User Perspective in Document Spaces BIBAKPDF 125-126
  Eric Justin Gould
As the ease of accessing and generating large quantities of information increases, people's ability to navigate through that information and maintain personal perspective decreases [1]. This paper describes an interface element, the Relativity Controller, that enables users to specify what is important to them and modify the portion of their perceptual space that information takes up, using a variation on fisheye view techniques [2]. This process is described as a generalized tool for annotating documents and for controlling the balance between detail and context in representations of document contents. Peripheral portions of documents are condensed so that salient segments can be expanded and whole document contexts maintained. It will be shown here in its application to video data.
Keywords: User interface, Fisheye views, Personal perspective, Annotation, Information retrieval, Video editing, Relativity

Short Papers (Talks): Graphical User Interfaces

Layer Tool: Support for Progressive Design BIBAPDF 127-128
  Yin Yin Wong
Tools aimed at design professionals are widely available, yet rarely do they support the initial phases of the design process. These tools provide too much fine control and precision to allow for rough ideation. Designers in the initial phase require flexible tools which allow them to easily create and manipulate ideas without having to specify details.
   Others have studied the effect imposed by the computer medium and its tools on the design process. Black [1] proposed that finished-looking drafts produced on the computer curtail exploration of ideas. Graphic designers tend to focus on their initial concept and tweak detailed parameters such as column width or typeface rather than explore alternate designs. They concentrate on finished-looking presentations rather than iterating structural issues. How can we provide tools that better support the earliest design phases? In this paper, I describe a user observation of an architect at work and the interface design of a layer tool inspired from the observation.
Back to the Future: A Graphical Layering System Inspired by Transparent Paper BIBAKPDF 129-130
  Matt Belge; Ishantha Lokuge; David Rivers
Many graphics systems today use transparent layers to help users organize information. However, due to problems in the User Interface design, these systems often confuse users and distract them from the task they are trying to accomplish. Before the advent of desktop computers, people managed similar problems by drawing on sheets of plastic transparent paper (transparencies). Believing that layering is a powerful technique, we re-examined the qualities of these transparencies as a source of inspiration. This gave us some innovative ideas. We built a prototype. Pilot studies performed on the prototype show promising results.
Keywords: Transparency, Layers, Visualization
A Framework for Describing Interactions with Graphical Widgets Using State-Transition Diagrams BIBAPDF 131-132
  Michael Chen
Describing the user interaction and visual feedback provided by a graphical widget is currently done through combining written description with visual interaction snap-shots. This approach is laborious and can be repetitive if all the widgets in a Graphical User Interface (GUI) must be documented. Furthermore, such a description does not necessarily reveal common widget behavior, nor does it directly guide a person in creating a new widget. One needs to infer standard behavior from the existing widget set before a new and consistent widget can be designed.
   This paper proposes a framework for describing the behavior of graphical widgets. It will show how most interactions with widgets fit into a state-transition diagram model with four states. This model provides a new vocabulary to call out functional and visual changes in a uniform way. It also aids in pointing out commonalities and inconsistencies of interactions within a GUI.
Pins, Grooves, & Sockets: A Direct Manipulation Interface to a Graphical Constraint System BIBAPDF 133-134
  David Vronay; James C. Spohrer
Graphical constraint systems have proven to be powerful tools for specifying the behavior of interface objects [BORNING77, SUTHERLAND63, GLEICHER91, LINCAGES92]. However, these systems have been plagued by the lack of a user interface that can allow authors to quickly and easily produce the graphical widgets they desire. This paper reports on a user interface metaphor of pins, grooves, and sockets (PG&S) for dealing with certain types of constraints.
Studying the Movement of High-Tech. Rodentia: Pointing and Dragging BIBAKPDF 135-136
  Oryx Cohen; Shawna Meyer; Erik Nilsen
This study compares seven input devices (mouse, touchscreen, two trackballs, mousepen, touchpad, and joystick) performing a star tracing task. Along with the device comparisons, the difference between moving with the selector button pressed (dragging) or with the button released (pointing) is examined. Recent work has found that dragging is slower and more error prone than pointing when using a mouse, stylus or trackball [1,2,3]. In the present study, 28 subjects used all seven input devices for both dragging and pointing tasks. Highly significant device differences were found for both speed and accuracy (p's <.001). The touchscreen and mouse were the best devices and the joystick and touchpad were the worst. The fastest devices also produced the fewest errors. The main effect for the button position was also significant, (p's <.005) with dragging being slower and more error-prone than pointing. However, there was a significant interaction between input device and button position. For one of the devices, the mousepen, dragging was actually faster and less error prone than pointing. What is different about the mousepen? Some possibilities are considered along with how these results can be applied to the design of input devices and interaction techniques.
