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CFP Tables of Contents: 920002

Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy

Fullname:Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy
Location:San Francisco, California
Dates:2002-Apr-16 to 2002-Apr-19
Standard No:ISBN: 1-58113-508-X; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CFP02
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. National id card: the next generation
  2. Truth is the first casualty of war -- availability of information post 9/11
  3. USA patriot act and privacy
  4. A prognosis for use of health, medical, and genetic information
  5. Bridging the digital divide: the bay area and beyond
  6. The DMCA and you
  7. Future of intellectual property
  8. Student privacy issues
  9. Public records "how public is too public? public records and personal privacy"
  10. The promise of privacy enhancing technologies
  11. Should we meet John Doe? civil litigation and anonymity in cyberspace
  12. Privacy and private litigation
  13. CFP2002 Online Real-Audio Recordings

National id card: the next generation

The US/Mexico border crossing card (BCC): a case study in biometric, machine-readable id BIBFull-Text 1
  Andrew Schulman

Truth is the first casualty of war -- availability of information post 9/11

Executive order on critical infrastructure protection BIBFull-Text 2
  George W. Bush
Executive order establishing office of homeland security BIBFull-Text 3
  George W. Bush
Access to information after 9/11 BIBAFull-Text 4
  Lee Tien
Public access to information held by government has long been a contentious issue. Proponents of government secrecy have traditionally argued that public access interferes with the government's internal decision-making processes, imposes costly burdens on agencies, and makes private companies unwilling to share information with the government.
   These complaints have only grown louder since September 11. The Bush administration has shown on a number of fronts that it values secrecy more than accountability: it has shifted its information policy away from public access and has taken unprecedented steps to "depublish" information on government websites. And Congress is now considering whether to protect companies' voluntarily submitted "cybersecurity" or "critical infrastructure" information against public access on the theory that secrecy is necessary in order to induce private firms to cooperate with the government.
   EFF believes that such concerns are overblown. As a legal matter, the federal statutes that protect the public's right to know already contain exemptions can adequately protected such information. More important, security vulnerabilities are clearly of great importance to the public -- infrastructure is critical precisely because we all depend on it. If companies are allowed to shield information about the risks in their systems, there cannot be meaningful public discourse about those risks or the measures taken to address them.
Note: 5 pages

USA patriot act and privacy

Impact on internet service providers BIBFull-Text 5
  Clint N. Smith

A prognosis for use of health, medical, and genetic information

Linking the public voice with the genetic policy process: a case study BIBAFull-Text 6
  Gregory Fowler
The application of genetic information will shape economies and lives throughout the next century and beyond. At the current pace of discovery, genetic research will bring advances in pharmaceuticals and therapeutic treatments that not only serve to reduce human suffering, but also offer people new choices and greater control over their lives. But, what humanity will do with this new technology and knowledge remains to be seen. Current thinking on our genetic future ranges from fearful predictions of dire consequences to bold visions of disease-free existence. Should citizens play a role in deciding how this new genetic information and technology will be used? And what strategies should be developed to achieve that goal? Geneforum, a new non-profit organization that works to incorporate public ethics and values into the genetic science policy making process through grassroots education and Internet dialogue, believes that citizens should be informed and active participants in the Gene Age. Geneforum creates environments for learning, facilitates forums for discussion and provides input to policy makers. Classroom workshops, Town Hall Meetings, public opinion research, publications, an interactive Web site, and talk-radio programming are all used to achieve these ends. Geneforum's experience in employing these communication strategies to help guide genetic privacy policy development in Oregon is the focus of this paper.
Note: 8 pages
Security and privacy after September 11: the health care example BIBFull-Text 7
  Peter Swire; Lauren Steinfeld

