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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'92 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:CHI'92 Short Talks
Note:Striking a Balance
Editors:Penny Bauersfeld; John Bennett; Gene Lynch; Dennis Wixon; Betsy Comstock; Dennis Wixon; Betsy Comstock
Location:Monterey, California
Dates:1992-May-03 to 1992-May-07
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-513-5; ACM Order Number 608921; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-53344-X; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI92; hcibib: CHI92X; hcibib: CHI92Y
Papers:116; 62; 26
Pages:736; 1-70; 71-130
  1. Demonstration: Information Visualization II
  2. Usability Walkthroughs
  3. Buttons and Gestures and Voice, Oh My!
  4. Panel
  5. Demonstration: Analysis Tools/Multimedia Help
  6. Special Panel
  7. Participatory Design
  8. Case Studies - Methods for Developing Systems Using Application Packages
  9. Understanding and Supporting the Design Process
  10. Panel
  11. Demonstration: Tutoring/Learning
  12. Systems for Media-Supported Collaboration
  13. The Role of the Organization in System Design
  14. Laboratory Overviews: Human Information Processing
  15. Panel
  16. Demonstration: Video Conferencing/Automation
  17. Desks, Video, and Screens
  18. Graphical Interfaces for Drawing, Exploring, and Organizing
  19. Panel
  20. Demonstration: User Interface Management Systems III
  21. Videos: Group Work
  22. Videos: Speech and Natural Language
  23. Videos: User Interface Tools
  24. Videos: User Interface Techniques
  25. Videos: Visualization
  26. Videos: Interface Designs

Demonstration: Information Visualization II

TreeViz: Treemap Visualization of Hierarchically Structured Information BIBPDF 369-370
  Brian Johnson

Usability Walkthroughs

Finding Usability Problems Through Heuristic Evaluation BIBAKPDF 373-380
  Jakob Nielsen
Usability specialists were better than non-specialists at performing heuristic evaluation, and "double experts" with specific expertise in the kind of interface being evaluated performed even better. Major usability problems have a higher probability than minor problems of being found in a heuristic evaluation, but more minor problems are found in absolute numbers. Usability heuristics relating to exits and user errors were more difficult to apply than the rest, and additional measures should be taken to find problems relating to these heuristics. Usability problems that relate to missing interface elements that ought to be introduced were more difficult to find by heuristic evaluation in interfaces implemented as paper prototypes but were as easy as other problems to find in running systems.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, Interface evaluation, Usability problems, Usability expertise, Discount usability engineering, Telephone-operated interfaces
Applying Cognitive Walkthroughs to More Complex User Interfaces: Experiences, Issues, and Recommendations BIBAKPDF 381-388
  Cathleen Wharton; Janice Bradford; Robin Jeffries; Marita Franzke
The Cognitive Walkthrough methodology was developed in an effort to bring cognitive theory closer to practice; to enhance the design and evaluation of user interfaces in industrial settings. For the first time, small teams of professional developers have used this method to critique three complex software systems. In this paper we report evidence about how the methodology worked for these evaluations. We focus on five core issues: (1) task selection, coverage, and evaluation, (2) the process of doing a Cognitive Walkthrough, (3) requisite knowledge for the evaluators, (4) group walkthroughs, and (5) the interpretation of results. Our findings show that many variables can affect the success of the technique; we believe that if the Cognitive Walkthrough is ultimately to be successful in industrial settings, the method must be refined and augmented in a variety of ways.
Keywords: Cognitive walkthrough, Group walkthroughs, Task-based evaluations, Usability inspection method, User interface evaluation
The Cognitive Jogthrough: A Fast-Paced User Interface Evaluation Procedure BIBAKPDF 389-395
  David E. Rowley; David G. Rhoades
Walkthrough techniques have been shown to be an effective supplement to empirical testing methods for evaluating the usability of software systems [3, 4]. Unfortunately, structured walkthrough procedures tend to be time-consuming and unpopular with evaluators when used on substantial tasks. To maximize the useful information obtained from walkthroughs while minimizing the overhead of the procedure itself, a fast-paced methodology was developed and used within the constraints of a real-world product development environment. By using video recording equipment and an informal, interactive evaluation session, the "cognitive jogthrough" procedure revealed significant user interface problems that could then be studied using other techniques.
Keywords: User interface evaluation techniques, Structured walkthroughs, Design methodologies
Comparison of Empirical Testing and Walkthrough Methods in User Interface Evaluation BIBAKPDF 397-404
  Clare-Marie Karat; Robert Campbell; Tarra Fiegel
We investigated the relative effectiveness of empirical usability testing and individual and team walkthrough methods in identifying usability problems in two graphical user interface office systems. The findings were replicated across the two systems and show that the empirical testing condition identified the largest number of problems, and identified a significant number of relatively severe problems that were missed by the walkthrough conditions. Team walkthroughs achieved better results than individual walkthroughs in some areas. About a third of the significant usability problems identified were common across all methods. Cost-effectiveness data show that empirical testing required the same or less time to identify each problem when compared to walkthroughs.
Keywords: Empirical testing, Walkthroughs, Problem severity, Cost-effectiveness, Scenarios