Keywords: Human performance modelling, Input devices, Input tasks
Gesturing with Shared Drawing Tools BIBAPDF 137-138
  Catherine G. Wolf; James R. Rhyne
This paper reports on how people used a pen-based shared drawing application in support of their needs for gesturing in a collaborative drawing task.

Short Papers (Talks): Information Access

Dialogue Control in Social Interface Agents BIBAKPDF 139-140
  Kristinn R. Thorisson
Interface agents are computational entities that form a focal point for communication at the interface; social interface agents are familiar with the conventions of personal interaction. This paper outlines a prototype social interface agent, called J. Jr., that integrates various channels of information about the user to control its real-time behavior in the social setting. Information about the user's gaze and hand gestures is provided by a human observer; data about intonation in the user's speech is obtained with automatic frequency analysis. This data is in turn used to control the gaze of the agent's on-screen face, its back-channel paraverbals, and turn-taking behavior. Results show that by choosing the appropriate variables for dialogue control, a relatively convincing social behavior can be achieved in the agent.
Keywords: Social interface agents, Multi-modal dialogue, Real-time interaction
Discerning Bias in Computer Systems BIBAKPDF 141-142
  Batya Friedman; Helen Nissenbaum
From a study of real cases, we have developed a topology of bias in computer systems. This topology provides a basis for describing, analyzing, and remedying bias in actual systems-in-use. Although other discussions have pointed out bias in particular computer systems, we know of no other comparable work that examines this phenomenon generally and offers a framework for understanding it.
Keywords: Computer system design, Computer ethics, Social implications of computers
A Construction Tool for Context-Sensitive Guidance System BIBAKPDF 143-144
  Mayumi Hiyoshi; Hideo Shimazu; Yosuke Takashima
We have designed and experimentally implemented a tool for developing intelligent on-line guidance systems for electronic appliances and software programs. The key to this tool's efficiency is its capability to generate effectively context-sensitive answers to users' queries. Since the guidance system holds the state-transition representation of its target systems and receives all user operational inputs, it can simulate the internal states of the target systems. Any user's query is interpreted as a user goal within a specific context, and an internal planner generates the best plans to meet the goal. The planner's knowledge is defined declaratively for easy extension.
Keywords: Guidance, Adaptation, User interface, Goal/plan
A Compositional, Knowledge-Based Architecture for Intelligent Query User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 145-146
  F. M. T. Brazier; Zs. Ruttkay
The design of a user interface to intelligently intermediate between the user and a DB query system, based on a modular, knowledge-based generic architecture is to be discussed. The main principles concerning the user interface design are: identification of the essential (1) tasks of intelligent intermediation and (2) (meta-)knowledge as the basis of performing these tasks, but also (3) active role for the user in the strategic decisions of the tasks. The resulting user interface architecture is transparent, easily adaptable, and makes it possible to model strategic interaction with the user as well.
Keywords: Intelligent user interface, Co-operative problem solving, Information retrieval, Knowledge-based framework
Searching for Help vs. Having It Handed to You: The Relative Advantages of Index-Accessed Help and Context-Sensitive Help BIBAPDF 147-148
  Rita L. Danielsen; A. Brady Farrand; Susan J. Wolfe
It can be extremely difficult to convince developers that context-sensitive help is worth the cost of implementation. The project may require some form of on-line help; however, implementing index-accessed help seems faster and cheaper. When the same information can be displayed in both ways, how can we argue that the benefits of context-sensitive help outweigh the benefits of index-accessed help?
   Searching through an index or list of contents for the relevant help text takes time and cognitive effort. The same help text can be displayed with a single keystroke, cued by the current screen context. Clearly, the time spent in the index selecting the appropriate topic or keyword increases the time the user takes wandering around the help system. But, how much time does accessing the information through the index add to the task?