Bridging the digital divide: the bay area and beyond

The Cisco community fellowship program and Cisco corporate philanthropy BIBAFull-Text 8
  Michael Yutrzenka
The Cisco Community Fellowship Program (CFP) is a pilot program created to provide Cisco employees with another option to give back to the community. This one year program leverages the skills of individual Cisco employees together with their knowledge around practical use of Internet solutions, to enable the nonprofit organizations to harvest the productivity increases generated through use of the Internet.
   Nonprofits are provided with additional highly skilled staff members with expertise from the leader in using the Internet in its own operations. They have access to a network of other organizations using the program and indirect access to the expertise of other Cisco employees. More importantly, this program assists nonprofits to put in place an Internet strategy, which will enable them to deliver their services better, faster, and more efficiently. This will enable these nonprofit organizations to:
  • increase the efficiency of their operations
  • reduce administrative costs
  • improve their communications capabilities
  • increase the breadth and depth of services provided to their clients
    Note: 3 pages
  • The DMCA and you

    Motivations behind a role play at CFP: repeated assaults on the constitution by extremist property rights advocates BIBFull-Text 9
      Lance J. Hoffman

    Future of intellectual property

    How copyright became controversial BIBAFull-Text 10
      Drew Clark
    How did copyright become controversial? In a phrase, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). Although many of legal controversies that have swirled since its October 1998 passage trace their roots to other elements of copyright law, the DMCA created a new feature in copyright law that has crystallized why so many academics, librarians, computer users, and technology entrepreneurs object to what they regard as the overreaching nature of copyright law.
       This signal feature is the ban on individuals cracking encryption codes used by content owners to restrict access to digital works on which they hold copyrights. Now encoded in Section 1201 of the Copyright Act, the statute reads: "No person shall circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title." (17 U.S.C. 1201(a)(1)(A)) The definitions of those terms are broad enough to bar almost all unauthorized decryption of content. Subsequent language in the section also prohibits the manufacture, release, or sale of products, services, and devices that can crack encryption designed to thwart either access to or copying of material unauthorized by the copyright holder.
       In other words, for the first time in history, it isn't the copyright violation that was the crime. It is the creation of the technological tools to violate copyright that became the crime.
       The law germinated from a 1995 "white paper" drafted by Bruce Lehman, the first patent office chief and intellectual property guru in the Clinton administration. Heavily supported by copyright holders, the key rationale behind the white paper was that content owners would be unwilling to put their content in digital form were it not for new laws against those who defeat the digital locks they place on their products. The anti-circumvention concept gained momentum in 1996 when it was endorsed in a World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty. It was subsequently adopted as DMCA's Title I, the "WIPO Copyright and Performance and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act."
       Critics of current copyright law point to many expansions in its power over the past decade. Among the more recent measures are the Digital Performance Right in Sound Recording Act of 1995 (creating a new copyright in digital music performances), the No Electronic Theft Act of 1997 (eliminating non-commercial use as a defense against copyright infringement), the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (adding 20 years to the already-lengthy terms of all copyrights), portions of DMCA mandating new royalties for digital music performances, and the Digital Theft Deterrence and Copyright Damages Improvement Act of 1999 (stiffening penalties for infringement). There are a few measures that arguably limit the power of copyright holders, including the Fairness in Music Licensing Act of 1998 (granting a limited exemption from music licensing for food service and drinking establishments) and elements of DMCA that limited Internet service provider liability for copyright infringement if they comply with procedures to take down allegedly infringing material from Web sites they control.
       Some of those changes in law are directly at issue in current copyright controversies, such as the debate over extending copyright terms -- a challenge to Congress' authority over copyright law that has been accepted by the Supreme Court -- and what rates should be paid by Internet radio stations for the right to stream digital music over the Web. Other issues, like what to do about the free digital music Web site Napster and its many successor clones, delve into more fundamental questions: how file-sharing technologies can be held liable for contributing to the copyright infringement of their users, and whether users of a technology have a "fair use" defense against charges of infringement.
       Yet it is the DMCA's anti-circumvention prohibition -- which has been upheld by the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals -- that is likely to have more sweeping effects on the future of copyright law because it is seen as undergirding the technological protection measures increasingly taken by content owners. This provision is also an illuminating lens through which to view the copyright debate.
       I will examine four major positions about how extensive copyright law should be and evaluate the justification for each position. I will argue that the DMCA's anti-circumvention provision itself demonstrates the technology-specific nature of copyright law and suggests that it is difficult and perhaps impossible to draw the technological boundaries needed to sustain a coherent defense of copyright law, once one has accepted the premise of copyright law. It may well be that the weaknesses of the concept of copyright in a digital world make it hard to sustain a principled defense for the enshrinement of state power represented by copyright law.
       I'll also discuss the challenges to Section 1201 in greater detail. I will then outline four major positions about copyright law, each with substantial support in the public debate. Finally, I'll offer reasons for my conclusions that by injecting anti-circumvention into the concept of copyright law, the DMCA exposes inherent weaknesses in what copyright law should do.
    Note: 10 pages