Buttons and Gestures and Voice, Oh My!

One Dimensional Motion Tailoring for the Disabled: A User Study BIBAKPDF 405-411
  Randy Pausch; Laura Vogtle; Matthew Conway
The Tailor project allows physically disabled users to provide real-time analog input to computer applications. We use a Polhemus tracking device and create a custom tailored mapping from each user's best range and type of motion into the analog control signal. The application is a simple video game based on Pong, where the analog input controls the position of the player's paddle. A group of able-bodied subjects was able to correctly hit the ball with the paddle 77% of the time, and a comparison group of children with Cerebral Palsy performed at the 50% level. More than half the disabled users were able to perform at a higher level than the worst able-bodied user.
Keywords: Gesture input, Disabled, Handicapped, User study
Working with Audio: Integrating Personal Tape Recorders and Desktop Computers BIBAKPDF 413-418
  Leo Degen; Richard Mander; Gitta Salomon
Audio data is rarely used on desktop computers today, although audio is otherwise widely used for communication tasks. This paper describes early work aimed at creating computer tools that support the ways users may want to work with audio data. User needs for the system were determined by interviewing people already working with audio data, using existing devices such as portable tape recorders. A preliminary prototype system -- consisting of a personal tape recorder for recording and simultaneously marking audio and a Macintosh application for browsing these recordings -- was built. Informal field user tests of this prototype system have indicated areas for improvement and directions for future work.
Keywords: Audio interfaces, Audio browsing, Multi-media, User interface, User observation, Design process
Skip and Scan: Cleaning Up Telephone Interfaces BIBAKPDF 419-426
  Paul Resnick; Robert A. Virzi
The current generation of telephone interfaces is frustrating to use, in part because callers have to wait through the recitation of long prompts in order to find the options that interest them. In a visual medium, users would shift their gaze in order to skip uninteresting prompts and scan through large pieces of text. We present skip and scan, a new telephone interface style in which callers issue explicit commands to accomplish these same skipping and scanning activities. In a laboratory experiment, subjects made selections using skip and scan menus more quickly than using traditional, numbered menus, and preferred the skip and scan menus in subjective ratings. In a field test of a skip and scan interface, the general public successfully added and retrieved information without using any written instructions.
Keywords: Phone-based interface, Semi-structure, Audiotex, Telephone form, Menu, Interactive voice response


Designing Collaborative, Knowledge-Building Environments for Tomorrow's Schools BIBAKPDF 427-430
  Anne Nicol Thomas; James Pellegrino; Peter Rowley; Marlene Scardamalia; Elliot Soloway; Jim Webb
The notion that children learn by constructing their own knowledge is highly popular these days among educational theorists. But what are the particular abilities that enable learners to be successful? And how must computer systems, and in particular their user interfaces, be designed to foster and support those abilities? The panel members represent several nationally-recognized education projects, all designed to give children control over their own learning while, at the same time, providing supports for effective learning strategies. They will discuss the unique design issues -- resolved and unresolved -- that arise as cognitive theories meet classroom realities. CSILE, a collaborative, user-constructed database, JASPER, a video-based mathematics program, and MediaText, a multi-media authoring environment, are available for use and review by CHI92 attendees prior to the panel presentation.
Keywords: Education, Knowledge-building, Collaborative learning, Design