   Furthermore, how much is the cognitive cost when the user must search an index or list-of-contents? The user must take his or her focus away from the task in order to choose the appropriate keyword or relevant phrase [1]. Does this interference affect his or her ability to refocus on the task and proceed? The user might become distracted by the search task, and therefore need to spend some time regaining the context of the problem before applying the solution proposed by the on-line help. Is the time to read, digest, and act on the information greater for index-accessed help text than for context-sensitive help text?
Facilitating Interactive Tool Selection by Adaptive Prompting BIBAKPDF 149-150
  Thomas Kuhme; Uwe Malinowski; James D. Foley
In order to reduce the navigation effort for tool selections, a tool prompter is proposed which maintains a working set and offers a small number of corresponding tools which can be perceived at a glance. The presentation is continuously being adapted on the basis of an application model and a user model. The chosen approach allows for a wide range of optional user involvement into the adaptation mechanisms. A prototype of the tool prompter has been implemented.
Keywords: Adaptive user interfaces, Intelligent user interfaces, Application model, User model

Short Papers (Posters): Models and Representations

Representational Issues Related to Communication in Design Teams BIBAPDF 151-152
  Mathilde M. Bekker
Designers of user interfaces require tools that support communication in multi-disciplinary design teams [1,2]. In order to develop such tools a better understanding of communication in design teams is required. To determine what methods or tools would be most useful to designers and what issues play an important role in the use of such tools, we performed an analysis of user interface design practice.
   In this paper, we present an overview of issues related to communication in multi-disciplinary design teams; our findings regarding methods and tools that would be most useful to interface designers are described in [1].
Reasoning with External Representations: Supporting the Stages of Selection, Construction and Use BIBAKPDF 153-154
  Richard Cox; Paul Brna
Diagrammatic and other graphical representations are extensively employed by problem solvers. The stages of selection, construction and use are all crucial. There has been little empirical work on these processes. We describe an environment (switchER) which can be used for solving analytical reasoning problems. switchER has been used to explore a number of hypotheses relating to the significance of representation selection, the time course of problem solving and the effects of prior knowledge and problem characteristics.
Keywords: Analytical problem solving, Knowledge representation, Learning environments, Knowledge and skill acquisition
The Cognitive Dimensions of Mediating Representations BIBAKPDF 155-156
  Charles C. Wood
Cultural-cognitive approaches to HCI require a framework with which to describe "mediating representations" -- the external representations people use in their cognitive activity. Green's "cognitive dimensions" can provide such a framework, and here they are used to consider the properties of mediating representations in idea sketching.
Keywords: Cognitive dimensions, External mediating representations, Distributed cognition
A Mental Model Can Help with Learning to Operate a Complex Device BIBAKPDF 157-158
  Robert M. Fein; Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson
Does teaching a mental model for a complex device help? This question was investigated in an experiment that had three conditions: 1) no mental model was taught, 2) an explicit, but abstract, mental model, and 3) a mental model that had a real world story. In all cases the subjects were given high-quality rote instructions ("how-to-do-it" knowledge) for operating the device. The explicit mental model consisted of a description of "how-it-works" knowledge, in addition to the instructions. The story model augmented this information by explaining the inner workings as being analogous to an ecosystem. Subjects were tested on their ability to recall learned tasks and to transfer that knowledge to new ones. The results of the study showed that, as expected, the rote group was at a decided disadvantage on both the recall and transfer tasks. However, the two model conditions were not different. Additionally, it was found that subjects who had a scientific background were able to overcome the disadvantages of the rote condition, perhaps by building a mental model for themselves.
Keywords: Mental models, Transfer, Skill learning
A Speech Compression Proposal for Directory Assistance Operators: GOMS Predictions BIBAKPDF 159-160
  Rory Stuart; Gareth Gabrys
CPM-GOMS modelling has been applied to the new domain of Directory Assistance operators to help in making design decisions in the development of a new workstation. The models help focus designers on areas where the greatest improvements are possible, and also help to evaluate specific proposals. Here we examine CPM-GOMS predictions regarding a proposal to apply speech compression to the customer's initial spoken request and play this processed speech to the operator with the goal of speeding up the transaction. Modelling the proposal produces non-intuitive results, which we describe, and raises workload issues, which we describe and plan to address in future research.