    Student privacy issues

    A preliminary study at Stanford University BIBAFull-Text 11
      Ruchika Agrawal; Lily Sarafan; Tami Kameda; Matthew Waddell; Eric Albert; Alana Aldag; Jed Burgess; Enoch Chen; Chris Countryman; Jeremy Ginsberg; Art Hu; Sandra Liu; Walter Luh; Brad Markham; Derek Shanahan; Barbara Simons
    The Stanford Student Computer and Network Privacy Project conducted a pilot study of computer and network related student privacy issues. As far as we know, this is the first such study to have been done on a major university campus. We address important issues that do not receive much attention, including the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act's vague definition of "student educational records" and the faulty presumption that subpoenas implicate judicial review. One of the positive side effects of the study is that it may have uncovered privacy issues that either were not known or were not given high priority by Stanford officials.
       Stanford is one of the better-prepared universities in the area of student privacy, and yet Stanford policies and practices manifest troublesome aspects that deserve immediate attention and require improvement. We hope to encourage other schools to similarly examine the state of student privacy on their campuses; we suspect that doing so will uncover weaknesses in student privacy protection at other universities.
    Note: 3 pages

    Public records "how public is too public? public records and personal privacy"

    Public records on the internet: the privacy dilemma BIBAFull-Text 12
      Beth Givens
    The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse is a nonprofit consumer information, research, and advocacy program based in San Diego, California. It was established in 1992 and is primarily grant-funded. The PRC operates a hotline, by telephone and electronic mail, and invites individuals to voice their complaints and obtain information about privacy matters. The PRC's many fact sheets offer practical tips on how to safeguard personal privacy. These are available on our web site, www.privacyrights.org.
       One of the most challenging public policy issues of our time is the balancing act between access to public records and personal privacy. I will discuss the privacy implications of making public records available on the Internet, with emphasis on court records. I will conclude by offering some solutions for safeguarding personal privacy while upholding the public policy reason for providing access, that being to promote government accountability.
    Note: 7 pages
    Fact or fiction: privacy in American libraries BIBAFull-Text 13
      Carrie Gardner
    If this nation is to be wise as well as strong, if we are to achieve our destiny, then we need more new ideas for more wise men reading more good books in more public libraries. These libraries should be open to all except the censor. We must know all the facts and hear all the alternatives and listen to all the criticisms. Let us welcome controversial books and controversial authors. For the Bill of Rights is the guardian of our security as well as our Liberty. John F. Kennedy
    Note: 5 pages

    The promise of privacy enhancing technologies

    The role of privacy advocates and data protection authorities in the design and deployment of the platform for privacy preferences BIBAFull-Text 14
      Lorrie Faith Cranor
    The Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) project [1] provides a standard way for web sites to communicate about their data practices. Developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) [2], P3P includes a machine-readable privacy policy syntax as well as a simple protocol that web browsers and other user agent tools can use to fetch P3P privacy policies automatically. P3P-enabled browsers can allow users to do selective cookie blocking based on site privacy policies, as well as to get a quick "snap shot" of a site's privacy policies.
    Note: 8 pages
    Reputation in privacy enhancing technologies BIBAFull-Text 15
      Roger Dingledine; Nick Mathewson; Paul Syverson
    Reputation is the linchpin of a dynamic and pseudonymous future. In a networked world where individuals interact via anonymous remailers, and where the online services they use are themselves provided by an ever-changing pool of semi-anonymous users, the distinction between pseudonym and identity blurs. In this world, reputation is one of the few tools that can still provide trust -- trust among the users of distributed services, and even the trust necessary to maintain reliability and accountability of these services.
    Note: 6 pages