Demonstration: Analysis Tools/Multimedia Help

Integrated Data Capture and Analysis Tools for Research and Testing on Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 431-432
  Monty L. Hammontree; Jeffrey J. Hendrickson; Billy W. Hensley
Our on-line data capture and analysis tools include an event capture program, event data filtering programs, a multimedia data analyzer, and a retrospective verbal protocol recorder for use with the multimedia data analyzer. Off-line observation logging is also supported. Additional plans for development include the integration of an online time-synchronized observation logger, and time-synchronized eyetracking data recording. The tool set provides an integrated multi-source data collection, processing, and analysis system for: 1) comparing and evaluating software applications and prototypes; 2) evaluating software documentation and instructional materials; and 3) evaluating on-line training. The tools currently run on Macintosh computers and under Microsoft Windows. Plans are to port the tools to run under Presentation Manager and Motif.
Keywords: Event capture, Data filtering, Video analysis, Verbal protocol, observation logging, Eyetracking
Multimedia Help: A Prototype and an Experiment BIBAKPDF 433-434
  Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya; Ellen Isaacs; Krishna Bharat
On-line help systems have not paralleled recent advances in user interface technology. In particular, traditional textual help does not support visualization of the interaction processes needed to complete tasks, especially in graphical interfaces. In this demonstration, we present an experimental prototype which is capable of presenting help information in text, audio, static graphics, video, and context-sensitive animation. The prototype is used in a study on how multimedia technology enhances user performance.
Keywords: On-line help, Multimedia help, Multimedia experiment, Animated help, User performance

Special Panel

Sci-Fi at CHI: Cyberpunk Novelists Predict Future User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 435-437
  Aaron Marcus; Donald A. Norman; Rudy Rucker; Bruce Sterling; Vernor Vinge
This plenary panel will explore ideas about future user interfaces, their technology support, and their social context as proposed in the work of leading authors of science fiction characterized as the Cyberpunk movement. Respondents will react to and comment upon the authors' presentations.
Keywords: User/machine systems, Computers and society, History of computing

Participatory Design

Participatory Design of a Portable Torque-Feedback Device BIBAKPDF 439-446
  Michael Good
Customer-driven design processes such as participatory design can be used to develop new presence, or virtual reality, technology. Chemists worked together with computer company engineers to develop scenarios for how presence technology could be used to support future molecular modeling work in drug design. These scenarios led to the development of a portable torque-feedback device which can be used with either workstation or virtual reality technology. This paper discusses both the experience with the participatory design process and the novel features of the portable torque-feedback device.
Keywords: Presence, Virtual reality, Participatory design, Force feedback, Molecular modeling, Chemistry
User Centred Development of a General Practice Medical Workstation: The PEN&PAD Experience BIBAKPDF 447-453
  A. L. Rector; B. Horan; M. Fitter; S. Kay; P. D. Newton; W. A. Nowlan; D. Robinson; A. Wilson
The goal of the PEN&PAD project is to design and develop a useful and usable medical workstation for day-to-day use in patient care. The project has adopted a user centred approach and direct observations of doctors, participative design and Formative Evaluation have therefore been an integral part of the process of software development. Indeed, doctors have been involved from the earliest stages of the project. The project has focussed on British General Practitioners, but the methods which have been evolved are general. This paper describes the strategy by which doctors can be involved in the successful design and development of a medical workstation.
Keywords: User centred, Workstation, Medical informatics, Methodology, Evaluation
Retrospective on a Year of Participatory Design using the PICTIVE Technique BIBAKPDF 455-462
  Michael J. Muller
PICTIVE is a participatory design technique for increasing the direct and effective involvement of users and other stakeholders in the design of software. This paper reviews a year of the use of PICTIVE on products and research prototypes at Bellcore. What we have learned is illustrated through five brief case studies. The paper concludes with a summary of our current PICTIVE practice, expressed as three developing, interrelated models: an object model, a process model, and a participation model.
Keywords: Participatory design, Graphical user interface (GUI), Text-based interface, Design methodology, Assessment

Case Studies - Methods for Developing Systems Using Application Packages

Evolving Task Oriented Systems BIBAKPDF 463-469
  Paul Seaton; Tom Stewart
This paper describes an approach to developing systems which can be summarised as 'analyse top-down, design middle-out, and build bottom-up'. A case study is described in which this approach is used to develop a system to support staff who select new products for a major UK company. The novelty of the approach lies in its use of task analysis to define an appropriate domain for the system and then the use of a working prototype to grow a system from the bottom up. The project involved using simple development tools which allowed the users to start getting business benefit from the system right from the start. Their use could therefore develop as the system evolved.
Keywords: Task analysis, Prototyping, User involvement, Design methods, Evolutionary design, Bottom-up methods, Graphical interfaces
A Visit to a Very Small Database: Lessons from Managing the Review of Papers Submitted for CHI'91 BIBAKPDF 471-478
  John Rieman; Susan Davies; Jonathan Roberts
Many of the principles that guide user-interface design for commercial systems do not scale down to simple applications developed on personal computers. These "very small systems" are typically designed within a high-level application such as a database or a spreadsheet. The entire development process may take no more than a few days. In this restricted context, iterative design and usability testing are unaffordable luxuries, while detailed task analysis and early focus on users fail because the task and users will not coalesce until the system is in place. We describe our experiences with developing and using a very small system. We present suggestions for successful design in similar situations.
Keywords: Design methodologies, Small systems, Databases
Designing Theory-Based Systems: A Case Study BIBAKPDF 479-488
  John B. Smith; Marcy Lansman
In this paper, we discuss principles for designing and testing computer systems intended to support users' thinking as they perform open-ended or ill-defined tasks. We argue that such systems inherently and inevitably implement a model of users' cognitive behaviors. Making that model explicit can provide system developers with guidance in making design decisions. However, both model and system must be tested and refined. We discuss these principles in relation to a case study in which our group developed a hypertext-based writing environment and then tested that system in a series of experimental studies of writers' strategies.
Keywords: System design, Cognitive modes and strategies, Cognitive models, Task analysis, User testing