Keywords: Analytic modelling, Interface design, CPM-GOMS, Speech compression, Operator workstations
Model-Based User Interface Design by Example and by Answering Questions BIBAKPDF 161-162
  Martin R. Frank; James D. Foley
Model-based user interface design is based on a description of application objects and operations at a level of abstraction higher than that of code. A good model can be used to assist in designing the user interface, support multiple interfaces, help separate interface and application, describe input sequencing in a simple way, check consistency and completeness of the interface, evaluate its speed-of-use and generate context-specific textual and animated help. However, designers rarely use computer-supported application modelling today and prefer less formal approaches such as using a story board of interface prototypes. One reason is that available tools use special-purpose languages for the model specification. Another reason is that these tools force the designers to specify the application model before they can start working on the visual interface, which is their main area of expertise. We present a novel methodology for concurrent development of the user interface and the application model which overcomes both problems by combining story-boarding and model-based interface design.
Keywords: Story-boarding, User interface management systems, Model-based user interface design
Supporting Implementation of Semantic-Level User Interaction Paradigms BIBAPDF 163-164
  Peter Aberg; Robert Neches
Many computer applications present their users with large information spaces that are difficult to understand and navigate. One class of solutions to this problem relies on allowing users to easily explore the information space, guided by continuous feedback provided by the system. Unfortunately, instantiating such a paradigm for a new application often requires a great deal of effort on the part of the developer. We are currently working on a shell environment that merges a model-based user interface development system with a proven interaction paradigm (a generalization of retrieval by reformulation) to assist developers in this task.
Layered Protocols in User Interfaces for Consumer Equipment BIBAPDF 165-166
  J. H. Eggen; R. Haakma; J. H. D. M. Westerink
A major issue in user interface design is how to structure the interaction between user and system. A formal model for analyzing and designing user-system interaction is expected to be of great help in dealing with this issue and can thus lead to increased usability. In this paper we investigate the usefulness of the Layered Protocols formalism (Taylor, 1988) for the evaluation and design of user interfaces for consumer appliances.
The Task Oriented Modelling (TOM) Approach to the Development of Real-Time Safety-Critical Systems BIBAKPDF 167-168
  Clive Warren
The domains of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and aviation are two areas in which Human Factors has much to offer in terms of the design of computer systems intended to support operator's tasks. The flight-decks of modern commercial aircraft already have many automatic systems aiding pilots in carrying out their tasks. Advances in technology, and increased demands on pilots will result in further automation in the future. With the planned harmonisation of European ATC systems and procedures, ATC workstations of the future will also automate many of the controllers' tasks. Although air travel is statistically one of the safest forms of transport, the number of incidents occurring which are attributed to "Human error" associated with use of automated systems is increasing. The appropriate use of Human Factors expertise during the design process of automated systems will significantly reduce the number of incidents in air travel currently attributed to Human error. One system development method and its supposing tools are described which could be used in the design process to incorporate Human Factors principles in such automated systems.
Keywords: Task oriented modelling, Performance metrics, Safety-critical systems, System development, Air traffic control (ATC), Aviation, Automation

Short Papers (Posters): Help and Information Retrieval

User Tailored Hypermedia Explanations BIBAKPDF 169-170
  Fiorella de Rosis; Nadia De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo
This paper describes how concepts are explained in an intelligent interface to a statistical package by combining user modelling, natural language generation and hypermedia techniques. The advantage of this approach is to reduce difficulties in user modelling and in interpreting requests of further information. In addition, explicit knowledge representation enables modifying the facility according to results of evaluation studies.
Keywords: Explanations, User models, Natural language generation, Hypermedia
Ask How it Works: An Intelligent Interactive Manual for Devices BIBAKPDF 171-172
  Smadar Kedar; Catherine Baudin; Lawrence Birnbaum; Richard Osgood; Ray Bareiss
We describe Ask How It Works, a prototype interactive intelligent manual for devices, based on novel intelligent training systems called ASK Systems.