    Should we meet John Doe? civil litigation and anonymity in cyberspace

    Amicus: Vincent Donato, et al, v. Stephen Moldow, et al BIBFull-Text 16
      Paul Alan Levy; David C. Vladeck; J. C. Salyer
    Frequently asked questions (and answers) about John Doe anonymity BIBFull-Text 17
    Amicus: Dendrite International, Inc. v. John Does BIBFull-Text 18
      Paul Alan Levy; J. C. Salyer
    Unmasking "John Doe" defendants: the case for caution in creating new legal standards BIBAFull-Text 19
      Michael S. Vogel
    The rise of the Internet has created the opportunity for individuals inexpensively to publish their views on various issues to a wide audience. While this new avenue for expression is usually used for legitimate ends, it is also frequently used by individuals to disseminate defamatory or otherwise actionable statements under cover of anonymity. As a result, there has been in recent years a great deal of litigation brought by victims of such anonymous statements against the individuals responsible for those statements. A common theme in these so-called "John Doe cases" is that the plaintiff seeks to learn through discovery the identity of the anonymous defendant -- without which the plaintiff is effectively precluded from serving process or asserting its rights.
       This category of cases has attracted enormous public attention in both general interest and legal publications, substantial litigation resources from public-interest groups such as Public Citizen and the American Civil Liberties Union, and considerable academic, journalistic, and governmental interest. When these suits first became common in the late 1990s, internet service providers routinely identified defendants in response even to non-judicial subpoenas, often without giving the defendant an opportunity to oppose the discovery; even when courts received an opposition, the discovery was almost always granted, usually with little in the way of reasoned analysis. In the past approximately two years, however, opposition has mounted on First Amendment grounds and there has been a substantial shift to the other extreme, with courts erecting walls against disclosure, often in derogation of other core rights.
       While John Doe cases have thus suddenly become relatively common and have attracted considerable public interest, there has to date been little analysis at the appellate level of the appropriate legal standards to be applied. The first appellate court seriously to attempt to conduct such an analysis was the New Jersey Appellate Division, which on July 11, 2001, issued its decision in Dendrite International, Inc. v. John Doe, along with a companion decision in Immunomedics, Inc. v. Jean Doe. These decisions, which are likely to provide the starting point for much future John Doe analysis, are discussed in the following section.
    Note: 7 pages
    Petition: Joan Melvin v. John Doe, et al BIBFull-Text 20
      Joan Melvin