Understanding and Supporting the Design Process

Towards a Model of Cognitive Process in Logical Design: Comparing Object-Oriented and Traditional Functional Decomposition Software Methodologies BIBAKPDF 489-498
  Jinwoo Kim; F. Javier Lerch
This study aims at developing and empirically testing hypotheses about professional designers' cognitive activities when using object-oriented methodology (OOD) versus using traditional functional decomposition methodologies (TFD). Our preliminary results indicate that OOD may achieve substantial time savings over TFD in logical design. The verbal protocols from a pilot study show that OOD may achieve these time savings: 1) by simplifying rule induction processes used in functional decomposition; 2) by guiding designers on how to build more effective problem spaces; and 3) by allowing designers to run mental simulation more efficiently and more effectively.
Keywords: Rule induction, Mental simulation, Object-oriented design, Functional decomposition
Requirements and Design of DesignVision, An Object-Oriented Graphical Interface to an Intelligent Software Design Assistant BIBAKPDF 499-506
  Raymonde Guindon
Key findings from empirical studies -- early design is opportunistic; critical role of pictures in design conception; impact of various cognitive limitations -- have very effectively determined requirements and design for a set of tools to support early design. Key design features of the tools include respectively: (1) The (simultaneous) display of any software modules at arbitrary levels of abstraction and from any subsystems. The unrestricted, smooth navigation between these software modules. (2) Multiple design notations -- pictorial and symbolic -- cross-referenced, editable, and maintained consistent across all views. Integrated views of control flow, data flow, and functional decomposition. (3) Automatic layout at arbitrary levels of nesting. Visual display of execution paths in the solution. Automatic completeness and consistency check. Automatic visual indication and listing of modules with constraint violations.
Keywords: Design process, Design methodology, Design tools, Models of user
Facilitating the Exploration of Interface Design Alternatives: The HUMANOID Model of Interface Design BIBAKPDF 507-515
  Pedro Szekely; Ping Luo; Robert Neches
HUMANOID is a user interface design tool that lets designers express abstract conceptualizations of an interface in an executable form, allowing designers to experiment with scenarios and dialogues even before the application model is completely worked out. Three properties of the HUMANOID approach allow it to do so: a modularization of design issues into independent dimensions, support for multiple levels of specificity in mapping application models to user interface constructs, and mechanisms for constructing executable default user interface implementations from whatever level of specificity has been provided by the designer.
Keywords: Design processes, Development tools and methods, User interface management systems, Rapid prototyping, Interface design representation, Dialogue specification


Collaborating in the World of Interactive Media BIBKPDF 517-519
  Michael Arent; Donna Cohen; Mike Mills; Chris Krueger; Wendy Richmond
Keywords: Design process, Graphic design, Human interface design, Hypermedia, Interdisciplinary collaboration

Demonstration: Tutoring/Learning

The MidasPlus Molecular Modeling System BIBPDF 521-522
  Thomas Ferrin; Conrad Huang; Gregory Couch; Eric Pettersen; Robert Langridge
Simulation-Based Learning Systems: Prototypes and Experiences BIBKPDF 523-524
  Arthur James; James C. Spohrer
Keywords: Simulation, Learning, Authoring