Keywords: Intelligent training, Hypermedia, Devices
Sifting Through Hierarchical Information BIBAKPDF 173-174
  Doug Schaffer; Saul Greenberg
Modern computer users must often sift and manage vast amounts of hierarchically structured information. However, conventional interface tools have not kept pace with the information explosion, leaving users with inadequate means to manage their data. This paper promotes ideas of information filtering and fisheye views of hierarchies through the use of dynamic queries. In particular, we present FLEXVIEW, a graphical system for visualizing file systems.
Keywords: Fisheye views, Information filtering, Dynamic queries, Visualization
Design Space of a Generic Interface for Filtering and Displaying Database Query Results BIBAPDF 175-176
  Greg Chwelos; Marilyn Mantei
A generic interface for the interactive execution and presentation of database queries is described. We explore this design space via a set of direct manipulation filters based on the semantics of the data and through an economic set of display formats also based on the data semantics. Together, the filter controllers and the dynamic displays constitute a high bandwidth interface for exploration and visualization of arbitrary database query results.
Information Filtering: A Tool for Communication Between Researchers BIBAPDF 177-178
  Jean-David Sta
The research center of EDF (the French electric power company) is organized in 35 departments and is composed of 1500 researchers. The aim of the project described here is to let researchers know the activity of others departments which is related to their activity. A set of fifty projects from other departments has been sent to each head of department. These projects were selected automatically, according to the contents of the texts describing the projects in each department. Every head of department is returning a questionnaire to tell if the results are relevant or not. The analysis of this questionnaire will tell us how to improve the method.
Vertical Spacing of Computer-Presented Text BIBAPDF 179-180
  Patrick A. Holleran; Kristin G. Bauersfeld
This study investigated readers' reactions to vertical spacing of text presented on a computer screen. Results showed that text width, font size, and several other variables were related to judgments of vertical spacing.
User Acceptance of Complementary Tables of Contents for Access to Online Information BIBAPDF 181-182
  W. T. Hunt; L. Rintjema; T. T. Carey
In previous research, we experimented with restructuring online information with multiple tables of contents [2]. The tables show the different, complementary relationships between units of information, much as hypertext links would do. The additional structure provided by the hierarchical nature of the tables gives conceptual overviews of the information and has potential for assisting user navigation [5]. For online technical information, we found that four complementary tables were needed, organising information by similar user tasks, by similar system objects and functions, and by conceptual prerequisites for under standing ("the following conditions apply to all examples in this chapter") [2].
   We report here on two pilot studies which investigated how users would employ complementary tables of contents to access online information. We were concerned that users might experience difficulty in selecting a table for a particular information-seeking task, and therefore choose to consistently accessing through a single table. However, in both studies the results indicate that users will choose to employ complementary tables in tactical ways, fitting the particular information they are seeking and their own perspective on it.
Item Recognition in Menu Selection: The Effect of Practice BIBAKPDF 183-184
  Victor Kaptelinin
This study examines the role of global and local visual features in menu selection. After being trained to work with a simple menu-driven system, subjects performed two series of tasks with two types of modified menus: "Jumbled" ones (the sequence of items within a menu changed from task to task) and "Dotted" ones (item names were replaced with strings of "bullets"). It was found that menu selection skills were learnt more efficiently under the second condition. The implications of this finding for modern studies of display based competence are discussed.
Keywords: Menu selection, Skill development, D-TAG

Short Papers (Posters): Evaluating Evaluation

Comparing Studies that Compare Usability Assessment Methods: An Unsuccessful Search for Stable Criteria BIBAKPDF 185-186
  Michael J. Muller; Tom Dayton; Robert Root
Four studies that compared inspection methods with usability testing were re-analyzed using six distinct criteria for the superiority of one method to another. Each study's own results were found -- to a greater or lesser extent -- to be in internal conflict when examined across the six criteria. These analyses, added to the well-known contradictions across the studies, argue that any conclusions regarding overall superiority of one method with respect to another are premature. They also lead to questions regarding the selection of criteria.
Keywords: Usability testing, Inspection methods, Comparisons of methods, User centered design
Preliminary Findings on the Effectiveness of Ergonomic Criteria for the Evaluation of Human-Computer Interfaces BIBAKPDF 187-188
  J. M. Christian Bastien; Dominique L. Scapin
The effectiveness of ergonomic criteria for the evaluation of user interfaces was assessed. Two groups of experts evaluated the interface of a musical database application. After an exploration-diagnosis phase, the participants evaluated the same interface states with or without ergonomic criteria. Preliminary results show that in the first phase, the number of usability problems detected and the proportions of usability problems with respect to the size of the aggregates were similar for both groups. In the second phase, the use of criteria increased both the evaluation diagnosis and the proportions of problems with respect to the size of the aggregates.