    Privacy and private litigation

    Piper rudnick: litigated privacy issues BIBFull-Text 21
      Ronald L. Plesser

    CFP2002 Online Real-Audio Recordings

    Opening Speaker BIBAFull-Text A1
      James Bamford
    James Bamford is the author of The Puzzle Palace, a national bestseller when it was first published and now regarded as a classic. He was until recently Washington Investigative Producer for ABC's World News Tonight with Peter Jennings and has written investigative cover stories for the New York Times Magazine, the Washington Post Magazine, and the Los Angeles Times Magazine. He lives in Washington, D.C.
       Praise for James Bamford's first examination of the National Security Agency, The Puzzle Palace:
       There have been glimpses inside the NSA before, but until now no one has published a comprehensive and detailed report on the agency Mr. Bamford has emerged with everything except the combination to the director's safe. -- New York Times Book Review
    Wednesday, April 17th Luncheon Keynote BIBAFull-Text A2
      Timothy J. Muris
    Timothy J. Muris was sworn in June 4, 2001 as Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission. President George W. Bush named Muris, a Republican, on April 26, 2001 and he was confirmed by the Senate on May 25, 2001. Muris, 51, is the Commission's 55th Chairman.
       Muris has held three previous positions at the Commission: Assistant Director of the Planning Office (1974-1976), Director of the Bureau of Consumer Protection (1981-1983), and Director of the Bureau of Competition (1983-1985).
       After leaving the FTC in 1985, Muris served with the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget for three years, and afterward as Of Counsel with the law firm of Collier, Shannon, Rill & Scott (1992-2000) and Howrey, Simon, Arnold & White (2000-2001). Muris joined George Mason University School of Law as a Foundation Professor in 1988 and was interim dean of the law school from 1996 to 1997.
       Muris graduated with high honors from San Diego State University in 1971 and received his J.D. from UCLA in 1974. He was awarded Order of the Coif and was associate editor of the UCLA Law Review. A member of the American Bar Association's Antitrust Section, Muris has written widely on antitrust, consumer protection, regulatory, and budget issues. In 1981, he served as the Deputy Counsel to the Presidential Task Force on Regulatory Relief.
    Wednesday, April 17th Dinner Keynote BIBAFull-Text A3
      Bill Lockyer
    Bill Lockyer is California's 30th Attorney General. He was elected in November 1998 and assumed this statewide office in January of 1999.
       A veteran legislator, he was first elected to the State Assembly in 1973 to represent the East San Francisco Bay Area. He moved to the Senate in 1982. Twelve years later, in 1994, he was elected President Pro Tem of the California Senate by his fellow Senators. He served previously as Chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee for nine years, overseeing numerous bills on judicial administration and civil and criminal law.
       A native of Oakland, Mr. Lockyer is a graduate of the University of California at Berkeley and received a secondary teaching credential from California State University at Hayward. He was awarded his law degree from McGeorge School of Law in Sacramento while serving in the Senate.
       Mr. Lockyer was named "Legislator of the Year" in 1996 by the California Planning and Conservation League for work on environmental protection. He received the same honor from the California Journal in 1997 for all-around legislative excellence. As a Senator, Mr. Lockyer was instrumental in passage of hundreds of laws toughening California criminal laws, protecting civil rights, enacting tax reforms and enhancing education quality and school safety.
    EEF Pioneer Awards BIBAFull-Text A4
    The Electronic Frontier Foundation honored three Pioneer award winners. The online civil liberties group chose to honor Dan Gillmor for his commitment to accurate and cutting edge reporting on cybertech issues; Beth Givens for her dedicated work in fighting for consumers' privacy rights and in raising public awareness on privacy issues; and the DeCSS Writers for their pioneering work on the pivotal program that enabled the development of a DVD player that runs on the Linux operating system. Since 1991, the EFF Pioneer Awards have recognized individuals who have made significant and influential contributions to the development of computer-mediated communications or to the empowerment of individuals in using computers and the Internet.
    Statistics and Slobodan: crunching big data for the Milosevic case at the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia BIBAFull-Text A5
      Patrick Ball
    During the conflict between NATO and Yugoslavia, thousands of people were killed and hundreds of thousands more fled their homes. Logically, NATO and Yugoslavia advanced quite different explanations for the violence. Yugoslavia claimed that the deaths and migration were the result of NATO's airstrikes and local actions by the ethnic Albanian insurgents (the KLA). NATO claimed that the deaths and migration were the result of a coordinated campaign by Yugoslav authorities to "ethnically cleanse" Kosovo of Albanians.
       The report used techniques from historical demography as well as multiple systems estimation to model patterns of killing and migration flow. Comparing killings and migration to patterns of KLA activity and NATO airstrikes, the hypotheses advanced by the Yugoslav government are rejected. Key coincidences in the data are observed which are suggestive of agreement with the hypothesis that Yugoslav forces were responsible for the violence.