Systems for Media-Supported Collaboration

ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and Conversation with Eye Contact BIBAPDF 525-532
  Hiroshi Ishii; Minoru Kobayashi
This paper introduces a novel shared drawing medium called ClearBoard. It realizes (1) a seamless shared drawing space and (2) eye contact to support realtime and remote collaboration by two users. We devised the key metaphor: "talking through and drawing on a transparent glass window" to design ClearBoard. A prototype of ClearBoard is implemented based on the "Drafter-Mirror" architecture. This paper first reviews previous work on shared drawing support to clarify the design goals. We then examine three metaphors that fulfill these goals. The design requirements and the two possible system architectures of ClearBoard are described. Finally, some findings gained through the experimental use of the prototype, including the feature of "gaze awareness", are discussed.
Note: Color plates are on pages 705-706
Spatial Workspace Collaboration: A SharedView Video Support System for Remote Collaboration Capability BIBAKPDF 533-540
  Hideaki Kuzuoka
Collaboration in three-dimensional space: "spatial workspace collaboration" is introduced and an approach supporting its use via a video mediated communication system is described. Verbal expression analysis is primarily focused on. Based on experiment results, movability of a focal point, sharing focal points, movability of a shared workspace, and the ability to confirm viewing intentions and movements were determined to be system requirements necessary to support spatial workspace collaboration. A newly developed SharedView system having the capability to support spatial workspace collaboration is also introduced, tested, and some experimental results described.
Keywords: Remote collaboration, CSCW, Spatial workspace collaboration, Focal point, Verbal analysis, Video mediated communication
Portholes: Supporting Awareness in a Distributed Work Group BIBAKPDF 541-547
  Paul Dourish; Sara Bly
We are investigating ways in which media space technologies can support distributed work groups through access to information that supports general awareness. Awareness involves knowing who is "around", what activities are occurring, who is talking with whom; it provides a view of one another in the daily work environments. Awareness may lead to informal interactions, spontaneous connections, and the development of shared cultures -- all important aspects of maintaining working relationships which are denied to groups distributed across multiple sites.
   The Portholes project, at Rank Xerox EuroPARC in Cambridge, England, and Xerox PARC in Palo Alto, California, demonstrates that awareness can be supported across distance. A data network provides a shared database of image information that is regularly updated and available at all sites. Initial experiences of the system in use at EuroPARC and PARC suggest that Portholes both supports shared awareness and helps to build a "sense of community".
Keywords: Group work, Collaboration, CSCW, Media spaces, Distributed workgroups, Informal interaction, Awareness

The Role of the Organization in System Design

A Method for (Recruiting) Methods: Facilitating Human Factors Input to System Design BIBAKPDF 549-556
  K. Y. Lim; J. B. Long
The paper proposes that some current problems in recruiting human factors methods to system design might be alleviated by means of a structured human factors design framework. The explicit stage-wise design scope of such a framework would support the assignment of appropriate human factors methods to specific system design needs. As an illustration, the design framework of an in-house structured human factors methodology is reviewed followed by the assignment of a set of existing human factors methods against its design stages. Subsequent steps to develop the assigned methods into a similar methodology are then described. The potential of such a methodology for facilitating human factors input is discussed.
Keywords: Structured design methodology, Human factors method recruitment, Human factors system design cycle
Teaching Experienced Developers to Design Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 557-564
  Jakob Nielsen; Rita M. Bush; Tom Dayton; Nancy E. Mond; Michael J. Muller; Robert W. Root
Five groups of developers with experience in the design of character-based user interfaces were taught graphical user interface design through a short workshop with a focus on practical design exercises using low-tech tools derived from the PICTIVE method. Several usability problems were found in the designs by applying the heuristic evaluation method, and feedback on these problems constituted a way to make the otherwise abstract usability principles concrete for the designers at the workshop. Based on these usability problems and on observations of the design process, we conclude that object-oriented interactions are especially hard to design and that the developers were influenced by the graphical interfaces of personal computers with which they had interacted as regular users.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces, GUI, Design, Transfer of skill, Education, Standards, Object-oriented interfaces, Heuristic evaluation, PICTIVE
Integrating Human Factors on a Large Scale: "Product Usability Champions" BIBAKPDF 565-570
  Deborah Mrazek; Michael Rafeld
This paper describes how a software development division in a large corporate environment found a creative way to integrate human factors techniques into their development processes. It discusses the limitations of a single Human Factors Engineer, the needs of a typical engineer on a software project, and how these limitations and needs produced the Product Usability Champion Program.
   Product Usability Champions are representatives from each software project in the division who act as usability watchdogs for their respective projects. The Human Factors Engineer's responsibility is to provide support to these Champions. This support includes access to a Usability Lab, technical advice, references, consulting, classroom training, hands-on training, Usability Champion program facilitation and support, and specific project team involvement. This paper describes the program's structure, implementation, and success.
Keywords: Large-scale human factors, Consulting, Usability lab, Usability toolkit, Championing, Centralized usability resources