Keywords: User interface evaluation, Heuristic evaluation, Ergonomic criteria, Standards, Usability problems, Usability expertise, Cost-effective methods
Feature Checklists in HCI: Some Basic Results BIBAPDF 189-190
  Edward A. Edgerton; Stephen W. Draper; Stephen B. Barton
Feature checklists are a method of measuring the usage of commands by exploiting users' memories. The perceived usefulness of commands can also be measured, as can awareness of their existence and functions. Experiments found that their accuracy (validity) was greater than 80% in all cases. Increased visual realism of the presentation may increase this still further. Extensions to bugs and to task descriptions are discussed.
Ongoing Evaluation Studies of Collaborative Work within the Swedish MultiG Research Program BIBAKPDF 191-192
  Bengt Ahlstrom; Hans Marmolin; Thomas Marmolin
The main purpose of the evaluation studies is to make users the focus in an iterative design process by collecting and synthesising information about users needs and capabilities. To obtain this goal the studies are divided into several different phases, concerning traditional to multimodal computer supported collaboration, using methods such as questionnaires, interviews, experimental and design prototype evaluation.
Keywords: Evaluation, User centred design, Computer supported cooperative work
A Rapid Method for Tailored, Multi-Perspective Evaluation of User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 193-194
  Reinoud Hulzebosch; Anthony Jameson
The computer-supported evaluation method FACE can be used for rapid evaluation of user interfaces without restriction to a single perspective or a standardized technique. This paper lists the considerations on which its design is based, describes its use, and reports on a field test.
Keywords: Interface evaluation, Empirical methods
Process Quality Metrics for User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 195-196
  Miriam E. Kotsonis; Darren A. Kall
Human factors engineering input to user interface design involves early product specification and later development support and testing. Such input has most impact and is most cost-effective early in the design cycle; however, this expertise is often used much later in the cycle. To improve human factors utilization, the authors developed metrics to track why a consultation was needed, when in the development cycle the consultation occurred, the basis for the recommendation, acceptance of the recommendation, and impact on development. We instituted an on-line system to gather data on these variables, analyzed results of nine months of data, and used the data to improve the stability and effectiveness of our recommendations.
Keywords: Human factors, Metrics, Design, User interfaces, Quality
Interface Evaluation from Users' Point of View: Three Complementary Measures BIBAKPDF 197-198
  Edo M. Houwing; Marion Wiethoff; Albert G. Arnold
In the context of an European project 'Metrics for Usability Standards in Computing' (MUSiC), metrics, methods and standards are developed for industrial use. A validation study is reported in which metrics of cognitive workload, performance and subjective usability are tested. Subjects were studied working with a menu oriented and with a graphical object-oriented wordprocessor. The hypotheses were that the graphical package would induce a lower level of cognitive workload, and better performance and higher satisfaction. The subjects reported a lower workload, and a higher user satisfaction when using a package with a graphical interface. The lower workload could not be determined objectively, nor were there clear performance differences. Subjects did however show different learning behaviours with the two packages.
   This contribution is relevant for software developers as well as HCI practicers.
Keywords: Usability, Laboratory experiment, Metrics, Guidelines, Mental effort, Workload
Tools for Graphical User Interface Evaluation Using Playback BIBAKPDF 199-200
  Nobuko Kishi
Usability testing during software development poses several problems. One problem is the high cost for conducting usability tests. Another is lack of objectivity in analysis of test results. To solve these problems, we developed a set of tools for detecting unexpected behavior of users in the recorded data of the user operations. These tools record mouse and keyboard operations and compare two operation sequences to detect the differences between them. When one sequences is performed by a possible user and the other sequences is performed by a skilled user or a designer, the detected differences are closely related to users' unexpected behaviors which should be noted by human observers during usability testing, evaluating graphical user interface designs.
   The tools' two main techniques are data gathering in playback mode and multi-step matching of recorded data. A preliminary experiment showed that the tools can automate part of the usability evaluation process by detecting differences often overlooked by human observers.
Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Usability evaluation
Computer Support for Evaluation Studies BIBAKPDF 201-202
  Stewart T. Fleming; Alistair C. Kilgour; Carmel Smith
Questionnaires provide a survey method which allows remote data collection in evaluation or organizational studies. We describe a system called Quest which provides computer based support for administrators and participants in evaluation and data collection methods. The system uses electronic mail and a graphical user interface to enhance the utility of the method for both administrators and participants.
Keywords: Questionnaires, Electronic mail, End-user programming, Automatic user interface design

Short Papers (Talks): Design Milieux

Blind Models as Minimal Artifacts BIBAPDF 203-204
  Richard Mander; Michael Arent
As the use of and the demand for electronic products becomes more diverse, it has become ever more essential to actively involve end-users in the design of the human interface of these products through a process of user studies, iterative design, and user testing [1] [2]. Our work has shown that an important component of human interface design is to conceptualize user scenarios based on observational studies of end-users [3]. These scenarios should be articulated very early on in the design process. From these scenarios, role plays can be developed and carried out with users to gain an initial understanding about what kind of functionality and product form factors might be appropriate for enhancing such aspects of users' lives as entertainment/ recreational factors, work-related productivity, interpersonal communications, human memory enhancement, knowledge acquisition/retention, etc.
Analysis and Design Techniques for User Centred Design BIBAKPDF 205-206
  John Kirby; Heather A. Heathfield
A User Centred Systems Design Methodology is being developed as part of the PEN&PAD (Elderly Care) project. Two techniques for use in the early stages of analysis and design are briefly described. Task Oriented Flow Diagram technique has been developed as a means of representing task analysis and information flows. The diagrams produced provide the basis for a dialogue with users and a starting point for the design process. The use of a storyboarding technique for discussing the resulting early designs with users is also described.
Keywords: User centred systems design, Task analysis, Task oriented flow diagrams, PEN&PAD
The Notion of Task in HCI BIBAPDF 207-208
  Stephen W. Draper
The ISO definition of the usability of an interface is "the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in a particular environment". This at first seems pessimistic to many people, as it implies that there may be no generalisation across users or machines or tasks: that measuring how one combination performs may not tell us anything about how others will perform. But is it pessimistic enough? It expresses what many HCI workers assume, that just as it is clear what a "user" is (distinct users can be identified by their bodies -- if it is the same person then it is the same user), so a task is the same thing to all people in all circumstances. This paper points out that this is not true, examines the extent to which this may be a problem, and how it threatens standard practices of both psychologists and designers in HCI.
Designing User Interfaces -- The Role of Intuition and Imagination (1992)) BIBAPDF 209-210
  Janni Nielsen; Annette Aboulafia
It is argued that too little is known about the cognitive aspects of design. This knowledge is essential if the many guidelines, models and tools that have emerged in the field of user interface design are to have a significant impact on design practice.
   Empirical studies of designers developing user interfaces are reported, showing that the context in which design takes place in an organisational setting is turbulent and the design task often unclear. Investigations of decision making in the design process showed it is one of gradually evolving commitment, where intuition, imagination and unstructured analysis are essential cognitive processes during design work. The usefulness of designer support tools is discussed.
Structuring Design Spaces BIBAKPDF 211-212
  Niels Ole Bernsen
The paper outlines the coarse structure, called CO-SITUE, of the design space in which designer reasoning takes place. It appears that any account of design rationale or of the logic of design reasoning will have to assume a CO-SITUE-like framework. As a frame notation, CO-SITUE has been applied in analysing and recording a medium-scale design project.
Keywords: Design space, Usability, Designer reasoning
Experience with QOC Design Rationale BIBAKPDF 213-214
  Diane McKerlie; Allan MacLean
Design Rationale emphasises working with explicit representations not only of possible design solutions, but also of the reasons and processes behind them. Although the arguments for using Design Rationale are compelling, there is still very little experience of applying the current approaches in practical settings. This paper reports on the use of QOC (Questions, Options and Criteria) Design Rationale to support a hypermedia interface design protect. It illustrates how we have used QOC in our design activities and some of the roles it has served.
Keywords: Designs, Design rationale, Documentation