       The analysis was organized and presented in the trial of Slobodan Milosevic at the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague on 13-14 March 2002.
    Plenary Session #5: how to hack an election BIBAFull-Text A6
      Kim Alexander; Ernie Hawkins; Peter G. Neumann; Joe Taggard; Jason Dearen; Andy Neff
    Free and fair elections are the foundation of democracy. Computers will revolutionize the way we vote. This panel will examine the challenges that are introduced when people use computers or the Internet to vote, and whether adequate solutions exist to meet those challenges.
    Plenary Session #6: Who Goes There? Privacy in Identity and Location Services BIBAFull-Text A7
      Dan Gillmor; Jason Catlett; Avi Rubin; Brian Arbogast; Roger Cochetti
    Many electronic and mobile commerce systems collect and transfer information about user identity and location. Are single-sign-on systems for Web users such as Microsoft's Passport, AOL's Magic Carpet and Sun's Liberty Alliance Project desirable conveniences, or unacceptable threats to privacy, or both? Is the logging and retention of cell phone users' travels across mobile telephony cells acceptable, or does this cross the line allowing pervasive surveillance? Are the information practices of the multiple organizations handling the information fair? Are the systems secure? What impact will these services have on anonymity of movement?
    Open Source BIBAFull-Text A8
      John Morris; Tim O'Reilly; Brian Behlendorf; Erwin J. Basinski
    Most of the core standards and protocols on which the Internet is built are in the public domain or available on a "royalty free" (RF) basis, and the open source software movement depends on such an approach. Increasingly, however, standards settings organizations such as the IETF and the W3C have considered standards that would be covered by "reasonable and non-discriminatory" (RAND) patent licensing. Standards bodies are also increasingly facing claims by third parties that standards and protocols in development are covered by privately held patents. These patent issues raise fundamental and difficult questions about the work of standards bodies, and the future of open source and the open Internet.
    Getting it Right: Global Internet Policy Issues BIBAFull-Text A9
      James Dempsey; Veni Markocski; Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi; Teresa Peters
    A different perspective: a first hand look at the policy challenges for activists from around the globe. The panel will discuss various issues of Internet policy, including privacy, democracy, security and barriers to access, and will provide perspective on how these issues are being debated and regulated in different regions of the world.
    ICANN in Year 3 BIBAFull-Text A10
      Alan Davidson; Peter G. Neumann; Susan Crawford; Karl Auerbach
    ICANN was created 3 years ago as a unique experiment in Internet self-governance. Could a private, non-government, global organization coordinate critical Internet naming and numbering functions in a legitimate way? Increasingly, critics complain that ICANN has not fulfilled it's promise. This panel debate will examine whether ICANN's vision of bottom-up global self-governance for the Internet is a myth or a reality.
    A Prognosis for Use of Health, Medical, and Genetic Information BIBAFull-Text A11
      Alex Fowler; Peter Swire; Mary Henderson; Gregory Fowler
    "Medical records are beacons into our past [and] windows into our future," wrote Simson Garfinkel in Database Nation: The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century. With the growing power of information technologies, medical diagnostics, predictive medicine, and genome science to obtain sensitive information about individuals, the questions we need to ask are: Who should have access to this information? And under what conditions? Moreover, to what degree should the public be aware of -- and actively involved in -- the dialogue concerning the generation, use, and disclosure of health, medical, and genetic information? These questions as viewed through the lenses of the law, policy, ethics, business and the public will be the focus of this session.
    Thursday, April 18th Luncheon keynote BIBAFull-Text A12
      Larry Irving
    Larry Irving is the President of the Irving Information Group, a consulting firm providing strategic planning and market development services to international telecommunications and information technology companies. Prior to forming the Irving Information Group, in October 1999, Mr. Irving served for almost seven years as Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information, where he was a principal advisor to the President, Vice President and Secretary of Commerce on domestic and international communications and information policy issues and supervised programs that award grants to extend the reach of advanced telecommunications technologies to under served areas.
       As a member of the Clinton Administration's technology team, Mr. Irving played an integral role in developing the Administration's Electronic Commerce, National Information Infrastructure and Global Information Infrastructure initiatives. He was a point person in the Administration's successful efforts to reform the United States' telecommunications law, which resulted in the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 -- the most sweeping change in America's telecommunications law in 60 years.