Laboratory Overviews: Human Information Processing

Overview of The Institute for Research on Learning BIBAKPDF 571-572
  William J. Clancey
The Institute for Research on Learning (IRL) is a non-profit organization founded in 1986 in Palo Alto, California, committed to understanding what leads to successful learning in the schools, the workplace, and everyday life. A basic premise of IRL research, that people learn best when they are engaged with others, leads IRL's researchers to perceive schools and workplaces as communities of learners and to focus on the design of environments, technology, and activities that support learning as a collaborative activity. IRL pursues its research in collaboration with schools, universities, corporations, and government agencies -- in the actual settings in which learning takes place.
Keywords: Laboratory overview, Learning, Design processes, Socio-technical systems design, Participatory design, Communities of practice, Ethnographic analysis
CHI in Australia BIBPDF 573-574
  S. Howard; I. Kaplan; G. Lindgaard
The Institute for Perception Research IPO, A Joint Venture of Philips Electronics and Eindhoven University of Technology BIBPDF 575-576
  F. L. van Nes; H. Bouma; M. D. Brouwer-Janse


In Search of the Ideal Prototype BIBAKPDF 577-579
  Richard Munoz; Harold H. Miller-Jacobs; Jared M. Spool; Bill Verplank
Common wisdom states rapid prototyping will result in a better product. Many tools are available to assist the practitioner in producing prototypes. Yet, few indications exist to show rapid prototyping has substantially improved how products are built.
   This panel will look at the following issues:
  • Can rapid prototyping dramatically improve product development?
  • How do developers integrate rapid prototyping into their existing development
  • Are high fidelity tools helpful or do they actually impede development?
  • What is the ideal prototype and how can we build it?
    Keywords: Prototyping, Design, Software development, Product development, User interface design, Process management, Programming tools, Participatory design, Design process
  • Demonstration: Video Conferencing/Automation

    The Rapport Multimedia Communication System BIBPDF 581-582
      J. R. Ensor; S. R. Ahuja; R. B. Connaghan; M. Pack; D. D. Seligmann
    YAPO: Yet Another Preview ODA BIBAPDF 583-585
      M. A. Apollonio; G. Colasante; P. G. De Luca; A. Diana; A. Gisotti
    The production of documents aimed at supporting the flow of information in an office environment is experiencing an evolution based on the most advanced automation systems which concerns substantially four aspects:
  • 1. the production of manipulable documents showing a high quality of
  • 2. the production of documents that can be integrated (or exported) with other
        workstation formats on the basis of varying approaches (for instance the
        ISO standards);
  • 3. the production of processable documents for storage or subsequent
  • 4. the production of immaterial documents, i.e. documents that do not
        necessarily need a visual medium (paper, screen) representation for their
        informative content.
  • Desks, Video, and Screens

    A Desk Supporting Computer-Based Interaction with Paper Documents BIBAKPDF 587-592
      William Newman; Pierre Wellner
    Before the advent of the personal workstation, office work practice revolved around the paper document. Today the electronic medium offers a number of advantages over paper, but it has not eradicated paper from the office. A growing problem for those who work primarily with paper is lack of direct access to the wide variety of interactive functions available on personal workstations. This paper describes a desk with a computer-controlled projector and camera above it. The result is a system that enables people to interact with ordinary paper documents in ways normally possible only with electronic documents on workstation screens. After discussing the motivation for this work, this paper describes the system and two sample applications that can benefit from this style of interaction: a desk calculator and a French to English translation system. We describe the design and implementation of the system, report on some user tests, and conclude with some general reflections on interacting with computers in this way.
    Keywords: User interface, Interaction technique, Display, Input device, Workstation, Desk, Desktop, Document recognition
    Object-Oriented Video: Interaction with Real-World Objects through Live Video BIBAKPDF 593-598
      Masayuki Tani; Kimiya Yamaashi; Koichiro Tanikoshi; Masayasu Futakawa; Shinya Tanifuji
    Graphics and live video are widely employed in remotely-controlled systems like industrial plants. Interaction with live video is, however, more limited compared with graphics as users cannot interact with objects being observed in the former. Object-Oriented Video techniques are described allowing object-oriented interactions, including the use of real-world objects in live video as reference cues, direct manipulation of them, and graphic overlays based on them, which enable users to work in a real spatial context conveyed by the video. Users thereby understand intuitively what they are operating and see the result of their operation.
    Keywords: Object-oriented user interface, Direct manipulation, Live video, Interactive plant control
    Note: Color plates are on pages 711-712
    Liveboard: A Large Interactive Display Supporting Group Meetings, Presentations and Remote Collaboration BIBAKPDF 599-607
      Scott Elrod; Richard Bruce; Rich Gold; David Goldberg; Frank Halasz; William Janssen; David Lee; Kim McCall; Elin Pedersen; Ken Pier; John Tang; Brent Welch
    This paper describes the Liveboard, a large interactive display system. With nearly one million pixels and an accurate, multi-state, cordless pen, the Liveboard provides a basis for research on user interfaces for group meetings, presentations and remote collaboration. We describe the underlying hardware and software of the Liveboard, along with several software applications that have been developed. In describing the system, we point out the design rationale that was used to make various choices. We present the results of an informal survey of Liveboard users, and describe some of the improvements that have been made in response to user feedback. We conclude with several general observations about the use of large public interactive displays.
    Keywords: Interactive display, Large-area display, Cordless stylus, Collaboration, Group work, Gestural interface

    Graphical Interfaces for Drawing, Exploring, and Organizing

    Interactive Constraint-Based Search and Replace BIBAKPDF 609-618
      David Kurlander; Steven Feiner
    We describe enhancements to graphical search and replace that allow users to extend the capabilities of a graphical editor. Interactive constraint-based search and replace can search for objects that obey user-specified sets of constraints and automatically apply other constraints to modify these objects. We show how an interactive tool that employs this technique makes it possible for users to define sets of constraints graphically that modify existing illustrations or control the creation of new illustrations. The interface uses the same visual language as the editor and allows users to understand and create powerful rules without conventional programming. Rules can be saved and retrieved for use alone or in combination. Examples, generated with a working implementation, demonstrate applications to drawing beautification and transformation.
    Keywords: Constraint specification, Interactive techniques, Demonstrational techniques, Editor extensibility, Graphical editing
    Dynamic Queries for Information Exploration: An Implementation and Evaluation BIBAPDF 619-626
      Christopher Ahlberg; Christopher Williamson; Ben Shneiderman
    We designed, implemented and evaluated a new concept for direct manipulation of databases, called dynamic queries, that allows users to formulate queries with graphical widgets, such as sliders. By providing a graphical visualization of the database and search results, users can find trends and exceptions easily. Eighteen undergraduate chemistry students performed statistically significantly faster using a dynamic queries interface compared to two interfaces both providing form fill-in as input method, one with graphical visualization output and one with all-textual output. The interfaces were used to explore the periodic table of elements and search on their properties.
    A 'Pile' Metaphor for Supporting Casual Organization of Information BIBAKPDF 627-634
      Richard Mander; Gitta Salomon; Yin Yin Wong
    A user study was conducted to investigate how people deal with the flow of information in their workspaces. Subjects reported that, in an attempt to quickly and informally manage their information, they created piles of documents. Piles were seen as complementary to the folder filing system. which was used for more formal archiving. A new desktop interface element -- the pile -- was developed and prototyped through an iterative process. The design includes direct manipulation techniques and support for browsing, and goes beyond physical world functionality by providing system assistance for automatic pile construction and reorganization. Preliminary user tests indicate the design is promising and raise issues that will be addressed in future work.
    Keywords: Interface design, Design process, Interactive systems, User observation, Desktop metaphor, Interface metaphors, Pile metaphor, Information visualization, Information organization, End-user programming


    HCI Standards on Trial: You be the Jury BIBPDF 635-638
      Jaclyn R. Schrier; Evelyn L. Williams; Kevin S. MacDonell; Larry A. Peterson; Paulien F. Strijland; Anna M. Wichansky; James R. Williams

    Demonstration: User Interface Management Systems III

    The Ircam Signal Processing Workstation Prototyping Environment BIBAKPDF 639-640
      M. De Cecco; E. Lindeman; M. Puckette
    This demo show the prototyping environment of the Ircam Signal Processing Workstation. The environment is oriented toward rapid prototyping of DSP and Musical applications.
    Keywords: Graphic programming, Rapid prototyping, Realtime systems, Computer music, Digital signal processing
    Building User Interfaces Interactively Using Pre- and Postconditions BIBAKPDF 641-642
      Martin R. Frank; J. J. "Hans" de Graaff; Daniel F. Gieskens; James D. Foley
    A tool is presented which allows graphic layout of a user interface integrated with specification of behavior using pre- and postconditions.
    Keywords: User interface management systems, Graphical user interface builders, Dialogue sequencing