       Mr. Irving is widely credited with coining the term "the digital divide" and informing the American public about the growing problem it represents. He initiated and was the principal author of the landmark Federal survey, Falling Through the Net, which tracks access to telecommunications and information technologies, including telephones, computers and the Internet, across racial, economic, and geographic lines. Mr. Irving also was a key proponent in the Clinton-Gore Administration of policies to protect the diversity of voices in the commercial broadcast arena and to promote increased opportunities for minorities, women and rural Americans in the emerging digital economy.
    Plenary Session #7: Grassroots Goes Global: Activism Online BIBAFull-Text A13
      Michael Cornfield; Jason Mark; Chris Carlsson; A Caruso; Heather Mansfield
    The Internet has become a fundamental tool for political organizing. This panel will explore how Bay Area activists and others are using the Internet to mobilize local and global grassroots movements, and what barriers stand in their way.
    2002 Orwell Awards BIBAFull-Text A14
    Privacy International held the 4th annual US Big Brother awards to celebrate the invaders and champions of privacy. The "Orwell" statutes were presented to the government agencies, companies and initiatives which have done most to invade personal privacy. A "Lifetime Menace" award was also presented. 3 awards were also given to champions of privacy. The Brandeis Award is named after US Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, who described privacy as "the right to be left alone." The awards are given to those who have done exemplary work to protect and champion privacy.
    Friday, April 19th Morning Keynote BIBAFull-Text A15
      Jackie Speier
    Jackie Speier (D-San Mateo/San Francisco) was elected to the 8th Senate District on November 3, 1998 with 79.2% of the vote. The district includes the western half of San Francisco and northern San Mateo County.
       Speier first served in the State Legislature as a member of the State Assembly, 1986-1996, where two Republican governors signed 181 of her bills into law. The San Jose Mercury News reported in 1996, that "no one comes close to Speier's remarkable record of getting substantive legislation signed into law." Her legislative success rate was rated "Ruthian" by the Los Angeles Times.
       As chair of the Assembly's Consumer Protection Committee for five years, she wrote pro-consumer laws to protect Californians from misleading internet transactions, travel fraud, telemarketing scams, unfair funeral and cremation practices, illegal stock transactions, inaccurate credit reports, gender discrimination in pricing of services, and the resale of lemon vehicles.
    Plenary Session #10: Are the Tools the Rules?: The Future of the Digital Commons BIBAFull-Text A16
      Bruce Koball; Dewayne Hendricks
    To some, the most appealing aspect of the Internet has been the notion of it as a "commons", a shared, global resource of information and ideas, freely available to any member of any society. But is this a realistic view? Will legal, regulatory and technical changes currently afoot promote or imperil it? Does the increasing consolidation of the ownership of conduit and content bode well or ill? This session will explore these questions and examine some real alternatives.
    The Role of Consumer Education in Protecting Privacy BIBAFull-Text A17
      Fran Maier; Paula Bruening; Jim Harper; Mel Petersen; Sarah Andrews
    Privacy and Consumer Education -- There seems to be universal agreement that consumers need to have a better understanding of data privacy and commercial business practices to enable them to make smart choices. However, there is also general agreement that relatively little progress has been made. Who is to blame for the lack of consumer privacy information? How can things improve in the future?
    Copyright and Innovation: the P2P Experience BIBAFull-Text A18
      Peter Menell; Fred von Lohmann; Sarah Deutsch; Frank Hausmann; Mark Litvack
    The P2P lawsuits are piling up: Napster, Scour, Aimster, Morpheus. Although the rhetoric is about piracy, the litigation is about technology. In every P2P case to date, copyright owners have targeted the technologists, instead of the end-users doing the infringing. What does this mean for the peer-to-peer industry, and what lessons should be drawn by other technology innovators? Are we entering a world where technologists will be held liable for the activities of their end-users?
    International Security Cooperation and Privacy BIBAFull-Text A19
      Simon Davies; Gus Hosein; Ian Brown; Barry Steinhardt
    Following the events of September 11th, the leaders of developed nations have moved quickly to establish new agreements for international security cooperation. Many of these agreements are being forged secretively, and with little democratic oversight. This session discusses the new era of control and surveillance that has arisen since that tragic day, and what it will mean for our privacy and for national security and law enforcement.
    Closing Keynote BIBAFull-Text A20
      Bruce Sterling
    Bruce Sterling, author, journalist, editor, and critic, was born in 1954. He has written eight science fiction novels and three short story collections. He edited the anthology MIRRORSHADES, the definitive document of the cyberpunk movement. He also wrote the nonfiction book THE HACKER CRACKDOWN: LAW AND DISORDER ON THE ELECTRONIC FRONTIER (1992) available on the Internet. He has written regular columns on popular science and literary criticism for The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Interzone, and Science Fiction Eye. He has appeared in ABC's Nightline, BBC's The Late Show, CBC's Morningside, on MTV, and in Wired, Wall Street Journal, World Art, Time, Newsweek, Details, Nature, The New York Times, Der Spiegel, and other equally improbable venues.