    Videos: Group Work

    MMM: The Multi-Device Multi-User Multi-Editor BIBPDF 645-646
      Eric A. Bier; Steve Freeman; Ken Pier
    Go Fish! A Multi-User Game in the Rendezvous System BIBAPDF 647
      Steven L. Rohall; John F. Patterson; Ralph D. Hill
    The Rendezvous System is an infrastructure for building multi-user, synchronous applications. Multi-user, synchronous applications are those that are designed to be used by several people simultaneously. Examples of such applications range from collaborative debugging of software to multi-party contract negotiations to games for several players. This videotape shows a demonstration of one multi-user application we have built. The application is a card table that allows up to four people to play any card game they wish. On the tape, you will see several rounds of a game of fish. This game, though simple, serves to highlight four key capabilities that an infrastructure for building multi-user applications must support. These are: 1) support for separate, customized views for each user of the same underlying data, 2) support for public data (i.e., data shown to all users) as well as private data (i.e., data shown only to a particular user), 3) support for access control among users so that certain data is only accessible to some users, and 4) support for the direct manipulation of data objects on the users' displays. We believe that the ability for people to communicate with one another in the structured manner of multi-user applications offers an enormous opportunity for people to enrich the way they work, learn, and play. Many sorts of multi-user applications are possible and research into infrastructures like the Rendezvous System may some day allow for the rapid production of these types of systems. For more information, please see the suggested readings.
    A Case Study of a Multimedia Co-Working Task and the Resulting Interface Design of a Collaborative Communication Tool BIBAPDF 649-650
      Amanda Ropa; Bengt Ahlstrom
    The Video Viewer is a communication tool that allows two users to share video information across a network. The design of this tool was based on the results of a case study involving two multimedia, collaborative workstations situated in two separate rooms. Users performed several tasks collaboratively using different media in an unstructured environment (i.e. there were four monitors to increase screen space and there was no specific interface for guidance). This video outlines the case study, the preliminary case study results and how these results effected the interface design of the Video Viewer.
    Using Spatial Cues to Improve Videoconferencing BIBPDF 651-652
      Abigail Sellen; Bill Buxton; John Arnott

    Videos: Speech and Natural Language

    Multi-Modal Natural Dialogue BIBPDF 653-654
      Kristinn R. Thorisson; David B. Koons; Richard A. Bolt
    Wordspotting for Voice Editing and Audio Indexing BIBPDF 655-656
      Lynn Wilcox; Ian Smith; Marcia Bush

    Videos: User Interface Tools

    Coupling Application Design and User Interface Design BIBAKPDF 657-658
      Mark H. Gray; Dennis J. M. J. de Baar; James D. Foley; Kevin Mullet
    Building an interactive application involves the design of both a data model and a graphical user interface (GUI) to represent that model to the user. These two design activities are typically approached as separate tasks and are frequently undertaken by different individuals or groups. Our approach eliminates redundant specification work by generating an interface directly from the data model itself. An inference engine using style rules for selecting and placing GUI controls (i.e., widgets) is integrated with an interface design tool to generate a user interface definition. This approach allows a single data model to be mapped onto multiple GUI's by substituting the appropriate rule set and thus represents a first step toward a GUI-independent run-time layout facility.
    Keywords: User interface software, Automatic user interface design, Data models

    Videos: User Interface Techniques

    Combining Gestures and Direct Manipulation BIBPDF 659-660
      Dean Rubine
    Briar: A Constraint-Based Drawing Program BIBKPDF 661-662
      Michael Gleicher
    Keywords: Interaction techniques, Constraints, Drawing, Direct manipulation, Snap-dragging

    Videos: Visualization

    An Introduction to Zeus: Audiovisualization of Some Elementary Sequential and Parallel Sorting Algorithms BIBPDF 663-664
      Marc H. Brown
    Pointing and Visualization BIBAKPDF 665-666
      William C. Hill; James D. Hollan
    The nature of visualizations and the social uses to which they are put rely heavily on pointing behavior. In the context of a switched telephone network visualization, this tape illustrates novel task-specific pointing facilities.
    Keywords: Pointing, Visualization, Graphical user interface, Visual attention, Interface mechanisms

    Videos: Interface Designs

    Touchscreen Toggle Design BIBPDF 667-668
      Catherine Plaisant; Daniel Wallace
    Dynamic Queries: Database Searching by Direct Manipulation BIBPDF 669-670
      Ben Shneiderman; Christopher Williamson; Christopher Ahlberg